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Techno India NJR Institute of Technology, Udaipur

A 45 Days Industrial Training Report

Submitted to

Techno India NJR Institute Of Technology

Towards the partial fulfilment of

The degree of

Bachelor of Technology

in

Mechanical Engineering

Session:-2019-2020

Submitted to, Submitted by,


Dr Pankaj K Porwal Adil Ahmed Khan,
Principal & Head of Department 16ETC3ME003
Department of Mechanical Engineering Branch-Mechanical

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Techno India NJR Institute Of Technology
Udaipur(Raj.)
August-2019

(i)
CERTIFICATE

(ii)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank our college director MR. R.S. VYAS [Founder and
Director of college] for providing me an opportunity to learn about robotics and
automation in the form of 45 days of industrial training period in AKGEC,GHAZIABAD.
This 45 days of industrial training program is conducted under the supervision of MR.
Vikas Kumar, Assistant General Manager, AKGEC-KUKA and MR. Mahesh Kumar,
Head Of Bosch-Rexroth Training Centre,AKGEC.And finally I would like to thank my
parents and my friends for supporting me to complete this entire training program.

ADIL AHMED KHAN,


MECHANICAL(4th YEAR)

(iii)
OBJECTIVE OF MY TRAINING

My objective is to learn about automation and robotics as in the coming future, various
manufacturing industries are going to work on these in India. The reason for doing this
training is due to my interest in automobiles and its manufacturing. In the coming future
the average robot density of India is going to increase which lead to produce various job
opportunities in various domains, especially in the sector of automobile. So by this
training I got a lot of opportunities to join automobile manufacturing company in India.

(iv)
REPORT=1

(KUKA
ROBOTICS)

(v)
INDEX

S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.


1) 1) INTRODUCTION 1-3
1.1) Introduction about AKGEC 1
1.2) Introduction about KUKA 2
1.3) Topics cover in KUKA basic robot programming 3

2) 2) SOME DEFINITIONS USED IN ROBOTICS 3-6


2.1) Application of KUKA robotics 3
2.2) Parts of industrial robot 6

3) 3) PROGRAMMING METHOD 7-10


3.1) Various types simulation softwares used for KUKA 7
robots
3.2) Types of robot based on control 8
3.3) Laws of robotics 9
3.4) Various types of modes of running program in robots 9
3.5) Velocity of modes of program in robots 10
3.6) Various types of breakings occurs in robotic operation 10

4) 4) MASTERING 10-12
4.1) Points to remember while performing mastering operation 11
in robot
4.2) Standard work of wire in robots 12

5) 5) COORDINATE SYSTEM USED IN ROBOT 12-13


5.1) Tool calibration 12
5.2) Base calibration 13

6) 6) Types of motion in robot programming 13-15


6.1) Status and turn 15

7) 7) Types of logic command 15


7.1) Some examples of logic command 15

(vi)
LIST OF FIGURES
S.NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO.
1) 1.1-Logo of AKGEC 1
2) 1.2-Various robotics companies in world 1
3) 1.3-Logo of KUKA 2
4) 1.4-Dominance of various companies in the world 2
5) 2.1-Robot density of various countries in the world 3
6) 2.2-Parts of industrial robots 6
7) 3.1-Various types of modes in robot 7
programming

8) 3.2-KUKA SIM VIEWER 8


9) 3.3-KUKA SIM PRO 8
10) 3.4-Various types of modes of running program in 9
robots

11) 3.5-Velocity of modes of program in robot 10


12) 3.6-Various types of breakings occurs in robotic 10
operation

13) 4.1-Electronic measuring tool 10


14) 4.2-Dial gauge 11
15) 4.3-Electronic measuring device 11
16) 5.1-Axis coordinate system 12

(vii)
(1) INTRODUCTION

(1.1)INTRODUCTION ABOUT AKGEC

[Figure 1.1-Logo of AKGEC]

Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College (AKGEC), Ghaziabad is affiliated to Dr. A.P.J.
Abdul Kalam Technical University and is approved by the All India Council for Technical
Education. The college was established in 1998 and offers B.Tech Courses in seven
disciplines of Engineering. The college also offers M.Tech in Automation and Robotics,
Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical and
Electronics Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. The college is accredited by
NAAC. The college has been consistently maintaining excellent academic results and
placements. The college has the distinction of being the first and only college in UP to
receive the Academic Excellence Award for the Best Engineering College in UPTU from
H.E. the Governor of UP for two successive years.

[Figure-1.2-Various robotics companies in world]

(1)
(1.2)INTRODUCTION ABOUT KUKA

[Figure 1.3-Logo of KUKA ]

KUKA is a chinese-owned manufacturer of industrial robots and solution for factory


automation. It is owned by chinese group known as MIDEA GROUP. It is founded in
1898 by JHONAN JOSEPH KELLER and JACOB KNAPPICH in
AUGSBURG,GERMANY. IN 2017, its net worth is 3.5 billion euros. In 1973, KUKA
developed its 1st six-axis industrial robot known as FAMULUS. In 2007, KUKA
developed biggest and strongest industrial robot in the world known as KUKA-TITAN. In
2014, KUKA developed its smallest and fastest robot in the world known as AGILUS
which runs at a speed
of 8m/sec.

