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Government Polytechnic

JAMNAGAR
Gujarat technological university
Civil engineering
2014
BUILDING CRACKS
GROUP:8

JOSHI M.R-116250306502
PARMAR A.D-116250306510
SOJITRA M.B -116250306521
ADITRAVADA A.A-116250306526
VYAS A.H-106250306038
GOHIL S.J.-106250306547
SITE INTRODUCTION

TALUKA NAME- JAMNAGAR


DISTRICT-JAMNAGAR
STATE-GUJARAT
ADD: NEO SQUARE SHOPPING MALL
NEAR INCOME TAX OFFICE P.N. MARG JAMNAGAR
DISCRIPTION OF PROBLEMS
BACKGROUND
The afflicted structure forms part of the neo square shopping mall
The building was designed for 5000 persons. The building is five story and
It consists of shopping mall. Shows the above the fig.

The building was after construction.


Where structural distress in the form of flexural and shear cracking had
Been observed. Cracking was first noticed in 07 August. It had progressed to the extent that
the client requested immediate action by the contractor. Shows the cracks in the beams.
INVESTIGATION
An investigation process was carried out in order to determine the
Causes of cracks. The investigation process basically consists of reviewing
Technical information, condition survey of the site for visual inspection,
Specific field tests to check for strength, reinforcement details, etc. The
Investigation process carried out in order to determine the causes of
Cracks of mall. Beams were included the following phases:

FIELD INVESTIGATION
The first signs of deterioration in concrete buildings are usually fine
Cracks and rust stains which may be accompanied by spelling of concrete.
Visual Inspection is the first step to be taken in order to prepare a
Complete investigation to determine the cause, nature and extent of
Deterioration.

Based on the visual inspection for the main beams of the


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the compressive
Strength and structural adequacy of concrete in the structure, as a result
Of visible cracks and doubt in the quality of concrete.
A total of five (5) cores were drilled from the beams of the Hall roof
Using a rot hammer drill with a nominal 6 mm bit drilling a whole 10-15
Mm deep into concrete all the five cores were tested in compression
After calculating the average cross sectional area of each core.
CRACKS IN BUILDING

Types of cracks
• Structural cracks.
• Non Structural Cracks.
Structural Cracks
Structural cracks are those which result from incorrect design, faulty construction or
overloading and these may endanger the safety of a building and their inmates.
Non Structural Cracks.
Non Structural cracks occur mostly due to internally induced stresses in building materials.
These cracks normally do not endanger the safety but may look unsightly, create an
impression of faulty work or give a feeling of instability.
Cracks reappear over repaired surface as rust scales were not removed
Causes of occurrence of cracks:
The important causes responsible for occurrence in building, are as under:

1. Cracks due to moisture changes


2. Cracks due to temperature variation
3. Cracks due to elastic deformation and creep
4. Cracks due to effect of chemical reaction
5. Cracks due to movements of ground
6. Cracks due to vegetation

TYPES OF CRACKS IN CONCRETE BEAMS


1. Cracks in concrete beams due to increased shear stress

2. Cracks in concrete beams due to corrosion or insufficient concrete

3. Cracks parallel to main steel in case of corrosion in beams


4. Cracks due to increased bending stress in beams

5. Cracks due to compression failure in beams

Depending on certain properties of building materials, shrinkage


cracks may be wider but further apart, or may be thin but more closely spaced. As a general
rule, thin cracks, even though closely spaced and greater in number, are less damaging
to the structure and are not so objectionable from aesthetic and other considerations as a
fewer number of wide cracks. Aesthetic and other considerations as a fewer number of wide
cracks

SOLUTION OF CRACKS IN BUILDING

Types of solution in cracks:


1. Grouting
2. Uniting
3. Jacketing

Various method of grouting in cracks:


1. Cement grouting
2. Pressure grouting
3. Injection grouting
 REPAIRS OF BUILDING CRACKED CONCRETE
Mainly two step are used in repair of cracked concrete are the follows
• Preparation of surface
• Application of repair materials

Preparation of surface
The follows procedure are used for preparation of surface by concert repair

Cracks loosed concrete mortar and sand are removed from surface
i. To prepared shape edge and under cots
ii. To prepare the cavity for required ship
iii. Removed dust and mud crack b wire bracing
iv. To clean the surface by chemical when oil and grebes are available in
surface

Application of repair materials


A various procedure of application of repair material by surface is the
follows

i. Dry packing
ii. Concrete replacement
iii. Mortar replacement
iv. Grouting
v. Uniting or shortcreting

(1) Dry packing


In this method are used for portion are compact for less water mortar .a W\C ratio
of mortar will be less so strength and durable repair are procedure a cement : sand proportion
are 1:2:5 to 1:3 for mortar

When repaired portion are more deep so, mortar are coated in 10mm thick layer

(2)Concrete replacement
This method are used for maintenance in big and deep portion and
mostly used for wall pear parapet curb canal, lining etc.

In R.C.C work a loose concrete are removed and protective coating are
steel bar and fill the ordinary greed concrete in portion.

(3) Mortar replacement

A portion are more deep in dry packing and less deep in concrete
replacement so, it’s portion are fill in mortar replacement method.

A mortar fill up by pressure gun so, cement sand content are 1:4 and
4 mortar fill up hand so content are some for structure concrete content.

(4) Grouting

A cracks are more depend thick so, cracks are fill up cement grout a
cement grout are (cement sand) or (cement+sand+water) a w\c ratio of cement
grout are minimum so, given for more strength. This method is mainly used for
concrete gravity dam and concrete wall.

(5) Uniting or concreting

Unite is defined as mortar consisting of cement and damp sand


conveyer from the delivery equipment known as “gun” through a and pneumatic
force through a nozzle There are new editing out uniting the small coarse
aggregate are used informance mortar they are known as concreting .

Main two type of uniting are follows

a) DRY MIX PROCESS


b) WET MIX PROCESS
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