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The Field Artillery Journal is published

bimonthly at the US Army Field Artilery

School, Fort Sill, OK. Funds for printing
are approved by Department of the Army.
However, unless otherwise stated,
material does not represent official policy
or endorsement by any agency of the US
PURPOSE (as stated in the first Field
Artillery Journal in 1911): "To publish a
the journal of fire support journal for disseminating professional
Volume 48 November-December 1980 Number 6 knowledge and furnishing information as
ARTICLES to the field artillery's progress,
development, and best use in campaign;
10 Liquid Propellant For Cannon Artillery? to cultivate, with the other arms, a
Although the Field Artillery has improved its vehicles, common understanding of the powers and
weapons, target acquisition and fire control methods, we are limitations of each; to foster a feeling of
still using centuries old chemical propulsion gun technology. interdependence among the different arms
Is now a time for change? and of hearty cooperation by all; and to
by CPT Joseph W. Silbaugh Jr. promote understanding between the
15 Firefinder Simulator—A New Era In Training regular and militia forces by a closer bond;
The A17E11 Firefinder Operator Trainer offers an all of which objects are worthy and
economical and extremely effective training device for use in contribute to the good of our country."
the Firefinder Operator Course (MOS 13R10).
SUBSCRIPTIONS: May be obtained
by WO Thomas Curran and Dr. Raymond O. Waldkoetter through the Field Artillery Association, c/o
22 Aerial Displacement Of Tube Artillery FA Museum, Building 437, Fort Sill, OK
Author discusses several considerations to be made during 73503. Telephone numbers are
air movement of tube artillery. AUTOVON 639-5123/3703 or commercial
by 1LT Terry G. Stewart (405) 355-4677. Dues are $10.00 per year
30 Reflections On Extended Command to US and APO addresses. Canadian and
A recent FA battalion commander comments on how the Mexican addresses should add $2.00 for
new "extended command" policy affects both the postage, and all other addresses should
commander and his unit. add $4.00 for postage.
36 The New Artillery Hon. Clifford L. Alexander Jr.
New Field Artillery hardware/systems offer a revolutionary
advance in our combat capability, and the resulting impact FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL
on ground warfare may be as significant as the development Commandant:
of the tank. MG Edward A. Dinges
by Mr. Patrick F. Rogers Assistant Commandant:
43 The "Long Tom" BG Robert C. Forman
Historical review of a field artillery weapon which served the JOURNAL STAFF
United States Army for more than half a century. Editor:
by Mr. Truman R. Strobridge MAJ John Dobbs
48 The American "Schneider" Managing Editor:
A 155-mm "Schneider" howitzer is said to have fired the last Mary Corrales
round of World War I. Art Director:
by LTC Ronald E. Olson Bob Coleman
54 The Battery Scout
Specific tasks accomplished during the reconnaissance, SUBMISSIONS: All letters and articles
selection, and occupation of position are important to should be addressed to Editor, Field
successful employment of the Field Artillery, but should this Artillery Journal, P.O. Box 33131, Fort Sill,
responsibility be performed by the battery commander? OK 73503. Telephone numbers are
by CPT Ricky E. Hardie AUTOVON 639-5121/6806 or commercial
(405) 351-5121/6806. Material submitted
FEATURES for publication is subject to edit by the
1 On The Move Journal staff; footnotes and bibliographies
3 Incoming may be deleted due to limitation of space.
9 Redleg Reference REPRINTS: The Field Artillery Journal is
18 View From The Blockhouse pleased to grant permission to reprint
28 FA Test and Development articles. Please credit the author and the
33 Right By Piece Field Artillery Journal.
50 Redleg Newsletter POSTMASTERS: Controlled circulation
56 With Our Comrades In Arms postage paid at Lawton, OK, Department
59 Commanders Update of the Army, DOD 314; Field Artillery
60 Redleg Review Journal USPS 309-010.
by MG Edward A. Dinges

I n my last "On The Move", I mentioned Fort Sill's

on-going rethinking of the fire support function and
noted the importance of getting all our talent involved
in the combat development process.
Accordingly, last August I wrote to each of our senior
field artillery commanders requesting their contributions
to what is perhaps our major current force development
study—the Fire Support Mission Area Analysis
(FSMAA). Directed by the Department of Defense, this
reexamination of doctrine, organization, training, and
materiel will serve as the baseline for field artillery experience, particularly in ammunition resupply.
developments out to the year 2000 and beyond. Such a Superior firepower will nevertheless be critical to
reexamination would clearly be worthless without the overcoming our numerical disadvantage and achieving
benefit of the ideas and practical experience of the field victory.
commanders who must routinely work around the Of course, our commanders recognize that Europe is
deficiencies of our current fire support system. not our only potential battleground. Growing concern
The response of these commanders to my request has for the projection of forces in contingency areas like the
been both forthright and encouraging, particularly in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf introduces a host of
consistency among the concerns they expressed. In the additional considerations, from rapid force deployability
belief that these are of equal interest to all field to sustainment of operations at the end of lengthy and
artillerymen, I thought it might be worthwhile to share vulnerable lines of communication. These
with you our commanders' general perceptions of the considerations must be balanced against the need for
future role of fire support and some of their specific armor protection, ground mobility, and heavy volumes
suggestions for improvement of the field artillery. Let me of fire. And here again, the effectiveness of indirect
begin by reporting some general comments, then turn to firepower may be decisive.
the specific development areas dealt with by the FSMAA. Whichever the battlefield, our senior field artillery
commanders foresee three concurrent and equally
General important artillery missions:
Overall, our commanders expect the high intensity
● Providing close support to the ground-gaining
battlefield through the year 2000 to be characterized by:
arms by destroying or suppressing enemy maneuver
● The predominance of heavy armor formations.
● Extensive employment of anti-armor missile systems. ● Destroying or silencing enemy artillery to prevent
● Highly mobile Threat forces, configured more for it from damaging or interfering with our own maneuver
meeting engagements than as breakthrough formations. formations.
● Very sophisticated target detection and ● Interdicting advancing enemy second-echelon
communication systems. forces.
● Possible use of high-energy laser weapon systems. Commanders report that increased emphasis on the
● Employment of chemical warfare by Threat forces. latter two missions has caused some concern among
On the European battlefield, NATO and Threat forces their maneuver colleagues, who worry about the
are expected to be roughly equal in the quality of weapon availability of close support fires in the face of
systems, but the Warsaw Pact will continue to enjoy a competing requirements. While this concern is
significant numerical superiority in tanks and artillery. understandable, it is also groundless; the function of
War on such a battlefield will be violent and fast-moving; fire support—whatever the particular target—will
it will strain our logistics systems far beyond previous continue to be to support the maneuver
commander as effectively as possible. The diversity of level. Additionally, division logistical support
field artillery missions simply reflects our growing capabilities need to be beefed up to accommodate corps
technological ability to deliver a wide variety of new artillery units operating in support of the divisions.
munitions against a much broader target spectrum than Concurrently, logistical procedures require review and
ever before. updating; some commanders feel upgrading of the
divisional personnel support systems may also be
Doctrine warranted.
In the specific area of doctrine, senior field
artillerymen uniformly agree that corps artillery
commanders must actively participate in the business of
Perhaps the most widely shared concern in this area is
recommending allocation of corps artillery assets to
the need to increase the time allocated to field artillery
division, while retaining control of sufficient artillery
and fire support generally in the curriculum of the
missile and air assets for deep interdiction. Division
Command and General Staff College. Another strongly
artilleries will directly control all divisional and corps
expressed concern is that field artillery officers are not
cannon assets to execute close support, counterbattery,
gaining the requisite field expertise in their formative
and shallow interdiction fires. Field artillery doctrine
must clearly define and institutionalize these roles so
that division artilleries can position and assign tactical
missions to allocated corps artillery cannon units. At the Materiel
same time, we must refine our understanding of the Our field artillery commanders recognize that
proper utilization of field artillery brigade and group improvements in materiel are urgently needed. In
headquarters. addition to increasing the range of our weapons and
At the battery and battalion levels, the composition of their numbers in the force, we must place emphasis on
the basic load, complexity of new munitions, and developing smart fire-and-forget munitions capable of
proliferation of artillery ammunition types increase destroying armor on the move without relying on
potential problems of having too few of too many kinds observed fire procedures or directed terminal guidance.
of rounds at each gun position and saturating unit Further, to win the counterfire battle, we must be able
transport capabilities. Some commanders urge the to find the enemy's artillery and destroy it. While the
development of clear guidelines regarding the proper Firefinder radars are a significant step forward, we must
number of rounds of each type required by each firing continue to improve our ability to detect enemy artillery
unit. Others suggest reexamining the concept of and second-echelon forces. To enhance survivability, we
assigning specialized unit roles (such as counterfire, must be able to operate from more dispersed positions.
interdiction, suppression, Copperhead, or nuclear In turn, this will require individual howitzers to have
missions) for specified time periods. All agree that in their own locating and laying systems, as well as
some fashion or other, the basic load must be simplified. automated fire direction systems with reliable
Other doctrinal issues believed to require more work communications permitting burst transmission of digital
include nuclear procedures and operations, battery fire commands. To survive in chemical and nuclear
survivability, and coordination of Air Force close environments, our howitzers, ammunition carriers, and
support aircraft and Army attack helicopters in fire fire direction vehicles require self-contained
support tasks. With regard to the last mentioned, many pressurization systems to prevent internal contamination.
commanders noted the need to upgrade the importance And finally, to maintain the tempo of mounted combat,
of brigade and battalion fire support officers. While the we must have new ammunition support vehicles with
rank structure of the fire support officer is believed to be the armor protection, increased load-carrying capacity,
correct, senior field artillerymen argue that neither our and modern materiel handling equipment to ease the
assignment policies nor the recognition and rewards we burden on our cannoneers and ammunition handlers.
attach to these positions reflect their importance. Their It is hardly surprising that the concerns of senior field
prestige must be improved, particularly in the eyes of artillery commanders which I have highlighted here
supported unit commanders. track closely with the objectives we at Fort Sill are
trying to achieve through the FSMAA and other
Organization programs. I will continue to call on the advice and
Turning now to force structure, commanders agree counsel of all of you in the field as we work together to
that a concerted effort must be made to restore the build a field artillery second to none.
headquarters and headquarters battery at corps artillery

2 Field Artillery Journal

If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person
were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified
in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be
justified in silencing mankind. "On Liberty"—John Stuart Mill

letters to the editor

SEAD views differ carefully studied before any new procedures of a single fire support center within the US
are implemented. Currently, our most Army Training and Doctrine Command. The
In the introduction to the article on
effective SEAD resources are aircraft and proposed center would serve as the Army's
suppression of enemy air defence (SEAD)
electronic warfare. Until indirect artillery fire single voice in the development of fire
which appeared in the September-October
is more effective in the SEAD role, is there support doctrine and related literature.
1980 Journal, it was stated that the article
really a valid argument for making the fire Additionally, it would be responsible for
represented the views of, among others, the
support coordinator the SEAD planner? preparing and conducting (or exporting) fire
Allied Liaison Officers at Fort Sill. This is
In summary, we believe that there will support training materials.
not so. The Allied Liaison Officers did take
inevitably be occasions when indirect
part in the preliminary discissions on SEAD, Proponency
artillery fire will have to be used in the Army Regulation 10-6 currently addresses
but the article does not represent their views
SEAD role. However, we do not believe that the responsibilities of the several Army
on the subject.
these occasions will be sufficiently frequent branches, and the proponency for developing
We believe there were two very important
to justify the dedicated, complicated, fire support doctrine and plans for the Army
omissions from the article. First, the
labour-intensive and ammunition-expensive is assigned to The Field Artillery Branch. As
effectiveness of indirect artillery fire, when
procedures proposed in the article. In most accomplished today, implementation of this
used in the SEAD role, was not considered in
cases, SEAD could be accomplished much proponency leaves much to be desired since
any detail. The only reference to this
more easily—and just as effectively—by it is fragmented among several TRADOC
critically important subject was a list of
using present procedures and staff and schools and agencies. There is no one voice
vulnerabilities in one of the figures. The
regarding it as just another part of target for fire support. Most schools of the
second omission was the absence of any
servicing. combined arms, in developing the fire
detailed analysis of the accuracy with which
This letter represents, in general terms at support portions of their field manuals, often
enemy air defence weapons can be located by
least, the views of the Canadian, French, and obtain much of their advice and input from
the various means at our disposal. This will,
German Liaison Officers in addition to my on-station artillerymen. Many times this
of course, be a key factor in determining
own. situation leads to varied interpretations of the
whether or not indirect artillery will be
G. S. Orr fire support "party line"; consequently, we
effective against them.
LTC often find fire support described differently
We believe that indirect artillery fire will British Liaison Officer
not be cost-effective in the SEAD role until from manual to manual. Presently, there is no
USAFAS one single TRADOC agent speaking for fire
we have new ammunition—such as Fort Sill, OK
anti-radiation projectiles—specially designed support as there is for Infantry and Armor.
Your letter is well taken. There should be!
for the purpose. Until we do have an
improved capability, would it not be more Perhaps the editor's comments preceding
the SEAD article would have been more Short falls
sensible to deal with enemy air defence
appropriate if it had stated: "The material A glance through current field manuals
weapon systems just like most other targets
herein represents the views, opinions, and and other training literature for fire support
under the heading of target servicing?
best judgment of the principal authors within reveals numerous short falls to include:
The procedures outlined in the article are the Field Artillery School. Although the • No correct definition of fire support?
complicated, labour-intensive, wasteful in thoughts of subject matter experts, US Air Many of today's manuals leave the
both ammunition expenditure and logistic Force and Marine Corps Representatives, impression that field artillery fires are
effort, and, worst of all, unlikely to achieve and School Allied Liaison Officers were synonymous with fire support; therefore,
any significant return. The majority of enemy considered during development of this article, some authors treat field artillery support as
air defence weapons could be suppressed just the material does not necessarily reflect total the total fire support effort. Some examples
as effectively—and with much less planning agreement among contributors as to specific of this and other shortcomings in literature
and coordinating effort—by directing our fire doctrine/tactics to be considered in the are:
at the formations or areas that they are suppression of enemy air defense."—Ed. 1) FM 71-100 (divisional field
deployed to defend. This can be very simply manual), in describing the responsibilities of
done using existing procedures and staff and We need a fire support center the division fire support coordinator, states:
without taking our guns off other tasks on "He coordinates the delivery of field artillery
which they are more urgently needed and The purpose of this article is to examine
fire support doctrinal responsibilities within fires." Yes, it is true; he does do that but only
more cost-effectively employed. as part of the tactical
The subject of SEAD planning should be the Army and to propose the establishment
November-December 1980 3

fire support effort. More correctly, he member serving on the Land Forces Corps are present to represent the views of
merges field artillery fires with the fires Tactical Doctrine Working Party, Army their respective services.
from other weapon systems (e.g., mortars, Board, Military Agency for Standardization. Military authors, instructors, and
close air, and naval support). As discussed earlier, the current edition of developers concerned with Army fire
2) FM 100-5, the Army's capstone ATP-35 covering land force tactical support operations should receive their
field manual on operations, describes doctrine pays small attention to fire support. guidance from this single center. For the
support for the offense and defense in Why? Because, in order for Fort Sill to get first time, the Army would then have a
separate chapters. At the conclusion of each its views on fire support into this central theme on what fire support is and
chapter is a summary for field artillery and publication, the information must be can do and have one point of contact for
air support. There is no summary for fire presented to the working party by a those desiring fire support information. The
support collectively—yet that's the way it is surrogate, and USAFAS is one step Field Artillery Branch proponent for fire
managed in combat. removed from this literature action. support outlined in AR 10-6 would then be
3) Allied Tactical Publication (ATP) • Training simulators. Today, there are implemented by the Fire Support Center
35 (NATO literature) addresses tactical land many computerized battle simulations in Commanding General.
force doctrine and all types of combat use for training; however, few of these
support except fire support. Not one line is emphasize the fire support aspects of LTC (Ret) C. W. Montgomery
devoted to this major element of combat combat. While considerable attention is Lawton, OK
power. given to maneuver, the air-land battle,
• The air-land battle. Most new field intelligence, and logistics, very little
manuals developed within the combined training in fire support challenges are
arms community, in discussing combat presented which is not in keeping with the The "Priest"
operations, tend to separate discussions of thought that fire support represents a major
indirect fires from those involved with the element of combat power. Reference the photograph of the Priest
air-land battle. This separates close air • Terminology. Even in simple fire self-propelled howitzer in your July-August
support from other types of fire support; support terminology, there are differences. 1980 issue, the Batchelor and Hogg book,
consequently, most of the doctrine involved For example, FM 6-20 is accepted as the Artillery, is correct in stating that the M7
in the air-land battle is developed Army's capstone field manual for fire was first developed by combining the lower
independent of existing fire support doctrine support in combined arms operations, and, chassis of an M3 Lee tank with a standard
which often results in conflict and as such, its fire support terms and towed 105-mm howitzer. However, the
confusion. definitions agree with those found in vehicle in the photograph is actually a late
• Close air support (CAS). In this area approved military dictionaries and production M7 or M7B1, built on the
we find the fire support coordinator glossaries. Yet, many of these terms differ chassis of an M4 Sherman tank. Many
(FSCOORD) orchestrating CAS fires with from like terms now defined in FM 101-5-1 points identify it as such: The suspension
other fire support. To do this, he must work which is but another indication of the need system and other later tank components
closely with an assistant S3 (G3) for air and for one fire support voice in the Army. such as the single piece differential and
with a collocated air liaison officer (ALO) final drive housing. The M7 was powered
from the supporting air force. Actually, this by a Continental 9-cylinder radial engine,
is duplication of effort. The FSCOORD is and the M7B1 by a Ford tank engine.
capable of working directly with the ALO Without a photo of the rear deck and engine
just as he does with naval gunfire liaison How to improve compartment doors it is not possible to
personnel, when that type of support is Since 1975, the Army has been working determine which of the two this vehicle is.
available. This would eliminate "the to improve its fire support posture at the Congratulations to the 1st Battalion, 3d
middleman"—the assistant S3 (G3)—and "bottom" of the ladder—company and troop Field Artillery, for preserving this very
free that officer for other air and operations level. It has implemented the fire support historic vehicle.
matters. team (FIST) concept, and each company
• Joint air attack teams (JAATs). Ronald L. Kirshman
size unit now has a fire support advisor and LTC, QMC
Recently, the Army has developed draft coordinator—the FIST chief. Additionally,
literature describing JAAT operations. (The Professor of Military Science
enlisted forward observers and fire support Western Michigan University
JAAT is formed by joining attack specialists are now consolidated under the
helicopters with A-10 CAS aircraft.) Little single MOS 13F. The time has come,
attempt has been made to tie the FSCOORD however, to improve the higher rungs in the
into this team action, which seems strange ladder. A step in that direction was recently
since the military currently has others taken when the recommendations of Close
studying how it can best provide Support Study Group II were approved, but
suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) what else can be done?
fires which normally are coordinated by a Within TRADOC, there is a need for one
FSCOORD. Additionally, CAS aircraft are agent to speak for all fire support—not just
"head counted" as fire support assets; yet parts of it, as is the case today. The most
they must be excluded from that count when logical candidate and best prepared Army
committed to JAAT operations. facility to do this is the USAFAS and Fort
• NATO literature. In this area, the Sill, where FSCOORDs and fire support
lone US voice for fire support is the US specialists are trained. Here, instructor
Army Combined Arms Center (USACAC) personnel from the Air Force and Marine Whatever it is, it's a grand old weapon.

4 Field Artillery Journal


Field Artillery in the Guard and

How much? How good?
Today, more than 50 percent of the US
Army's Field Artillery is in the Army
National Guard (ARNG) or the US Army
Reserve (USAR). A breakdown of the
Field Artillery organizations within the
Guard and the Reserve is shown in figure
1. (The bulk of the combat and combat
support units are in the ARNG, while the
combat service support units are
primarily in the USAR.) These "How
much?" figures are based on a recent US
Army Training and Doctrine Command
(TRADOC) chart.
Now to the question of "How good?"
are our Reserve Components. Here, a
several volume book could be written on
how good the Guard is or isn't. Perhaps
a more appropriate question would be
"How good should or can they be?" To
answer this question, one needs only to
look back on the early days of the
Vietnam War when Guard units were
designated part of the Selected Reserve The 8-inch towed howitzer is used by Battery D, 1st Battalion, 175th Field Artillery, 47th
Force (SRF). These SRF units were Infantry Division, Minnesota Army National Guard, for training.
manned and equipped at 100 percent
authorized strength and were authorized necessary personnel is the biggest problem an NCO to learn a new job on his own
additional training assemblies and unit commanders have today. Every day you overnight. The question of time, or time to
full-time personnel to provide the can read or hear someone say the answer to train, is without a doubt the most critical. It
necessary support. After approximately retention is good hard training, but the has been said many times that Reserve
a year of intensified training, several solution to good training is to have at least Components have 39 days to train each year.
Field Artillery battalions passed not only an adequate full-time training staff. It Wrong! True, there are 39 days available when
the battery but also the battalion Army doesn't matter whether Guardsmen on you count the 12 weekends (24 days) and the
Training Tests. Additionally, there were full-time duty or active component soldiers 15 days at Annual Training (AT), but you can
no restrictions on fuel or ammunition in fill slots such as the S3, assistant S3, or delete approximately five days from Annual
those days. The point is that given the operations sergeant, but it is a must to have a Training for travel to and from, middle
resources of personnel, equipment, time, full-time Training Noncommissioned weekend, preparation for movement to home
fuel, ammunition, and adequate full-time Officer in each unit to properly manage the station, and such things as physical training,
personnel, an acceptable readiness training administration and to prepare for parades, etc. Also, on the 12 weekends,
condition can be achieved. future training. Another must is that funds be activities such as preparation for movement to
Current recruiting problems are well provided for noncommissioned officers to the Annual Training site, preparation for and
publicized and, as such, perhaps the only attend a basic course. We don't expect a conduct of Adjutant General Inspections,
area worth comment is that acquiring the second lieutenant to perform until he has weapons qualification/familiarization,
been to the basic course, so why expect maintenance after Annual Training, not to
Field Artillery units mention support to civil authorities, all take
from actual training time. A realistic estimate
is that the average unit has about eight
Corps artillery headquarters (2) Field artillery brigade headquarters (3) weekends to train for their TOE mission.
Division artillery headquarters (8) Field artillery cannon battalions (18)** That's 16 days plus 10 days at Annual
Field artillery brigade headquarters (20) Training for a total of 26 days to train for and
Field artillery cannon battalions (103)* conduct Skill Qualification Tests and at least
Target acquisition batteries (8) battery-level ARTEPs.
Howitzer batteries (cavalry squadrons) Now, let's take a look at equipment. There
(12) are some Guard units equipped with the
*32 battalions are organic to the 8 division artilleries, 21 are direct support battalions obsolete 8-inch towed howitzer and, even
to separate maneuver brigades, 41 fall under the peacetime control of the field artillery though it is a good weapon and is satisfactory
brigades, 3 are under one of the corps artilleries, and the remaining 6 are separate field for training, it is unlikely that this weapon will
artillery battalions. ever be used in combat again. How long do the
**3 battalions are direct support to separate maneuver brigades, 6 are under the control Reserve Components have to wait before they
of the field artillery brigades, and the remaining 9 are separate field artillery battalions. get the equipment for training with which they
Figure 1. Reserve Component Field Artillery. would be expected to go to war?