[Figure-1.4- Dominance of various companies in the world]

(2)
(1.3) TOPICS COVERED IN KUKA BASIC ROBOT PROGRAMMING

1) The robot system


2) Coordinate system
3) Setup
4) Programming
5) Navigator-programming creation
6) Logic programming
7) Fixed tool
8) Introduction to expert level
9) Automatic external level

(2)SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS USED IN ROBOTICS

1) ROBOT DENSITY= It is defined as ratio of number of robots per 10,000 human


workers.

[Figure-2.1- Robot density of various countries in the world]

(2) INTERNAL SENSOR =It is a part of the robot which are used to measure position,
velocity and acceleration of the robot joint or end- effector.

(3)
(3) EXTERNAL SENSOR= It is a part of a robot that senses information about the
environment.

4) INDUSTRIAL ROBOT= The device which is multi-purpose, have 3 axis minimum and
have capacity of reprogramming.

5) FORWARD KINEMATICS= In this, we find the position of an object by changing the


angle of axes of the robot.

6) INVERSE KINEMATICS= In this we find angle of axes of robot or movement of robot.


Generally it takes 12ms to change the kinematics of robot according to our need.

7) ROBOT= A machine resembling a human being and able to replicate certain human
movements and functions automatically.

8) ROBOTICS= The branch of technology that deals with the design, construction,
operation and application of robots.

9) DIGITALIZATION= It is the use of digital technologies to change a business model


and provide new revenue.

10) DIGITIZATION= It is the process of changing from analog to digital form.

11) JOGGING= Teaching process of robot. Generally it is done at 250mm/sec. The


maximum speed of robot is 2m/sec.

12) RELEASED DEVICES= It is used when robot hit the object or wall. This case is
generally happened when a programme is failed to work.

13) HOME POSITION= It is the starting position if robot which is used for an operation.

14) SOFTWARE LIMIT SWITCHES= It is the limit which is defined in the programme for
movement of axis. Its value can be changed.

15) HARDWARE LIMIT SWITCHES= It is the limit which is defined in the construction
of robots for movement of axis. Its values cannot be changed.

(4)
16) ROBROOT= It is that reference point where the robot starts to work (0,0,0). It is
always mounted to the axis of A1 of the motor.

17) CAN BUS OPERATOR= It is the operator which is used to execute communication
protocols in the system.

18) DOMINANT AXIS= The single axis of robot which is used to do operation.

19) NON-DOMINANT AXIS= The combination of axis which superimposed on other


axis which is used to do operation.

20) FLANGE COORDINATE SYSTEM= It is coordinate system which is set according


to the axis of arm.

21) SUPPLEMENTARY LOAD= It is that extra load which is put on the robot so that
efficiency of robot does not decrease.

22) FIXED TOOL= It means that the robot guides a workpiece to one or more stationary
tools that are integrated into the cell.

23) LOGIC PROGRAMMING= To communicate between peripheral devices and robot


system, logic programming is used.

24) PERIPHERAL DEVICES= Out of robot system, any other devices which is integrate
to robot is known as peripheral devices.

25) MAIN RUN POINTER= It is the point in the program which is highlighted.

26) ADVANCE RUN POINTER= It is always 3 steps ahead of main run pointer due to
advance calculation execution.

27) B.C.O.(BLOCK COINCIDE RUN)= For the purpose of ensuring that the robot
position corresponds to the coordinates of current program unit, a BCO run is executed.

28) D-H PARAMETERS= By D-H parameters we can find relation between any of
joint/link of robot to coordinate of object.(alpha,a,d,theta)

where alpha= Angle of twist between joint which is fixed.

(5)
a= Angle of link from base.
d= Link length
theta= Angle of link between joint which is variable.

29) SINGULAR POINTS= Points of robot where end-effector does not reach.

30) JACOBIAN= Relation between 2 coordinate system.

31) SINGULARITY= It is defined as confusion created by the robot to reach a point by


an infinite number of solutions.

(2.1)APPLICATION OF KUKA ROBOTICS

1) Welding
2) Packaging of boxes
3) Checking of joints in chassis
4) Painting
5) Cutting of meat
6) Making of T.V.
7) Handling of engine block
8) Handling of sheet metal

and so on......

(2.2) PARTS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOT

[Figure-2.2-Parts of industrial robots]

(6)
(3) PROGRAMMING METHODS

The programming methods are of 2 types in KUKA robots-

1) Online method= It also consist of 2 types-


A) Teaching method
B) Playback/lead-through method
2) Offline method= It also consist of 2 types-
A) Text based method
B) Graphical based method

In teaching based method, we teach the robot the coordinates of point where the robot
should have to reach by moving its axis with the help of teach-pendant.

In lead-through based method,we teach the robot the coordinates of point where the
robot should have to reach by moving its axis manually.

In text based method, we teach the robot the coordinates of point where the robot
should have to reach by providing the coordinate.

[Figure-3.1-Various types of modes in robot programming]

(3.1)VARIOUS TYPES OF SIMULATION SOFTWARES USED FOR


KUKA ROBOTS

1) KUKA SIM-VIEWER

(7)
[Figure 3.2- KUKA SIM VIEWER]

2) KUKA SIM-PRO

[Figure-3.3-KUKA SIM-PRO]

3) KUKA SIM-TECH

(3.2) TYPES OF ROBOTS BASED ON CONTROL

1)SERVO CONTROL ROBOTS= It is 1st generation of robots. It is driven by servo


motors.
2) NON-SERVO CONTROL ROBOTS=It is the 2nd generation of robots. It is controlled
by limit switches.

