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SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE - PHOTOVOLTAIC

HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

____________________

A Thesis Project

Presented to the faculty of

Electrical Engineering Department

Of College of Engineering of the

Cebu Technological University – Main Campus

Cebu City, Philippines

____________________

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

Paujana, Anjuhn M.

Arnejo, Arniel H.

Apanto, Marvin L.

Batoon, Neil C.

December 2018
APPROVAL SHEET

This Thesis entitled “SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE –


PHOTOVOLTAIC HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM”, prepared and sub-
mitted by Paujana, Anjuhn M.; Arnejo, Arniel H.; Apanto, Marvin L., Batoon, Neil
C. in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the course of Bachelor of Science in Elec-
trical Engineering, has been examined and recommended for acceptance and approval for
Oral Examination.
THESIS ADVISORY COMMITTEE

HELENE V. ANDOLERO, EE, MSME


Chairman

HELENE V. ANDOLERO, EE, MSME FERDINAND F. BATAYOLA, EE, MTE


Adviser Course Professor/Instructor

APPROVED by the Committee on Oral Examination with the grade of: PASSED

THE PANEL OF ORAL EXAMINERS

JASON C. MURING, EE, MEng


Chairman

WILEN MELSEDEC O. NARVIOS,EE,MEng JOECYN N. ARCHIVAL,EE,Ph.D.


Member Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering.

Date of Oral Examination: December 06, 2018

EDGAR C. AMBOS, ME, MEng, Ph.D.


OIC Dean, College of Engineering

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DEDICATION

________________________________________________________________

This study is wholeheartedly dedicated

to the Almighty Father who give us strength

and gift of knowledge.

To our very understanding families,

who serve as the source of inspiration in

the realization of this endeavor.

To the members of the group and friends

Who are behind in developing the prototype.

To our professors and instructors who serve

as instruments to impart their knowledge and

wisdom to accomplish this great endeavour.

And to all of you, we heartily dedicate this piece of work.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The completion of this undertakings could not have been possible without the

participation, motivation and assistance of so many people whose names may not all be

enumerated. The contributions are sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. The

researchers find it a great pleasure to express our indebtedness above all to almighty God,

whose grace and blessings made this research possible.

Moreover the group would like to express their deep appreciation and indebtedness

particularly to the following:

Engr. Ferdinand Batayola, thesis subject instructor for providing his valuable ideas

and suggestions in organizing the research paper. His technical advice and professional

guidance for the completion of this research.

Engr. Helene Andolero, thesis adviser for sharing her knowledge to the researchers

about the project and undertaking to his valuable recommendations in polishing this

research. Also, for her kindness and encouragement to pursue and finish the project greatly

motivate the team.

To university instructors for giving their piece of advice and valuable comments

for the completion of this study.

To the panel members, your kindness, understanding and consideration to the

researchers and the valuable suggestion for the enhancement of this work.

The developed prototype would not be visualized and turn into reality without the

efforts of the workers in the machine shop.

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Special mention to the families of the researchers, who gave their never-ending

support. Appreciates the researcher’s effort and for providing the financial support to make

this study complete.

To the residents of Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island, Lapu-lapu City for adopting the

team and aiding during the stay in the chosen location. For their generosity and honest

response in answering the questionnaires and providing data needed in this study.

And to everybody who contributed and were instrumental in the completion of this

study, Thank you and To God Be The Glory.

v
Table of Contents
Chapter I.............................................................................................................................. 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING............................................................................... 1
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ..................................................................................... 2
1.3 Significance of the Study ....................................................................................... 3
1.4 Scope and Limitations ........................................................................................... 3
1.5 Definition of Terms ................................................................................................ 4
Chapter II ............................................................................................................................ 5
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES ............................................. 5
2.1 Review of Related Literatures ............................................................................... 5
2.1.1 Generation of Electricity .................................................................................. 5
2.1.2 The rise of Renewable sources in Power generation ...................................... 5
2.1.3 Using of Wind Turbine in Power Production .................................................... 6
2.1.4 Advantages of using Vertical Axis Wind Turbine ............................................. 7
2.1.5 Evolution of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine .......................................................... 7
2.1.6 Harnessing Solar Energy ................................................................................ 9
2.2 Related Studies....................................................................................................10
2.3 Potentials of Inputs ..............................................................................................11
2.4 Theoretical Power Output.....................................................................................12
2.5 Related Technology .............................................................................................15
2.5.1 Photovoltaic Cell ............................................................................................15
2.5.2 Dynamo .........................................................................................................17
2.5.3 Boost Converter.............................................................................................17
2.5.4 Battery ...........................................................................................................18
Chapter III ......................................................................................................................... 20
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...................................................................................... 20
3.1 Designing of the Prototype ...................................................................................21
3.2.1 Wind Turbine Design .....................................................................................21
3.2.2 Auxiliary Parts................................................................................................25
3.2.3 Technology Application..................................................................................30
3.3 Prototype Fabrication ...........................................................................................37
3.4 Research Environment .........................................................................................39
3.5 Employing the Developed System in the Area......................................................41