November-December 1980 5

The bottom line is that, given the Along with this modification in training conditions and also provides guidance to
resources with trained officers and and evaluating, the "qualification" commanders and staffs for functions
noncommissioned officers, Reserve requirements (certification is no longer peculiar to nuclear missions and capabilities.
Component units can reach the required used) for noncustodial units has also been Tactical units no longer must establish
level of readiness. While some units are changed (Chapter 8 to AR 50-5). The Army elaborate security or operational procedures
presently low in strength and have only recognized that the old nuclear surety for nuclear weapons in field storage
three or four howitzers, many are at or near inspection and certification system was locations that do not increase technical
their authorized strength. The question of cumbersome, unrealistic and unfair to units. proficiency or add to overall security.
"How good?" is as different as there are Now a unit is qualified by first Additionally, and perhaps more important,
number of units. The fact is that, regardless demonstrating its ability to accomplish its units are not required to train unrealistically
of how good they are today, they are all we total nuclear and conventional mission during tactical operations with nuclear
have to back up the "Regulars" and a during external evaluations based upon weapons.
battery with only four guns is far better than ARTEP. This is done at least once every Since March 1978, the Army has made
a battery with no guns. 18 months. The evaluated unit can neither great progress in developing realistic
pass nor fail the evaluation since it is standards and procedures for tactical
D. J. Marholz designed to be a diagnostic tool rather nuclear operations. The revised policy for
LTC, FA than a test. This allows units to discover nuclear operations, training, and inspections
Chief, RC Division weaknesses early in their training cycle, has contributed to a more successful
DCRDT, USAFAS develop a corrective training program, and training program, increased the readiness
Fort Sill, OK subsequently emphasize training in weak capability of nuclear capable units, and
areas. A unit that does not satisfactorily provided a means in which to realistically
perform the nuclear tasks during external evaluate total mission capabilities.
evaluation, will retrain and be reevaluated
until the standards for all nuclear tasks are Charles L. Hellier
Realism in nuclear weapons achieved. Division or comparable MAJ, FA
training, operations, and commanders, assisted by unit trainers, are US Army Nuclear and
responsible for the total evaluation. Chemical Agency
inspection Springfield, VA
Within the same 18 month period, the
A tactical unit identified to assemble, MACOM or Department of Army
transport, fire, or secure nuclear weapons Inspector General (DNA conducts a
must be trained, evaluated, and qualified similar DNSI) will conduct a technical
specifically for those missions. Until March Redleg units
validation inspection (TVI) of a unit. TVI
1978, however, the training and evaluation will be within 180 days after a unit has Infantry magazine began a series of
of nuclear capable units was unrealistic and shown it can satisfactorily perform all articles in its January-February 1978 issue
distorted. To correct this, the Army Chief of nuclear tasks during evaluation. (The need profiling an active infantry division of the
Staff changed the Army's Training and for retraining/reevaluation may require US Army. The articles covered such areas
Evaluation Program (ARTEP) to develop re-scheduling of the associated TVI). TVI as unit history, training readiness, field
realistic standards and procedures and also is limited to technical operations (without operations, joint training, and new concepts.
changed the inspection system for tactical play), the personnel reliability I would like to see the Field Artillery
noncustodial, nuclear-capable units. program (PRP), systemic problems, and Journal feature a similar series of articles on
The ARTEP stresses the importance of where applicable, war reserve storage and active cannon, missile, and target
the Army's current doctrine to "train as you accountability. acquisition units of the US Army and
will fight" by requiring tactical units to Marine Corps. Not only would the articles
The IG does not give overall ratings on
conduct concurrent conventional and be interesting reading for individuals in
TVIs as in the past. Only individual
nuclear tasks in their training and evaluation their specific specialties, but they would
functional areas are rated. MACOM will
programs. For example, a unit must train to also assist in promoting a better
review the TVI report in detail and use it
provide simultaneous transportation of its understanding of the different elements of
as only one of the indicators for
entire nuclear load and all of its the Field Artillery.
"qualification". Other readiness factors
conventional ammunition.
count heavily, such as unit readiness James R. Clark
To accomplish realism, both the training
reports, personnel turbulence, 1LT, FA
and evaluation (internal and external)
performance on FTX-CPX, training 3d Armored
programs must be driven by a scenario
which develops a tactical situation requiring proficiency determined by evaluations Division Artillery
using ARTEP. There are others. APO NY
the unit to perform its tactical mission under
MACOM will then rate the unit by giving
simulated combat conditions. The key to
any one of three ratings—nuclear
effective training and evaluation is The material you describe was solicited by
qualified, nuclear qualified with
competent trainers and evaluators who can Infantry magazine from respective division
determine training proficiency by— limitation, or not nuclear qualified. public affairs officers. Through their
• Comparing results achieved with As the training program and inspection support, Infantry was able to publish the
prescribed standards. system for nuclear capable units were interesting series. As stated in previous
• Applying common sense. changing, so was the doctrine for nuclear Journals, as well as personal letters to our
• Weighing mission accomplishment operations. Newly revised FM 100-50 FA unit commanders, we here would be
against courses of action taken. (unclassified) prescribes procedures, more than pleased to run a similar series of
• Keeping in mind other constraints techniques, and standards for units with a articles if our magazine could obtain the
placed on the unit. nuclear mission under combat copy and photographs.—Ed.

6 Field Artillery Journal


Let's do it anyway, artillerymen • Wherever possible, try to influence Hearing this, I could not help but wonder
The "maxi-package" associated with the maneuver planning so as to allow every if this tactic should be applied to a rear
upcoming maneuver battalion ARTEPs is a possible opportunity for realistic use of live trains element. I could understand the
challenge of the first order. The supporting fires. Artillery, mortars, and air procedure used by a firing battery, but how
"maxi-package" has appeared to many of us strikes where they could logically be needed about in the rear trains which do not have
in the past years by other names. As often in combat—to the unit's front or at least the requirement for numerous moves?
as it appeared (mostly under the banner of flank—where they can be seen or at least A second problem I observed was that
"Combined Arms ARTEP"), it was cast heard adds to the realism of the training and there seemed to be a lack of awareness
aside or let die a natural death of benign the credibility of the FSO/FIST. This is not throughout the brigade of the 8 to 10
neglect. Any S3 worth his horse blanket can a question of support driving maneuver; it is airmobile/airborne elements currently
name you five reasons why a combined a matter of making the maneuver planner within the Russian Army. These divisions
arms or "maxi-package" ARTEP won't aware of the additional training value have specific primary missions in combat
work. Given the constraints of most available by moving his axis of attack two and among them is destruction of nuclear
maneuver areas (safety, ecology, budgets, kilometers to the north. capable units. Therefore, attack by units
etc.) he will probably be right all five times. • Finally, let's not betray sound doctrine from these elements is not only feasible but
Concessions have to be made. Only the in order to appear to be eager and probable.
hardest of the hard core will fail to accommodating. Artillery doctrine is both I do not understand this passive defense
understand the decided drop in morale of tested and sound. It has been developed by posture principle where there is no
the Aggressor detail which is taken under senior officers of all branches. Don't rewrite established perimeter, no method of early
fire by live artillery and mortars. it by yourself. Don't do the maneuver detection, lack of control of fires, and a
Those realities notwithstanding, the commander the disservice of allowing him general lack of survivability. Even with the
"maxi-pack" offers the Redleg a unique to think he will get a quantity or type of advent of personnel shortages, a weak
opportunity to remind his maneuver support that he will not get in combat. defense posture is not the answer.
associates of the artillery's capabilities. With the right attitude and proper Passive defense was once described to
Because of the heightened interest resulting planning, the "maxi-pack" is going to allow me as "a snake that when hit, strikes back,
from an impending ARTEP, your maneuver for some excellent training. A significant and then crawls away." If this concept
associate is likely to be most receptive to portion of that training will occur before the applies, then I would, as a combat soldier,
your professional advice and assistance. first Frag Order is published. It will occur either attempt to maintain contact with the
Here are some simple guidelines which when the fire support officer and maneuver snake until final destruction is achieved, or
may help you insure that good fire support commanders sit down and declare "We move to another unit.
is provided to the maneuver unit you need to plan some ARTEP scenarios." In I personally feel that training shortcuts
support. fact, there is so much potential in such used in the evaluation of units due to
• Fire support officers (FSOs) must be planning sessions that if I knew for a fact personnel or equipment shortages are death
a part of the planning. I have been told by that the "maxi-pack" ARTEP would only be dealing. If a unit is expected to perform its
well-meaning folks "We have a great planned, I'd say, "Let's do it anyway!" combat mission, then it should do so with
relationship with our FSO; every time we whatever shortcomings may exist at the
plan an exercise, he gets one of the first Mark Hamilton time. Units should understand that, without
copies." That is roughly the equivalent of a MAJ, FA effective defense measures, mission
quarterback taking the snap and then yelling HHB, 9th Inf Div Arty accomplishment is almost impossible.
to his linemen what the play is. They may be Fort Lewis, WA Every soldier should be trained to fight,
able to support him, but something is clearly fight to survive, and survive to fight again.
lost. If this happens to you as an FSO, it's
Passive defense Timmy W. Reid
your fault—make that maneuver
commander consider what you have to say.
HHB (-Det 1)
He may not have considered your ability to During a recent annual training session
1st Bn, 161st FA
provide obscuration with smoke, thus with my National Guard unit, I found our
Dodge City, KS
allowing him to bypass what would have perimeter defense lacking in basic
been an intermediate objective. In this and principles taught to me as an infantryman.
many other ways, fire greatly influences For example:
• No observation or listening posts were The battery defense should be organized in
maneuver, not just supports maneuver.
used. accordance with the nine basic
• Don't confuse "opportunities" with
• Primary or alternate positions were considerations of defense (FM 6-50, chapter
"capabilities." The famous "real world" list
not designated. 7, page 1). One of these fundamentals is to
of restrictions will, doubtless, modify your
• No fire plans or positions were "analyze and use terrain properly" which
opportunities to provide fire support;
designated for machineguns. stresses the use of passive defense measures.
however, during the planning phase, it is
• No workable reactionary force This concept requires the battery
your job to insure that the maneuver
movement. commander to select a position that is not
commander is properly considering fire
• No use of suppressive fire plans for easily detectable and is easily defendable,
support capabilities. If the operations order
likely avenues of approach. while still facilitating the accomplishment of
(OPORD) allocates an "arc light" B52 strike
When I addressed this problem with my the mission. The passive defense calls for
on ROY, you must insure that the maneuver
commander, he explained that, under the the battery to melt into the terrain it
plan has taken this "capability" into account
current concept of "Shoot and Move," a occupies or, in other words, to naturally
even though you will not have the
passive defense posture was applied. conceal itself to avoid enemy detection.
"opportunity" to execute.

November-December 1980 7

Passive defense measures must be The need for a full-time S4 at battalion quick fixes." In our situation, they work
complemented with the other fundamentals staff level is absolute. There is no question for a specific training exercise or an
of defense (plan to defend in depth, with Major Owen's assessment. annual training period, but because of
establish and maintain security, plan to Individuals who possess the abilities to personnel changes, personality quirks, etc.,
defend in all directions, plan mutual perform both jobs (S4/service battery they don't last from one year to the next.
support, practice dispersion, establish commander) are rare; the average Field What we need is a common solution,
control, establish priorities, and be flexible) Artillery officer assigned to that position applicable to all FISTs.
in order to insure a sound battery defense cannot effectively manage his time and I would suggest that the authors of FIST
plan. These fundamentals urge the battery priorities for both positions. Thus, May have encountered or addressed some
to actively prepare its defense by battalion commanders take steps to fill the of these concerns in the early stages of
establishing listening posts (LPs) and/or void, most commonly by assigning the formulating the doctrine, but decided to
observations posts (OPs), patrols, reaction service battery commander as the full-time allow units and commanders in the field to
forces, and defensive positions with S4, and utilizing another officer as the define the problems and seek their own
interlocking direct fires. By adequately commander of service battery. This solutions. They create an asset of
employing these nine considerations, a solution, although it works at best, creates tremendous import to the Field Artillery
battery can greatly improve defensive problems in career management and most but, in doing so, created logistical and
posture. To only employ passive defense importantly in property accountability. command nightmares which are causing
measures without considering the active I do take exception to the fire support the system to suffer internally and give the
ones would lead to confusion and poor battery (FSB) concept. In particular, those impression externally that we in the Field
coordination within the battery during an problems associated with the management Artillery Community are indecisive and
enemy attack. This will stand to greatly of the FSB. Creation of the FSB, during a can't get our act together.
increase the possible casualties sustained in training environment (peacetime) is viable I recommend that units which are
this type of operation as well as hamper the to a point, but do we create units for a experiencing problems with FIST,
main mission as artillerymen to provide peacetime mission or for regardless of how small or trivial, make
support to the maneuver element. deployment/employment during hostilities? them known to the Close Support Study
It appears then that a unit review of FM What happens to the proposed unit when it Group. Only by putting the problems on
6-50 may be required. Additionally, as goes to the field for extended exercises or the table and thrashing them over will they
artillerymen, the purpose of our defense is for that matter during committal for ever be resolved. It could be that
to avoid detection and early warning or, if hostilities? Some examples of problems somebody has already experienced the
detected, be able to repel the attack. We do created are: problem and solved it, but others don't
not attempt to maintain contact.—Ed. • Mess. How does this section of the know about it.
battery support its assigned FIST, when
the FIST are attached to maneuver Frederick A. Camacho
Attention Coast Artillerymen! companies spread over the brigade zone? MAJ, FA, WIARNG
Does the FSB occupy positions in the S3, 1-120th FA
I am engaged in a research project on
brigade trains area or forward in the Wisconsin Rapids, WI
Coast Artillery Harbor Defense units and
would appreciate hearing from anyone who brigade tactical operations center (TOC)
served in a Coast Defense unit, particularly area with the brigade fire support officer
those individuals who served with a unit (FSO)? The same questions have to be
whose primary mission was defense asked about administration, maintenance,
against an enemy ship attack and those and supply.
who served outside the continental United • Command of the battery. If the
States. battery commander is as proposed (i.e., the
brigade FSO), then the first sergeant From the Editor
Charles H. Bogart should be the brigade senior fire support
201 Pin Oak Place sergeant. Who is the executive officer; an Following distribution of the
Frankfort, KY 40601 FSO or a FIST chief? Unless there is an September-October issue, Ms. Ann
assigned XO with no other duties, the XO Reese left the Journal for reassignment
must also move out with the unit to which in another career field. In addition to
The Direct Support Field wishing Ann well, we here offer our
Artillery Battalion—Is It Time he is assigned to support. How does the
commander under the concept above sincere thanks and appreciation for her
For A Change? manage the battery if he is to perform his invaluable contributions as the
duties at the brigade TOC? Journal's Circulation Manager and
In reviewing MAJ Kenneth Owen's
The areas stated above are only some of Editorial Assistant.
article "The Direct Support Field Artillery
Battalion—Is It Time For A Change?" the concerns raised in the creation of an ———— ● ————
(Field Artillery Journal, July-August 1980), FSB. Major Owen's attempt to solve the As this year comes to a close, the
I find that much of his tenet is correct and problem is commendable, but appears to Journal staff thanks all of you who,
unchallengeable. Field artillerymen who compound an already sizeable headache. whether a reader or contributor,
have been associated with the direct Logistical support, training activities, provided the interest and support
support field artillery battalion since the and command and control relationships of necessary to the magazine's existence.
reorganizations that eliminated the fire support sections must be addressed in Have a safe and happy holiday
headquarters and service battery and the near future, or the concept will fail. season.
subsequently established the fire support Units in the field have identified problems
team (FIST), suffer along with the author. and (to use the old cliché) "applied

8 Field Artillery Journal

1980 Redleg Reference
The following is a list of Journal articles and "View From The Blockhouse items for calendar year 1980 and
the issue in which the material was published. The letters (VB) indicate "View From The Blockhouse" items.
Air Operations/Support Equipment Research and Development
(continued) Close Support Study Group II, Mar-Apr (VB).
Aerial Displacement of Tube Artillery,
Nov-Dec. The Hand-Held Calculator: Meeting Today's Development of Pershing II, May-Jun.
Needs Today, Jan-Feb. Fire Support Mission Area Analysis underway,
Ammunition/Fuzes The New Artillery, Nov-Dec. Sep-Oct (VB).
Artillery Fired Atomic Projectiles—A Field TI-59 hand-held calculator, Nov-Dec (VB). MLRS—The Soldier's System, Jul-Aug.
Artilleryman's Viewpoint, Mar-Apr. New Concepts For Organizing and Managing
Development and Use of Field Artillery Fuzes Foreign Fire Support, 1986-2000, Jan-Feb.
in World War II, Mar-Apr. Soviet 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer, Particle Beam Weapon Development, Jan-Feb.
Liquid Propellant For Cannon Artillery?, Jan-Feb. Rockets and Missiles: An Obituary for Cannon?
Nov-Dec. The Israeli Field Artillery System: An Jul-Aug.
Overview, Jan-Feb. The Comeback Trail: Challenges in Equipping
Communications/Electronics the New Army, Sep-Oct.
Communication readiness, Jul-Aug (VB). Gunnery Tactics/Strategy
Countering the Soviet EW Threat to Field How GFTs get to the FDC, May-Jun (VB).
Artillery Communications, Mar-Apr. After the Tank, Then What, Jul-Aug.
Wanted: Battalion FDO! Jan-Feb.
Electronic counter countermeasures training Attachment or operational control? May-Jun
device, Mar-Apr (VB). History (VB).
Battery Positions are Out-Of-Date, May-Jun.
Counterfire Pelham—The Gallant Artilleryman, Mar-Apr. Battery Security in the Active Defense: A
Tadeusz Kosciuszko: Father of American Proposal, Mar-Apr.
Ballistic met dollar crunch, Sep-Oct (VB).
Artillery Tactics, Jul-Aug. Battlefield Interdiction: Old Term, New
Field Artillery Target Acquisition Conference,
The American "Schneider," Nov-Dec. Problem, Jan-Feb.
Jan-Feb (VB).
The "Long Tom," Nov-Dec. Coming Soon—Lance Tactical ASP for
Forward Area Limited Observation Program,
The Roar of the 8-Incher, Mar-Apr. Europe, Mar-Apr.
Nov-Dec (VB).
Met computers being shipped, Jan-Feb (VB). FA Survivability, Mar-Apr (VB).
Maintenance Field Artillery Survivability, May-Jun.
Met expendables for sound/flash platoons,
Sep-Oct (VB). FADAC maintenance, Sep-Oct (VB). Letters to an Artilleryman, Sep-Oct.
Meteorological equipment repair tapes, Keep 'em rolling, Mar-Apr (VB). Suppression of Enemy Air Defense, Sep-Oct.
May-Jun (VB). M110A2 prefire checks, Nov-Dec (VB). Suppression—The Qualification Task
Revised forms for survey computer set, Your Artillery Mechanic . . . The Invisible Continues, May-Jun.
Nov-Dec (VB). Soldier, May-Jun. The Battery Scout, Nov-Dec.
Sound ranging—essential to counterfire, Training
Mar-Apr (VB). Miscellaneous
Standard survey party, Mar-Apr (VB). BG Forman assumes duties as Assistant AN/TPQ-37 training to support
Status of sound ranging equipment under Commandant, Jul-Aug (VB). operational/developmental testing, Jul-Aug.
procurement, Jul-Aug (VB). Library acquires DIALOG and DTIC service, 82C30 Basic Technical Course, Sep-Oct (VB).
Target acquisition battery DA TOE changes, Mar-Apr (VB). Field Artillery Officers Advanced Course
May-Jun (VB). Quadripartite conference, Sep-Oct (VB). Profile, May-Jun (VB).
Target Acquisition Commanders Conference, Redleg Sutler opens, Jan-Feb (VB). Field Artillery Reference Data Update,
Jul-Aug (VB). Reflections on Extended Command, Nov-Dec. Jan-Feb (VB).
The 63 CMF revision, Jul-Aug (VB). TCAD becomes TCADD, Nov-Dec (VB). Firefinder Operator Trainer, Jan-Feb (VB).
USAFAS Archives Program needs input, Firefinder Simulator—A New Era In Training,
Doctrine May-Jun (VB). Nov-Dec.
Countersurveillance, May-Jun. Firefinder training, Nov-Dec (VB)
Seven by Seven, Jul-Aug. FM 6-2 revision, Jul-Aug (VB).
Organization Hipshoot!, Jul-Aug (VB).
Completing the Readiness Picture, Nov-Dec. LOs and TMs for the M110A2, Jan-Feb (VB).
Direct Support Field Artillery Beyond 1990, MILES: Realistic Training for Direct Support
Computer Set, Field Artillery, General, Jul-Aug. Artillery, Sep-Oct.
Jul-Aug. Division '86 Update, Mar-Apr. NET course for AN/TPQ-37, Mar-Apr (VB).
Current GFTs, GSTs, and TFTs, Mar-Apr The Direct Support Field Artillery New CPX available, Nov-Dec (VB)
(VB). Battalion—Is It Time for a Change? New Firefinder course, Sep-Oct (VB).
DM60 problems? May-Jun (VB). Jul-Aug. The Artillery Direct Fire Trainer, May-Jun
M90 radar (velocimeter), Mar-Apr (VB). (VB).
Meteorology Data System AN/TMQ-31, The National Training Center, Sep-Oct.
Nov-Dec (VB). TC 6-30-1, The Copperhead/GLLD System,
OL-192/GMD-1 update, May-Jun (VB). An Open Letter to Company Grade Sep-Oct (VB).
PADS—Position and Azimuth Determining Artillerymen, Jan-Feb. Training literature update, May-Jun (VB).
System, Jul-Aug. Branch is Never Immaterial!, Jan-Feb. Update on FMs 6-30 and 6-40, Jan-Feb (VB).
Parts for M109A1, Nov-Dec (VB). First female FA warrant officer, Sep-Oct Upgrade of Tactical Communication Chief
Requisitioning the Computer Set, FA, General, (VB). Course (MOS 31V30), Sep-Oct (VB).
Sep-Oct (VB). Survey of FA company grades, Jan-Feb (VB). USAFAS accredited, Jul-Aug (VB).
Requisition authority for PHHC, Mar-Apr User test conducted for A17E-12 training
(VB). device, May-Jun (VB).

November-December 1980 9
Liquid Propellant
for Cannon
by CPT Joseph W. Silbaugh Jr.
10 Field Artillery Journal
N ot only was Leonardo da Vinci a painter, sculptor,
architect, and engineer, but he was also a designer of
military hardware with many ideas that were hundreds
of years ahead of the times. He was keenly interested in
the art of artillery and designed a self-propelled cannon,
a fin-stabilized rocket, a machinegun, and a covered
armored car. Yet, if he returned today, he would
probably be awed at the dramatic developments since
the 15th century.
In his article, "Field Artillery of the 1980s" (National
Defense, May-June 1978), MG Jack N. Merritt (former
Commandant of the US Army Field Artillery School) Figure 2. Direct injected regeneratively pumped liquid
draws us a picture of a highly sophisticated battlefield propellant gun.
where TACFIRE (Tactical Fire Direction System and its
microprocessor computer technology allow us to break the What is a liquid propellant gun?
habit of standard firing unit formations. In addition, Basically, there are two types of liquid propellant
Firefinder, BSTAR (Battlefield Surveillance Target guns (LPGs): the bulk loaded (figure 1) and the direct
Acquisition Radar), and the RPV (Remotely Piloted injected regeneratively pumped (figure 2).
Vehicle) will provide accurate target acquisition to Until about four years ago, the bulk loaded liquid
TACFIRE which interfaces with FAMAS (Field Artillery propellant gun (BLPG) was the kind most extensively
Meteorological Acquisition System) and PADS (Position researched. In this type weapon the chamber behind the
and Azimuth Determining System) to provide precise projectile is filled completely with liquid propellant,
firing data to individual cannons. Throughout his articles, and the propelling charge is usually ignited at the rear.
General Merritt highlights major developments in weapon The present BLPGs, however, suffer from erratic
systems and ammunition, including precision guided combustion and do not produce the same ballistics with
projectiles, rockets, and missiles. each firing.
Although it is obvious we have improved our vehicles In the direct injected regeneratively pumped gun
and weapons and refined our target acquisition and fire (RLPG), the propellant is pumped through orifices in a
control methods, we are still using the same basic differential area piston during the combustion cycle so
chemical propulsion technology introduced centuries ago. that the rate at which the propellant is injected into the
For that reason, the concept of using a liquid instead of a combustion chamber is controlled. As the piston moves
solid propellant in artillery cannon is currently under back, liquid is injected into the combustion chamber;
study. As with any new system, there may be some thus, the faster the piston moves back, the faster the
innate resistance to change as well as unforeseen liquid propellant is sprayed into the combustion
difficulties, but the potential advantages to the Army, chamber where ignition and combustion are
other services, and the country as a whole make the continuously taking place until the fuel is burned. The
project worthwhile. Even though the move from solid to rate at which the liquid propellant is metered into the
liquid propellant (LP) is a radical shift in cannon combustion chamber controls the rate of combustion
propulsion technology, the concept in itself has "been and thus the pressure. Muzzle velocity and range are
around" for some time. controlled by the stroke of the piston, chamber pressure,
and in-tube projectile travel.

Figure 1. Bulk loaded liquid propellant gun.

Figure 3. Propellant pressure time curve.

November-December 1980 11
Figure 4. Internal combustion engine operation.