(8)
3) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE(A.I.) ROBOTS= It is the 3rd generation of robots. It
implies the use of a computer to replicate intelligent behaviour.
4) HUMANOID ROBOTS= It is 4th generation of robots. It is built to resemble humans.
5) BIO-LOGICAL ROBOTS=It is 5th generation of robots. It is made to emulate
biological organism.

(3.3) LAWS OF ROBOTICS

1) 0th LAW= It states that, "a robot may not injure a human being".
2) 1st LAW= It states that, "a robot must obey orders given by human beings".
3) 2nd LAW= It states that, "a robot must protect its existence".

(3.4)VARIOUS TYPES OF MODES OF RUNNING PROGRAM IN


ROBOTS

[Figure-3.4-VARIOUS TYPES OF MODES OF RUNNING PROGRAM IN ROBOTS]

(9)
(3.5) VELOCITY OF MODES OF PROGRAM IN ROBOT

[Figure 3.5- VELOCITY OF MODES OF PROGRAM IN ROBOT]

(3.6)VARIOUS TYPES OF BREAKINGS OCCURS IN ROBOTIC


OPERATION

[Figure 3.6-VARIOUS TYPES OF BREAKINGS OCCURS IN ROBOTIC OPERATION]

(4) MASTERING

To set all parameters of robots to zero is known as mastering. During mastering, the
robot moves to mechanical zero position, and the encoder value for each axis is saved.
In this way the mechanical zero position and the electronic zero position are coincides.

For achieving mastering in robot 3 devices are used which are-

1) ELECTRONIC MEASURING TOOL(E.M.T.)= Used only for C2 controller.

[Figure 4.1- ELECTRONIC MEASURING TOOL]


2) DIAL GAUGE
[Figure 4.2- DIAL GAUGE]

3) ELECTRONIC MEASURING DEVICE(E.M.D.)= Used for both C2 and C4 controller.

[Figure 4.3-ELECTRONIC MEASURING DEVICE(E.M.D.)]

where Axis 1,2,3= Main axis


Axis 4,5,6= Major axis

(4.1)POINTS TO REMEMBER WHILE PERFORMING MASTERING


OPERATION IN ROBOT

1) A unmaster robot did not save data in any mode.


2) For master operation, always use '-' keys.
3) For master operation always move from A1 to A6.
4) For master operation, always use axis specific coordinate system.

(11)
(4.2) STANDARD WORK OF WIRE IN ROBOT

1) BLACK(BOLD,12)= Electricity
2) Red(BOLD,12)= Chemical
3) Blue(BOLD,12)= Pneumatic
4) Green(BOLD,12)= Coolant
5) Purple(BOLD,12)= Sensor operation

(5) COORDINATES SYSTEM USED IN ROBOT

1) AXIS COORDINATE SYSTEM= It is coordinate system system whose coordinate


system is on robroot. It cannot be changed and it is universal.

[Figure 5.1-AXIS COORDINATE SYSTEM]

2) WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM= It is coordinate system whose coordinate system


is on robroot. It cannot be changed and it is universal.
3)TOOL COORDINATE SYSTEM= Rectangular coordinate system which has its origin
on the workpiece that is processed. It can be changed according to requirement.
4) BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM= Rectangular coordinate system whose origin is
located in the tool. It can be changed according to requirement.

(12)
(5.1)TOOL CALIBRATION

We shift coordinate system from robroot to tool because to avoid tool collision with
workpiece/table. We also do tool calibration because to maintain maximum speed of
robot at tooltip.

METHODS OF TOOL CALIBRATION-

1) TCP CALIBRATION= It contains 2 methods-


A) XYZ-4 POINT Or X-Y-Z-
REFERENCE= This is used to teach 4 points via X-Y-Z coordinate. In this TCP(TOOL
CALIBRATION POINT)

of the tool is moved to a reference point from 4 different directions.

2) ORIENTATION CALIBRATION= It contains 2 methods-


A) ABC WORLD 5D= This method is
used to calibrate straight pointed tool. In this we have to fulfill conditions i.e. X-axis of
flange is parallel to Z-axis of the tool.
B) ABC WORLD 6D= This method is
used calibrate tool which a lot of T.CP. In this we have to fulfill conditions i.e. X-axis of
flange is parallel to Z-axis of tool and Y-axis of flange is equal to Y-axis of the tool.

(5.2)BASE CALIBRATION

Base calibration is done to maintain path during jogging operation and to maintain
speed. It can be achieved via 3 POINT METHOD.

(6)TYPES OF MOTION IN ROBOT PROGRAMMING

1) AXIS SPECIFIC= It contains PTP(point to point) motion. In PTP motion path is not
defined. In PTP motion, the axis which moves fast out of all axis is known as leading
axis. In PTP motion, velocity is in %.

(13)
[Figure 6.1-AXIS SPECIFIC]

2) PATH RELATED= It contains 2 types of motion-

A) LIN(LINEAR) MOTION= In LIN motion velocity is in m/s.

[Figure 6.2- LIN(LINEAR) Motion]

B) CIRC(CIRCULAR) MOTION= In CIRC motion, velocity is in m/s.

