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1. Stated needs (The customer wants an inexpensive car.

2. Real needs (The customer wants a car whose operating cost, not initial price, is low.)
3. Unstated needs (The customer expects good service from the dealer.)
4. Delight needs (The customer would like the dealer to include an onboard GPS system.)
5. Secret needs (The customer wants friends to see him or her as a savvy consumer.)

1. Negative demand—Consumers dislike the product and may even pay to avoid it.
2. Nonexistent demand—Consumers may be unaware of or uninterested in the product.
3. Latent demand—Consumers may share a strong need that cannot be satisfied by an existing product.
4. Declining demand—Consumers begin to buy the product less frequently or not at all.
5. Irregular demand—Consumer purchases vary on a seasonal, monthly, weekly, daily, or even hourly basis.
6. Full demand—Consumers are adequately buying all products put into the marketplace.
7. Overfull demand—More consumers would like to buy the product than can be satisfied.
8. Unwholesome demand—Consumers may be attracted to products that have undesirable social consequences.

Digital marketing is not meant to replace traditional marketing. Instead, the two should coexist with interchanging
roles across the customer path. Marketing 4.0 is a marketing approach that combines online and offline interaction
between companies and customers, blends style with substance in building brands, and ultimately complements
machine-to-machine connectivity with human-to-human touch to strengthen customer engagement. (K, HK, IS, 2017)

Moving from Traditional to Digital Marketing:

From Segmentation and Targeting to Customer Community Confirmation
From Brand Positioning and Differentiation to Brand Clarification of Character and Codes
From Selling the 4 Ps to Commercializing the 4 Cs (Co-creation, currency, communal activation, conversation)
From Customer Service Processes to Collaborative Customer Care

Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use,
and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the
consumer and society. (Mothersbaugh and Hawkin, 2016)
This view of consumer behavior is broader than the traditional one, which focused more narrowly on the buyer and the
immediate antecedents and consequences of the purchasing process. Our broader view will lead us to examine more
indirect influences on consumption decisions as well as far-reaching consequences that involve more than just the purchaser
and the seller.