For example, the more liquid propellant used, the higher that this program was plagued with failures and that
the muzzle velocity and the longer the range (shown by the caseless ammunition proved to be unsatisfactory.
pressure time curve in figure 3); conversely, the less liquid In the early 1970s, both the United States Navy and the
propellant used, the lower the muzzle velocity and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
shorter the range. The pressure time curve also shows that, had intensive programs directed toward the immediate
for a short time, there is almost a steady state of application of liquid propellant guns. The Gruman
combustion, which generally provides more efficient use Aerospace Corporation study for the Navy indicated that
of energy from the propelling charge. To illustrate the a liquid propellant gun would be efficient and effective
operation more simply, consider an internal combustion for use in an air-to-air role and would have a 300 percent
engine in which the carburetor injects the combined increase in kill probability over the current 20-mm
fuel-air (oxygen) mixture into the cylinder; the spark Vulcan M61A1 cannon. However, in late 1976, the prime
ignites the mixture and the piston is driven down by the contractor for DARPA experienced two catastrophic
force of the explosion (figure 4). Instead of a carburetor, in failures in a bulk loaded liquid monopropellant gun
the regeneratively injected liquid propellant gun, the holes system, and Congress demanded that DARPA terminate
in the piston meter the liquid propellant into the its demonstration program. Also, in late 1976, Congress
combustion chamber where a spark ignites the liquid denied funds for further work on a Navy BLPG and, in
propellant and forces the projectile from the tube. the spring of 1977, removed monies from the Air Force
Note: Only the direct injected regeneratively pumped budget for a BLPG demonstration program. The Air
method is considered here because General Electric Force subsequently awarded two contracts (one to Ford
Corporation (who is conducting a study on the use of Aerospace and one to General Electric) to develop a more
liquid propellants under an Army sponsored contract) has conventional cannon rather than conduct additional
reportedly demonstrated much better control using the research on a liquid propellant gun.
RLPG rather than the BLPG. Currently, the US Army Ballistics Research
Laboratory is conducting a small in-house research
Background program on monopropellants, basically aimed toward
Approximately 20 years ago, a decision was made to supporting a General Electric Corporation contract
investigate caseless ammunition rather than study liquid sponsored by the Advanced Concept Team (ACT) with
propellant gun technology. By the late 1950s, combustible the Ballistics Research Laboratory (Alberdeen Proving
cartridge exploratory development had reached the stage Ground, MD) acting as monitor. General Electric is
of experimental testing in a variety of heavy tank guns and investigating the applicability of the regeneratively
had indicated a potential for use in armored weapon injected process to high pressure, liquid propellant
systems. History and the Congressional Record indicate guns. This study will establish

12 Field Artillery Journal

the technical data base needed for eventual application to production, storage, and shipment are not present. Unlike
artillery cannon. most liquid and solid propellants, LPX will not support a
Success in developing a liquid propellant gun would flame at atmospheric pressure (this does not mean it cannot
have considerable impact on the Army's medium and large be ignited). HAN-based liquid propellant will react at
caliber weapons systems. A liquid propellant tank gun atmospheric pressure, but only with slow, low-level energy
system is, however, out of the question at this time since release similar to a fizz burn. On the other hand, LPX must
ammunition design decisions for the XM1 (the tank of the be under considerable pressure to be ignited to flame
1980s) are almost totally fixed. Once the capabilities of the combustion and is therefore quite suitable for use in
RLPG are demonstrated, extension to the higher operating cannon. Another unique quality of LPX is that it is water
pressures required for a tank gun may be more seriously soluble. If LPX is spilled or becomes decomposed, water
pursued. At the present time, however, the ballistic can be used to flush the contaminated area which makes
characteristics of the RLPG are more suited for larger this propellant simpler to handle and ideal for naval
caliber weapons with lower operating pressures and applications.
extremely well-controlled muzzle velocities. Since artillery In case of demilitarization, solid propellants are costly to
calibers (105-mm, 155-mm, and 8-inch) have remained destroy. Chemically, LPX can be diluted easily and
essentially the same since World War II, one of these inexpensively and might even be sold as a high grade
calibers would seem a likely candidate for the application nitrate fertilizer, thereby diminishing the cost of
of the RLPG technology. Although there is currently a demilitarization significantly.
great emphasis on self-propelled artillery, recent Advantages
improvements in self-propelled artillery basically have As previously mentioned, the systems probably most
centered on adaptations and modifications of existing affected at first would be self-propelled artillery. Possible
weapons systems to achieve higher mobility (by reducing advantages associated with a liquid propellant direct
weight) and longer ranges (by using different solid injected regeneratively pumped gun system are as follows
propellant charges and longer tubes). (figure 5):
New concepts in artillery ACCEPTED ADVANTAGES
As General Merritt stated in his article ("Field Artillery Safety
in the 1980s"), "The Field Artillery System will furnish the Reduced vulnerability
combined arms teams the versatile, destructive firepower it Increased volumetric impetus
needs" (i.e., if the combat industrial developers can field Continuous zoning
the various pieces of equipment). Simplified logistics
What is being considered is a totally different type of Increased on-board storage
technology which would have far-reaching advantages in Simplified loading
the total Field Artillery System as well as multiservice Elimination of cartridge case
applications. First, let us compare liquid and solid Reduced muzzle flash
Improved weight distribution (important in aircraft)
Increased ammunition carrying capacity
It is fairly common knowledge that our solid propellants
are produced in government owned and contractor POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES
operated (GOCO) plants and that the environmental impact Reduced wear and erosion
of their production is significant. Also, since several critical Increased rate of fire
materials and high amounts of energy are required in the Adaptability to existing projectiles and barrels
production of solid propellants, they are extremely Production ease
Lower cost to produce
sensitive and must be handled with great care.
Lower energy requirement in production
In contrast, the liquid propellants under study are of No critical materials required in production
hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN), fuel-nitrate, and water Demilitarization (low cost)
solutions which we will refer to as LPX. The elements Use after demilitarization as high nitrate fertilizer
required to produce LPX are not costly, and the production Reduced storage cost
process is basically a non-polluting electrolysis (unlike our Reduced transportation and handling cost
current ammunition plants). Since a low amount of energy Reduced packaging and preservation cost
is required to produce LPX, the cost should be System design (external storage)
considerably less than that of current ammunition. DISADVANTAGES
How safe is LPX? New field
LPX is relatively safe (almost too safe) since the normal Not as much technical data available
No direct correlation to rocketry
flammability hazards associated with ammunition
Figure 5. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid propellant.
November-December 1980 13
• Battlefield survivability may be increased because Disadvantages
liquid propellants appear to be less sensitive to outside The biggest advantage lies in a lack of sufficient data
ignition than presently fielded solid propellants. (Liquid available to the field. There is no correlation to the low
propellants could be externally pumped and stored.) pressure data obtained with rockets using liquid
• An increased ammunition carrying capability might propellants.
result because of additional storage volume since, on a Adequate understanding of the high pressure
volume basis, there is much more energy available in combustion process and potential explosive hazards
liquid propellant than in the same volume of perforated must be achieved prior to moving on to the larger scale
solid propellant. This is extremely important for system testing. Operational requirements such as performance,
design and also illustrates the increased volumetric size, weight, safety, and reliability must be taken into
impetus of LPX. account in developing configurations that have potential
• This leads to a key advantage: That of continuous for ultimate operational feasibility. Propellant loading
zoning instead of fixed zones. The amount of liquid methods and ignition techniques are also factors which
propellant injected into the chamber can be metered require further consideration and investigation.
precisely; e.g., you could call in zone 4.5576 and get
more accuracy from the weapon system. With some Conclusions
redesign and reprogramming, TACFIRE and other Thus far, the possibilities of a liquid propellant gun
battlefield computers might provide a means for easy look especially attractive, considering performance, cost,
implementation of continuous zoning. projected ease of implementation, and potential benefit
(not only for the military, but also for our environment
• Similarly, the rate of fire may be enhanced because
and economy). The energy savings alone in production
only the projectile has to be handled manually.
of liquid compared to solid propellants appear to be
Therefore, system design and automatic loading could
significant and worthy of further investigation.
be simplified. For example, suppose the gun had to
In the final analysis, liquid propellant gun technology
return to zero elevation for the automatic loader to
is just scratching the surface but, with continued interest
function; perhaps only the projectile would have to be
and research, could open a whole new flexibility in
loaded in zero elevation and the gun could be elevated
system design. As we've seen pointed out in other
as the programming is set for the liquid propellant
charge. Journal articles, "Let's find out."
• The brass or spiral wrap cases (105-mm and other
tank guns) could be eliminated.
• Another advantage lies in reduced muzzle flash. CPT Joseph W. Silbaugh, a Quartermaster Corps
Because solid propellants are very fuel rich, there is some US Army Reserve Officer, lives in Shrewsbury, PA.
loss of energy when a charge is fired. In fact, less than
half the propellant energy is normally imparted to the
projectile as it leaves the tube. The hot fuel rich gases
speeding out of the tube burn vigorously when mixed
with outside air, causing a large secondary flash. With
liquid propellant, there should be no secondary flash
because the fuel-to-oxidizer ratio is basically one; Your "Redleg Hotline" is waiting around
therefore, no fuel rich gases will burn off at the end of the the clock to answer your questions or provide
tube. advice on problems. Call AUTOVON
• Because the gases of a solid propellant are so hot, a 639-4020 or commercial (405) 351-4020. Calls
thin layer of the tube is actually melted each time a will be electronically recorded 24 hours a day
weapon is fired. LPX gases are lower in temperature; and queries referred to the appropriate
thus there should be reduced tube wear and erosion. department for a quick response. Be sure to
More study is necessary, however, to determine the give name, rank, unit address, and telephone
exact effects of liquid propellant on tube life. number.
• General Electric Ordnance System engineers Please do not use this system to order
indicated that existing tubes could be adapted to the new publications. Consult your FA Catalog of
liquid propellant system, thus reducing the cost Instructional Material for this purpose.
compared with developing a new system.
• With quick disconnect couplings and our experience
in handling liquids, resupply should be expedited.
14 Field Artillery Journal
S imulation has naturally been

Firefinder accepted as a symbolic operation

which looks like or produces results
comparable to that of another system
that is too expensive, difficult, or
complex to use for routine training

purposes. An exercise that imitates the
specific activity and movement
desired, even if only on a small scale,
can surprisingly motivate and improve
a student's learning. For example,
experiments show that carefully

A new era visualizing one's golf swing and

practicing the desired movement will
actually have a positive influence on
how well the entire game is played.
However, simulation or controlled

in training practice must have well-designed

application even in a manual or
imagined training mode to allow full
opportunity to exploit its utility.
The Firefidner radar systems
by WO Thomas Curran and (AN/TPQ-36/37) are sophisticated
Dr. Raymond O. Waldkoetter mortar/artillery locating radars that
provide automatic first round location
of multiple weapons firing from
different locations. Therefore, early in
the development cycle, it was
apparent that a simulator might effect
a significant cost savings in the
training base system. By emulating
the actual system, the Firefinder
Operator Trainer A17E11 offers a
more economical and rapid way to
train students. Additionally, its
automated instructor control allows
higher student-to-instructor ratios.
Beginning in November this year,
the first resident Firefinder Operator
Course (13R10) will be offered at
the Field Artillery School, and
nearly half of the training will be
accomplished on Firefinder Operator
Trainers. The device consists of
three major components:
• Computer, which serves as the
storage unit for the Trainer. Fixed
and variable discs permit all training
exercises to be filed and recalled as
student assignments.
• Instructor Station, where the
exercises are requested from the
computer and sent to the Student
Station. The Instructor Station
consists of two computer terminals
experience in managing and
evaluating the progress and quality
of all aspects of the training
The instructor assigns the student
an exercise, and the device initiates
the training sequence; however, the
instructor uses the intercom to
guide the student and, with the aid
of the computer terminal, monitors
student progress. The trainer alerts
the instructor to each student
switch, and only the instructor can
correct errors or redirect student
learning efforts. The device then
stores and grades responses and
notifies the instructor of student
progress who then sorts out the
stored information, evaluates the
A17E11 Trainer
grading, and guides the student
through the course.
which interface with the main • Instructor control/student
computer, line printers which provide a interaction which allows individual A single instructor at the trainer
permanent copy of student progress, pace in exercises and evaluations. console can control and monitor up
and an intercom system which is used • Efficient student transition to to six students. The trainer system
to communicate directly with the the actual radar. simulates all actual radar system
students. The Firefinder operator trainer is human factors, tolerances,
an excellent example of an instrumentation, and other physical
• Student Station, which is an exact characteristics which allow students
replica of the interior of the S-250 automated trainer since it
realistically simulates the to learn selected tasks and skills at
Common Shelter (control center for the their own individual pace. As each
Firefinder radar system) where the man/equipment interface
experienced by an operator on the exercise progresses, overall
student performs each exercise the monitoring capabilities include
same way as it would be performed on actual radar systems. The results
obtained by this operation are detailed display or printout of
the "real" system. For example, when student actions, historical student
the actual radar system is emplaced, an multidimensional.
• Training effectiveness is data, and continuous display and
initialization program is run by the recording of student progress. Such
computer to set up parameters required verifiable on the A17E11 trainer.
• Research, trainer, and system system attributes lessen the
for operation. This situation is instructor's administrative stress,
simulated on the trainer, and the costs are completely recoverable in
Firefinder Life Cycle Management. allowing more time for positive
student is given questions by the reinforcement of operator
computer to set these operating • Instructor training
management is more efficient. performance skills. An instructor
parameters into the radar. These has the interactive option to stop
questions, in sequence, deal with site • Positive training motivation is
applied to attain proficiency and any student exercise, redirect those
location (coordinates, direction, and having learning difficulty, and then
altitude), map data (the size of the operational continuity.
The interconnectivity of the continue the exercise from that
map), TACFIRE codes, and other point or from any other point in the
artillery information. The students instructor and the student is most
important since, when dealing with exercise. For a given task, each
must answer these questions in the error is displayed at the instructor's
sequence required for the actual computer-controlled training
devices, a common misconception is console along with the automatic
equipment. updating of each student's percent
that the device determines the rate of
Thus, the operator trainer offers a of accuracy, completeness, and time
learning and that control is a sole
positive instructional opportunity in the standards for each task completed.
function of the trainer. This is not the
application of the following Both the instructor and student
case, since the role of the instructor
cost-effective simulation techniques: receive positive learning feedback
is one of direct control over both the
• Trainer scenario exercises based rate at which the student will learn through the accurate trainer
on Firefinder radar systems' functions and the rate at which the trainer will emulation of the operational
and operations. teach. This requires direct instructor characteristics
16 Field Artillery Journal
made to the instructor at the proficient training?" The only answer
console display. to this question is "No!" Effective
As a case study, the Firefinder training, with learning transfer of
Operator Trainer represents the critical skills and tasks, is most likely
awakening of a new era of when simulated behavior is
computer-assisted training which programmed, trained, and evaluated.
effectively simulates actual One of the prime considerations in
experience on Field Artillery developing Firefinder training devices
equipment systems. While some was cost-effective training.
may question the concept of Originally, a total of 26 radars (10
simulated training, actual AN/TPQ-36 and 16 AN/TPQ-37)
exposure to computer-managed were to be procured for the Field
and computer-assisted instruction Artillery School training base. At a
should convince them of its worth cost of approximately $3 million
as a training asset. The problems each, it was felt that alternatives to
of classroom space, larger support training were needed. The
Main Computer instructional staffs, and excessive total cost of the development,
expenditures of repair parts and production, and installation of the
fuel are important reasons to look Firefinder training devices was $16
of the actual Firefinder system. In the toward a future of simulated million, and the requirement for
design of this simulator training device, devices. The lesson learned with actual radar equipment was reduced
enhancement for training purposes was Firefinder is that, as systems to eight (a savings of approximately
accomplished largely through the use become more complex, in $38 million during the procurement
of computer-assisted and contrast, training for operation of phase). In addition to the immediate
computer-managed instruction the sophisticated equipment must savings, the total savings in life cycle
(CAI/CMI). In the Firefinder trainer become easier. Any attempt to training costs are estimated at $173
scenarios, this CAI gives the student gain experience or training using million.
simulated messages from a supervisor only actual hardware proves to be
Beyond cost savings, there is an
or user unit and task directions at difficult and extremely expensive. increase in training effectives that is
designated points in the exercise. For One can see then that this new era difficult to put into monetary terms.
example, when the student has is slowly justifying simulation as a For example, with the actual
correctly initialized the radar system, means to adapt to the advanced equipment, only one student could
an alert buzzer cue sounds with the world of automated weapon operate (hands on) the system,
message prompting: "Supervisor systems which demand a highly whereas, as previously mentioned,
commands you begin radiating." By structured student learning with the trainer six students can be
allowing the scenario to prompt the process. trained simultaneously under the
student, an instructor is released from The question might be asked, control of one instructor.
the stress of cueing which, in turn, "Is Firefinder simulation
lends credibility to real system The Firefinder Operator Trainer
mandatory?" The response to this
operations. Application of CMI is A17E11 is a benchmark for a good
should be "Yes!" We must take
evident in numerous messages beginning in superior artillery
the most cost-effective way that
displayed at the instructor's console to equipment simulation training. As the
accomplishes our training goals.
note student errors. When student skill performance aids program
Built into the trainer is the
difficulties are noted, the instructor becomes widely implemented,
capability to train more students in
facilitates the student's learning simulated training devices
less time, which requires fewer
progress by holding, reversing comparable to the Firefinder trainer
actual systems at the training base.
sequence, restarting, or cancelling the will grow to support force
exercise. To assess a student's speed in Another question which arises development, deployment of new
completing a training task, scenario is: "Would having more of the materiel, and conversion of human
controlled clocks are instrumented to actual equipment available assure resources.
determine the time interval between more
switch actions. Should a student's time
in task performance go longer than WO Thomas Curran is assigned to the Firefinder Branch, Radar Division,
required by the training objective, the Counterfire Department, USAFAS. Dr. Raymond O. Waldkoetter is
time criteria score is reduced and employed by the US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and
notice is Social Sciences Fort Sill Field Unit, Fort Sill, OK.

November-December 1980 17
notes from the school

TI-59 hand-held calculator Individuals and organizations are encouraged to contact

Video tape TEC Lessons will be available for the TCADD with their doctrinal questions at the following
Computer Set, Field Artillery, General, Cannon Gunnery address:
Applications by January 1981. The lesson numbers and Commandant
titles are listed below: US Army Field Artillery School
Lesson number Title ATTN: ATSF-CA
Fort Sill, OK 73503
-2E/250-061-0864B Description of the Computer Set, Field
Artillery, General and Program Kits. Or, by calling AUTOVON 639-5609.
-2E/250-061-0865B Computational Principles and Limitations Parts for M109A1
of the Cannon Gunnery Application of
the Computer Set, FA, General. The Field Artillery School has recently received several
-2E/250-061-0866B Computation of Firing Data Using the inquiries from the field concerning wartime parts
HHC for Grid, Polar, and Shift requirements and appropriate peacetime stockage levels for
Missions (All Cannon Weapon Systems the M109A1 howitzer.
to Include 14.5MM Trainer). The Field Artillery Controlled Sample Data Collection
-2E/250-061-0867B Cannon Gunnery Program for the HHC, (SDC) Program has yielded valuable insight regarding the
Error Codes, and Operator Warnings. contribution of Non-Operational Ready Supply (NORS)
-2E/250-061-0868B Precision Registration and the time to the Operational Readiness (OR) rate. The following
Determination and Application of parts for the M109A1 caused combat abort and logistical
Residuals Using the HHC. delay over 30 hours:
-2E/250-061-0869B Computation of a Concurrent Met Average NORS
Using the HHC. NSN Nomenclature time (hours)
-2E/250-061-0880B Computation of a Subsequent Met 1025-186-5078 ............Replacement kit, seal ..................... 123.1
Using the HHC. 1015-928-6192 ............Kit, repair ......................................... 48.0
-2E/250-061-0881B Hasty Survey and TGPC Computations 1015-570-6971 ............Valve assembly .............................. 168.0
Using the HHC. 1025-019-5267 ............Crank, operator assembly............... 307.5
HB/MPI Computations Using the 1025-439-6541 ............Lever cam....................................... 137.0
HHC. 5330-633-4935 ............Packing, preform .............................. 53.0
1025-757-4787 ............Carrier assembly ............................ 288.0
-2E/250-061-0883B Special Missions with the HHC (WP, 1025-860-9169 ............Pin, firing ......................................... 60.1
Smoke, ICM, ILLUM). 1025-861-1467 ............Ring.................................................. 41.5
TCAD becomes TCADD 1025-861-1460 ............Ring.................................................. 47.8
1025-919-7277 ............Cylinder, recuperator........................ 36.0
The Tactics and Combined Arms Department (TCAD)
1025-919-0408 ............Plunger, detent ................................. 81.4
has been officially redesignated the Tactics, Combined 1025-937-0616 ............Shaft, follower assembly .................. 54.3
Arms and Doctrine Department (TCADD). The new name 1025-937-2027 ............Buffer assembly ............................. 624.0
is indicative of TCADD's added responsibility for 1090-937-2034 ............Seal replacement kit ......................... 97.4
management and development of fire support doctrine. 1090-937-2818 ............Seal................................................... 71.9
As the designated proponent for fire support doctrine 1025-999-7931 ............Housing assembly ............................ 66.0
within the Field Artillery School, TCADD will serve as a It is recommended that M109A1 units adjust individual
single source for coordination of doctrinal development Prescribed Load Lists (PLLs) in anticipation of excessive
matters to include answering all questions concerning fire NORS delays for these parts. Additionally, this data should
support doctrine. be provided to appropriate support units for Authorized
The new task will also involve management of the Stock Level (ASL) considerations.
Doctrinal Literature Program which is designed to move Local judgment (part-by-part review) rather than blanket
doctrine from the conceptual stage to a published field increases in PLL/ASL is extremely important. (Mr.
manual. Abrams, DCD)

18 Field Artillery Journal

New CPX available standard in ARTEP 6-165 was changed to allow 8½
minutes rather than 2½ minutes for emplacement.
The Field Artillery School has recently completed the Additionally, a modification to the dipstick has been
"Battle of Eiterfeld," a special Fire Support Element/Fire developed to allow units to check the fluid level once
Support Team Command Post exercise (CPX). The the weapon is emplaced. (USAFACFS is attempting to
Battle of Eiterfeld is designed to train FIST and battalion get an early release of the dipstick modification.)
fire support personnel in ARTEP tasks which require an Neither the old (TM 9-2300-216-10) nor the new (TM
interface between fire support and maneuver elements. 9-2350-304-10) M110A2 manuals point out that units
This CPX can be conducted with or without participation should check to determine whether the equilibrators
of the direct support field artillery battalion and and/or loader-rammer are out of adjustment before
maneuver personnel in a garrison or field environment. making any adjustments. (Changes to these manuals will
Additionally, it exercises current doctrine and tactics in a be submitted by the School.) Although not clearly stated
European scenario and can train one, two, or three FISTs in the manual, if the equilibrator is out of adjustment
and one battalion fire support element. and/or the loader-rammer is out of time, corrective steps
The Battle of Eiterfeld is not a war game and, as such, as outlined in the manual must be taken. (Obviously,
can be tailored to individual units and missions, using there is no need to perform adjustment or timing if not
the unit's own terrain models, scenario, and message required.)
play. The potential is limited only by one's resources Until units receive the modification to the dipstick,
and imagination. the following procedures and sequences should be
The Battle of Eiterfeld can be requested by writing to: followed for emplacement:
Commandant, USAFAS
ATTN: ATSF-CT-RC-FSB • Howitzer pulls into position and receives initial
Fort Sill, OK 73503 deflection.
(AUTOVON 639-1406) • Move cannon to in-battery position.
(SSG Sprung, DCD) 1) Check recoil mechanism for leaks.
2) Check valve operation.
M110A2 prefire checks • Perform fluid level checks.
The Commanding General, US Army Field Artillery • Establish the oil reserve (cannon must be retracted
Center and Fort Sill (USAFACFS), recently received a and returned).
letter from USAREUR concerning proper prefire 1) Check recuperator cylinder head oil index.
procedures for the M110A2. Specifically, the letter 2) Check movement of replinisher piston.
questioned the sequential procedures identified in the • Emplace spades.
March-April 1979 Field Artillery Journal and a letter
from USAFACFS to all 8-inch units (dated on or about 9 • Lay howitzer.
February 1979) which addressed damaged M201 cannon • Emplace aiming points.
tubes. The purpose of this follow-on information is to
clarify any misunderstanding or misconceptions that • Measure site to crest.
units may have received from the article or letter. • Boresight.
Three critical checks were identified that must be
performed each time an 8-inch weapon occupies a new • Emplace azimuth marker, if appropriate.
position. The article and letter addressed these checks • Complete prefire checks (all of those not already
as they appear in TM 9-2300-216-10 (not in the performed); e.g., equilibrator adjustment,
sequence of performance) which has presented some loader-rammer timing, telescope mount, and telescopes.
problems in the field. The correct sequence for
• Position improvement.
performing the checks is as follows:
• Fluid level check. Even though the number of M201 cannon tubes
• Establish the oil reserve. damaged from fallback has been significantly reduced
• Equilibrator adjustment check. since the initial article and letter were published,
Currently, the fluid level check cannot be performed occasionally a tube is still damaged. It is therefore
with the weapon emplaced (spade down, lockout cylinders important that training continue and that all units
engaged). Therefore, to allow units time to perform this remain aware of the potential problems of failing to
check prior to emplacing the howitzer, the ARTEP follow required procedures. (LTC Landrum, WD)