[Figure-6.3- CIRC(CIRCULAR) MOTION]


(6.1) STATUS AND TURN
Status and turn is used to define the paths and angles followed by robot to reach to a
point in PTP motion only. The value of turn is a binary coded value between 0-63 by
reason of 6 axis.
The value of status is a binary coded value between 0-7. The values of status and turn
can only be seen in expert group.

(7)TYPES OF LOGIC COMMANDS

1) Time dependant wait function


2) Signal dependant wait function
3) Switching function
4) Coupling-decoupling wait function

(7.1)SOME EXAMPLES OF LOGIC COMMANDS

1) WAIT= This commands always used for operation where some kind of delay is
required. Its value is user-defined.
2) OUT= This command is used to send signal robot system to peripheral devices.
3) IN= This command is used to send signals from peripheral devices to robot system.
4) PULSE= It is used to start peripheral devices for a given time period and then
automatically off it.
5) SYN OUT= It is used to start peripheral devices by taking a reference distance from a
reference point.

(8)REFERENCE
1) Figure 1.1- wikipedia.com
2) Figure 1.2- wikipedia.com
3) Figure 1.3- wikipedia.com
4) Figure 1.4- statista.com
5) Figure 2.1- unz.com
6) Figure 2.2- plant-automation-technology.com
7) Figure 3.1- youtube.com
8) Figure 3.2- youtube.com
9) Figure 4.1- youtube.com

(15)
REPORT=2

(BOSCH-REXROTH
INDUSTRIAL
AUTOMATION)

(viii)
INDEX

S.NO. TOPICS PAGE NO.

1) 1) INTRODUCTION 16-17

1.1) List of product made by bosch-rexroth 17


1.2) Topics covered in bosch-rexroth industrial training 17
program(2019)
1.3) Various training centre for Bosch-Rexroth of 17
automation in India

2) 2) INDUSTRIAL PNEUMATICS 17-24

2.1) Difference between hydraulics and pneumatics 18


2.2) Directional control valve 18
2.3) Symbols used in pneumatics 20
2.4) Advantages of compressed air 21
2.5) Disadvantages of compressed air 21
2.6) Disadvantages of compressed air 21
2.7) Types of linear actuator 22
2.8) Flow control valve 23
2.9) Quick exhaust valve 23

3) 3) INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS 24-27

3.1) Types of flow 25


3.2) Hydraulic pumps 26

4) 4) PLC 27-37

4.1) Open loop system 27


4.2) Close loop system 28
4.3) Servo motor 28
4.4) PLC 30
4.5) Types of PLC 30
4.6) Limitations of PLC 31
4.7) Difference between PLC and DCS 31
4.8) Various types of PLC provided by bosch-rexroth 32
4.9) Various types of programming used in PLC 33
4.10) Various types of addressing used in PLC 34
programming language
4.11) Various types of gates used in PLC 35
4.12) Timers 36
4.13) Various types of timers provided by bosch- 37
rexroth
4.14) Counters 37
4.15) Various types of counters provided by bosch- 37
rexroth

5) 5) SENSOR 37-41

5.1) Working of a sensor


5.2) Parts of a sensor
5.3) Various types of sensor
5.4) Various types of proximity sensor

LIST OF TABLES

S.NO NAME OF TABLE PAGE NO.


.
1) Difference between hydraulics and pneumatics 18
2) Difference between PLC and DCS 32
3) Bit form 34
4) Byte form 35
5) Word form 35

LIST OF FIGURES

S.N NAME OF FIGURES PAGE NO.


O.

1) Logo of bosch-rexroth 16
2) Various types of automation companies in the 16
world

3) Nomenclature of pneumatic DCV 18


4) Nomenclature of DCV based on its actuation 19
method

5) DCV for industrial hydraulics 19


6) Symbols used in pneumatics 20
7) Single acting cylinder 21
8) Double acting cylinder 22
9) Flow control valve 22
10) Quick exhaust valve 23
11) OR-GATE 23
12) AND-GATE 24
13) Shut-off valve 27
14) Open control system 28
15) Close control system 28
16) Servo motor 29
17) Fixed PLC 30
18) Modular PLC 31
19) Various types of PLC provided by bosch-rexroth 33

(x)
(1) INTRODUCTION

[Figure 1.1-LOGO OF BOSCH-REXROTH]

Bosch Rexroth AG is an engineering firm based in Lohr am Main in Germany. It is the


result of a merger on 1 May 2001 between Mannesmann Rexroth AG and the
Automation Technology
Business Unit of Robert Bosch GmbH, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Robert
Bosch GmbH.Bosch Rexroth employs over 31,000 people worldwide, and achieved
total revenue of 5.4 billion euro in 2015.

[Figure 1.2-Photo of various automation company in the world]

(16)
(1.1)LIST OF PRODUCTS MADE BY BOSCH REXROTH

1)Assembly Technology
2)Electric Drives and Controls
3)Gear Technology
4)Industrial Hydraulics
5)Linear Motion Technology
6)Mobile Hydraulics
7)Moulding and Casting Technologies
8)Tightening Technology
9)Welding Technology
10)Production Assistants (APAS)

(1.2)TOPICS COVERED IN BOSCH-REXROTH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING


PROGRAM(2019)

1) INDUSTRIAL PNEUMATICS
2) INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS
3) INDUSTRIAL PLC
4) SENSORS
5) SCADA AND H.M.I.