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CHAPTER IV ................................................................................................................... 45
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS &INTERPRETATION OF DATA ............................... 45
4.1 Potentials of Renewable Dual Source System: Wind & Solar ...............................46
4.2 Initial Testing ........................................................................................................46
4.2.1 Instruments Use During Testing ....................................................................46
4.2.2 Solar Panel Testing .......................................................................................48
4.2.2 Charge Controller Testing ..............................................................................49
4.2.3 Battery Rating ................................................................................................49
4.3 Monitoring of Parameters .....................................................................................50
4.3.1 Date of Testing: January 31, 2019 .................................................................50
4.3.2 Date of Testing: February 1, 2019 .................................................................53
4.3.3 Date of Testing: February 2, 2019 .................................................................56
4.4 Energy Stored ......................................................................................................59
4.4.1 Battery vs. Load.............................................................................................59
4.4.2 Graphical Representation of Power Outputs ..................................................60
Chapter V .......................................................................................................................... 61
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS. ....................... 61
5.1 Summary .............................................................................................................61
5.2 Findings ...............................................................................................................62
5.3 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................62
5.4 Recommendations ...............................................................................................63
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 65
APPENDICES .................................................................................................................. 68
Permit to Conduct Study.........................................................................................69
Documentations .....................................................................................................71
Maintenance Guide ................................................................................................73
Material Resources ................................................................................................76
Tools and Equipment..............................................................................................77
Bill of Materials ..........................................................................................................78
CURRICULUM VITAE .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: The First Wind Power Plant Built ....................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Evolution of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine ........................................................... 8
Figure 3: Wind Speed Graph ............................................................................................ 11
Figure 4: PV performance to varying irradiation .............................................................. 15
Figure 5: Solar irradiance and Temperature relation to power ....................................... 16
Figure 6: Lead Acid Battery Capacity to Temperature Relationship ............................... 18
Figure 7: Number of Cycles to Depth of Discharge (DOD) Graph .................................. 19
Figure 8: Blade Support .................................................................................................... 22
Figure 9: Upper Blade Support ....................................................................................... 22
Figure 10: Lower Blade Support....................................................................................... 22
Figure 11: Blade Turbine .................................................................................................. 23
Figure 12: Connector ........................................................................................................ 24
Figure 13: Shaft................................................................................................................. 25
Figure 14: Generator Holder ............................................................................................. 26
Figure: 15: Bearing Holder ............................................................................................... 27
Figure 16: Upper Pole ....................................................................................................... 28
Figure 17: Lower Pole ...................................................................................................... 29
Figure 18: Dynamo ........................................................................................................... 30
Figure 19: Solar Panel ....................................................................................................... 31
Figure 20: LC-RD 1217 NA Lead Acid Battery............................................................. 32
Figure 21: Charge Controller ............................................................................................ 34
Figure 22: Boost Converter............................................................................................... 35
Figure 23: LED DC bulb................................................................................................... 35
Figure 24: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine-Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Generation Model
Pictorial Diagram .............................................................................................................. 36
Figure 25: Actual Location at Sta. Rosa Olango Island.................................................... 40
Figure 26: Base Construction............................................................................................ 41
Figure 27: Base Concreting .............................................................................................. 42
Figure 28: Installing parts ................................................................................................. 42
Figure 29: Wiring Connection .......................................................................................... 43
Figure 30: Small Scale VAWT-Photovoltaic Hybrid ....................................................... 44
Power Generation System Prototype ................................................................................ 44
Figure 31: Developed Prototype in the chosen location ................................................... 44
Figure 32: Digital Multitester ........................................................................................... 46
Figure 33: Zephyrus Basic Anemometer .......................................................................... 47
Figure 34: Open Circuit Voltage....................................................................................... 48
Figure 35: Short Circuit Current ....................................................................................... 48
Figure 36: Short Circuit Current ....................................................................................... 49
Figure 37: Battery Voltage Rating .................................................................................... 49
Figure 38: Wind Speed Graph .......................................................................................... 50
Figure 39: Wind Speed Graph .......................................................................................... 53
Figure 40: Wind Speed Graph .......................................................................................... 56
Figure 41: Summary of 3 Day Monitoring ....................................................................... 60