November-December 1980 19
increasing areas of the modern battlefield. Real-time data
from the surface to altitudes of up to 30 kilometers for use
by the field artillery and other units is an urgent
requirement. The met section, therefore, must be capable
of operating in close proximity to the forward edge of the
battle area (FEBA) and possess a mobility comparable to
that of the supported unit.
The Meteorological Data System (MDS) AN/TMQ-31
is designed to fulfill these needs and will replace the
existing 30-year old Rawinsonde (AN/GMD-1) system.
COUNTERFIRE The development of the MDS is responsive to the required
operational capability (ROC) approved by Department of
SYSTEMS REVIEW the Army and a subsequent contract awarded to Bendix
Corporation for engineering development on 14 March
Forward Area Limited Observation 1979. The MDS will be capable of rapid displacement and
Program will produce real-time atmospheric sounding to desired
The Counterfire Department, USAFAS, has completed altitutes. It will be deployed in the vicinity of direct support
a Forward Area Limited Observation Program (FALOP) field artillery battalions (three to seven kilometers behind
handout which contains complete instructions for taking the FEBA). The system will operate in climatic extremes
and recording surface observations. over most types of terrain and can be used continually over
In the future, the artillery ballistic meteorology extended periods of time to sound the atmosphere every
crewman will be required to observe, record, and hour or every two hours, depending on the mission
disseminate surface observations, using the NATO requirements and the stability of the atmosphere.
Supplementary Surface Weather Report (SUPREP) code. The system will determine the exact position of the
The code is simple and easy to use by soldiers with little radiosonde during the flight by one of two passive
or no observing experience. methods: navigational aids (NAVAID) or radio direction
Students graduating from the Artillery Ballistic finding (RDF). In the NAVAID mode, the system will
Meteorology after 15 August will be given the handout, receive Loran, Omega, or VLF data transmitted from the
and each meteorology section will be receiving all radiosonde, computing positions based on time differences
necessary information via the next Met Newsletter. For of signal arrival. The MDS can operate in the NAVAID
further information contact: mode while in transit, once a radiosonde has been
Commandant launched. During normal operations upon arrival at the
US Army Field Artillery School desired launch point, the section can be set up and
ATTN: ATSF-CF-R (Mr. Charles Taylor) operational within 10 minutes in the NAVAID mode and
Fort Sill, OK 73503 within 20 minutes in the RDF mode. In the RDF mode,
AUTOVON: 639-1108/2408 position will be computed using the measured parameters
of azimuth and elevation angles. Geometric altitude will
Meteorology Data System AN/TMQ-31
be calculated from the transmitted pressure data. The
The state of the atmosphere (weather) affects the output of this position data will be wind speed and
employment of rockets, missiles, and extended range direction. Temperature, humidity, and pressure will be
cannon munitions, as well as the necessary dispersion of measured and transmitted in the same manner as they are
ground forces, rapid displacement of both men and with the current rawinsonde system, except that additional
materiel on the battlefield, and efficient use of nuclear data will be examined faster and more accurately as the
weapons; therefore, meteorology (met) effects constitute meteorological probe ascends through any given artillery
the largest set of errors in the employment of artillery. zone.
Timely measurement and rapid application of met Meteorological data collected will be automatically
corrections to the solution of the gunnery problem will provided by radio to the artillery Tactical Fire Direction
increase the accuracy of our artillery fires approximately 5 System (TACFIRE) and the Battery Computer System
to 10 percent. A percentage spread is used because the (BCS), as required by the tactical situation. A teletype link
percent of met effect is directly related to the varying can furnish met data to detachments of the Air Weather
degree of the meteorological parameters (wind, Service (AWS) of the US Air Force.
temperature, and density) encountered at the time of firing. One MDS unit consists of three 2½-ton trucks with
There is an urgent military requirement for more trailer. One truck mounts an S-280 shelter which houses
accurate and timely met information within the field army, the electronic equipment for the MDS, while a second
and good met data must be obtained in more detail over
20 Field Artillery Journal
View From The Blockhouse

carries a seven-day supply of met expendable items and Revised forms for survey computer set
inflation and launching equipment. The third truck will be The Survey Computer Set (TI-59), fielded in January
used to transport miscellaneous met and personal equipment. this year, was issued with test survey computation forms.
The RDF antenna/pedestal assembly is trailer-mounted for Proposed forms to be submitted to Department of the
both transport and operation. Two 10-kilowatt, 60-hertz Army for approval and printing are in the final stages of
generators are mounted on another trailer, and the third preparation and validation. The major revisions from the
trailer is used to transport the water necessary for generation test form include simplification of instructions and
of hydrogen to inflate the met balloons. The trucks and numbering the data entry and answer blocks to correspond
trailers may be rapidly and easily transported into the theater to the instructional steps.
of operations either by water or rail or inside C-130 cargo or An omission exists in the test form (FS Form 611-13
rotary-wing aircraft. (Test), Coordinates and Azimuth Closure: Traverse
Operational testing (OTII) for the system is scheduled for Adjustment) which permits an erroneous azimuth of radial
October 1981. Institutional training will begin at Fort Sill in error (Az of RE) recorded in block 8 when the azimuth
October 1983, while initial operation capability (IOC) will falls in the fourth quadrant (4800-6400 mils). The test form
occur in December 1983. The first 10 systems are scheduled should be modified to correct this error by inserting "360,
to be deployed in USAREUR in FY84. STO 10" at step 7 in the "enter" column under instructions.
Firefinder training Until the new forms are published and distributed by
Department of the Army, units are responsible for
Fielding of the AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder
reproducing the test form for continued use.
weapons locating radar systems began 1 October and, as a
result, new job positions are available to support the
deployment of the new systems. The Field Artillery School
has developed three new resident programs of instruction
to train personnel who will man and maintain the
Firefinder systems.
Beginning 27 October 1980, a 23-week, 2-day direct
support maintenance course is available to Active Army,
USMC, and Reserve Component soldiers with MOS
26B20 and 19 months remaining on active duty. Graduates
will be awarded the additional skill identifier K1,
signifying they have the knowledge required to inspect, test,
and perform direct support maintenance on the
AN/TPQ-36 and -37 radar systems.
Beginning 4 November 1980, the 6-week, 2-day
Firefinder Operator's Course will be taught to Active Army,
USMC, and Reserve Component soldiers. Operator's
training includes site selection and evaluation,
emplacement and march order, performance of preventive
maintenance, hostile weapons location, and friendly fire
radar gunnery application. Graduates will be awarded
MOS 13R10 and must have at least nine months remaining
on active duty at course completion.
A follow-on Organizational Maintenance Course of 14
weeks and 4 days will be offered to selected soldiers with
MOS 13R10 who have at least 13 months remaining on
current enlistment. Graduates will possess the knowledge
required to inspect, test, and perform organizational
maintenance on the Firefinder radar systems and will be
awarded the additional skill identifier X5.
To receive training in the two new maintenance courses
(additional skill identifiers K1 and X5), soldiers must have
a standard score of 100 or higher in aptitude area "EL." An
entry score of 105 in area "SC" is required for the 13R10
operator's course.

November-December 1980 21
of Tube The term "flying battery" originated
during the Mexican War to describe the mobile
nature of light horse drawn artillery
(July-August 1979 FA Journal). At the Battles
of Buena Vista and Palo Alto, these versatile

by 1LT Terry G. Stewart
units were cited for providing necessary
firepower to defeat the enemy at the decisive
time and place. This "flying" tradition is still
carried on today by the 101st Airborne
Division Artillery and all towed artillery units
capable of displacing by air.
22 Field Artillery Journal
between units. Depending on the
situation and the combined skill
levels of the battery and aviation
(AMC) meeting, advance party
unit, standardization may minimize
pick-up zone time and place, and any
necessary coordination. Generally,
current information on the tactical
however, the following
situation and terrain at the landing
considerations must be jointly
understood by both air and ground
When possible, the battery
commander should make an air
• Load configuration (internal or
reconnaissance of the landing zone,
external sling loads).
which may or may not be the next
firing position. This reconnaissance is • Load pick-up order.
a necessity when the battery must • PZ/LZ layout and location.
conduct a night move and is normally • Marking techniques to be used.
made in an OH-58 scout helicopter • Mission frequencies.
during daylight hours before the Several areas facilitate
advance party (figure 1) conducts its standardization. Among these is load
displacement. Since advance parties configuration. Internal loads, while
cannot always displace during disguising the contents of the aircraft
daylight, members must be proficient to observers, require significant
in night navigation and operation. The amounts of time to load and unload
battery commander must be equipped (10 minutes is needed to winch an
with a headset to communicate with M102 howitzer into a CH-47).
the pilot, and care must be taken to External loads are preferred because
prevent disclosure of the battery's of the minimal loading time (an
intention to occupy a position. M102 howitzer and crew can be
The movement of tube artillery and
Given the warning order, the picked up in three to five minutes) as
its supporting elements by air
battery commander and the battery well as the opportunity to use A-22
involves several considerations, the
executive officer (XO), who will bags to move up to 40 rounds of
more important of which will be
control the PZ, must decide upon 105-mm ammunition (15 rounds of
discussed in this article.
march order times to move to the PZ. 155-mm ammunition) or 2,000
The 48 CH-47 Chinook helicopters
An AMC meeting between a pounds of equipment.
of the 101st Airborne Division's
representative of the lifting aviation The tactical situation will dictate
159th Aviation Battalion give the
unit and the battery is highly the load pick-up order. If a firing
101st Div Arty the tactical mobility
recommended to coordinate the capability must be rapidly established
necessary to provide supporting or
interface at the new location, it is advisable to
reinforcing fires from positions
lift the howitzers first, followed by
displaced up to 150 miles. Prior to
displacement, the battery commander Legend:
(BC) is normally given an aerial ACL–allowable cargo load
displacement mission by the battalion BC–battery commander
operations officer (S3) whose GS–gunnery sergeant
warning order should include the GG–gun guides
following information: FDC–FDC representative
• Landing zone (LZ) location. Comm–communication representative
• Pick-up zone (PZ) location. ACL = 7 ACL = 11
• PZ time (indicating the arrival of Two UH-1H UH-60
the first CH-47). One UH-1H No. 1 No. 2 (Blackhawk)
• Number of sorties (indicating BC 1 BC 1 1SG 1 BC 1
the number of loads to be lifted). GS 1 GS 1 Comm 1 1SG 1
• Special instructions pertaining to GG 3 GG 3 GG 3 GS 1
the move. FDC 1 GDC 1 FDC 1 Comm 1
Comm 1 FDC 1
The S3's special instructions may
GG 6
include specifics as to load
Totals: 7 6 6 11
configuration and pick-up order, the
time and place of the air mission Figure 1. Aerial advance party configurations.
November-December 1980 23
the prime movers and other support Day Night
vehicles. It is quite possible to have Terminal guidance: Terminal guidance:
rounds down range as the move is VS-17 panels Strobe lights
being conducted by laying the Smoke
pieces as they are set down.
Naturally, coordination with the lift Ground guidance: Ground guidance:
representative as to the desired Air-to-ground vests Bean bag lights
positioning of the howitzers to Hand/arm signals Flashlight wands
facilitate laying, the correct azimuth Note: Standardized bean bag light colors may be used to indicate the load
of fire, and routing of air traffic configuration (i.e., internal, external, or external with passengers). FM 57-38
behind the gun-target line will (Pathfinder Operations) provides details on LZ/PZ marking and ground guidance.
enhance a more rapid operation. Figure 2. Marking techniques.
However, should the battery be
required to move from the landing
zone to another firing position, it is 1) Directions to PZ from communication check point (CCP).
recommended that one complete 2) Desired landing direction.
howitzer section be moved at a time. 3) Wind velocity and direction.
This is accomplished by picking up 4) Desired landing formation.
the howitzer with crew and the 5) Friendly situation.
prime mover (M561 gama goat) in 6) Enemy situation
successive lifts. Once the section 7) PZ elevation (obstacles and terrain features).
arrives at the LZ, it may either move 8) Visual signals at PZ (smoke, lights, panels, etc.)
into a temporary position to await 9) Air traffic conditions.
the entire battery's move as a Note: In the absence of an AMC briefing, it may be necessary to transmit
convoy or conduct a move by this information to the aircraft.
infiltration to the next position. Figure 3. Aircraft advisory information.
Marking techniques are used
during both day and night During the planning phase, the XO, The XO should envision how he
operations, and coordination is as the PZ control officer, should make will lay out the various loads and
needed to specify the type of a reconnaissance of the PZ to prepare a sketch to brief section chiefs
marking to be used. Strobe lights, investigate the suitability in terms of as to traffic routes and load placement
for example, are excellent soil firmness, space limitations, entry in the PZ. The PZ layout should be
navigational aids at night, whereas routes, and obstacles to both vehicles organized into rough columns or
VS-17 panels with coded letters and aircraft. Should the PZ prove ranks as shown in figure 4. This
provide sufficient terminal guidance unsatisfactory, an alternate one must configuration facilitates the
during daylight. Figure 2 lists be rapidly located and coordinated occupation of the PZ and supervision
commonly used navigational aids through the S3. of ground operations by the XO.
which all members of the battery,
particularly those in the advance
party, should be familiar with.
An adequate AMC briefing
before the move is necessary and
will facilitate radio silence. Should
radio coordination become
necessary, the battalion command or
administrative/logistic net should be
the standardized mission frequency.
An aircraft advisory may have to be
transmitted with the information
shown in figure 3. While battery
participation in an AMC briefing
generally insures smooth execution,
an efficient move can be
accomplished by adequately
marking the PZ and using trained
ground guides to direct aircraft to Figure 4. Pick-up zone layout sketch.
the correct loads.
24 Field Artillery Journal
Figure 5. The simultaneous movement of battery loads requires sufficient spacing in the pick-up zone.

The most important

considerations in PZ layout include
the distance between loads and
obstacles, ground traffic flow,
perimeter defense, and organization.
The distance between loads should
allow maneuver space for several
CH-47s to pick up loads
simultaneously. An interval of 50 to
75 meters in daylight and 75 to 100
meters during darkness is
satisfactory. Insufficient space
delays the move and wastes
valuable time when aircraft have to
wait to pick up loads. The CH-47s
not only present lucrative targets,
but their numerous tactical and
logistical missions require their
expeditious use. (Figures 5 and 6 Figure 6. An M102 howitzer with A-22 bag rigged for external sling loading. (Note
depict normal intervals required by spacing between loads.)
the CH-47.)
Depending on time available,
number of aircraft assigned to the the supervisory burden on the PZ their section's loads while they wait
mission, and size of the PZ, the control officer. A simple ground traffic for pick-up. This facilitates the control
battery may position only a few pattern must be established to reduce of section members, especially at
loads to be lifted at a time. The confusion and wasted time. night. It also provides for their
remainder of the unit would be protection from flying objects kicked
Perimeter considerations include
positioned in a concealed holding up by the rotor wash of hovering
proper sighting of organic air defense
area nearby. aircraft (winds as high as 90 knots can
and crew-served weapons as the time
Section chiefs and vehicle be expected). The XO must coordinate
and situation permit. Personnel should
operators must be thoroughly briefed with any non-organic elements
be directed to lie down and form
on the occupation of the PZ to reduce assigned to provide PZ security, such
mini-perimeters around
November-December 1980 25
as an air defense artillery platoon or a the slightest flaw in rigging techniques; chief to give the pilot to further insure
maneuver element. therefore, inspection of the various that the load will be delivered to the
Having established his movement loads, including tie-downs, must be right location.
plan, the battery commander may now accomplished by the XO and the CFB. As the first aircraft arrives, ground
initiate preparation for moving to the Temporary tie-downs are used to guides and hook-up men must be in
PZ. Time available, of course, is a insure that the various slings are not position. The XO and CFB should
major factor in the decision to march caught on such items as panoramic position themselves so as to supervise
order. Preliminary rigging of the telescope mounts, operator's handles, the order of pick-up and provide
howitzers and prime movers may be and steering columns when lifted by assistance where needed. Since the
accomplished in the firing position, aircraft. One-fourth inch cotton XO's vehicle (M151 truck) will be the
while A-22 bags for the ammunition webbing is recommended for last vehicle lifted, it can be used to
are best constructed at the PZ. Gama temporary tie-downs, but masking control PZ operations at the decisive
goat truss kits are also put on once the tape will suffice. Permanent tie-downs place.
load is positioned at the PZ. While the are used on such items as sight boxes, In a typical air move, the first
battery can be laid in the PZ, the BC battery boxes, gama goat windshields, CH-47 should be landed where the
must keep time in PZ posture to a and any equipment that may come BC's vehicle can be driven directly
minimum. Yet he must allow loose during flight. Type III nylon into the aircraft. (All ¼-ton vehicle
sufficient time for such problems as cord is recommended for permanent drivers must be skilled in driving
mechanical breakdown and early tie-downs. forward and backward into CH-47
arrival of the aircraft. Time must also To prevent unnecessary strain on the aircraft.) Some fire direction center
be provided to rig A-22 bags, emplace gama goat articulation joint, inspectors (FDC) personnel also board this first
truss kits, and inspect loads for proper must insure that truss kits are properly aircraft. The aircraft crew chief and
rigging and tie-downs. emplaced. (TM 55-450-11 provides his personnel will then secure the
The advance party must be ready detailed instructions on rigging loads vehicle using their own tie-down
for immediate assembly to depart for external movement and the Gama material. The second load is normally
from the PZ, and the XO should Goat Operator's Manual, TM the FDC vehicle (M561 gama goat)
designate an area in his layout plan for 9-2320-242-10, March 1977, includes which is an external sling load without
the advance party aircraft to land. instructions on placement of truss kits.) a passenger pick-up, as are all
Should the mission be flown at night, subsequent gama goat loads. The third
Units conducting air moves may be
the advance party pilot will require load consists of the first gun section to
assigned three to four trained
proper terminal marking to minimize be lifted and those members of the
pathfinders from the aviation unit to
his searching for the battery. FDC used to ground guide and
assist in the preparation and conduct
As the battery march orders, the XO of the move. These soldiers can be hook-up their vehicle. Thus FDC
should go forward to the PZ to begin utilized by the battery to mark personnel are spread over several
directing the various loads into obstacles, inspect loads, and assist as aircraft loads should any one aircraft
position. The chief of firing battery ground guides to direct aircraft to not make it to the LZ.
(CFB) should remain behind to particular loads. However, to facilitate As the third aircraft approaches the
supervise the march order and release the simultaneous pick-up of various first howitzer, it should be landed
sections for an infiltration move into loads, each section should have preferably to the rear of the piece to
the PZ. By spacing the release of loads, trained ground guides and hook-up pick up section members and then as
generally five minutes apart, the XO is men. the pilot hovers the aircraft he has eye
given adequate time to direct loads contact with the load as it is hooked
For each sortie with passengers, the
into position. This also prevents a up. A ground guide should assist in
XO should prepare a 3 by 5 information
traffic pile-up at the PZ entry point. this meneuver, but the pilot will be
card (figure 7) for the section
The tactical situation, however, may taking his instructions primarily from
not permit a move by infiltration, B/3-319 FA a crew member positioned at the cargo
forcing the battery to displace in an LZ: 456745 hatch located in the floor of the
open or closed convoy. Msn freq: 3138 aircraft. As the hookup is completed,
As the loads are positioned, final PZ callsign: X3L10 ground personnel should immediately
preparations are made by the section LZ callsign: X3L15 clear the area to avoid being hit by the
chiefs, CFB, and XO. Az of fire: 190 degrees A-22 bag. Hurricane type winds will
Considerable loss or damage of This is last load. PZ is clear. confront ground guides and hook-up
section equipment can result from Figure 7. Pilot information card. men; therefore, eye goggles are highly
recommended. As crop fields are often

26 Field Artillery Journal

used as PZs/LZs, plant stalks and
small branches can become
dangerous projectiles.
The noise generated by the aircraft
will hamper any attempt to use voice
commands to control the PZ. The
need for air assault trained personnel
at all levels is thus amplified.
The advance party, having landed
at the LZ, conducts their normal
preparation of the new firing
position, with the additional
responsibility of receiving the
incoming loads (figure 8). Smooth
execution at the LZ is directly
influenced by the terminal guidance
used to direct the aircraft and rapid
recovery of prime movers by vehicle
operators. Vehicular ground guides
are vital to assist in orienting
operators and key personnel who
have just landed.
The tactical situation may require
an immediate ability to receive calls
for fire, in which case the howitzers
are brought in first and laid in place.
In this case, the aiming circle must
be tightly secured to prevent the high
winds from knocking the circle
down, and wire communications for
laying purposes is considered a
must. In this scenario, the assistant
executive officer (the fire direction
officer) may be left behind to control
the PZ while the XO goes forward to
direct the firing battery.
Section chiefs must control their
sections and prepare their equipment
for the move. Every soldier must
know what aircraft to board and
when to board it. Time may not
permit a complete rigging inspection
by the XO and CFB, making section Figure 8. Ground guides are essential to the success of an aerial displacement mission.
chiefs totally responsible for proper
As the displacement nears over radio. Upon landing, the XO must commander the firepower advantage at
completion, continuous checks must immediately attempt to orient himself the decisive time and place in battle.
be made to be sure no equipment is and obtain a status report from the BC. Detailed supervision, principally by
left behind (e.g., bean bag lights at With proper planning and aggressive section chiefs, will prove the difference
night). As the XO loads his vehicle execution, the aerial displacement of between a smooth, efficient operation and
as the last load, he must insure that artillery can provide the maneuver one characterized by confusion.
all personnel have been moved and
indicate on a 3 by 5 card to the pilot 1LT Terry G. Stewart is Commander of C Battery, 3d Battalion, 319th
that the aircraft contains the last
load. The S3 may require that a "PZ
Field Artillery, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell,
clear" message be transmitted to him KY.

November-December 1980 27
design • development • testing • evaluation
doctrine, and training requirements. The specific stated
The Field Artillery Crew Test objectives of the FACT are:
Computer models, scenarios, and war ● To assess the capability of 155-mm SP howitzer
games—simulations for assessing and predicting battle as crews to operate effectively in a sustained, intense
we believe it will be—are essential and valid (although environment.
limited) substitutes for actual combat. In varying degrees ● To assess the capability of the battery ammunition
of detail, these models and scenarios describe friendly distribution system to provide requisite support in a
capabilities and tactics vis-a-vis threat capabilities and sustained, intense environment.
tactics in both dynamic and static environments. A great ● To assess the capability of a FADAC/manual
deal of credence has been placed on the myriad of battery fire direction center (FDC) to provide timely,
simulations, and consequently the results of several of accurate fire control in a sustained, intense environment.
these models and scenarios have led to the reshaping of ● To assess the capability of battery command and
fire support doctrine and organizations and to the control, communications, maintenance, supply, and mess
establishment of materiel requirements. elements to operate effectively and provide requisite
Simply stated, simulations have told us what we need support in a sustained, intense environment.
to do to win, and we in return have worked to equip, ● Inherent in each of the above objective is the
organize, and train ourselves to do just that. But, one very requirement to assess physical/fatigue and psychological
crucial underlying question surfaces: "Can the Field factors that affect unit personnel under sustained, intense
Artillery really do the things our scenarios say must be conditions.
done if we are to win?" More specifically, can the Field The broad scenario, within which the FACT will be
Artillery actually fire the high volume of ammunition, conducted, calls for continuous battery operations for
make the large number of tactical moves, and do all the eight days, an average ammunition expenditure of 300
other things required of field artillerymen in extended rounds per day, and an average of six tactical moves per
combat? From these basic questions has emerged the day. FACT issues encompass all elements of the firing
Field Artillery Crew Test (FACT)—a significant battery, as well as a battalion ammunition support slice
undertaking which will attempt to gain insight into a and terminal effects. All other aspects of the fire support
small segment of a very expansive question. system external to the firing battery will be
Specifically, the FACT will assess 155-mm administratively controlled or simulated.
self-propelled firing battery's ability to accomplish its It is clearly recognized at the outset that the FACT is
mission during a portion of the Scenario Oriented not a panacea. It will not answer all questions for all
Recurring Evaluation System (SCORES) Scenario, people. It is also clearly recognized that the FACT will be
Europe I, Sequence IIA. It is not intended that the quite complex and resource-intense to execute. It will
FACT be conducted in a worst case situation, but rather require a heavy expenditure of manpower, funds, and time.
that an artillery battery be exposed to typical Additionally, it is recognized that not all aspects of the
requirements and conditions generated by SCORES. exercise will be quantifiable, such as mental/physical
In the truest sense, the FACT is not a test. It is not an factors and test performance versus combat performance.
exercise to evaluate satisfactory or unsatisfactory (go or Therefore, subjective findings will require judgmental
no-go) performance of a firing battery. It is not merely a evaluation and assessment as to the significance and
massive ARTEP: it is, more appropriately, an potential application of the results. It is believed, however,
aggressive experiment during which data will be that the outputs of the FACT will provide invaluable
gathered on a typical unit's ability to perform its mission information to all areas of the Field Artillery Community.
under as realistic conditions as possible. Thus, it is The FACT is a Force Development Test and
essential that the FACT output be as objective and Experimentation (FDTE) user test being developed and
quantifiable as possible to maximize the effect of the planned
FACT on future changes to materiel, force structure,
28 Field Artillery Journal
under the purview of US Army Training and Doctrine
Command (TRADOC) Regulation 71-9. Once the TACFIRE update
Independent Evaluation Plan (IEP) has been approved On 25 September this year, the TRADOC System
and the Test Support Package (TSP) has been completed, Manager for TACFIRE was notified by Department of
the detailed scenario to conduct the FACT will be the Army that approval had been granted to reprogram
prepared jointly by the Field Artillery School, the $81 million of FY80 "Army" money for procurement of
TRADOC Combined Arms Test Activity (TCATA), and 43 more TACFIRE sets.
the US Army Research Institute of Environmental Currently equipped with TACFIRE are the 1st
Medicine (USARIEM). Additionally, another key Cavalry Division Artillery, Fort Hood, TX, and the
participant in planning and executing the FACT is the 212th Field Artillery Brigade and 1st Battalion, 17th
US Army Human Engineering Laboratory. Field Artillery, at Fort Sill, OK. The next organizations
Clearly, there is a great deal of planning and scheduled for TACFIRE deployment are the 1st Infantry
preparation yet to be accomplished such as test dates, Division (Mechanized), Fort Riley, KS, in January 1981
test site, and unit to participate. and the 8th Infantry Division (Mechanized), USAREUR,
Since the IEP for the FACT is a dynamic document in June 1981.
and is not yet complete, timely reader suggestions can Procurement and fielding of the 43 TACFIRE sets
influence the FACT and are therefore encouraged. will bring the total for the Active Army to 116. An
Suggestions may be made telephonically by calling additional $73 million will be sought for FY81 to fund
MAJ Bill Yerkes at AUTOVON 639-3669 or by the remaining 23 sets required for complete Active
writing: Army deployment.
US Army Field Artillery School Cost increases for M198
ATTN: ATSF-CD (MAJ Bill Yerkes) If you're in the market for a new M198 155-mm
Fort Sill, OK 73503 towed howitzer, you'd better check the current cost
figures. According to the General Accounting Office the
Tie-down straps for originally estimated cost of $184,000 per weapon has
Nuclear Weapon Technical Inspections increased to $421,000.
Tie-down straps marked "Training Only" may be used Because of this price increase, the approved fielding
during Nuclear Weapons Technical Inspections (NWTIs) program was reduced to 478 weapons; however, this
for movement of training weapons simulated to be "War number may be increased because of The Department of
Reserve" (WR). The straps must be serviceable; Defense requirement to field and equip a Rapid
however, they may exceed normal shelf life. Deployment Force.
Use of "Training Only" type
straps will eliminate the requirement
for units to use "WR" straps for