(1.3) Various training centre for Bosch-Rexroth of automation in India

1)REXROTH BOSCH GROUP,DELHI


2)C.V. RAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,BHUBANESWAR
3)BAPATLA ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
4)GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY,AHMEDABAD
5)SRM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,CHENNAI
6) AKGEC,GHAZIABAD

(2)INDUSTRIAL PNEUMATICS

(17)
AUTOMATION= The technique of making an apparatus, a process or a system operate
automatically is called ''automation".

PNEUMATICS= It is the branch of physics which deals with properties,motion and


behaviour of air.

(2.1)DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS

PARAMETERS PNEUMATICS HYDRAULICS


Law Gas Law Pascal Law

Working Pressure 4 to 10 bar Up to 600 bar

Force Achievable 50KN 50,000KN

Working Speed 1 to 1.5m/s 0.5m/s

Positional Accuracy 0.1mm Upto 1 micron

Sensitivity to Clean Dirty, fire risk,leakage


Environment

(2.2)DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE(D.C.V.)

It is mainly used to change the direction of flow.

NOMENCLATURE USED IN DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES[D.C.V]

[Figure 2.1- Nomenclature of Pneumatic D.C.V.]


(18)
[Figure 2.2- Nomenclature of D.C.V. on the basis of its actuation method]

[Figure 2.3- D.C.V. for industrial hydraulics]

(19)
D.C.V. are designated as per the following function-

1) Number of ports on the valves.


2) Number of switching positions.
3) Method of actuation.
4) Method of reset.
5) Design and constructional features.

(2.3)SYMBOLS USED IN PNEUMATICS

[Figure 2.4-SYMBOLS USED IN PNEUMATICS]

(20)
(2.4)ADVANTAGES OF COMPRESSED AIR

1)Easily transported
2)Easily stored
3)Clean and dry
4)Lightweight
5)Safe to use
6)Accident-proof
7)Rational and economical

(2.5)DISADVANTAGES OF COMPRESSED AIR

1)Requires installation of air-producing equipment


2)Easy to leak
3)Potential noise

(2.6)TYPES OF LINEAR ACTUATORS

1) SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER(BOLD,12)=


A) It exerts force only in one direction.
B) It has one working port.

[Figure 2.5- Single acting cylinder]

(21)
2) DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER(BOLD,12)=
A) It exert force in both horizontal directions.
B) It has more than one working port.

[Figure 2.6- Double acting cylinder]

When we control the air in the system when it is going in then it is known as "meter-in"
and when we control the air in the system when it is going out then it is
known as "meter-out"

(2.7)FLOW CONTROL VALVE


To control the air in or out from the system a device is used which is a flow control
valve.

[Figure 2.7- Flow control valve]

(22)
there are 2 types of flow control valve-

A) One-way flow control valve


B) Two-way flow control valve.

(2.8)QUICK EXHAUST VALVE

It is used to control air when there is more volume exhausted as compared to volume
inserted.

[Figure 2.8- Quick exhaust valve]

(2.9)SIGNAL PROCESSING DEVICES

To meet the requirement of various conditions in pneumatic application, signal


processing devices are used.

A) OR-GATE(BOLD,12)= It is used to select one of the two input signals.


Example= Shuttle valve.

[Figure 2.9- OR-GATE]

(23)
B) AND-GATE(BOLD,12)= It is used to combine two input signals.
Example= Two pressure valve.

[Figure 2.10- AND-GATE]

C) NOT-GATE(BOLD,12)= It is used to neglect function.


Example= 3/2 way normally open valve.

PNEUMATIC TIMERS

It is used to create time delays of signals in pilot operated circuit.


It is available as-
A) Normally Closed Timers.
B) Normally Open Timers.

(3)INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS
(A)HYDROMECHANICS(BOLD,14)= The study of the mechanics of fluids or the laws
of equilibrium and motion concerning fluids.

It is divided into 2 types-

A) Hydrodynamics= It is the study of mechanics of fluid.

F=QxPV , where
Q= Flow rate (24)
P= Fluid density
V= Velocity

B) Hydrostatics= The hydrostatic pressure or simply "pressure" does not depend on


the type of vessel used. It is purely dependant on the height and density of the
column of liquid.
F=PxA ,where,
P= Pressure
A= Area

Pressure Intensification= Amplifying of pressure due to geometry is known as pressure


intensification.

Flow rate= Volume of fluid passes/Time

Equation of continuity=When a fluid is in motion, it must move in such a way that mass
is conserved.(P1,A1,V1=P2,A2,V2)

(3.1)TYPES OF FLOW

It is of 2 types-

A) Laminar Flow = In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is characterized by fluid particles


following smooth paths in layers, with each layer moving smoothly past the adjacent
layers with little or no mixing. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral
mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no
cross-currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluids. In
laminar flow, the motion of the particles of the fluid is very orderly with particles close to
a solid surface moving in straight lines parallel to that surface.Laminar flow is a flow
regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection.

B) Turbulent Flow= In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is fluid motion


characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. It is in contrast to
laminar flow, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption
between the layers.
Turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as surfing, fast flowing
rivers, billowing storm clouds, or smoke from a chimney, and most fluid flows occurring
in nature or created in engineering applications are turbulent. Turbulence is caused by
excessive kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow, which overcomes the damping effect of
the fluid's viscosity. For this reason turbulence is commonly realized in low viscosity
fluids.