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Electrical Characteristics of Solar Panel............................................................. 31

Table 2: Battery Specifications ......................................................................................... 32

Table 3: Charge Controller Specifications ........................................................................ 33

Table 4: Boost Converter Specifications .......................................................................... 34

Table 5: Load Specifications ............................................................................................ 35

Table 6: Experimental Results for Solar Panel ................................................................. 51

Table 7: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine ............................................................. 52

Table 8: Experimental Results for Solar Panel ................................................................. 54

Table 9: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine ............................................................. 55

Table 10: Experimental Results for Solar Panel ............................................................... 57

Table 11: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine ........................................................... 58

Table 12: Energy Stored in Battery (Ah/ Day) ................................................................. 59

Table 13. List of Technology Used................................................................................... 75

Table 14. List of Materials and their Uses ........................................................................ 76

Table 15: Tools and Equipment ........................................................................................ 77

Table 16 : Bill of Materials ............................................................................................... 78

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ABSTRACT

Energy is the basic necessity for the economic development of a country. Many

functions necessary to present-day living comes to halt when supply of electrical energy

stops. Wind and sun radiant energy are promising sources of alternative renewable energy,

which could operate independently. This study aimed to develop a power generation

system that supplied the lighting system of a structure in Brgy. Sta. Rosa, Olango Island,

Lapu – Lapu City. With the use of photovoltaic cell to harness solar energy and designed

Gorlov helical turbine to transform kinetic energy from wind. Both independent systems

operate together to form the hybrid system and produced electricity that had been stored to

the battery. Based on the week-long monitoring, results had shown that the developed

system generated an average power amounting to 6 ampere-hour per given day of

generation. This amount was enough to supply the lighting system for 8 hours of operation.

The developed hybrid system showed potential in producing enough power for small

scale application such as lightings but not that capable on high power consumption

application.

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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

1.1 Introduction

The use of renewable energy on finding alternative source of energy is emerging

since it was found out that oil and charcoals are minerals that once used, they cannot be

replaced. These minerals also produced harmful byproducts that can damage the

environment. With worlds increasing demand on energy it is necessary to find ways in

order to exploit the total potential of renewable energy resources.

In this research, a wind-photovoltaic hybrid power generation model system is used

as energy source for the illumination of the ticketing booth/waiting shed of entrance and

exit point of Olango Island. Specifically, the site is in Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island,

Lapu-Lapu City. The said location was observed to have no lighting system at all, though

streetlights were positioned on the opposite side of the road. Still, it wasn’t enough to

provide enough illumination during nighttime and as of the study was conducted there was

no access of service drop.

With this research, wind kinetic energy will be converted into an electrical energy

using vertical axis turbine and sun radiant energy will be converted to electrical energy

through photovoltaic cell where harvested energy is being stored in a battery and supplied

in the lighting system in the said location.

The advantage of hybrid system is its flexibility with the ability to use renewable

energy simultaneously whichever is available. In such a case, if one of the renewable


sources such as sunlight was not available during cloudy days and during night time then

there is the wind energy that can be captured by the wind turbine and transform into

electrical energy then stored to the battery for continual operation.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The researchers observed that a certain area in Sta Rosa Wharf, Brgy. Sta. Rosa

Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu City is lack of illumination. The structure is served as ticketing

booth and waiting shed in the community. Though the area is not isolated but up to now

they experienced a limited supply of electricity. Moreover, there is no drop wire can be

found near the structure for a possible source connection. To address the identified

problem, a system will be developed with the use of renewable sources that will supply

power need in the structure. Also this study adopts technologies to enhance the system and

use Vertical Axis Wind Turbine as this kind of turbine is advisable to construct for small

scale generation.