Preproduction testing of
Preproduction testing of the
Battery Computer System (BCS) is
underway at Fort Sill to assess
Norden Company's modifications to
shortcomings found in the system
during developmental and
operational tests. Fielding of BCS
remains set for October 1982 and,
when developed, will replace the
FADAC system now used by Active
Army and Reserve Component Field
Artillery units.
November-December 1980 29
30 Field Artillery Journal
"Congratulations. You've just Due to the recent change in on being their own S3, X0, or their
been extended in command of your command tour lengths, I feel it own staff entirely. Not only does this
battalion." While these words are timely to comment about the effect violate good leadership and
welcome to many, to others they of longer tours on the commander management concepts, but it will
produce a weak smile, the expected and his unit. I was fortunate to have also wear you down after a while.
response, and rising fear that they been extended, first for three months You need to develop your
and then for six more as a battalion subordinates so that you can delegate
will never make it.
commander in the 4th Infantry and decentralize. Again, this is
Twenty-seven months ago I began Division at Fort Carson. The second nothing new, but it takes on added
the "normal" CONUS 18-month extension brought about a genuine meaning in longer command tours.
command tour—the month of my inward look at myself, my unit, and Training
"change of command" was forecast my whole approach to command. For
by MILPERCEN and my In the area of training, you are in
those of you planning the 30-month for a number of warm feelings. As
replacement just happened to visit the tour, I urge you to do the same and
post three months after I'd taken you spend more time in command,
consider a few of the following you can better plan activities because
command. This all fit into the normal points.
course of events to which you know what your unit can do and
command-selected lieutenant Plan for the long term how long it takes to do it right or do
The longer tour allows time for it over again. Critical tasks are
colonels and colonels had become
accustomed: Hit them hard, do your you to adequately plan and develop defined and battery/company/troop
long range programs. Look for commanders are pointed in the right
best, and hope everything would
work out! Above all—no matter how continual progress and not the direction. That innovative program to
sudden burst that quickly fades. If prepare for skill qualification tests
much you enjoyed what you were
you need a new maintenance SOP, (SQTs) that didn't go so well last
doing—after 18 months someone else
spend the time to develop a good one year is refined, and those proud
would take the helm and invariably
because you will most likely live soldiers start showing results.
say, "What did that guy do for 18
with it for a year or more. You know Planning calendars are developed
that you will have numerous from experience, and major events
Prior to assuming inspections, evaluations, and are spaced out to allow for proper
command, I would listen continued inquiries in areas peculiar recovery. Multi-echelon and
to the old timers talk of to your unit. You will still give each concurrent training become a reality,
"their" tours with a one your best shot, and you will and overall you are able to lead the
standard comment that it benefit from your past success or unit more systematically.
was the best assignment failure. Good, workable SOPs are Personnel
of their career. Still, all possible, and with each revision You can expect some unusual
too often, as the those problems "no one thought of" personnel experiences. For example,
conversation lengthened will occur less frequently. a first lieutenant who had been in the
one would say, "I battalion for approximately five
couldn't wait to pass Utilizing the staff months went to Korea, then to the
those colors and escape You and your staff will benefit Advanced Course, and is now back
with my life." I never did from experience and you will be as a captain. I have other soldiers
understand that surprised how much is remembered who have gone on short tours of one
dichotomy. If the job was about particular situations. Here, year plus and have either returned to
so great, why the hurry to good after-action reports are essential. my unit or to another on post. You
leave? I suppose it was Guidance to the members of your find yourself losing track of which
split about 50-50 between staff, however, must be tempered year old First Sergeant Ironhorse
those who were sincere with patience to avoid telling them retired—was it last summer or the
about wanting to stay and how to do the job. This will get summer before? Rather than
those that couldn't wait to harder the longer you are in attributing that to old age, I attribute
complete their "normal" command because you will want to it to the plain, simple comforting fact
command tour. It is to fall back on what worked well in the that I've been in the job longer than
those that are really past. You can, however, teach them any other I've had in the Army.
sincere about wanting to proper staff work and above all how Over the months you become
command that I want to to plan—not just react. involved in the soldiers' promotions,
address. I urge you to use your staff well. pay, and perhaps directly in their
Many commanders pride themselves discipline as well. Above all you know

the soldier—his capabilities and for that purpose.) Don't overlook the occasionally drop one of those balls.
limitations. The soldiers know you've hands-on training we all need. This We have seen others or felt ourselves
been with them through it all and complements the book work and is destroyed by some incident that
while they never come out and say it, probably more important in the eyes appeared to tarnish a perfect image;
you can sense the stability they feel of the soldier. You should be able to however, you must expect and be
in their on-and-off-duty lives. They set head space and timing on the able to cope with mistakes. There is
talk to you about how we did it last M2 .50 caliber machinegun, put on a a lot of truth in the saying that, "It
year and how much snow we got last mask in nine seconds, and perform isn't what happens to you that's
winter (or was it the year before?). other hands-on tasks related to your important; rather what you do with
They joke about their ETS/PCS and basic branch. So many of our what happens to you." You will take
remind you that you'll be in the good commanders can't and their officers your unit through several ups and
old 1-29th FA until you're old normally can't either. As before, this downs—you'll have it together, and
enough to draw Social Security. You is nothing new—but the extended then for some reason, your unit can't
get to know the soldiers' families command tour provides more time do anything right. That is the time to
much better. Instead of only one for self-improvement. put together some good sound
child you might see two born to a Relationship with the programs that address the problem
family and you watch them—soldiers chain of command and put your soldiers back on top.
and families—grow. Now it is necessary to look at how You now have the time to see it
Turbulence will continue to be a our superiors fit into the extended through, and that gives you one of
problem (my battalion turned over an command tours. Of course your those warm feelings mentioned
average of 18 percent per quarter). major subordinate unit (MSU) earlier.
You see more individuals come and commander is there for the same
go, and you are the continuity at the length of time as you are, so there
The soldier
top. New personnel are briefed on will be some good overlap. It would
Thus far I have focused primarily
standing operating procedures and be ideal if the tours of all the
on experiences you can expect as a
requirements. command group of the division were
commander. It is central to the
I often paralleled my job with that lengthened. If this were done, the
concept of extended command,
of a football coach who develops his entire team could settle in with a
however, to understand that the
team, wins a few games, and then common purpose and philosophy and
fundamental ingredient of our
loses his quarterback to injury, two would be concerned with how a unit
profession—the soldier—is the one
linemen to retirement, and his chief does over the long term and whether
who benefits from your experience,
assistant to a head coaching job. This steady improvement is made.
your concern, and your professional
all happens in mid-season. That Additionally, many of the knowledge. The extended tour will
coach may lose a few games, but comments about a battalion are also allow you to be with each soldier
only until his team is back in order. true for the MSU and the division. longer and you will get to know him
He accomplishes this by using a play Superiors get to know you well, or her better. Each will give you
book (the team's SOP), by having a including your capabilities and considerable satisfaction and a few
good knowledge of the game itself, limitations and one hopes there is headaches, but always remember that
by knowing his players, and by considerable exchange of it is the soldier's actions—not your
enforcing basic proven standards. information and guidance. It is in the own—that bring about any praise
Improve yourself best interest of the soldier for you might receive as a commander.
Extended command gives you a commanders all the way up the line So I urge you to settle back and give
better opportunity to really learn. to teach and offer constructive them the leadership they deserve.
You have time to go further into criticism to their subordinate
Enjoy the opportunity you have to
those field and technical manuals and, commanders. After all, you will be learn your job, to do it well, and to
more importantly, to pass your together a long time.
work with the greatest bunch of
knowledge on to junior officers and Incoming rounds soldiers in the world.
enlisted men. Our business is a I would like to offer a few
complex one, and it seems there's suggestions to those of you who see
never enough time to really get into yourselves as Army Chief of Staff
supply procedures, Army regulations, material and have had bright careers LTC Jerry C. Harrison, former
weapons manuals, or SQTs. In an so far. When you put on those green Commander of the 1st Battalion,
extended command tour the time is tabs, you had better be prepared for 29th Field Artillery, is attending
there, so take advantage of it. (By the some direct hits when things don't go the Industrial College of the
way, all those books you receive at well. There will be many chances to Armed Forces.
the Pre-Command Course are useful excel, but in 30 months you will

32 Field Artillery Journal

notes from the units

Jump refresher steer the older T-10 model parachute. (Dave Matthews)

FORT BRAGG, NC—Practice, practice, practice. No

matter how many times you leap from that "big iron
bird," there's some part of the jump—some skill—that
could be improved. Some paratroopers need to practice
exiting from the aircraft, while others need to perfect
their parachute landing fall so that it includes points of
contact below their shoulders.
Recently, the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 319th Field
Artillery, checked in at the 34-foot tower for their
semiannual airborne refresher. For most of the
artillerymen, it was a case of deja vu to those happy times
of training beneath clear Georgian skies surrounded by the
happy, smiling faces of the cadre at the Airborne School.
In the finest tradition of that School, this day's activities
were run strictly by the book. Despite the oppressive
midsummer heat, each soldier was required to make two
satisfactory jumps—one from each door of the tower.
The refresher provides each paratrooper an opportunity
to work on his aircraft-exiting technique under controlled
and relatively safe conditions. Experienced paratroopers
agree that a strong exit from the tower in a tight body
position is reasonable assurance that a jumper will
perform correctly when it's time for the real thing.
To satisfactorily complete the tower portion of the
refresher, the cannoneers had to demonstrate that they
could make strong exists from the tower doors in the
proper body position—feet and knees together, the body
bent slightly from the waist, and the chin tucked to the
chest. Additionally, the left hand had to cover the
carrying handle of the reserve chute, and the right hand
had to be on the rip cord grip with the fingers spread.
Jumpers who forgot to count in a loud and thunderous
airborne voice for the required four seconds were given
a "no go" by the evaluator.
As a final point of performance in the tower exercise,
jumpers spread the risers and visually checked a
make-believe parachute canopy for holes and other
defects. Occasionally a jumper found a red flag attached
to one of the risers which required simulated activation
of the reserve parachute.
The cannoneers also got a chance to "refresh" Near the end of the line—a paratrooper from the 1st
themselves in the suspended harness apparatus where they Battalion (Airborne), 319th Field Artillery, grips his risers
reviewed, among other things, how to pull a riser slip to and prepares to "land."

November-December 1980 33
Right By Piece

"On The Minute" The 37th was decorated with five streamers, a Belgian
Fourragere, and many individual awards during World
FORT WAINWRIGHT, AK—"We, the members of the War II. Their awards during the Korean conflict include 10
1st Battalion, 37th Field Artillery, dedicate ourselves to the battle streamers, 3 Distinguished Unit Citations, and 2
high principles that motivated those before us. We take Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations.
pride in being part of this unit's history and even greater With credentials such as these, it's small wonder that the
pride in the men whose heroic actions and honorable battalion's motto is "On The Minute."
service have made this history possible. These men have
given us the incentive to strive for perfection."
This statement appears in the battalion's preamble as a
reminder to soldiers—old and new—that they are part of a
proud and continuing heritage.
But these aren't just empty words. Many of these
individuals weren't around when the battalion took part in
such battles as "Heartbreak Ridge," "Old Baldy,"
"T-Bone," or "Pork Chop Hill." In fact, several members
hadn't even been born when Charlie Battery of the 1st
Battalion, 37th Field Artillery, fired the first mission by the
battalion in France on 11 June 1944. That's when they
officially became involved in World War II, during the
battle for Fort DeCerisy.
Yet today, esprit de corps is still evident among the
members of the battery, as it was when the 1-37th was first
organized on 17 August 1918 at Camp Lewis, WA.
SGT Gary Warren, Charlie Battery's oldest member
with almost five years at Fort Wainwright, explains it this
way: "There's esprit de corps, but I think it's more respect Members of Charlie Battery, 1st Bn, 37th FA, await pickup and
for 'Top' than anything. Soldiers know he won't let transportation to their winter ARTEP. (Photo by Joseph Spencer)
anything happen to them—that he looks out for them."
1SG Walter E. Spriggs is "Top," and he credits all
achievements to the chain of command although it's
customary to pass the buck when the time comes to fess up
for achievements. It's the modest thing to do.
Everyone in Charlie Battery does their part when the
unit carries out its responsibility to provide artillery support
to the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, in their arctic mission.
Although successful mission accomplishment is the
"norm" for this artillery unit, it isn't always easy. Says one
battery officer, "The nature of the area of operations that we
train in is such that the road networks, in many cases,
preclude ground movements. We've therefore developed a
proficiency in airmobile operations. Snow conditions and the
effects of temperatures on weapons bring up many problems.
Basically, everything takes a little longer in the arctic."
Prevailing snow and ice conditions throughout much of
the year present special concerns. For example, loose,
powdery snow tends to come "unglued" when stirred by a Low temperatures and rotor winds from a CH-47 turn even
helicopter's rotor wash, which results in whiteout the most regular training exercises into endurance tests for
conditions. Here frostbite is easily sustained even in members of the 1st Bn, 37th FA, at Fort Wainwright, AK.
Charlie Battery trains hard during the winter months to
relatively mild temperatures. maintain efficiency on the Alaskan frontier. (Photo by Joseph
All problems aside, however, Charlie Battery (together Spencer)
with their counterparts at Fort Richardson) has a track
record of which to be proud.
34 Field Artillery Journal
Right By Piece

PVT Gregrey Huffman enjoyed the training. "I loved

it! It was really good training, and you never know
when you're going to war."
Patrol leader SGT Ricky Williams felt that the stress
portion was an important addition. "The stress training
is to make the soldier realize that he can go that extra
step when he needs to make it," Williams said. "It's
important to let these guys know that kicking back in the
barracks and going to the motor pool every day is not
the Army," he continued. (SP5 Scott Flaherty)

FORT RILEY, KS—Redlegs are on time—members of the 1st

Battalion, 7th Field Artillery, move into position to provide
artillery support during a combined arms exercise for ROTC
cadets attending the 1980 ROTC advanced camp.

FIST training
the bushes" during training in the hills surrounding
Butzbach, West Germany, a group of 3d Armored
Division soldiers decided "They could do it!" The
soldiers, all newly-arrived to HHB, 2d Battalion, 3d
Field Artillery's fire support team (FIST), took to the
hills for four days of land navigation training but,
according to those involved, they received much more.
"When we first started planning this training, it was
only going to be an orienteering-type exercise," said
1LT Serphin Alorra, "but we decided to make it more
challenging and stressful." PV2 Randy Smith keeps a keen eye out for an "escaped spy" as
Additional stress and skill qualification test (SQT) he leads a patrol to the next checkpoint.
type training was added. Classes were taught in map
reading, patrolling, prisoner-of-war processing, terrain
sketches, visibility diagrams, and tactical movements.
CPT David Webb, officer in charge of the training, Moving? Subscribers should send
explained that the factor of stress was introduced by their new address four weeks in
requiring the soldier to march long distances (10 to 20
miles per day) and feeding them only two cold C-ration advance to:
meals per day.
The FIST members were separated into four patrols, Field Artillery Association
each with the hypothetical mission of capturing
classified documents. Each patrol member was outfitted c/o Fort Sill Museum Fort
with load-bearing equipment, protective mask, weapon, Sill, OK 73503
and sleeping roll of a blanket and poncho.
Using patrol techniques, the Redlegs walked to a
series of checkpoints where SQT classes were given by
patrol leaders. The average distance between
checkpoints was 10 miles.

November-December 1980 35
The New
Artillery by Patrick F. Rogers

Of all the tactical problems facing any loss of efficiency but results from
today's US Army, one is preeminent: the major change in the threat.
Artillery has never been very
in any land conflict with the Soviet
effective against armor. The
Union in the key areas of Europe and
probability of scoring direct hits on
Asia, we will be faced with massive
moving targets at long range is so
armored attacks by forces whose low that tanks can advance through
numbers, organization, equipment, conventional artillery fire almost with
and training are designed to rapidly impunity.
overwhelm and destroy our forces.
The Soviet Union obviously has the Artillery kills primarily by blast
capability to mount such attacks. The and fragmentation; shell fragments
vast majority of Russian divisions are are its principal lethal agent against
armored or mechanized. In recent advancing infantry, but relatively
years they have been strengthened by light armor plating shields effectively
significantly increasing the numbers against fragments. This has led the
of men and weapons assigned to each modern armies of the world to invest
division. The quality edge we once heavily in armored personnel carriers
possessed has been eroded by the (APCs).
introduction on a massive scale of Nowhere in the world is this trend
such advanced weapons as the T72 more pronounced than in the Soviet
tank and the BMP armored personnel Army. Today's Russian infantrymen
carrier. Supporting tactical airpower do not attack as did the waves of men
has been similarly upgraded with the running forward on foot familiar to us
introduction of the MiG-27 and the from World War II. They ride into
SU-19. combat in BMP and BTR armored
In past wars the US Army has relied personnel carriers, protected from
on concentrated firepower to defeat anything but a direct hit. All infantry
massed attacks. Our field artillery has formations in Soviet tank and
been the principal source of battlefield motorized rifle divisions are provided
firepower in World War II, Korea, and with APCs.
Vietnam. On call 24 hours a day,
unaffected by weather, and leading the These units, protected by armor,
world in the techniques of massing and have the capability to move directly
shifting concentrated fire, US field from within their vehicles. Against
artillery has provided a devastating this type of attack, the effectiveness
response to massed attacks against our of field artillery, no matter how
forces. skillfully used, is drastically reduced.
Despite this, the effectiveness of Without radically new weapons, our
our artillery in a war with the Soviet artillery cannot provide our infantry
Union has been in doubt for the last and armor the support they must have
10 years. This has not been due to to fight and win against heavy odds.
36 Field Artillery Journal
November-December 1980 37
Fortunately for us, we have such shell. The M712, now going into to a designated target at any point
weapons under development and production, can be fired by standard, within a 3,000-meter-diameter circle
moving towards deployment. A unmodified field artillery pieces. All centered on the ballistic aiming point
number of small, independent Army 155-mm howitzers in the inventory under normal weather conditions. As
research programs have been become CLGP-capable once the long as the guidance and maneuvering
successfully completed which ammunition is deployed. unit functions properly and the laser
promise revolutionary improvements Copperhead makes no special designator spot is on the target, the
in artillery effectiveness. The new demands on the gun crew. It is probability of a direct hit is extremely
artillery capabilities do not require a handled and fired like any other high.
new, radically advanced family of 155-mm howitzer round. The round A direct hit by a 155-mm or 8-inch
artillery pieces. Existing weapons, is inert before firing. No special HEAT (high-explosive antitank)
modified by product improvement checkout is required. The fuze is set, projectile will destroy any armored
programs, will be able to fire all of the round is loaded, and the howitzer fighting vehicle in the world. Many
the new projectiles. is fired. The shell cannot be allowed designators can be used
The existing M109 155-mm and to spin at the high rate of a normal simultaneously in a single area as
M110 8-inch, self-propelled shell; if it did, the effectiveness of the long as each is set for a particular
howitzers presently form the hollow-charge warhead would be pulse code. Designators can be
backbone of our mechanized and greatly reduced. operated by ground-based artillery
armored divisions' artillery. They are To avoid the normal spin-up by the forward observer teams, helicoptors,
being modified to the new M109A1 howitzer barrel's rifling, the M712 Army aircraft or RPVs (remotely
and A3 and M110A1 and A2 uses a special rotating piloted vehicles).
versions, with lengthened barrels band/obturating band. The band takes
and modified mechanisms to obtain the rifling of the barrel but is
major increases in range. The M109 designed to slip rapidly over the shell
howitzers in Europe have already body. The slipping action decouples
been converted and both the the body of the shell from the band
modified and unmodified versions and the effects of the rifling.
will be capable of firing the new When the Copperhead is fired,
projectiles in their caliber. acceleration actuates the battery
The new projectiles—improved which supplies power to the
conventional munitions (ICM)—do semiactive laser seeker and the
not demand new capabilities or control fins. As the shell clears the
advanced training for the cannon howitzer muzzle, the stabilizing and
crews. The advantage of this is guiding fins pop out automatically.
obvious. We can gain new The shell follows a normal ballistic
capabilities as rapidly as the new trajectory toward the target area. As
types of ammunition can be the projectile reaches the peak of its
produced and deployed without trajectory and starts downward, the
waiting for the development of new target area comes into view.
weapons or the retraining of gun The preset timer activates the laser
crews. Additional demands will be seeker which scans the target area,
placed on our fire direction centers searching for the particular laser
as new capabilities and frequency and pulse repetition rate
extended-range weapons are phased that identifies its assigned laser
in. This can be compensated for by designator. The forward observer
the new small and rugged team keeps the invisible laser
multipurpose computers available designator spot on the target to be
for fire-direction computation. destroyed, using the telescopic sight
One of the most significant of the and tracking unit built into the
new weapons is the 155-mm designator.
cannon-launched guided projectile The Copperhead seeker unit locks
(CLGP) which can maneuver in flight onto the designated target. The
to strike moving targets with pinpoint guidance unit computes the maneuver
accuracy. The 155-mm M712 required for a direct hit and steers the Copperhead projectile in loading
Copperhead CLGP is a cannon-fired, shell directly into the target. The configuration (left) and flight
semi-active, laser-guided artillery M712 has the capability to maneuver configuration (right).