(3.2)HYDRAULICS PUMPS

Hydraulic pumps should convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.(Flow,


Pressure).
While choosing a pump,following points taken considerations-

1) Operating medium
2) Required range of pressure
3) Maximum and minimum viscosities
4) Expected lifetime
5) Ease of servicing

It is of 2 types-

A) ROTODYNAMIC PUMP=A rotodynamic pump is a kinetic machine in which energy


is continuously imparted to the pumped fluid by means of a rotating impeller,
propeller, or rotor. The most common types of rotodynamic pumps are axial flow, mixed
flow, and centrifugal pumps (radial flow).

B) POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP=A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to


move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that trapped
volume into the discharge pipe.

Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a
decreasing cavity on the discharge side.
Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid
flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses.
The volume is constant through each cycle of operation.

Pressure relief valve= It is used to maintain a certain amount of pressure in a system. It


bypass pressure when the pressure of the system is exceeded.

Shut-off valve= To stop the flow in the system it is used. (26)


[Figure 3.1-Shut off valve]

Latching= The process of making a stationary position in circuit until and unless no
external button comes in position.

(4)INDUSTRIAL P.L.C.

(4.1)OPEN LOOP SYSTEM

In an open-loop controller, also called a non-feedback controller, the control action from
the controller is independent of the
"process output", which is the process variable that is being controlled. It does not use
feedback to determine if its output has achieved the desired goal of the
input command or process "set point".

There are a large number of open loop controls, such as on/off switching of valves,
machinery, lights, motors or heaters, where the control result is known to be
approximately sufficient under normal conditions without the need for feedback. The
advantage of using open loop control in these cases is the reduction in
component count and complexity. However, an open-loop system cannot correct any
errors that it makes or correct for outside disturbances, and cannot engage in
machine learning.

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[Figure 4.1- Open loop system]

(4.2)CLOSE LOOP SYSTEM

In closed loop control, the control action from the controller is dependent on the
process output. In the case of the boiler analogy
this would include a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, and thereby feed
back a signal to ensure the controller maintains the building at the temperature
set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller therefore has a feedback loop which
ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same
as the "reference input" or "set point". For this reason, closed loop controllers are also
called feedback controllers.

[Figure 4.2- Close loop system]

(4.3)SERVO MOTOR

It is a rotary/linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear positions.
It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback.
The motor is paired with some type of encoder for feedbacking.
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[Figure 4.3- Servo motor]

PARTS OF SERVO MOTOR

1) Power connector
2) Flange
3) Shaft
4) Bearing cap
5) Frame
6) Housing
7) Encoder cover
8) Encoder connectors

Encoders are used to translate rotary or linear motion into a digital signal. Servo motor
are controlled by P.W.M.(Pulse Width Modulation).
Pulse of 1ms can rotate shaft of motor upto 0degree. Pulse of 1.5ms can rotate shaft of
motor upto 90degree. Pulse of 2ms can rotate shaft of motor up to 180degree.

APPLICATION OF SERVO MOTOR

1) Robotics

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2) Conveyors or pulleys
3) Solar tracking system
4) Metal Cutting & Metal Forming Machines
5) Automatic Door Openers

(4.4)P.L.C.

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is an industrial


digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for
the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or
any activity that requires high reliability control and ease
of programming and process fault diagnosis.

PLCs were first developed in the automobile manufacturing industry to provide flexible,
ruggedized and easily programmable controllers to replace
hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then, they have been widely adopted
as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments.

(4.5)TYPE OF P.L.C.

1) FIXED P.L.C.= “Fixed I/O” actually stands for Fixed “Input/Output”. When you buy
Compact PLCs, you will notice that the input section and the output
sections of the PLC are integrated into the microcontroller itself.
This means that every type of output or input is fixed and is determined by the
manufacturer.

[Figure 4.4- Fixed PLC]

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2) MODULAR P.L.C.= The modular PLC is a type that allows multiple expansions of the
PLC system through the use of modules, hence the term “modular”.
Modules give the programmable logic controller additional features like increased
number of I/O units, and they are usually easier to use because each component is
independent of each other.

[Figure 4.5-Modular PLC]

(4.6)LIMITATIONS OF P.L.C.

1) P.L.C. can control upto 200 analog values. After 200 analog values,
D.C.S.(Distributed Control System) is used.
2) D.C.S. is used to control many P.L.C. at a single time. Upto 4-5 P.L.C. we can put
master-slave in P.L.C. but more than 10 P.L.C. we use D.C.S.
3) P.L.C. can store data upto 1 GB.
4) We can give in both A.C. and D.C. power in P.L.C. but from output we get A.C.

(4.7)DIFFERENCE BETWEEN P.L.C. AND D.C.S

S.NO. P.L.C. D.C.S.

1) P.L.C. is a digital computer used D.C.S. is an automated control system


for automation of I.e. distributed through a machine to
electromechanical processes. provide instructions to different parts of
machine.

2) PLC is a one unit used to control DCS is number of PLC`s distributed


particular machine or production over a control network over the entire
unit. plant.

3) PLC is a on/off controller. It control DCS can control many PLC`s at a


machine only on and off. single time.

4) PLC is used commonly with on/off DCS is used commonly with process
control and may be expanded with control system as it is combined of
analog I/O modules for analog many control cards,PLCs
control and used for a unique task.