Specifically, the goal of this study is to achieve these following objectives;

1. Design and fabricate a system which serves as generation system of the said

structure.

1.1 With use of renewable sources such as wind and solar.

1.2 Able to apply existing technologies that can enhance the system.

2. Deploy and validate the system performance in the location. Specifically at Brgy.

Sta. Rosa Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu City.

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3. Analyze the effectiveness of the developed system as hybrid power source in

generating electricity. This is measured in terms of

3.1 Generation Capacity

1.3 Significance of the Study

This study able to generate electricity through wind and solar energy that is stored

in a battery for power consumption of the lighting system. Through this project, it will

increase the barangay’s income as the collector could now extend the number of operating

hours. Moreover, based on the report of the barangay that the lack of illumination of the

area lead to young couple makes it as dating place. The main benefactor of this research

are the residents in the community which this study provide knowledge on how to

maximize the use of wind and solar energy which are abundant in location in harnessing

electricity.

1.4 Scope and Limitations

Finding alternative source of electricity with the use of renewable sources is wide

and extensive aspect. From these renewable sources. Researchers mainly focus in solar and

wind. Data were provided in the third chapter of this study to support such claims.

The main objective of this study is to develop a power generation system to supply

the lighting system of the ticketing booth/waiting shed of Barangay Sta. Rosa Olango

Island. This was done by adopting existing technology of vertical axis wind turbine

associated with solar panel. The prototype was installed in the said location to provide

illumination.

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Moreover, this study is only limited for small scale generation and enough to

accommodate low power loads such as DC LED bulb.

1.5 Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as used in this study.

Ampere hour - Is a unit of measure of the rate of electron flow or current in an electrical

conductor in an hour.

Charge controller - Limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from

electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect against over voltage.

Dynamo - Is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a

commutator.

Hybrid – A combination of two or more model system in generating electricity.

Inverter - An electrical device that converts DC source to AC source

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

This section tackles on existing related ideas, existing studies and projects in line

with this study.

2.1 Review of Related Literatures

2.1.1 Generation of Electricity

Nowadays, the existence and survival are very much dependent on electrical

energy. Energy is a thermodynamic quantity that is equal to the limit of physical framework

to deliver work. People are living better than predecessor is due to amount of energy that

are using today to produce heat, to deliver individuals and products and to do work. But

the energy that helps humanity to make work easily is afraid to be drained out after

hundreds of years of consumption underlying the fact that with the years to come energy

consumption will be greater than before. Thus, the quest for alternative resources begun to

continue what have started for the next generation. (Ngo, February 19, 2016 )

2.1.2 The rise of Renewable sources in Power generation

Renewable energy sources utilize the energy sources that are continually

replaceable by nature - water, wind, sun, natural Earth’s heat and the plants. Modern

technological advancement in renewable energy technology came on hand to turns these

available resources into energy-particularly electrical energy; but also, chemicals, heat, or

mechanical power. (Renewable Energy, 2001)

Date back thousand years ago; people had already discovered the usage of wind

energy although in simpler wind devices. But rapid development of wind power technology

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had been recorded for the past decades. (John K. Kaldellis, February 4, 2011) From its

unconventional rebirth in 1970s, the generation of electricity through wind continuous to

evolve being a mainstream power industry just 30 years later. (Gipe, 2004)

2.1.3 Using of Wind Turbine in Power Production

In the first century AD, a Greek engineer, Heron of Alexandria, created the design

of wind wheel. By early 7th to 9th century this wind wheel is used to grind corn, grind wheat,

and pump water. From this simple task done by the design of wind wheel it was centuries

before humans develop the idea of using this design to produce electricity. It was 1891

when the first known Horizontal Axis wind turbine with aerodynamic blades was used to

produce electricity, created by Poul la Cour of Denmark. (Azmin, April 2014)

At the present time, modern horizontal axis has become a center point in

establishing mean of clean energy production through wind. But it draws setback because

it requires high maintenance and the improvement of turbines takes longer time to design

since it needs to operate in remote and offshore locations. (Verical Axis Wind Turbines)

Globally, the technological trends continue to develop with the innovation of new design

that allows them to new type onshore wind turbine to harness energy. (JRC Wind Energy

Status Report: 2016 Edition, March 28, 2017)

Figure 1: The First Wind Built


(Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Designs,
Constructions and Operations, 2012)

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2.1.4 Advantages of using Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Compared to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), the power density of

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) wind farm able to achieve ten times greater

compared to HAWT. Previous experiment showed that airflow will be disrupted if a wind

turbine is too close and that was the case of installing horizontal axis turbine. Therefore, it

is very crucial in designing the placement of wind turbine in improving power output.