38 Field Artillery Journal

This seems almost too good to be pieces. Only hostile artillery be adapted to use a wide variety of
true. But publicly announced tests of counter-battery fire or supporting submunitions. Hollow-charge bomblets
the experimental 155-mm XM712 airstrikes are likely to be effective, and can be used to attack the thin upper
CLGP demonstrate the system's the enemy armored forces under attack armor of tanks and APCs and a wide
capability. The 138-pound CLGP has a have no way of rapidly locating the US variety of chemical projectiles can be
maximum range of 16,000 meters. artillery units firing laser-guided shells employed. But perhaps the most
Successful tests have been conducted at them. important use of artillery
at ranges of 4, 8, 12, and 16 thousand CLGPs obviously have great value cluster-munition shells may be to create
meters, hitting both moving and in the attack. Key enemy strong points barriers to enemy movement and fight
stationary tanks. Firings have been can be designated by forward delaying actions by remote control.
conducted in daylight and darkness. observers and hit with the same Cluster munitions techniques allow
Successful test firings with the laser precision—ask any veteran of the the artillery to deploy antipersonnel and
designation performed by an Army Korean War about the value of a antitank mines inside enemy territory.
mini-RPV and a Cobra helicopter have one-shot, direct-hit kill on any enemy The tactical implications of this
been conducted. bunker in sight. capability are striking.
The Copperhead laser designator Copperhead is not cheap. The cost Artillery-delivered mines allow us to
system offers many tactical of the 155-mm M712 has been lay minefields deep behind enemy
advantages. The designation beam and estimated at $8,796 per round in 1976 lines, to deliver a minefield within
the laser spot on the target cannot be dollars. But the capability to rapidly minutes of deciding to do so, and to
seen by the human eye. There is no destroy tanks and other key hostile maintain the minefields against enemy
flash, smoke, or noise to reveal the targets is well worth the price. And attempts to clear them.
location of the designating sites. The consider this: conventional artillery The effective range of division and
cannon which fire the Copperheads are may require 20 or more rounds to corps artillery allows the emplacement
several thousand meters to the rear, score a direct hit on a nonmoving point of minefields up to 20,000 meters
firing indirectly. They cannot be target. The savings in time, tube wear, behind the frontlines. There is no
detected or counterattacked by the and conventional ammunition may distinctive signature to alert the enemy
targets. make Copperhead the cheaper that mines have been laid. The enemy
This contrasts favorably with an solution. is thus forced to operate on the
antitank guided missile such as TOW, Another significant advance is the assumption that any key area behind his
where the launcher and crew must be adaptation of cluster munitions lines within range of our artillery may
within line of sight of the enemy to techniques to artillery projectiles. In be mined. Mines may be laid down in
engage and are visible to the intended this method a shell acts as a carrier for front of an enemy attack, on key road
target. When the missile is fired, the a number of submunitions, each with junctions to screen a vulnerable flank,
flash and blast of the rocket motor its own warhead and fuzing system. or to isolate and cut off advanced
provide an easily detected signature. If The guns are aimed, loaded, and fired enemy units from supplies and
the tank is within 2,000 meters of the with normal techniques. As the shells reinforcements.
missile launcher, it can immediately approach the target area, the main fuze
Delivery of artillery-laid minefields
open fire with its main cannon. A fires, and a low-powered charge opens
is extremely rapid. A decision to
TOW requires 8.6 seconds to fly 2,000 the shell and the submunitions are
deploy mines in a given area can be
meters. A Soviet 100-mm tank gun dispersed.
made and implemented in minutes. The
shell can cover the same distance in Each submunition follows an
mines are delivered by artillery shells
less than three seconds—and there will individual trajectory to the target area,
which cannot be intercepted and the
probably be more tanks attacking than impacts and detonates, providing a
minefields can be laid down with great
TOW's defending. At ranges below "shotgun" pattern surrounding the
precision, day or night, and in adverse
1,500 meters, the odds definitely favor original aimpoint. Submunition
weather. Once laid, the minefield can
the tanks. ammunition can saturate a far wider
be maintained.
area than conventional rounds. For
In a similar situation, the Mines can be delivered on an
example, the ICM 155-mm M483A1
laser-designating teams are difficult to advancing column. If the enemy clears
projectile carries 88 antipersonnel
detect. The laser beacon must be on paths through a field, the field can be
fragmentation submunitions, each
only during the last few seconds of the relaid in minutes. Harassing fire with
more effective than a hand grenade. A
projectile's flight. The launching fragmentation shells or antipersonnel,
small number of artillery pieces firing
cannon cannot be detected by the cluster-munition shells can make
cluster munition shells can rapidly
targets and tank cannon are ineffective
saturate a wide area.
against the remote artillery
Once perfected, the technique can
November-December 1980 39
attempts to clear a field slow and with a major increase in capability to warning of massive enemy
costly. block enemy penetrations and to movements through its own resources.
Picture an advancing mechanized harass and delay hostile units which The standoff target acquisition system
column running into an break through. (SOTAS) consists of a large radar
artillery-delivered minefield. Effective use of the new artillery system carried by two helicopters.
Reconnaissance units have preceded the capabilities will require improved The SOTAS can detect moving targets
column and reported a clear advance capability to detect, identify, and with great accuracy deep within
route for several thousand meters. As acquire targets. It is worth noting that enemy territory.
the column moves forward, its the problem may be quite different The radar data is relayed to a
advanced tanks and APCs move into an from Vietnam. There, the problem ground control station in digital form.
antitank/antipersonnel minefield was to detect concealed and The ground station converts this data
delivered by US artillery minutes ago. camouflaged targets dispersed over to map coordinates, allowing the
A few vehicles are knocked out, treads wide areas. Frequently, the enemy attack on the enemy formation with
blown off or hulls pierced. objective was to avoid contact with artillery or airstrikes. The system can
Few things are more unpleasant US Army forces. The problem was to operate day or night, through smoke or
than driving in a minefield. The find the needle in the haystack. We fog, and in all but the most severe
Blitzkrieg grinds to a halt. The enemy may fight a war like that again, but weather. The helicopters can operate
commander must dismount infantry or we may not. In a NATO-Warsaw Pact well back out of enemy AA guns or
call for combat engineers with clash in Central Europe, our problem SAM range.
specialized equipment to clear paths will not be to find isolated, hidden A single SOTAS unit can monitor
through the field. Harassing artillery targets but to deal with vast quantities vast areas of hostile territory and
fire inflicts heavy casualties and of targets coming straight at us. actual tests of prototype SOTAS along
delivers new mines to maintain the The Army is developing new the Korean and German borders have
field. Special equipment coming up target-location capabilities. Least demonstrated that SOTAS can
from the enemy rear runs into new glamorous, but essential, are new perform as designed. When deployed,
minefields laid behind the column. artillery- and mortar-locating radars. the system promises to increase
The advance is slowed to a crawl. These radars can detect hostile shells, significantly our artillery target
Masses of immobilized armored rockets and mortar bombs in flight acquisition capability as well as
vehicles provide a tempting target. and track them to establish their providing a major source of tactical
Attack helicopters armed with trajectories. Trajectory data fed intelligence.
TOWs swarm to the scene; instantaneously to the associated A third potential advance in target
helicopters equipped with laser computers allows the firing point to acquisition is the development by the
designators arrive; and be computed instantly while the Army of mini-RPVs. Army RPVs are
cannon-launched, laser-guided enemy projectile is still in flight, and small, unmanned, remotely piloted
projectiles begin to strike tanks with rapid counterbattery fire can be aircraft or helicopters operated from a
deadly precision. The enemy attack delivered with great accuracy. ground station. Equipped with a
is shattered without even engaging Past experience with counterbattery television system, the RPV can relay
American infantry or armored units. radars in the field has not always been instant television images to the ground
The only effective defense would happy. However, the new radars station's screens, enabling the operators
be intense counterbattery fire directed taking advantage of advances in to instantly "fly" the vehicle and make
at all artillery units within range, but microelectronics and digital tactical decisions concerning the data
even this does nothing to clear the computers should solve the problems appearing on their screens.
minefield already in place. of earlier designs. Two new radars, If a laser designator is added to the
Employment of artillery-deployed the artillery-locating radar RPV’s sensor package, it can
mines will give US artillery a blocking AN/TPQ-37 and the mortar-locating designate a target shown on the screen
and delaying capability. Until now, radar AN/TPQ-36, are now in early for attack by laser-guided shell. These
artillery could delay a hostile attack production. When deployed, these capabilities have already been
only by continuously firing on it. While radars will significantly increase our demonstrated in prototype form by
effective, this defense is vulnerable to target-acquisition and counterbattery successful tests of CLGPs against
saturation. If the enemy has the capability and offset potential enemy tanks which have been
resources, he can attack simultaneously numerical superiority in artillery and laser-designated by RPVs.
in a number of selected spots and break mortars. Operational RPVs could be equipped
through. Artillery-delivered mines A second radar development with low-light level TV or FLIR
provide artillery promises to give the Army early (forward-looking imaging infrared)
40 Field Artillery Journal
heavy counterbattery fire and intense
At present we are outnumbered in
Europe three to one by the Soviet
artillery. The Soviet tactical air units
are rapidly increasing in quality and
quantity. To offset these threats, we
must rely on rapid displacement of our
firing units and an intensified
antiaircraft defense against low-firing
The US Army Aquila remotely piloted vehicle ready for launch from its truck-mounted
pneumatic rail. The plastic dome beneath the word "ARMY" on the fuselage houses the
All of our divisional artillery units
various TV cameras that make up the payload of the unmanned craft. in Europe are self-propelled. This
allows rapid shifting from one firing
sensors which would enable them to electronic, and unintentional radiation position to another; firing positions
detect targets day or night. The RPVs detectors. can be surveyed and prepared prior to
will be small, maneuverable, and A mixed network of sensors can hostilities. The M109A1
difficult to detect. They can range in detect, monitor, and classify intrusions self-propelled howitzers are lightly
weight from 25 to several hundred into the area of detection. Target armored. The crew and the cannon are
pounds, depending on the range and location is sufficiently precise to allow protected against fragments and
capabilities required. A single type of artillery attack against area targets aircraft strafing, but the 8-inch
ground station could be designed to with conventional HE and WP shells, howitzers are not. The driver is under
operate several different types of cluster-munitions shells, and cover, but the crew and cannon are
RPVs, allowing efficient use of artillery-delivered mines. These completely exposed.
resources and multimission capability. sensors were developed during the This is a significant defect in an
Army RPVs will have to be rugged 1960s for use in Vietnam. otherwise outstanding piece. Light
and reliable, capable of moving with Progress in microminiaturizing and armored shelters are now being
combat units in the field. Airstrips are making electronic components more developed for the M110A1s to provide
out of the question. RPVs must be rugged will allow delivery of intrusion fragmentation and strafing protection
launched and recovered in many types detector sensors by artillery shells using for the cannon and crew. Our existing
of terrain without extensive cluster-munition techniques. Other units are thus mobile, and will have a
preparations. Current Army prototypes sensors which cannot be made rugged degree of protection. This will tend to
have demonstrated the capability of enough to withstand artillery delivery reduce the effectiveness of hostile
being launched from a truck-mounted can be delivered by Army RPVs. counterbattery fire, while our own new
launcher and recovered in a portable The ability to emplace intrusion projectiles and advanced target-locating
net system. detector systems rapidly by artillery techniques can increase the
While further development will be adds a new meaning to reconnaissance effectiveness of our own counterbattery
necessary, the basic principles of by fire. In addition to providing a new fire. What will be the effects of the new
operation have been demonstrated. means for artillery target acquisition, projectile and target acquisition
Army tactical RPVs with improved valuable tactical intelligence can be capability on artillery organization and
sensors, data links, and propulsion provided to prevent surprise attacks, tactics? The ICM projectiles do not
systems offer a major increase in our screen flanks, or time the delivery of require new guns. They have been
capability to acquire, identify, and artillery and airstrikes at key carefully designed to be compatible
designate targets for artillery attack. communications centers and with our existing cannon. The principal
Another potential source of tactical vulnerable points. effect of the new capabilities may be to
intelligence and target acquisition is the saturate the system.
The revolutionary new capabilities
remote sensor or intrusion detector. Today, a 155-mm howitzer battalion
of the field artillery will have one
These devices detect the presence or can fire high explosives, phosphorus,
adverse effect: it will attract a great
passage of personnel or vehicles smoke, illuminating, and chemical
deal of unwelcome attention. If an
through their area of detection and projectiles. Add to this the capability to
enemy commander hopes to achieve
relay the data to remote control and destroy tanks with laser-guided
major breakthroughs and rapid
monitoring stations. Sensors of various projectiles, fire cluster munitions,
advances, he must neutralize the US
types have been developed which deliver sensors, lay minefields, and
division and corps artillery. Our firing
include seismic (earth vibration), deliver enhanced-radiation
units will undoubtedly be subjected to
magnetic, passive infrared,
November-December 1980 41
nuclear artillery shells with pinpoint battery will still remain an effective move as an integral part of
precision, and the artillery system is unit. tank-mechanized infantry combat
likely to be saturated with requests for Another new artillery weapon teams.
fire missions. system in development is the The intended maximum range of
While an artillery battery can carry multiple-launch rocket system the system is 30,000 meters. The
out any one of these tasks, it cannot (MLRS). The United States has not striking power of a single 230-mm
do all of them simultaneously. The had a significant battlefield artillery MLRS rocket will be greater than that
increased capabilities require more rocket system since World War II. of an 8-inch howitzer shell. The initial
artillery for maximum effectiveness. The Soviets, on the other hand, made warhead planned for the MLRS is an
Today, most of our armored and extensive use of artillery rockets antipersonnel-anti-materiel
mechanized divisions have three during World War II and have cluster-munition design. It is clear
self-propelled 155-mm howitzer retained and improved their that many of the other new artillery
battalions and one 175-mm capability. The MLRS, when projectiles can be adapted to the
gun/8-inch howitzer heavy battalion. deployed in the early 1980s, will fill MLRS. Laser homing projectiles and
Improved 8-inch howitzers are the current artillery rocket gap and, if scatterable mines are two obvious
replacing the 175-mm guns. The combined with other new examples.
155-mm howitzer battalions have developments, may give our Army The potential firepower of a
normally had three firing batteries decisive superiority in the artillery MLRS-equipped battalion is
with six guns each. The heavy rocket field. immense. The extremely short time in
battalion has had three firing batteries Artillery rockets are of great value which that firepower can be delivered
with four guns each. because they give our artillery a surge makes it an almost ideal crisis
Additional artillery is being capability. A single, multiple-tube, weapon. When developed and
provided by adding more guns and heavy-caliber rocket launcher can deployed, the MLRS will provide a
batteries to existing battalions. deliver the firepower of an artillery significant addition to the Army's
Studies conducted by the Army's battalion for half a minute. Used in firepower.
Training and Doctrine Command numbers, they can deliver a Collectively, the new artillery
(TRADOC) showed that this was a tremendous concentration of fire in an projectiles and targeting systems offer
cheaper and quicker way to obtain extremely short time. a revolutionary advance in US artillery
more artillery than organizing new The MLRS is such a system. A capability. They are not paper
battalions. final development contract was concepts—all have been demonstrated
The existing 155-mm howitzer recently awarded to Vought repeatedly in developmental testing.
firing battery can be increased from Corporation, following a competition They face, however, one final obstacle:
six guns to eight and the number of with Boeing Aerospace Company. viewed individually, they are not
batteries in a battalion from three to The specifications call for a mobile, glamorous in this age of ICBMs and
four without a major change in the rugged system that can move with cruise missiles.
division artillery structure. other combat units. Vought describes The individual projectiles are more
Additional supporting vehicles and its proposed system as "a low-cost, expensive than conventional rounds
personnel will be required to support rugged, reliable, free-flight rocket and the Bureau of the Budget has
the added guns, but the increase from system which can be rapidly deployed been known to turn a deaf ear to
18 to 32 guns per battalion can be and deliver a high volume of fire." "improved effectiveness" arguments.
obtained at a relatively low cost. If the new artillery systems are
It will consist of a tracked,
A similar addition of two guns per procured and deployed in quantity,
armored launcher which will carry 12
battery and a fourth firing battery per the impact on ground warfare may be
rockets ready for firing. The rockets
battalion will be used to strengthen as great as anything since the
can be fired singly or rippled in rapid
the 8-inch howitzer battalion. development of the tank.
fire if required.
The eight-gun battery appears to Let us hope so. In the uncertain
offer a number of advantages on a The armor and mobility of the 1980s, the Army will need the new
European battlefield. Guns can be tracked launchers will enable them to artillery.
dispersed in half batteries of four
pieces, each of which constitutes an (Reprinted with permission from July 1980 ARMY magazine.)
effective firing unit. Greater
Patrick F. Rogers, a development engineer with Lockheed Missiles and
dispersion will provide improved
Space Company, is currently involved in projects to develop and target
protection against enemy
antiship and land-attack cruise missiles.
counterbattery fire. If some guns are
lost, the eight-gun
42 Field Artillery Journal
by Mr. Truman R. Strobridge

3-inch howitzer. position, it could hurl a 95-pound

By the time the Americans
The static warfare of explosive shell over 17,000 yards.
entered the grim trench warfare of
no-man's-land demanded cannons of Its official adoption by the American
World War I, the mood of joyous
sufficient destructive force to smash Expeditionary Force (AEF) came,
certainty with which our allies went
heavily fortified positions. In fact, when the US Army labelled it the
to war in 1914 had been transformed
over 50 percent of the 37,500,000 M1917 155-mm gun. The subsequent
into a more realistic attitude by the M1918 was merely an
casualties on all fronts in World War
hideous losses of the battlefield. Thus, I resulted from artillery, making it American-manufactured version of the
the French, who had lost 377,000 at the number one battlefield killer. French gun. All one had to do to
Verdun alone, were more than transform a GPF into the M1917A1
One of the ordnance pieces lent by
willing to share their artillery with was to fit an American breechblock to
the French was the 155-mm gun, called
the exuberant doughboys whose eyes the French gun. Expertly handled by
the Grande Puissance Filloux
were still unscarred by the wanton (GPF)—literally "Filloux's gun of great doughboy crews, this gun—sometimes
slaughter of modern warfare and power." Weighing 25,500 pounds referred to as the 155-mm
whose biggest field piece was the underway and 20,100 pounds in firing rifle—pounded the German lines

November-December 1980 43
tires) roll-bearing bogie that
permitted the gun to be carried on
truck wheels cross-country at high
speeds. For stability in the firing
position, special built-in jacks
(which eliminated the need for a
crane) dropped the bottom carriage
to the ground. This T2 carriage
survived for over 30 years without
any major modification.
Meanwhile, both a new 155-mm
gun and 8-inch howitzer had been
designed to share this radical T2
carriage, being type-classified
standard as the M1 in July 1940.
M1918 155-mm gun. The M1 155-mm gun soon gave
way to the improved M1A1 in June
with high explosive shells that roared carriage capable of mounting either of 1941 which, in turn, was
overhead like express trains and smashed the two new weapons. The newly superseded in March 1945 by the
to earth with violent effect. designed 155-mm gun measured 22 M2 (model designation changes
Ironically, the GPF, according to one feet, 10.7 inches long (not including reflected the different type
account, had been designed specifically the breech), weighed 9,200 pounds, construction of the tube and breech
to provide long-range covering fire for and could fire a 95-pound projectile ring). On 9 August 1945, the
troops in retreat. The doughboys, over 26,000 yards. The resultant unconverted M1 and M1A1 were
nevertheless, considered it as "the best dual-purpose carriage, along with the declared obsolete.
type of heavy field artillery developed new 155-mm gun and 8-inch howitzer, The M1 155-mm gun,
and used during the war," because of its was designed as the M1920E. Spring affectionately known as the "Long
simplicity, wide traverse, efficient recoil suspended, the carriage alone weighed Tom," weighed 9,595 pounds and
system, long range durability, and "very 18,800 pounds. The maximum fired a 95-pound high explosive
pleasing appearance." elevation was 65 degrees and total shell to a distance of 26,000 yards at
traverse was 60 degrees for the the rate of one round per minute. Its
Development between wars 155-mm gun, while the Filloux type hydropneumatic variable recoil
The memory of the 155-mm gun's variable recoil mechanism permitted a mechanism weighed 3,890 pounds
uncanny accuracy, long range, and maximum recoil of 60 inches and a and allowed a maximum recoil of
destructive prowess was still fresh in minimum recoil of 24 inches. The 70½ inches, although the normal
the minds of cannoneers when they carriage's hard rubber tired wheels, recoil was 65 inches at 0 degrees
were queried by the Westervelt Board while adequate for the slow moving and 32 inches at 65 degrees. Total
just months after the Armistice. This tractors then used to move field weight of the gun, recoil
group of ordnance and artillery officers artillery, made it obsolete for any mechanism, and carriage was
had been convened to canvas its own fast-moving mechanized army. The 30,600 pounds.
and foreign artillerymen as to the carriage proved unstable when the gun The United States, still reeling
relative merits of different cannon, as was fired at maximum power, and, as from the catastrophic effects of the
well as what they envisioned would be an additional handicap, the M1920E Great Depression, however, did not
most desirable on any future model had been specifically designed feel it could afford the luxury of big
battlefield. One of the Board's to be divided into two separate loads expensive guns; therefore, only 65
recommendations, submitted on 23 for transportation, particularly when Long Toms were built before 1941.
May 1919, called for a new improved crossing bridges. Left over from World War I,
155-mm gun, with the extra proviso The Ordnance Department tinkered however, and still carried on the
that a self-propelled version also be with several other experimental army inventory were 908 GPFs,
developed. carriages during the 1920s, but some of which had been modified
Since the Board's specifications for without success. Then, in the summer for high speed towing.
both the 155-mm gun and the 8-inch of 1930, Rock Island Arsenal
howitzer were nearly identical, the developed the radical split-trail T2 North African Campaign
ordnance planners—faced by the carriage which contained at least two The Long Toms quickly earned
inevitable shortage of research and "firsts" for heavy field artillery the respect and admiration of all
development funds once the fighting carriages: an all-welded construction that came without sound or striking
stopped—decided to design a single and a unique 8-wheel (four dual range of its mighty blast. In the war
44 Field Artillery Journal
years to come, both the European and Army. While serving with the Royal the "green" GIs into seasoned veterans.
Pacific theaters were to witness its Artillery, US cannoneers and their They were rushed to the Kasserine
accuracy and deathly punch. But, it Long Toms were utilized as Pass to support an armored
was in the brown-hued landscape of reconnaissance-in-force units. On counterattack, following the
North Africa that the Long Toms first numerous occasions in December American's disasterous defeat. Later, a
revealed their awesome, accurate 1942 and January 1943, the Long battery of 155-mm rifles, after getting
firepower in combat. Ironically, Toms and their US handlers found the worse of a counterbattery duel,
because of the tight security themselves on Hill 609 with only a withdrew across the Medjerda River
surrounding the preparations for mere company of British paratroopers and occupied an Arab cemetery. Here,
Operation TORCH, the ammunition for local protection. An armored car, the Long Toms fired for 18 straight
requisitioned from the States was for meanwhile, would probe some 10 to days without being detected by the
the old World War I GPF rather than 15 miles out front into enemy territory enemy, although both their old
the new M1 155-mm gun, with which and, when it drew hostile fire, the positions, as well as a dummy position
the US II Corps was equipped; thus, Long Toms immediately retaliated. On just 800 yards away, underwent heavy
the M1s were left behind in England 18 January 1943, for example, a shelling and bombing. Then, on 23
and missed the initial phases of the battery of four Long Toms expended March 1943, a forward platoon of
North African Campaign. 368 rounds in this fashion in a matter 155-mm guns shelled a German
American-crewed Long Toms not of just a few hours. airfield near Maknassy, destroying five
only fought alongside the GIs of every The accurate and long-reaching planes—probably the first every to be
American division that saw combat in heavy punch of the Long Toms was in hit by a Long Tom.
North Africa, but also served for two great demand during the hectic fighting As for the crews of the 155-mm
months with the British in North Africa that transformed guns, they soon came to appreciate the
strength and effect of their heavy
projectile. For example, at Medjez, just
one of their rounds landing 80 yards
from an enemy battery caused its
prompt relocation. And, on another
occasion, they dropped a single shell in
the midst of a Panzer tank
concentration, only to watch it
immediately disperse.
A graphic eyewitness description of
the Long Toms in action came from
the pen of a young war correspondent.
One sunlit morning in late

November-December 1980 45
March 1943, Alan Moorehead system would become immobilized to absorb the force of recoil. As
"found an artillery spotting-post right once the engine in the carriage failed could be expected, crews
in the center of the E1 Guettar valley, seemed to demonstrate at that point encountered the normal difficulties
commanding the most perfect view in time that tractor-drawn artillery of adjusting to a new artillery piece.
of a battlefield that he ever had, was more dependable in combat. As Typical American improvision and
before or since." Here, he watched a a result, the very promising persistence however resolved their
major American armored thrust beginnings were destined to remain problems. By the time the 991st FA
down the Gafsa-Gabes road, dormant for nearly two decades. Battalion landed on Omaha Beach at
launched in hopes of cracking the But the dream did not die, at least Normandy on 11 July 1944, its crews
Axis defenses and linking up with for ordnance experts. As early as and M12s were performing at peak
the British Eighth Army on the coast: June 1941, the Chief of Ordnance efficiency. Since the M12 was
recommended the development of a capable of churning across terrain at
I crouched in a dugout with one 155-mm gun mounted on a modified 35 miles per hour, road marches of
of the artillery commanders M3 tank chassis. The skilled 200 miles per day were considered
while he gave his orders into craftsmen of Rock Island Arsenal, the norm, not the exception.
the telephone to the American once given the go-ahead, promptly During the battle of Normandy,
Long Toms a mile or two fabricated a pilot model, which was the M12s of the 991st FA Battalion
behind us. It all seemed so easy; tested at Aberdeen Proving Ground were attached to the corps of the US
just a few figures spoken into in February 1942. Designated the T6 First Army and were utilized
the telephone. Then the air GMC, it consisted of an M1918 primarily to deliver supporting fire.
above us was full of tearing 155-mm gun (an aging veteran of Following its attachment to the 3d
express trains, and we grabbed World War I) emplaced on a mobile Armored ("Spearhead") Division on
our glasses to watch the hits. tank chassis. The Army Ground 12 August, the 991st abandoned its
They fell among the high brown Forces, however, initially refused to static role for one of movement in
rocks, first with a snowwhite consider this innovation, primarily the Battle of the Falaise-Argentan
column of smoke that streamed because they could not see a need for Gap. During this period, the M12s
steadily upward until it was such a weapon. fired most of their missions against
caught by the cross wind on the The Ordnance Department, enemy flak batteries, field batteries,
mountain crest and billowed however, still firmly convinced of and deep interdiction targets, all in
out into grey and formless the value of the self-propelled accordance with accepted field
clouds. Sometimes when the 155-mm gun, ordered 50 to be artillery doctrine for medium and
smoke cleared you could see produced in March 1942. Despite heavy artillery. The heaviest day's
the little figures of Germans or additional objections, the new shooting came on 17 August, when
Italians running to better cover. weapon system was standardized as the M12s hurled 1,073 rounds on
They were only a mile or two the M12 and, production of an German Panzer tanks.
away, but this was killing by additional 100 was completed in
After the closing of the gap at
remote control, without the March 1943. Once fielded, these
Putanges, the M12 unit joined in
maddening stimulus of pieces were used for artillery training
pursuit of the retreating Wehrmacht.
hand-to-hand fighting. One in the United States. By December
As the only artillery heavier than the
could carefully assess the 1943, however, when the plans for
ubiquitous 105-mm howitzers
targets and take aim with the the invasion of "Festung Europa"
attached to the fast-moving 3d
same unemotional calmness of were being finalized, the decision
Armored Division, the 991st FA
a sportsman shooting grouse on was made to overhaul 74 of the
Battalion was the only unit available
the moors. Almost, not quite. In M12s for possible use in overseas
for deep counterbattery, long range
the intervals of our firing the combat.
targets of opportunity, interdiction,
enemy fired back and we
and covering fire during the
ducked into our dugout and The M12s in Europe emplacement of light artillery
hugged the rock. One of the first units to be batteries.
furnished the M12 was the 991st
Self-propelled version Field Artillery Battalion, a former Despite the speed of the advance
The goal of a self-propelled New York National Guard unit. across France, coupled with frequent
155-mm gun, first articulated by the Crews trained for 15 months with displacements, the GPF tubes of the
Westervelt Board in May 1919, came this new weapon—a 155-mm gun of M12s "again proved, as in the last
to a sudden halt in 1922 when the World War I vintage mounted on the war, that they could speak with
United States ceased its experiments. M4 tank chassis that had been authority on French soil." The rapid
The objection that the entire weapon stripped of armor and a spade added pursuit, however, permitted enemy