5) PLC does not have wide range of DCS have wide range of
communication communication

6) PLC is basically oriented for one In DCS there is redundant PLC for
job only,suppose if PLC fails then each PLC so that if primary system
whole system will shut down fails then its standby plc takes over the
charge.

7) PLC has to read all its data itself DCS have many sub processors who
and to generate o/p accordingly,if update their data and give summery to
the system is big the scan cycle DCS, so DCS have to scan only these
goes high and any changes in i/p sub cpu hence it improves the scan
could scan and display little late cycle and system become faster.Now
PLC has also coming with big data
handling capacity with low scan cycle.

8) In PLC,we can’t change In DCS,parameters can be changed


configuration online.we have to go online.
offline to change configuration.

9) In PLC analog control is simple In DCS simple to advanced PID control


PID control. up to advanced process control.

10) Total cost and size is much less Total cost and size is higher.
than DCS system.

(4.8)VARIOUS TYPE OF P.L.C. PROVIDED BY BOSCH-REXROTH

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[Figure 4.6- VARIOUS TYPE OF P.L.C. PROVIDED BY BOSCH-REXROTH]

SERIAL COMMUNICATION= It is the oldest type of protocol. In this there is only one
receiver and one transmissor.

In P.L.C, FIFO(FIRST IN FIRST OUT) principle is used. In P.L.C., data is read from left
to right hand side.

LOCAL/ONBOARD I/O= Those I/O(INPUT/OUTPUT) which is connected to the main


body of PLC. It is pre-configured I/O
INLINE I/O= Those I/O which is connected in PLC in extra as per requirement.
NETWORK AND DISTRIBUTED I/O= Those I/O which is connected to slave or any
other PLC via cable.

(4.9)VARIOUS PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES USED IN PLC

1) STRUCTURED TEXT(S.T.)= Structured text, abbreviated as ST or STX, is one of the


five languages supported by the IEC 61131-3 standard, designed for
programmable logic controllers (PLCs).[1] It is a high level language that is block
structured and syntactically resembles Pascal, on which it is based.

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2) INSTRUCTOR LIST(I.L.)= Instruction lists (or ILs) are one of the five PLC
programming languages defined by the IEC 61131-3 standard.
(The others being ladder logic diagrams, function block diagrams, sequential function
charts, and structured text.)ILs are not a graphical programming language.
Instead, they most resemble assembly language programming. As the name implies, a
program is a series of instructions, listed in much the same way as an assembly
program.

3) LADDER LOGIC(L.D.)= Ladder logic has evolved into a programming language that
represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of
relay logic hardware. Ladder logic is used to develop software for programmable logic
controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The name is based
on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical
rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them

4) FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM= The term function block diagram (FBD) is used
for PLC programs described in terms of graphical blocks. It is described as a
graphical language for depicting signal and data flows through blocks, which are
reusable software elements. A function block is a program instruction unit that,
when executed, yields one or more output values.

5) FLOW CHART(F.C.)= Another programming language used by PLCs and defined


within the IEC-61131-3 standard is “sequential logic” or “sequential function charts
(SFC).” Sequential logic differs from ladder logic in that each step is executed in
isolation and progresses to the next step only upon completion, as opposed to
ladder logic where every step is tested in each scan. This type of sequential
programming is very common in batch-oriented operations.

(4.10)VARIOUS TYPES OF ADDRESSING USED IN PLC


PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

1) BIT FORM (X)


S.NO. INPUT OUTPUT

1) % IX 0.0 %QX 0.0

2) % IX 0.1 %QX 0.1

3) % IX 1.7 %QX 1.7


2) BYTE FORM(B)
S.NO. INPUT OUTPUT

1) %IB0 %QB1

2) %IB1 %QB2

3) %IB2 %QB3

3) WORD FORM
S.NO. INPUT OUTPUT

1) %IW0 %QW0

2) %IW1 %QW1

3) %IW2 %QW2

(4.11)VARIOUS TYPES OF GATES USED IN PLC PROGRAMMING

[Figure 4.7-VARIOUS TYPES OF GATES USED IN PLC PROGRAMMING ]

(4.12)TIMERS
Timers are used to provide logic when a circuit turns on or off. Traditional pneumatic
timers were provided as either on-delay timers or off-delay timers. Contacts were
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provided both normally open and normally closed for each type of timer. The timer head
was chosen as either the on-delay type or off-delay type.

[Figure 4.8- Timers]

PLCs allow for a quick change from one type to the other with a few keystrokes on the
programming panel.

Format of timers in PLC= t#_ _h _ _m _ _s _ _ms

(4.13)VARIOUS TYPES OF TIMERS PROVIDED BY BOSCH

1) T-ON TIMER=A TON instruction time, as long as the instructions preceding it on the
rung are true and the accumulated value is less than the preset.
When the TON is true, it will write a "1" to the EN (Enable). If the TON is true and the
ACC (Accumulated) is less than the PRE (Preset), the TON will write a "1" to the
TT (Timer Timing) bit and a "0" to the DN (Done) bit. If the TON is true and the ACC
(Accumulated) is greater than the PRE (Preset), the TON will write a "0" to the TT
(Timer Timing) bit and a "1" to the DN (Done) bit.When a TON is false, it will write a "0"
to the accumulated value, EN (Enable), TT (Timer Timing), and the DN (Done)
bit.

2) T-OFF TIMER= A TOFF timer will keep the output energized for a preset time after
the rung signal has gone false.The TOFF timer will have all the contents as in
the TON timer, with a similar function.