(Cornel University Library, October 18, 2010 ) Optimized various parameters for

horizontal axis wind turbines using lifting line theory. They compared their finds with the

existing results using blasé element momentum theory. (Badreddine, October 19, 2011)

An article showed the main advantages of the Vertical Wind Turbine are not

required facing the wind to operate. Unlike the conventional way that it needs to be set up

in the way not opposing the direction of the wind. So ideally, VAWTs are suitable for

places where wind direction is constantly changing. (Barnard, April 7, 2014) Also

supported of being capable on collecting the wind from all directions and mechanism,

rudders, or downwind coning isn’t necessary. And since the electrical generators can be

positioned close to the ground where it is easily accessible for maintenance and repairs it

offers less maintenance cost. (Ragheb, March 21, 2015)

2.1.5 Evolution of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Savonius wind turbine is drag type device comprising of few scoops that look like

S shape when viewed above the rotor. Because of its design, the scoops experience less

drag while moving against the wind than moving with it. Since, it is a drag type device,

Savonius turbine rotates significantly less than of the wind energy. (Wind Energy

Technologies, 2009 )

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Darrieus wind turbine major challenge is not only about its low starting torque that

it requires a new mechanism to enable starting rotation. As the blades rotates the angle of

attack will change also, at some point of the rotation blades will encounter too much angle

of attack which causes break up of airflow with loss of lift. Because of these phenomena

vibration occur and thus deteriorating turbines life, also it produces undesirable noise.

(Oliver Hammond, March 28, 2014) Albert Betz, a German physicist who formulated the

Betz Law that stated, no turbine can capture more than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy

in wind. (Bergey, 1979)

Despite the overall lower efficiency and several disadvantages of Darrieus wind

turbine, still it is more advantage of this system to be installed for individual use and urban

setting. Ability to function on wind from any direction, and are located lower to the ground,

which reduces cost and can be more marketable for urban settings. (Tummala, 2016) 13

Figure 2: Evolution of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

(Wind Turbine Blade Design, 6 September 2012)

Inspired by the Darrieus wind turbine design, a new design of vertical axis turbine

is gaining attention for researches. The Gorlov wind turbine which can harness up to 35%

8
of the kinetic energy of the wind or water since it was originally designed for collecting

water and tidal energy and later on adopted for wind application. (Planting Wind Turbines

on the Sea, 2011)

Gorlovs’ wind turbines’ helical blade design distributes forces evenly during blades

motion along the axis of rotation so there is always a foil section in every angle of attack.

In addition, it lowers peak stresses in the structure and materials and encourages

self-starting of the turbine. Thus, this type of wind turbine has a higher torque and can

move at a speed twice of the energy source. (Niranjwan Chettiar, July 2015)

2.1.6 Harnessing Solar Energy

In 1953, an article in a magazine with a title "Why Don't We Have Sun Power" with

an announcement "Every hour, it surges the earth with a storm of thermal energy equivalent

to 21 billion tons of coal". Indeed, as indicated by most recent figures distributed, the

surface of the earth gets around 124 exa (1018) Watts or 3,850 zetta (1024) Joules every

time of sun-oriented power. (Wasfi, February, 2011)

Sun provides great amount of energy to Earth surface; therefore, some predictions

say the production of electricity from solar energy is one of the solutions to the world rising

power consumption. Photovoltaic is believed to be environment friendly, generating no

chemical substance and noise. Its popularity rises as the most reasonable source of

renewable energy in urban areas. Also, it adds attraction in several areas like National

Parks. (Theocharis Tsoutsos, 2005)

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2.2 Related Studies

In connection with proposed study, here are some of the previous research and

studies.