46 Field Artillery Journal

units to infiltrate between the 3d
Armored Division spearhead and
the 991st FA Battalion and, for one
24-hour period, these fast-moving
artillery units became virtually
isolated from the rest of the corps
and army.
As a result, the M12 battalion
had to fight several infantry actions.
The sharpest one came between 2
and 4 September 1944, when the
991st FA Battalion, aided only by
headquarters troops of the armored
division, fought off the remnants of
the German 348th Infantry Division
in the vicinity of Quevy-le-Grand.
Its fire proved very effective on M40—A later version of the self propelled Long Tom.
tanks, half-tracks, trucks, and
personnel. In all, the M12 battalion
took 500 prisoners. When the
infantry arrived to take over, the 3d the Third Reich on the western front least components—to 13 divisions. From
Armored Division roared off again, erupted into the Battle of the Bulge, 11 July 1944 to 25 April 1945, the Long
this time straight eastward toward the fast-moving M12s fought first in Toms of the 991st FA Battalion fired a total
Germany, with the self-propelled defensive actions and then took the of 48,937 rounds. In recognition of the
Long Toms following close behind. offensive with the First Army. Next, self-propelled Long Tom's invaluable
To the M12 battalion went the in January 1945, the 991st provided contribution to final victory, the cannoneers
honor of being the first Allied necessary fire support to assist the 1st serving them received a Distinguished
artillery unit, from the West, to Infantry Division to smash through Service Cross (posthumously), 2 Silver
unleash its deadly barrages on the Siegfried Line southeast of Stars, 85 Bronze Stars, 7 Air Medals, and
German soil. The target was a key Monschau and, after shifting to the 14 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters to the Air
road junction near Bildchen, a small north, supported the crossing of the Medal.
town southwest of Aachen, at a Roer River, the drive to the Rhine Even though the aging 155-mm gun has
range of 19,800 yards. The Long River, and the capture of Cologne. been eased out of active service in the US
Toms of the 991st FA Battalion Next, the batteries of the M12 Army, any weapon that has served for over
spoke authoritatively at precisely battalion, now attached to the a half a century, racking up countless
1721 hours on 10 September 1944. Seventh Army's divisions, lent the laurels along the way, deserves a place in
This fire, according to the air weight of their awesome Long the memory of American artillerymen. If
observer overhead, proved Toms to drive again through the there is justice amidst the thunderous roar
"effective." Siegfried Line for the third, and last, of those heavenly cannons, a spark of
As the VII Corps assaulted the time. Once the Seventh Army remembrance will forever linger for those
Siegfried Line south and southeast secured its Rhine River crossing at fabulous Long Toms, so rich in memories.
of Aachen, the batteries of the 991st Worms, the 991st was shifted back
FA Battalion assisted the combined to the 3d Armored Division and had
tank/infantry effort to penetrate this to motor march 400 miles to rejoin
strongly fortified line by destroying this fast-moving "Spearhead."
concrete pillboxes by direct laying. The needs of war had led the
Battery A remained attached to the M12 battalion from the beaches of
3d Armored Division, while Battery Normandy to the plains of Saxony,
B worked with the 9th Infantry a mere 60 miles from Berlin.
Division in and around the During this entire period, the 991st
Huertgen Forest. Battery C aided FA Battalion engaged in combat
the 1st Infantry Division to first (except for one week of refitting in
isolate Aachen and then speed the January 1945) until withdrawn
city's reduction by providing direct from action at Dessau on the Elbe
fire support to the infantry which River on 25 April 1945. The
was fighting street by street. battalion had worked with six US Mr. Truman R. Strobridge is Historian
When the last great death gasp of Army corps and was attached—at of the US European Command.
November-December 1980 47
The American
by LTC Ronald E. Olson

48 Field Artillery Journal

As the smoke drifted away from
"Calamity Jane" across the Heights
of the Meuse, an uneasy calm settled
upon the country. The war was over.
Said to have fired the last round of
World War I in the Bois de la Haie
near the Laneuville-Beauclair road
was "Calamity Jane," a 155-mm
"Schneider" howitzer belonging to
Battery E, 11th Field Artillery
(attached to the 89th US Division).
The date was 11 November 1918
and the official time was 10:59.59
A.M. However, someone's watch Figure 1. Contractors for 155-mm howitzer parts.
was incorrect because according to would restore the gun to battery in less recuperator systems presented the
the Signal Corps photographer who than 13 seconds. greatest problem since there were no
photographed the last firing, the The carriage of the gun was plants in the US capable of turning out
time was 11:05 A.M. extremely light, being constructed of such a highly complicated, precise,
pressed steel parts with many delicate device. Finally, after much
Before World War I, the celebrated
ingenious design features to reduce the Governmental search and long
155-mm howitzer had only been built
weight. The shell and propelling negotiation, the Dodge Brothers of
in the factory of its original designer,
charge were separate-loading, Detroit motor car builders agreed to
the great firm of Schneider et Cie. in
producing a muzzle velocity of 1,480 accept the responsibility.
France. This powerful weapon was a
feet for the 95-pound projectile.
fine example of the French gun The first 155-mm gun body, built by
The American-built 155-mm
builders' art in a country where the American Brake Shoe and Foundry
howitzers were practically identical to
gun-making had reached a perfection Company, was delivered in February
those produced in France, and all of the
unknown anywhere else in the world. 1918, but the recuperator (being much
important parts were interchangeable.
It is a testimonial to the adaptability more difficult to manufacture) was not
The United States, however, used
and skill of American industry that ready until July of that year. The other
rubber tires on the wheels of the field
we were able to successfully parts of the howitzer had been
carriage and gave the weapon a
duplicate the famous 155-mm proof-tested by using a recuperator of
"straight," rather than curved, shield of
howitzer in this country. French manufacture.
armor plate. (This latter feature
The history of the 155-mm identifies those weapons made in During August and September of
howitzer dates back to the America and those made in France.) 1918, regiments first equipped with
nineteenth century. In its 155-mm howitzers were made ready at
In the spring of 1917, the US Aberdeen Proving Ground. All
development, the French designers
bought the plans for the howitzer from arrangements had been made to
had so strengthened its structure,
Schneider et Cie. and at once began assemble units and crate their
increased its range, and improved
the tedious task of translating equipment for overseas shipment at the
its general service ability, that in
specifications into American Erie Proving Ground, Port Clinton,
1914 it was ready to take its place
measurements. This work Ohio. The big weapons were packed
as one of the two most-used and
monopolized the efforts of an expert and on the dock ready for shipment
best-known weapons of the allies
staff until October of that year. when the armistice was signed. None of
(the other being the French 75-mm
field gun). To speed up production in America, the American-made 155-mm howitzers
separate parts of the weapon were reached the American Expeditionary
Weighing 7,600 pounds placed in the hands of different Forces before 11 November 1918, but
(howitzer and carriage), the contractors (figure 1). There was, of the French had furnished 747 until that
155-mm was extremely mobile for course, the usual difficulty in finding date.
a weapon of its size. It could manufacturers willing to undertake In the years that followed, the
deliver a high-explosive shell or production of such intricate devices enemies of the United States and her
shrapnel projectile more than seven and who possessed machine shops that allies felt the fury of the American
miles and was capable of firing had the equipment and talent for such "Schneider."
several times a minute due to a work. The
hydropneumatic recoil system.
With the tube pointing upward at
LTC Ronald E. Olson is the Illinois National Guard State Historian and
an angle of 45 degrees, the recoil
also historian for the 2d Battalion, 123d Field Artillery, ILARNG.
November-December 1980 49
USAR education tips BAQ for Reservists
To obtain an information packet and an enrollment Reserve members without dependents in grade E4
application for the Command and General Staff College with more than four years of service who are ordered to
(CGSC) correspondence course, individuals should annual training are entitled to basic allowance for
submit their requests to: quarters (BAQ) for the period of authorized travel to
USACGSC and from home to training station. (See the Department
ATTN: Registrar, ATZISW-DECA-ET of Defense Military Pay and Allowances Entitlements
Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027 Manual, Table 3-2-3, Rule 28.)
After receiving the packet, unit members must Payment is not authorized if individuals travel to the
forward applications through command channels. training site by Government transportation or privately
(Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) officers forward owned vehicle and utilize sleeping accommodations
applications through their Personnel Management under field conditions (bivouac or contract quarters).
Officer (PMO).) Futher, partial BAQ is not payable since the members
To obtain correspondence course catalogs, the are in a travel status until they reach the training site.
following procedures should be followed: Reserve members are entitled to partial BAQ from
• IRR officers request DA PAM 351-20 series, for the date of arrival at the training station through the day
branch you are interested in, from: before departure, provided Government quarters are
occupied and full BAQ is not payable. Members
otherwise qualified are entitled to full BAQ for the
travel time from the training station to home even
Fort Eustis, VA 26304
though travel may start and end on the same day.
• Troop Program Unit (TPU) officers request the
pamphlets from their unit training officer. Overseas tour cuts
USAR Officers enrolled in correspondence courses As of 1 October this year, single first-term soldiers
can communicate with the Institute for Professional now serving overseas on three-year tours will be
Development (IPD) at Fort Eustis, VA, by calling: affected by the Army's adjustment plan and new
18-month tour policy.
AUTOVON Commercial To qualify for the adjustment plan as shown below,
Field Artillery 927-4575 (804) 878-4575 soldiers must have at least six months remaining on
Air Defense 927-4571 (804) 878-4571 their enlistments before the date eligible for return from
Infantry 927-4776 (804)878-4776 overseas (DEROS). Those with less than the required
Armor 927-4571 (804) 878-4571 six months may extend their enlistments or reenlist. The
The above telephone numbers are for normal duty extension would then permit them to participate in the
hours 0800-1745 (EST). After duty hours, call new tour length and receive a stateside assignment after
Code-a-Phone AUTOVON 927-3085 or commercial completing the overseas tour.
(804) 878-3085.
Date reported New adjusted New tour
April-June 1979..................October 1981.......... 28-30 months
CSM Ray L. Martin assumed the duties of July-September 1979 ..........November 1981...... 26-28 months
MILPERCEN Command Sergeant Major on 1 October-December 1979 ....December 1981 ...... 24-26 months
September 1980. He was previously assigned to the 25th January-March 1980...........January 1982 .......... 22-24 months
Infantry Division in Hawaii where he served as Division April-June 1980..................February 1982 ........ 18-20 months
Command Sergeant Major from June 1977 to August
50 Field Artillery Journal
Management functions transferred After June 1981, MILPERCEN will continue to answer
questions from the field regarding the administrative
Effective 31 August this year, responsibility for certain management of the evaluation systems.
military personnel management functions was transferred • Management of the Army Attitude and Opinion
from MILPERCEN to the Soldier Support Center (SSC) at Survey Program to include proponency for AR 600-64 and
Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. This transfer is the result of a DA approval authority for all additional surveys.
Department of the Army review of military personnel • Management of Army personnel selection and
management functions to provide more effective response classification tests and the Defense Language Proficiency
to current Army requirements and to insure the proper Tests. This function includes proponency for AR 611-5
organizational placement of policy, doctrine, and and DA PAMs 310-8, 611-1, and 611-2.
operational functions. • Management of the Army Occupational Survey
The DA Deputy Chief of Staff or Personnel (DCSPER) Classification System that includes the development of
will continue to be responsible for policy functions. Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) and Special Skill
Doctrine functions will be grouped together and assigned Identifiers (SSI) specifications, standards of grade
to Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) authorization, and enlisted MOS progression structures.
organizations, to include the SSC. The operation and This function includes proponency for ARs 611-1, 611-101,
maintenance of current military personnel management 611-112, and 611-201.
systems will continue to be assigned to MILPERCEN. Office addresses and telephone numbers for the new
Under this transfer plan, no personnel or organizational SSC offices will soon be distributed to Army units
spaces will be moved in the near future from Alexandria, worldwide by message and command information
VA, to SSC Headquarters in Indiana. The Service Support publications.
Center will establish a Deputy Commander and
Administrative Office in Alexandria, VA, to manage the
new SSC offices. In August, 114 personnel positions, 48
West Point applications
military and 66 civilian, were transferred to SSC. In June Sons and daughters of career military personnel (active,
1981, 10 additional personnel positions, 7 military and 3 retired, or deceased; Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Air
civilian, will be transferred to SSC. Force) are eligible by right of birth to receive a presidential
nomination to the United States Military Academy. A
Areas transferred
nomination, either Congressional or sevice-connected, is
The major functional areas being transferred to SSC
necessary for all applicants prior to competing for
admission. Soldiers are entitled to apply for a nomination
• Development of future personnel and administrative
in a category specifically designed to encourage maximum
information systems (SIDPERS II).
numbers of West Pointers from the enlisted ranks.
• Management of the project to eliminate records
Personnel interested in more information about the
administration duplication (ERAD) which includes
exceptional education opportunity should write to:
implementation of the Individual Record Brief (IRB)
Director of Admissions, US Military Academy, West
Point, NY 10996.
• Provision of an analytical capability to examine
near-term force structure and manpower changes for OENCO Course
impact on personnel readiness and distribution. Evaluation
of new concepts/doctrine, force structure changes Commander of US Army Training and Doctrine
(TOE/TDA), and new equipment to determine personnel Command (TRADOC) recently approved the continuation
support requirements and impact on officer and enlisted of the Organizational Effectives Noncommissioned
career fields. Officer Course and is looking for volunteers in the grades
• Development of future officer and enlisted evaluation of E7, E8, or E9 to attend the course beginning in January
systems. The current MILPERCEN Evaluation Systems 1981 at Fort Ord, CA. Selection criteria is as follows:
Office will continue to function under MILPERCEN • Volunteer grades E7 through E9.
control until completion of Phase 3 (User In-Progress • Proficient in PMOS.
Review) of the new Officer Evaluation System Master • ANCOES graduate.
Monitorship Plan. Phase 3 is scheduled for completion on • High promotion potential.
1 June 1981. At that time, the Evaluation Systems Office • Two years of college desired. (Preferably a behavioral
functions and personnel will be transferred to SSC control. science background.)
This function includes responsibility for policy • Not overweight.
clarification, evaluation of requests for exceptions or • Not in a shortage MOS.
changes to existing policies, and responding to inquiries, • No record of court-martial or Article 15 in the last 10
complaints, and suggestions about the evaluation systems. years.
November-December 1980 51
Redleg Newsletter

Extensions for OTRA officers where the three-year continuation period does not place an
Army policy allows commanders to initiate applications officer in a retirement eligible category, the officer may ask
for extension on active duty beyond the 20-year mandatory to be considered for an additional continuation period.
release date (MRD) for those other than Regular Army Failure to apply for further continuation constitutes a
(OTRA) officers whose services are required because of voluntary separation, and the officer will not be entitled to
proven cogent military necessity. The definition of cogent readjustment pay.
military necessity has been expanded to include any While in the continued status, an officer will be
category of officers whose retention is necessary to meet considered for promotion and, if selected, all provisions of
bona fide needs of the Army. These categories include, but the continuation will be voided unless promotion is declined.
are not limited to, the following: Addenda to Officer Evaluation Reports
• An officer who is involved in a critical Army project
and is the only individual in the Army qualified to Since implementation of the new Officer Evaluation
complete the project. Report (OER) system, many questions have arisen from
• An officer who holds a unique skill critical to the the field concerning OER addenda policy. Paragraph 5-36,
Army's needs. AR 623-105, Officer Evaluation Reporting System, lists
• An officer who is a Professor of Military Science and those inclosures which are authorized for attachment to DA
is at midyear with no replacement immediately available. Form 67-8 OERs. These are the only attachments which
• Senior field grade female officers, lieutenant colonel are to be accepted for filing in the Official Military
and above. Personnel File (OMPF).
• An officer in an underaligned specialty who will The only commanders' statements authorized for
serve in that specialty at current duty station. attachment to DA Form 67-8 are those which result from a
Applications for extension beyond MRD for cogent commander's investigation of allegations that wrongdoing
military necessity must be command initiated and indorsed. had occurred in the preparation of the OER. Even those
Applications will indicate that the officer concurs with the statements are not automatically included in the OMPF,
extension action. The retention period need not be limited but rather are disposed of as deemed appropriate on a
to one year if a longer period is required to meet the case-by-case basis.
requirements of a specific assignment. Officers are retained Army Regulation 623-105 requires that supplementary
under this policy with their consent. In the absence of any reviewers be designated in certain circumstances and that
other service obligation, such officers may be released any these reviewers add inclosures to OERs. The intent of these
time their consent is withdrawn. inclosures is clearly stated in the AR. They are not to be
Officers will continue to process for separation until the used to add unnecessary remarks in the OER. Reviewer
extension is approved. This will preclude any unnecessary statements which merely amplify, paraphrase, or indorse
hardship if the retention is not approved. Approval the comments of other members of the rating chain are in
authority for all applications for extension beyond MRD violation of the intent of the regulation and therefore will
because of cogent military necessity is the Assistant not be accepted for filing.
Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs). USAR ADT tours
Selective continuation Requests to support Annual Training sites, ROTC
The Secretary of the Army has recently approved a Summer Camps, and other training activities for up to 179
selective continuation program to assist in alleviating days of active duty training (ADT) requires the Personnel
officer shortages at certain grades and specialties. Now, Management Officer (PMO) to maintain a roster of
other than Regular Army (OTRA) officers in the grades of officers who, because of flexible work schedules, are
captain and major who twice have failed to be selected for available to fill those positions. Individual Ready Reserve
temporary promotion may apply for continuation on active officers who have such flexibility should notify their PMO
duty in their present grades. Officers who have 18 years or as to length and date(s) available. Selection of officers to
more of active Federal service are not eligible for fill known requirements is based on grade and specialty
consideration since they are automatically retained until skill identified for the position. Additionally, the PMO will
they complete 20 years of service. take into account the frequency of similar type tours
Officers who apply for continuation are considered by a officers have performed in past years. The OPMS-USAR
board that is convened for this specific purpose. Those who objective is to provide a balanced and comprehensive
are selected will remain on active duty for a period of three range of training opportunities to all members of the
years or until they are eligible for retirement. In those cases Individual Ready Reserve.
52 Field Artillery Journal
Redleg Newsletter

Personal personnel file "Right" shoulder patch

USAR Personnel Management Officers (PMOs) Soldiers who served in hostile fire areas during the
continually receive calls requesting copies of documents following periods are authorized to wear their former
in the Official Military Personnel File (OMPF). Common "combat" patch on the right shoulder:
items requested are appointment letters, oaths of office, • World War II—7 December 1941 through 2
DD Forms 214, and course completion certificates. To September 1946.
satisfy the Troop Program Unit or Individual Ready • Korea—27 June 1950 through 27 July 1954.
Reserve officer, the PMO must first request the OMPF • Korea—1 April 1968 through 31 August 1973.
and then forward it to the Personnel Services Directorate Soldiers who were awarded the Purple Heart, Combat
which has authority to release items from personnel Infantryman Badge, Combat Medical Badge, or an
records to the individual. overseas service bar during this period in Korea are
This all takes time and effort and, as such, there is a authorized to wear the "wartime" patch.
better way. Officers should consider starting their own • Vietnam—1 July 1958 through 28 March 1973.
personal file. Items to be maintained in addition to the • Dominican Republic—Soldiers who served there
above are: after 19 April 1965 in the XVIII Airborne Corps, 82d
• Pay vouchers. Airborne Division, and the 5th Logistical Command are
• Leave and earning statements. authorized to wear their unit patch. Soldiers serving there
• Promotion letters. who were not assigned to one of these units may wear the
• Retirement points records. OEA, the Spanish equivalent of the Organization of
• Officer evaluation reports. American States patch.
This file could prevent a delay in promotion or aid in
the selection process for service schools. Additionally, it Christmas "early-out"
will provide backup documentation for creditable If you're scheduled to leave active duty 12 December
retirement years. 1980 through 6 January 1981, you'll be eligible for an
"early-out." Eligible soldiers will be separated during
Extended active duty 11-17 December or as soon after as possible unless they
tours in Europe for want to stay until their normal release date.
DA Circular 612-80-1, which lists the release schedule,
ARNG captains also provides for a liberal leave policy for the holiday
Army National Guard captains can now apply for season. Soldiers with approved terminal leave will have
extended active duty (EAD) tours with US Army, their leave date adjusted to meet the new separation
Europe (USAREUR). This program was implemented to schedule as follows:
provide the Active Army with 200 ARNG captains on a
continuing, "first come, first serve" basis. Selected Current ESA/ETS date Target separation date
officers will be assigned to brigade, battalion, or 12-26 Dec 80 11 Dec 80
company size units. 27-28 Dec 80 12 Dec 80
To be eligible, captains must have been in grade for 29 Dec 80-1 Jan 81 15 Dec 80
less than four years and be qualified in one of the 2-4 Jan 81 16 Dec 80
following specialties: 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 21, 25, or 71. In 5-6 Jan 81 17 Dec 80
addition, they must have served at least one year in an Personnel not eligible for early release are:
ARNG unit. • Officers who are needed for unit operations.
Information on eligibility criteria and application • Reserve component soldiers on active duty for
procedures may be obtained from local ARNG training.
headquarters. • Soldiers scheduled for retirement.
Tour lengths for EAD with USAREUR will vary from • Officers having DA-approved release or resignation
20 to 30 months. The application period began 1 October dates or those who are being involuntarily separated.
1980 and will continue until the 200 positions are filled. • Personnel affected by flagging actions under AR
The extended duty tour will provide ARNG captains 600-31.
with valuable training in overseas operations, and the Overseas commanders are to make sure members being
Active Army will benefit from the knowledge and separated under this program are released in time to meet
expertise of these officers. this schedule.
November-December 1980 53
Instead of one or two moves per day, studies showed
If it is possible to write heresy in this time of rapidly that from 6 to 17 moves per day might be required.
changing doctrine, then this short article may qualify. It Subsequently, the time spent in reconnaissance, selection,
challenges the validity of doctrine that has general and occupation of firing positions increased accordingly,
acceptance by the Field Artillery Branch, which requires and with it the battery commander's time away from his
the battery commander to perform reconnaissance, unit.
selection, and occupation of position (RSOP). I believe the The tasks performed during RSOP are important and a
evolutionary impact of this doctrine has relegated the necessary component of successful military operations;
commander to the role of battery scout. however, the commander must command his unit. His
Until about 10 years ago, the artillery battery changed relegation to the role of battery scout is unacceptable for
firing positions based on support requirements for the following reasons:
maneuver units. Time was available to dig in and harden
• Time is an inflexible resource. Time spent away from
the position to withstand enemy attack; therefore, the
the battery precludes the fulfillment of other possibly more
battery commander could perform RSOP for each position
important functions of command.
and still spend the majority of his time with his unit.
Then, the Army's attention turned • Experience is a scarce asset in today's Army. The
to the mid-intensity battlefield where most experienced people belong where the most important
we learned that "if it can be seen it decisions must be made.
can be hit, and if it can be hit it can be • We must train as we will fight. The
killed." Additionally, the Soviets soldiers of the battery look to the
increased the number and quality of commander for guidance in peacetime;
their target acquisition systems and their demand for his leadership will
developed/fielded longer range increase in combat.
weapons and more lethal ammunition
to hit and destroy our units. To
counter this increased threat, our
outnumbered maneuver forces
developed the active defense which
employs mobility as a force multiplier;
consequently, FA batteries were
required to move frequently, not only
to support these mobile maneuver
forces but to avoid the effects of a
long-range, lethal, enemy attack.

