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BILKENT UNIVERSITY

APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT


BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Chapter 1:
Communication Concepts
Communication Defined
 What is communication?

 …the process of sending and receiving messages

 Shared understanding is the key to effective


communication

Communication Process Model


 Communication process model breaks down
communication into parts
Message

Encodes Decod
es
Sender/ Receive
Receiver r/
Sender
Decodes Feedback Encodes

Communication Process Model


 Sender: originates a communication message
 Receiver: destination of the communication
 Encoding: sender changes thoughts into symbols
 Decoding: receiver assigns meaning to symbols
Communication Process Model
 Message: idea, thought, feeling or opinion to be communicated
(clear or unclear)

Ebru Inanc
63 223 Business Communication I
BILKENT UNIVERSITY
APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

 Channel: medium through which the message travels from sender


to receiver
 Feedback: receiver’s response to the message/indicates the
message is seen, heard and understood

Communication Process Model


 Sender (Encoder)
 Initiates the communication
 If both good and bad news will be given, the good news should be
given first
 If both a simple and a complex message will be given, the simple
one should be given first

 Message
 Verbal (part of the message that is heard) and nonverbal (body
language and the surrounding environment)

 Channel
 Means used to convey the message

a. Immediate feedback Oral communication

b. Other party may not understand verbal channels

c. Other party may be reluctant verbal channels

d. Need to document the communication written channels

e. Message should have detailed accuracy written channels

f. Message must be delivered to many people written channels

Types of channels within an organisation


a. Downward Channels: passing information from superior to
subordinate to;
• give job instructions
• bring about understanding of the job
• provide information about procedures

Ebru Inanc
63 223 Business Communication I
BILKENT UNIVERSITY
APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

• provide feedback about performances of subordinates

b. Upward Channels: provides subordinates to convey information to


their superiors to;
• gain feedback and learn about problems that affect efficiency,
• evaluate employee attitudes and perceptions

c. Lateral Channels: conveying information between individuals and


units on the same hierarchical level for;
• the coordination of tasks
• sharing of information,
• problem solving
• conflict resolution
This type of communication is persuasive and suggestive rather than
directive or authoritative

d. Informal Channels: grapevine


Single-strand: Each person recieves information from one person and
passes it on to one more
Gossip: one individual passes the news to all others
Probability: Information is passed on randomly
Cluster: Channel members selectively choose their informal
communication links

COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES
 Communication occurs within a context (when, where,
why and with whom)
 Chronological context: time a which communication occurs

 Physical context: location or setting of your communication

 Functional context: purpose of the communication


 Practical: job, apartment, health and safety
 Social: establish connections, building ties
 Decision-making: how to dress for the weather, where to live

 Relational context: person(s) with whom you communicate and


your relationship

 Cultural context: race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual preference,


disabilities, etc.
Ebru Inanc
63 223 Business Communication I
BILKENT UNIVERSITY
APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

 Communication is unavoidable
 Try to not communicate

 Intrapersonal: internal monologue that judges, comments, worries,


dreams and analyzes.

 Communication occurs at different levels


 No two relationships are alike
 Small talk: establish contact with others and build rapport
 Information talk: hobbies and interests, likes and dislikes, personal
preferences
 Opinion talk: riskier than the other levels; you open yourself up to
criticism and disagreements can lead into conflict
 Feelings talk: most challenging because you expose parts of your
inner self

 Communication requires ethical choices


 Freedom of speech doesn’t mean you can say anything you please.
 Words can nurture, resolve misunderstandings or create intimacy
 Words can strain relationships, destroy trust or land you in jail
 Plagiarism, falsify records, harassment, etc.

 Communication has its limitations


 Communication cannot solve all your interpersonal problems.
 Many other skills are needed (for ex. Flexibility, forgiveness, open to change).
 Other factors threaten stability of relationships
 Workplace relationships can be demanding.

Ebru Inanc
63 223 Business Communication I
BILKENT UNIVERSITY
APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Communication Barriers
 Internal Noise
 Occurs inside the sender and receiver
 Beliefs and values
 Faulty assumptions can lead to emotion
 Trigger or hot button words can evoke emotion
 Defensiveness

 External Noise
 Occurs outside the sender and receiver
 Can be easier to control than internal noise
 Includes technology

 Semantic Noise
 Occurs when the receiver doesn’t understand a word or gesture
 Can happen with different cultures
 Technicians using jargon with laypeople

 Gaps
 Results from people being different
 Gender
 Age
 Ethnicity
 Race
 Status
 Sexual orientation
 Generation

Barriers to Communication / Problems caused by the sender


 The amount of information the individual has about the subject of
the message
 Not much information
 Too much knowledge
 Indecission regarding how to present the information
 The order of the presentation
 Lack of familiarity with the audience
 Emotional conflict
 Lack of experience in speaking or writing

Ebru Inanc
63 223 Business Communication I
BILKENT UNIVERSITY
APPLIED SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Barriers to Communication / Problems in transmission


 Illegible material as a result of poor typing, poor photocopying,
poor handwriting
 Poor acustics
 Use of too many transmission links
 Transmission of conflicting messages

Barriers to Communication / Problems in reception


 The surrounding environment
 Receiver’s physical condition
 Receiver’s failure to pay attention to the message
– Simultaneous receipt of two or more messages
– Receiver is bored

Barriers to Communication / Problems in receiver


comprehension
 Receiver may not understand some of the words used
 Personal interests
 Emotional responses

Dealing with communication barriers


 Focus on the objective
 Unserstand the other party
 Be organized
 Seek feedback
 Know yourself

Communication and Technology


 iPods
 Information at students’ convenience
 Need for computer literacy
 Less connected
 Need for balance

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63 223 Business Communication I