In the field of electricity generation, according to two independent teams of

scientist whose study showed that there is enough amount of energy for people to reap from

renewable source specifically by wind to meet the world’s increasing power demands

without radically altering the planet’s climate. (Choi, September 10, 2012) Study showed

the capability of the Philippines to adopt wind energy for power generation because of the

high potential of wind energy. This condition created an attention for developers to con-

struct new design.. (Silang, 2014)

In terms of design, a more advanced approach to eliminate vibrations would be

using a type of active vibration dampening system. This would be a very sophisticated

system that would actively eliminate vibrations from occurring in the system. This would

require a turbine that maximizes performance so it could overcome the energy required to

run an active vibration dampening system. (Bethany Kuhn, March 5, 2015)

Moreover, a three-bladed design is more efficient than a four-bladed rotor; a low

solidity wind turbine may present self-starting problems as rotor efficiency is poor at low

tip speed ratios. The energy production of a fixed pitch wind turbine can be improved ad-

justing the rated airspeed to the place of installation average wind conditions in order to

reach its maximum efficiency. (Castillo, December 2011) An experiment conducted at

Dalhousie University it was concluded that the pitch angle of 107degrees can provide the

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largest amount of torque over the range of tip speed ratio from 0.25 to 2.25. (Jon De Coste,

January 16, 2006)

The research of Mr. Jeffrey R. S. Brownson has exhibit interest in solar energy that

ties into nanomaterials and electrochemical technology. He studied that solar is an

important source of renewable energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photo-

voltaic, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive

solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable

thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate

air. (Jeffrey R. S. Brownson, January 27, 2013)

2.3 Potentials of Inputs

The parameters fall primarily into two categories, those controlled by the turbines

geometry and the geographical area in which the hybrid is designed to be installed. These

parameters incorporated critical qualities such as wind speed and temperature rating are

shown in the figure below. By means of computation, average wind velocity is approxi-

mately 6.1 m/s and an average temperature of 30.13 degrees Celsius. Data was based on

the gathered information of an online weather forecast site.

8.8
Month of November Wind Speed
WIND VELOCITY

7.

5.3
(M/S)

3.5

1.8

0.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
DAYS

Figure 3: Wind Speed Graph

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2.4 Theoretical Power Output

2.4.1 Wind Turbine


Density and theoretical power of the wind turbine can be calculated. By means of

computation. Average wind velocity was approximately 6.1 m/s and an average tempera-

ture of 30.13 degrees Celsius. For air density calculation refer to equation 3.1.

𝑃
p= Equation (3-1)
𝑅∗𝑡

where:

p - Air density

P - Atmospheric pressure which is 101325 Pascal or 𝑁⁄𝑚2

R - Gas constants which is 287.05 J⁄kg ∗ K

T - Temperature in Kelvin

Computing air density;


101325
p = 287.05∗(30.13+273)

p = 1.16 𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3

The prototype design is inspired in Gorlov’s helical turbine. This kind of turbine

wind turbine can capture of up to 35% of winds kinetic energy.(European Patent Office,

2011) For dimensioning, it follows 1m length x 0.6m diameter, as this measurement were

standard for small scale wind turbine.

12
Tip speed ratio is the ratio between tangential speed of the tip of a blade and the

actual speed of the wind. It can be used to predict possible angular velocities for the

turbine using the relationship. It was found out that its tip speed ratio fall between the

ranges of 2-2.5. (Mitsuhiro Shiono, May, 2002)

Therefore, assuming Cp as 0.55

𝑟∗ὠ
λ= Equation (3-2)
𝑣

Where:
λ: Tip speed ratio

r: Turbine radius

v: Average air velocity

ὠ: Angular Velocity

Computing values,

r = 0.6⁄2 = 0.3m

v = 6.1 m/s
2.5+2
λaverage = 2
= 2.25

Thus, the equation becomes:

ὠ = 2.25 ∗ 6.1⁄0.3= 45.75 rad/s

The torque of the turbine can be calculated using the equation below:

(1⁄2)∗𝐶𝑝∗𝑝∗𝐴∗𝑣 3
T= Equation (3-3)

13
Where:

Cp: power coefficient or “Betz limit”

A: Area = L x d = 1 * 0.6 = 0.6𝑚2

v: wind velocity

ὠ: angular velocity

p: air density

Then the equation becomes:

(1⁄2)∗0.55∗1.16∗0.6∗6.13
T= 45.75
= 1.58N.m

The theoretical power of the turbine can be calculated using equation (3-4):

Pflow = (1⁄2) ∗ 𝑝 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝑣 3 Equation (3-4)

Calculating power output,

Pflow=(1⁄2)* 1.16*0.6*(6.1)3= 78.99 W

Pturbine= Pflow* Cp Equation (3-5)

Pturbine= 9.477 * .55 = 43.44 W

2.4.2 Solar Panel

Based on the data provided by Renewable Energy Data- Explorer Philippines

(RED-E Philippines), the said locations have a standard solar irradiance of 4.60 Kwh per

square meter for November 2018. This was based on solar panel direction at South South

East and set to 80 degrees for best year-round performance.