• Our command and control philosophy is imbedded in place an extreme burden on our command and control
the force structure of the US Army. Lines of capability. In effect, the battalion FDC will be flooded with
communication established in peacetime must serve during requests for fire and will probably control only the most
combat; the process of establishing new ones is critical missions. Therefore the decisions such as which
time-consuming. target and how much and what type ammunition will be
• Critical decisions are required in combat. Our "How made at battery level with knowledge of the current status
to fight" manuals tell us the commander makes these of the maneuver unit, priorities of fire established by the
decisions. Let's assume the battery commander is absent maneuver commander and availability of reinforcing fires.
from his unit performing RSOP 40 percent of the time (it These decisions require the experience of the commander.
could be more). Almost half of his time then is spent • Other decisions and actions involving unit morale
accomplishing one of the 16 specific responsibilities of the require the presence of the battery commander in the
commander (FM 6-50). battery area. For example, an occasional hot meal, mail,
The commander cannot afford to be absent from his unit and the hasty evacuation of casualties.
when critical decisions such as the following must be It is clear that the battery commander must remain with
made: the battery. Who then, will perform the RSOP? The likely
• The decision to move. The authority to move the unit candidates are the battery executive officer, battery fire
normally rests with the battalion operations officer, but direction officer, chief of firing battery, or the battery
may be delegated to the battery commander when the gunnery sergeant. All of these soldiers have the requisite
action status "move to an alternate position" is appropriate experience to perform the following required RSOP tasks:
to the tactical situation. If the battery is attacked, or attack • Organize the advance party (normally an item of
is imminent, the battery commander exercises this SOP).
authority based on available information. If the action • Select a route to the new position.
status "stay in position" is prescribed, the commander is • Select positions for the battery and the howitzers.
obliged to remain in position to deliver indirect fires until • Scale a direction from a map and use a compass.
the intensity of the enemy attack precludes the ability to • Formulate a "track" plan.
perform the mission. The battery commander may then
• Train and supervise the other members of the advance
move to the alternate position. In either case, the order to
party in the performance of their duties.
move must be based on a knowledge of the status of the
These tasks are not difficult. An officer who has
supported unit, the level of training of the battery, and the
completed the Field Artillery Officers Basic Course
level of damage which is unacceptable to continue indirect
performs them adequately during RSOP after only a
fire operations. The best place to gather this information is
minimum of training. Additionally, several field units have
in the battery area and the only individual to make the
deployed to the field and conducted all tactical operations,
decision is the battery commander.
including firing, totally under the command and control of
• The decision to resupply the battery. The battery enlisted leaders. (The German artillery entrusts these duties
executive officer and fire support officer are capable of to a highly trained soldier in the grade of E7.) Finally, in
determining when ammunition or fuel supplies are low. the tactical employment of the 3x8 battlion, the firing
They usually do not have other information upon which platoon leader will conduct RSOP for his platoon.
supply operations must be decided; e.g., ammunition and
In summary, the battery commander must be at the point
fuel requirements for near-term and future operations and
of decision during critical times in combat and, most of the
the advantage of effecting resupply during lulls in the battle
time, this means with his battery. He can and should
or during periods of darkness and limited visibility. (Three
perform reconnaissance when time permits, particularly
methods for resupplying the battery are taught in the
when the position selected is critical to the mission (a
Officers Advanced Course, not the Basic Course. By
dedicated battery position). And while we have the battery
process of elimination of decision makers, the battery
commander where he is doing the most good, let's put the
commander must make these decisions and locate where
first sergeant where the critical tasks are as well; he is the
he can gather the information to do so.)
most experienced soldier in the battery and should be
• Tactical fire control decisions. Normally, the battery
where he can attend to his solders' needs and lead them in
fire direction center (FDC) conducts technical fire control
the defense of the position that he has planned. The tasks
and the battalion FDC conducts tactical fire control. In the
required for RSOP, relatively easy to accomplish, should
offense, we purposely decentralize these control functions
be delegated to some other battery scout.
to increase responsiveness. The dedicated battery is the
extreme example. In the defense, we opt for more
CPT Rickey E. Hardie is assigned to Headquarters,
centralized control; however, the target rich environment
Special Troops Battalion, 59th Ordnance Brigade.
of the European battlefield and wide dispersion of batteries
November-December 1980 55
notes from other branches and services
Ballistic Liners Improve M113 Developments of optimal liner candidates in contact and
spaced configurations and evaluations of bare M113
Survivability Rate aluminum armor were also an objective of the tests.
A major advance in improving the survivability of the The most dramatic enhancement in personnel
M113 family of armored personnel carriers in combat protection resulted in laminated Kevlar 29/49 which
environments is emerging as a result of the US Army effectively stopped all of the large number of
Materials and Mechanics Research Center's (AMMRC) high-velocity widely dispersed fragments from the
program to develop ballistic liners for ground vehicles. aluminum armor.
The empirical investigation, employing classical R&D It was also determined that an optimum combination
armor materials technology, has successfully addressed of liner weight and air space was required to maximize
the Army's goals for increased personnel performance. Kevlar, a Dupont trade name, an ultrahigh,
protection/survivability. This was achieved by modulus-high tensile strength aramid fiber, emerged as
maximizing the ability of combat systems to withstand the primary armor material to defeat fragment threats.
attack from weapons with conventional antitank For the optimal liner system a complete mass, velocity,
munitions (chemical and kinetic energy) to nuclear and spatial distribution characterization of residual spall
weapons and biological agents. fragments was performed versus the 3.2-inch HEAT
The M113 and other lightly armored aluminum hulled device representative of the Soviet RPG-2/7 rounds
vehicles are capable of engaging conventional .30 caliber (infantry deployed and fired from the Soviet BMP-1 IFV
small arms fire. They can also defeat the great majority of mounted with a 72-mm smooth bore gun) and versus the
fragments from HE shells. However, these vehicles have 1.52-inch HEAT round representative of overhead
been shown to be highly vulnerable to higher order threats.
battlefield weapons as documented by destroyed/damaged In addition, full ballistic evaluations including
vehicles during the Vietnam War and Israeli conflicts. resistance to penetration in terms of V50 limits, residual
Armor penetrations cause much more than the direct mass and velocity determinations versus small arms (.30
effects of a shaped charge jet or kinetic energy projectile. and .50 caliber projectiles), automatic cannon (23-mm AP
Spall fragments, vaporific (pressure, heat, luminosity), and 30-mm GAU-8 heavy density ammunition), and
and tertiary (toxic gases) effects also occur. This is munition fragments have provided additional data to
especially true for HEAT penetrations of aluminum substantiate the effectiveness of Kevlar liners in
armor which result in more personnel incapacitation and ballistically augmenting aluminum armor.
lethality than penetrations of steel armor. Preliminary experimental and computer code analyses
A comprehensive data package generated by AMMRC have also demonstrated the beneficial neutron attenuation
with participation of government and industry has effects of Kevlar liners.
confirmed the superior effectiveness of ballistic liner Currently, vulnerability calculations and survivability
materials in suppressing spall fragments. The materials assessments are being generated via computerized models
are also effective with behind-the-armor effects when versus an array of modern battlefield scenarios.
impacted/penetrated by a typical battlefield multi-threat FMC Corporation is under AMMRC contract to
mix including HEAT rounds, AP projectiles, and construct and install optimal Kevlar liners within M113
fragmenting munitions. ballistic hulls. FMC will conduct sophisticated
Spall suppression materials ranged from ballistic overpressure, temperature/fire, and toxicity tests to
Kevlar 29/49 to conventional glass reinforced plastic. validate the effectiveness of liners in reducing vaporifics.
More than 100 HEAT ballistic tests were conducted, FMC will also have liners in operational M113 vehicles
employing 3.2-inch BRL precision charges, 1.52-inch and test them with a proper complement of vehicle
M42 grenades, and 5-inch TOW warheads. personnel. (Army RD & A magazine)
The tests initially screened liner ballistic materials.
56 Field Artillery Journal
Revision of Nike Hercules Soldier's and advanced fire control. The LCV weighs only 13 tons,
about half the weight of an M551 Sheridan and can reach
Manuals speeds up to 60 miles per hour.
The US Army Air Defense School, Fort Bliss, TX, will For the Advanced Antiarmor Vehicle Evaluation, the
revise the existing Soldier's Manuals for Nike Hercules LCV does not have a main gun. Instead, each player fires a
MOS 16B, 16C, 24P, 24Q, and 24U during fiscal year low-power, eye-safe laser, with computer simulations
1981. The new manual will cover only those tasks peculiar representing a high velocity 75-mm cannon.
to the Nike Hercules system to include tasks dealing with The collected data and experience gained through
test equipment. Common tasks, such as first aid, individual planning, instrumentation, conduct, and analysis of this
weapons, map reading, etc., will be in a separate Soldier's evaluation may provide the basis for a future Joint
Manual of Common Tasks, which will be distributed Operational Test and Evaluation Phase for an LCV.
Army-wide in 1981. ARMVAL will contribute significantly to the LCV
Recognizing the importance of the Soldier's Manuals in validation process and provide data to support future
training Nike Hercules MOSs, the Air Defense School decisions concerning possible lightweight development
solicits recommendations on how to improve the existing programs.
manuals. Since the target date for distribution to the field is
during the March-May 1982 time frame, all
comments/recommendations must be submitted not later
than January 1981 because of the long development,
printing, and distribution cycle. All correspondence should
be forwarded to Commandant, USAADS, ATTN:
ATSATD-PHD, Fort Bliss, TX 79916.
Lightweight combat vehicles
Beginning in July this year, the US Army Combat
Developments Experimentation Command (CDEC) at Fort
Ord, CA, has been assisting the US Marines in a
Department of Defense test called Advanced Antiarmor
Vehicle Evaluation (ARMVAL).
Using realistic tactical scenarios, ARMVAL consists of
a number of two-sided, force-on-force experiments,
designed to evaluate the contribution of lightweight
combat vehicles (LCVs) to the effectiveness of forces
engaging in combat missions.
To make this assessment, friendly combined arms forces
conduct combat operations, first using current antiarmor
systems to obtain baseline data and then substituting the
The "enemy" forces use conventional tanks and
simulated Warsaw Pact weapons systems to counter the
punch of the friendlies and their LCVs. In addition to
LCVs, the Marines use their own LVTP-7 amphibious The first production model of a laser rangefinder-equipped
telescopic sight for the airborne TOW missile system undergoes
personnel carriers. Both forces are composed of both Army tests at Hughes Aircraft Company. The sight enables gunners of the
and Marine Corps personnel. US Army Cobra attack helicopters to accurately fire TOW
Major issues of the test include an analysis to determine antitank missiles, cannon, and rockets. Delivery of the sight, called
what contributions the LCV can add to force effectiveness the Laser Augmented Airborne TOW (LAAT), is part of a
modernization program currently underway to upgrade the
on the battlefield and whether LCVs—which trade off performance of the Cobra helicopters. Hughes will manufacture
heavy armor protection for high agility and mobility—will 157 LAAT sights under a US Army Missile Command contract.
be survivable as members of combined arms forces on the Shown here an engineer from Hughes' Electro-Optical and Data
battlefield? Systems Group, Culver City, CA, looks through an infrared
viewfinder to check sight alignment as the laser is fired into a
The US Army Tank Automotive Research and collimator. The mini-laser rangefinder will improve the accuracy of
Development Command (TARADCOM) has modified 10 cannon and rocket fire by providing almost instantaneous target
M551 Sheridans to provide greater speed, mobility, and range to the Cobra's fire control computer. The laser transmitter,
one of the smallest ever developed for production, was designed to
agility. The LCV is a light armored vehicle with an fit the available space within the gyro-stabilized telescopic sight.
improved suspension system, high horsepower-to-ton ratio
November-December 1980 57
With Our Comrades In Arms

Improved TOW missile

The US Army is conducting a two-step program to The TOW 2 modifications feature a
improve the performance of the TOW (tube-launched, microprocessor-based digital missile guidance set which
optically-tracked, wire-guided) antitank missile against will provide greater flexibility in guidance programming
enemy armor. and higher precision. To compensate for the added weight
The first phase of the upgrading program is design of of the heavier warhead and other missile modifications,
an improved five-inch diameter warhead to increase the the flight motor will be reloaded with an improved
missile's armor piercing capability. The second step, propellant to provide a higher impulse. The TOW 2
called TOW 2, will include use of a heavier six-inch modifications can be retrofitted into early versions but
warhead with even greater armor-piercing capability and will require more sophisticated procedures. However, any
an improved guidance system. earlier TOW missile can be fired from the launcher after
Hughes' Missile Systems Group, Canoga Park, CA, is the modifications for TOW 2 are accomplished.
the prime system integrator on the improvement efforts. The Defense Department has requested $105.2 million
More than 275,000 TOWs have been produced by in FY 1981 to purchase 18,000 of the new five-inch
Hughes for the US Army and Marine Corps and the warhead kits to retrofit to existing TOWs and $76.6
armed services of 32 foreign countries. million for 12,000 new missiles with this improved
The existing elements in the TOW system will be warhead. In addition, $20.6 million is being sought to
utilized to the fullest extent. The more potent five-inch continue development work on the TOW 2 changes.
warhead can be fitted on all existing TOW missiles and Development and testing on both phases of the
will not require any changes in the launcher or guidance improvement program are now underway. TOW missiles
hardware. Additionally, the five-inch warhead with the improved five-inch warhead are expected to be
improvements will be applicable to all TOW system ready for deployment in the near future, but the TOW 2
platforms including helicopters and tracked vehicles. will not be available until later in the decade.

TANK TRACKER— A TOW antitank missile is launched from a British Army Lynx helicopter during recent firing trials. Under a
Ministry of Defense contract, British Aerospace Dynamics will produce the airborne TOW system under license from Hughes Aircraft
Company. TOW, the tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided missile system developed by Hughes for the US Army, has been
deployed with the air and ground forces of 30 other nations.
58 Field Artillery Journal
With Our Comrades In Arms

Additive guide Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development

Command, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060.
A document, entitled "Guide For Policy and
Methodology of Aftermarket Fuel Additives," has been
developed by the Fuels and Lubricants Division of the
Energy and Resources Laboratory, US Army Mobility
Quick Response
Equipment Research and Development Command Multicolor Printer
(MERADCOM), Fort Belvoir, VA. The guide outlines the The Commander and Director of the US Army Engineer
purpose, background, and procedures required for testing Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, VA,
both gasoline and diesel fuel aftermarket additives. It also recently announced that development of an advanced
lists sources and reference information for interested prototype xerographic color map reproduction system, the
manufacturers and suppliers. Quick Response Multicolor Printer (QRMP) will officially
The energy shortage has spawned a great deal of interest begin. After several months of negotiations,
in reducing petroleum fuel consumption. As a result, there representatives from both the Xerox Corporation and the
has been a significant increase in the number of companies Federal Government agreed on a $6.4 million contract for
and distributors marketing proprietary aftermarket development of the system.
additives designed to reduce fuel consumption, improve The QRMP is a significant breakthough in mapping
engine efficiency, and reduce exhaust emissions. Many of reproduction technology. Personnel at ETL, originators of
these companies have requested that the Department of the the QRMP, believe that the xerographic color reproduction
Army approve their product, stating that the eventual use technique will make it possible to meet military
of their additive would significantly reduce fuel requirements for quick production of high quality, cost
consumption. effective, multicolor reproductions of topographic maps,
The Army's policy in such cases has been, and will terrain intelligence information, overlays of existing maps,
continue to be, to request sufficient technical data to and multicolor overprinting onto conventional maps.
adequately support any claims being advertised and to The addition of a laser scanner has improved the "dry
verify the absence of any potentially adverse side effects copying" process by making it possible the high resolution
resulting from the additive. Apparently, this requirement necessary for map reproduction. New laser technology will
for technical data was not clear to some companies, so the provide greater reliability and simplification, making the
guide was developed to explain in detail the necessary QRMP easier to repair and maintain.
steps to be followed by a prospective additive supplier. It is estimated that the QRMP will produce 24- by
In developing test requirements, the Fuels and 30-inch maps at a speed greater than one map per minute
Lubricants Division coordinated its efforts with the with one run through the printer. A single-color press now
Environmental Protection Agency and an Ad Hoc Industry in use in the field requires about eight hours to print 500
Advisory Group composed of engine manufacturers, oil five-color maps. Furthermore, the QRMP will weigh
companies, and additive suppliers. significantly less than current presses, be mobile enough to
The guide is being forwarded to Department of the move from place to place, and require less manpower and
Army for inclusion in the Army's Petroleum Management a lower skill level to operate and maintain.
Regulations. Interested manufacturers and suppliers may It is estimated that the prototype, to be built by
obtain copies by contacting the Fuels and Lubricants Electro-Optical Systems Division of Xerox, Pasadena, CA,
Division, Energy and Water Resources Laboratory, US will be completed by mid-1983.

Commanders Update
BG Joe S. Owens LTC Harold M. Nelson LTC James L. Koster
III Corps Artillery 2d Battalion, 12th Field Artillery 2d Battalion, 41st Field Artillery
COL Raphael J. Hallada LTC Kenneth E. Hamburger LTC Donald R. Shipp
82d Airborne Division 1st Battalion, 15th Field Artillery 6th Battalion, 80th Field Artillery
COL Herbert H. Wasson LTC Michael W. Keaveney LTC Arthelius A. Phaup
528th Artillery Support Group 2d Battalion, 34th Field Artillery 1st Battalion, 83d Field Artillery
LTC Robert H. Veen LTC Charles K. Flint LTC Joseph B. Spagnoli
2d Battalion, 1st Field Artillery 3d Battalion, 35th Field Artillery 2d Battalion, 320th Field Artillery
LTC Ralph M. Mitchell LTC Walter A. Vaughan LTC Joseph R. Simino
1st Battalion, 11th Field Artillery 6th Battalion, 37th Field Artillery 2d Battalion, 321st Field Artillery
November-December 1980 59
LEGIONNAIRE: MY FIVE YEARS IN "Coldness is enemy number sharing its 150 pages with 131
THE FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION, by one—hunger and heat are tolerable—but photographs and line drawings. Although
Simon Murray, Times Books, New York, cold kills morale. The misery of crawling the author does not go into perhaps as
1978, 314 pages, $9.95. into a sleeping-bag which is wet and much detail nor cover as many subjects
sodden in total blackness on top of a as might be desired, the reader can still
At last we have a book about the mountain with the rain pissing down and gain a knowledge and appreciation of the
modern French Foreign Legion written the wind howling and people in great great strides made in the art of bombing
by a real English legionnaire who galumphing mud-chocked boots wandering during World War II.
actually served a five-year hitch, around tripping over each other, with boxes
although he never mentions his Legion and poles and equipment lying everywhere
COL Warren E. Norman is the Senior US
nom de guerre. Simon Murray pulls no in total chaos, is misery without parallel.
Air Force Representative at Fort Sill.
punches. He describes the Legion exactly And when on top of that somebody tells
as he saw it—not as treacherous you that you are on guard duty from 0300
cutthroats and thieves nor spit-and-polish until 0500, well then you throw." COVER-UP: THE POLITICS OF
troupes d'elite, but as a far more uniquely Legionnaire is well written and PEARL HARBOR, 1941-1946, by Bruce
complex organization lying somewhere vibrantly characterized, and Murray's R. Bartlet, Arlington House, New
between the two. accounts are often spiced with English dry Rochelle, NY, 1979, 185 pages, $8.95.
Readers can follow this modern-day wit and a haunting sense of helplessness.
beau geste into a world as remote from If you have ever wondered how such a
As a former legionnaire, I found this
contemporary American life as living on the totally devastating surprise attack as the
book brought back many vivid memories.
dark side of the moon. Legionnaire is one at Pearl Harbor could have happened,
For any of you who have ever let the
written in diary form and recorded as the this book gives most of the answers.
thought of becoming a modern day beau
author witnessed events, such as his Cover-Up uses many recently
geste cross the paths of your dreams,
enlistment in Paris, the wait in Marseilles, declassified documents to explain the
reading this book is a must!
the trip to Algeria, basic training, "how," but the author is careful to avoid
preparachute instruction, jump school, and William M. Brooks is assigned to the temptation to pin down the "why."
assignment to the Regiment Etrangere de Company B, 1st Battalion, 120th Infantry, This thoroughly footnoted book gives
Parachutistes. He also gives a frightful 30th Training Brigade (Mech), NCARNG. literally hundreds of details of the critical
account of the war against the fellagha of period before the Japanese attack that
the Front de Liberation National, the crippled the Pacific Fleet. Extensive
countless marches across the Algerian quotes from the several governmental
Alfred Price, Charles Scribner's Sons,
mountains, the relief and excitement of hearings are cited to describe who gave
New York, 1979, 150 pages, $10.95.
combat, the hardships, death, and solitude of which messages to whom and when they
an often senseless existence. Brutal In his book, The Bomber in WWII, were delivered. If you don't like President
discipline, filthy living conditions, Alfred Price explains the evolution of Roosevelt, there is ample evidence for
meaningless destruction, blind drunkenness, aerial bombardment during the six years pinning the blame on him. Roosevelt
as well as pride, courage and self-sacrifice, of that war. He makes it clear that wanted the United States in the war, but
hallmark this true life adventure. advances were not due solely to aircraft could not risk the political clout of the
Much has been written about the design, but were a product of new tactics anti-interventionists by committing a
Foreign Legion but never as and equipment as well. The Bomber in unilateral offensive act.
evenhandedly and descriptively as in WWII is divided into three sections, the The report of the various military and
Legionnaire. Very little has reached the first being devoted to aircraft and aircraft congressional investigations is a true case
public concerning the modern Foreign equipment. The second part presents a study in searching for a scapegoat. While
Legion. Unfortunately most of the old detailed examination of the six aircraft that the delays in getting at the full truth can
Legion books are fiction, or worse yet, the author considers to be among the best, be understood because of the desire to
written by deserters. while the third and final section contains prevent the Japanese from learning that
Simon Murray has gathered together an analysis of wartime bomber tactics to we had broken their message codes, these
his story with scholarship and humor. include techniques and formations used by delays also insured that the truth of who
His many descriptions bring back aircrews to reach their targets and survive. was to blame would never be known.
memories for anyone who has had like The book is highly informative and
LTC W. A. Cauthen is the Public Affairs
experiences and nothing but respect from presented in an easily understood and
Officer at Fort Jackson, SC.
those that have not. For example: interesting format. The text is short,

60 Field Artillery Journal

An old Army tradition which still • Tattoo—Signals that lights in

plays a part in a soldier's life is the barracks are to go out in 15 minutes and
bugle call. In many ways the notes of that all noises and loud talk will cease.
the bugle still regulate the soldier's • Call to quarters—Used to summon
day—when to get up, when to eat, troops not authorized to be absent from
when to go to work, and finally when their quarters for the night.
the work day is over.
Bugle calls are divided into four
classes: warning calls, formation calls,
alarm calls, and service calls. calls • Taps—Last call at night; used to
signal that all unauthorized lights are to
be turned off. This call is also used as
the last honors at a military funeral.
• Sick call—Signal for the sick to
Warning calls report to the surgeon or his
• Adjutant's call—Warns that the
Warning calls indicate some representative.
adjutant is about to form the battalion,
formation or action is about to take regiment, brigade, or division. • Recall—Signal for certain duties
place. Some of the common warning
to cease. At one time, recall was used to
calls still in daily use are:
Alarm calls signal the stopping of pursuit of the
• First call—A warning to prepare
Alarm calls are not commonly used enemy.
for reveille, retreat, or some other
in the Army today. These calls were
formation. • To the Colors—Sounded as a
designed to spread the alarm, a job
• Drill call—Warning to fall out salute to the National Colors, usually at
that can now be done by faster means
for drill. a retreat formation when no band is
of communication. Two of the most
• Mess call—Announces present.
common of the old alarm calls were
breakfast, dinner, and supper.
"fire call" and "to arms." A comparison of the bugle calls
• Fatigue call—Warns those who
listed above will enable soldiers to
have fatigue duty to report to the
Service calls become familiar with them and
designated place.
The largest group of bugle calls is recognize each individual call.
• Church call—Notification that
the service call category. Only the Although the bugler is now gone
church services are about to start.
most common calls—those in daily from the TOE (there used to be a bugler
use—are listed below: in each company-size unit), the notes of
Formation calls • Reveille—Signal for morning roll the bugle still float over Army posts, a
• Assembly—Signal to assemble call or other morning formation. pleasing and still useful tradition from
or to execute a warning call previously • Retreat—Marks the end of the bygone days.
sounded. official day.