3) PULSE TIMER=A retentive timer is used when you want to retain accumulated time
value through the power loss or the change in the rung state.
A retentive timer accumulates time whenever the device receives power, and it
maintains the current time should power be removed from the device.

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Loss of power to the timer after reaching its preset value does not affect the state of the
contacts. The retentive timer must be intentionally reset with a separate
signal for the accumulated time to be reset

(4.14)COUNTERS

A PLC counter is a function block that counts up or down until it reaches a limit. When
the limit is reached the output is set. PLC counters are also used to assist
logging to SCADA systems by counting the amount of times these events has
happened or setting alarms when an event has happened a certain amount of times.

[Figure 4.9- Counters]

(4.15)VARIOUS TYPES OF COUNTERS PROVIDED BY BOSCH

1) UPCONTERS= Up counter is an increment counter. which means it counts “up” with


each off-to-on transition input to its “CU” input. Whenever there is a true
value entry in the CU input, the counter will turn on and CV will display the count. This
counter output must be activated whenever the current value is equal to
or greater than the preset value. The counter output instruction will increase by 1 each
time the counted event occurs.

2) DOWNCONTERS= The down-counter instruction will count down or decrease by 1


each time the counted event occurs. Each time the countdown event occurs,
the accumulated value decreases. Normally, the down counter is used together with
the ascending counter to form an up / down counter.

(5)SENSORS

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A sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or
changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics,
frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics.A
sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the
input quantity being measured changes.

(5.1)WORKING OF A SENSOR

Sensors react to changing physical conditions by altering their electrical properties.


Thus, most artificial sensors rely on electronic systems to capture, analyse and
relay information about the environment. These electronic systems rely on the same
principles as electrical circuits to work, so the ability to control the flow of
electrical energy is very important.Put simply, a sensor converts stimuli such as heat,
light, sound and motion into electrical signals. These signals are passed
through an interface that converts them into a binary code and passes this on to a
computer to be processed.Many sensors act as a switch, controlling the flow of
electric charges through the circuit. Switches are an important part of electronics as
they change the state of the circuit. Components of sensors such as integrated
circuits (chips), transistors and diodes all contain semiconducting material and are
included in the sensor circuits so that they act as switches. For example, a
transistor works by using a small electrical current in one part of the circuit to switch on
a large electrical current in another part of the circuit.

(5.2)VARIOUS PARTS OF A SENSOR

1) Plastic sleeves
2) Printed circuit
3) Cables
4) Coil
5) Integrated circuit
6) Ferrite core
7) Epoxy resin
8) L.E.D.

(5.3)VARIOUS TYPES OF SENSOR

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[Figure 5.1- Various types of sensor]

Temperature Sensor
Proximity Sensor
Accelerometer
IR Sensor (Infrared Sensor)
Pressure Sensor
Light Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
Smoke, Gas and Alcohol Sensor
Touch Sensor
Color Sensor
Humidity Sensor
Tilt Sensor
Flow and Level Sensor

(5.4)VARIOUS TYPES OF PROXIMITY SENSORS

1)INDUCTIVE= An inductive sensor is a device that uses the principle of


electromagnetic induction to detect or measure objects. An inductor develops a
magnetic
field when a current flows through it; alternatively, a current will flow through a circuit
containing an inductor when the magnetic field through it changes.
This effect can be used to detect metallic objects that interact with a magnetic field.
Non-metallic substances such as liquids or some kinds of dirt do not interact

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with the magnetic field, so an inductive sensor can operate in wet or dirty conditions.

[Figure 5.2- Inductive sensor]

2)CAPACITIVE= One of the most common sensor types is the capacitive proximity
sensor. As the name suggests, capacitive proximity sensors operate by noting a
change in the capacitance read by the sensor.
The way a capacitive proximity sensor works is that one of the conductive elements, or
plates, is inside the sensor itself while the other one is the object to be
sensed. The internal plate is connected to an oscillator circuit that generates an electric
field. The air gap between the internal plate and the external object serves
as the insulator or dielectric material. When an object is present, that changes the
capacitance value and registers as the presence of the object.
A typical sensing range for capacitive proximity sensors is from a few millimeters up to
about 1 in. (or 25 mm), and some sensors have an extended range up to 2 in.

[Figure 5.3- Capacitive sensor]


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3)MAGNETIC= Magnetic proximity sensors are used for non-contact object detection
beyond the normal limits of inductive sensors. Used with a separate damping
magnet, they offer very long sensing ranges in a small package and can detect magnets
through walls of non-ferrous metal, stainless steel, aluminum, plastic or wood.

REFERENCE

1) Figure 1.1- wikipedia.com


2) Figure 1.2- uk.rs-online.com
3) Figure 2.3- indiamart.com
4) Figure 2.7- scribd.com
5) Figure 2.8-commons.wikimedia.org
6) Figure 2.9- commons.wikimedia.org
7) Figure 2.10-commons.wikimedia.org
8) Figure 3.1- instrumentationtools.com
9) Figure 4.1- electronicshub.com
10) Figure 4.2- electronicshub.com
11) Figure 4.3- instrumentationtools.com
12) Figure 4.4- scribd.com
13) Figure 4.5-electronicshub.com
14) Figure 4.6- commons.wikimedia.org
15) Figure 4.7- electronicshub.com

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