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2.5 Related Technology

2.5.1 Photovoltaic Cell

A study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology considered the two widely

recognized classes of technologies for converting solar energy into electricity

(photovoltaic) and concentrated solar power. (The Future of Solar Energy). With the inten-

sive effort to develop a more efficient photovoltaic cell it took a huge step on today’s

market as a reliable tool on harnessing solar energy and converting it to electrical energy.

(Spataru, et al., 2004).

Figure 4: PV performance to varying irradiation

15
For solar panel performance, this study specifically used SES – 330 J type of panel.

Data sheet shows that a panel performance is dependent two variables, temperature and

irradiance.

Figure 5: Solar irradiance and Temperature relation to power

Voltage and current rating made a significant changes as solar irradiance increases,

thus the maximum power varies from point to point. Temperature also plays an important

role in the power generation of solar cell.. (Pradhan Arjyadhara1, 1 Jan 2013)

16
2.5.2 Dynamo

The efficiency of the wind turbine will not only depend on the velocity of the wind

on Sta. Rosa Olango Island Lapu-lapu City. It is not only because of the design which is

the Gorlov helical turbine which is said to have the highest efficiency compare to other

designs for vertical axis wind turbine, but one of the main factor also was the choice of

generator or the dynamo.

There are common generators used in wind energy application today. The DC gen-

erators, the AC Synchronous generators, Ac Induction generators and permanent magnet

generators. While each possess certain characteristics and advantages regarding on the type

of application and location as applied to wind energy harnessing. In general the choice of

wind turbine generator technology will depend on the capital and operating cost. (Wenping

Cao, 2012)

2.5.3 Boost Converter

The same with the transformer for AC operation this device has the ability to

step-up voltages but only limited to DC-to-Dc power conversion. In order to reduce output

voltage ripple filters made with capacitors and inductors or sometimes a combination of

both is added to it. With its switched mode power supply containing diode and transistors

(semiconductor material) and at least one storage for energy, an inductor, a capacitor or

both (Udhayakumar P, February-2013)

17
2.5.4 Battery

Probably the most popular technology that is used in the system. Essentially it is

just a can with chemicals which produces electrons through chemical reaction. With its

great purpose and application it was been widely be the center of research years back. Now

there are several types of battery available in the market, each varies in size, rating, capacity

and efficiency. The system uses Lead-Acid battery which is been use for a decade and

found to be reliable for small scale application. For the system to be fully efficient and

reliable, energy must be stored to this device and be use whenever necessary.

Figure 6: Lead Acid Battery Capacity to Temperature Relationship

18
As shown on the image above, Lead acid battery or generally all batteries will reduces its

capacity when expose to extreme heat condition, as heat is the prime enemy of any battery.

A rise in ambient temperature causes the positive plate to have an accelerated corrosion,

grid structure and strap which increases also as temperature increases. Manufacturers sug-

gest a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. (Comparison of Characteristics - Lead Acid,

Nickel Based, Lead Crystal and Lithium, 2015)

Figure 7: Number

of Cycles to Depth

of Discharge

(DOD) Graph

Cycles in battery means returning to its state where it has been before. Let’s say

your battery is 100% and then was drained to about 40% and was charged back to 100%,

that’s 1 cycle. While Depth of Discharge is the percentage of what certain value you drain

your battery. The larger the DoD the lesser the number of cycles your battery have, thus

ending its life. If you have a 100% fully charge battery and drain it to 90% then you have

a 10% DoD but if you fully drain your battery then that is 100 DoD. Degradation of battery

was because of unwanted chemical reaction and process that slowly destroy the electrons.

(A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life, 2015)

19
Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, methods are discussed of the proposed project which is an

illumination project of a certain structure in Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island. This study aims

to develop and fabricate a system which serves as generation system with use of renewable

sources such as wind and solar. Existing technologies are also applied to enhance the

system operation. The developed system is employed in the said area to determine the

generation capability of the prototype.

To achieve the objectives of this study, the researchers have undergone extensive

research to formulate procedures as describe in methodologies.

Methods

 Designing of the Prototype


3.1
3.2

 Prototype Fabrication
3.2
3.3

 Employing the Developed System in Sta.


3.3
Rosa Olango Island Lapu-lapu City

 Conducting Experimental Test


3.4

20
3.1 Designing of the Prototype

In generating power with the use of renewable sources such as wind and solar

composes of components that can harness this energy. In particular, the system uses Gorlov

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine and Photovoltaic cell. Moreover, existing technologies are

applied to enhance the system operation.

3.2.1 Wind Turbine Design

 BLADE SUPPORT (upper and lower)

This part serves as a support of the turbine blades and is essential in

turbines rotation. This must be made of a material that can withstand the

vibration and a lighter material for the rotation of the turbine nor affected.

The blade support has a length of 25 cm and a diameter of 2.3cm which is

good for small scale application. The blade supports leg where placed at an

angle of 120 degrees apart from the center of each leg and each leg was

tilted at an angle of 30 degrees in order to achieve the proper blade spacing

when blades are to be installed and the aesthetic design of the project. It is

made of thin steel shit with a thickness of 0.5 cm to lessen the weight of the

blade support and minimize stress.

21
Figure 8: Blade Support

Figure 9: Upper Blade Sup-

port

Figure 10: Lower Blade Support

22
 BLADE TURBINE

For blade turbine, lightweight and robustness are considered in

choosing the material to use. To ensure that the design can withstand with

stronger wind velocity without affecting its rotation. The blade was made

of aluminum sheet cut in 1 meter in length which is best for small scale

application and has a thickness of 0.2 cm. The blades is then twist in a man-

ner such that the angle from one tip to the other is 120 degrees. Blades has

a width of 8 cm intentionally design to fit on its one side the connector that

was wield on the blades supports legs.

Figure 11: Blade Turbine

 SUPPORT TO BLADE CONNECTOR


For the prototype to be easily transported, it is design to be
dismantled. Blades are connected to the main body with the use of bolt and
screw. Each connector has 2 holes each having a diameter of 1 cm and is
welded in each end of the blade support. Connector is made of steel sheet
with thickness of 0.5 cm.

23
Figure 12: Connector

 SHAFT

For the main body, this is where the support together with the blade

is attached. Shaft was made of steel tube with an outside diameter of 2 cm

and an inside diameter of 1.5 cm with a total height of 45.7 cm. Shaft served

as connecting tube for the upper and lower blade support. It is also coupled

with the dynamo to produce rotation when wind hits the blades. This has

the capability to carry the weight and vibrations connected to the shaft.

24
Figure 13: Shaft

3.2.2 Auxiliary Parts

 GENERATOR HOLDER

To ensure that the dynamo can withstand with the force rotation pro-

duce by the turbine. The design allows the dynamo to have a fixed position

inside its holder. The holder was made of thick steel tube having an inside

diameter of 8 cm perfectly fit with the chosen generator and a height of

21cm. Plates are also welded above and below of the holders body. Each

plates have a dimensions of 12 cm by 12 cm and a thickness of 0.5 cm.

25
Figure 14: Generator Holder

 BEARING HOLDER

For the wind turbine to have smooth rotation between the shaft

propelled by the wind blades and connected to the generator a bearing was

added to the system to reduce friction and enable rotation. Bearing must be

protected and must be ensured that it will be capable in doing its task. A

bearing holder is designed to ensure security of the bearing while under in

intense stress and force due to rotation of the shaft. The bearing holder has

three different major holes with different diameter. The outside diameter is

26
12 cm and then a 4.2 cm diameter hole located on the center with a depth of

1.8 cm. A 2.3 whole was then drilled to the center of this 4.2 cm hole creat-

ing a round corner as shown on the image (below) preventing the bearing

from going down directly.

Figure: 15: Bearing Holder

 POLE (Upper)

The upper pole was made of steel tube with a diameter of 6 cm and

a height of 122 cm. Minor configuration was added to the upper pole for the

support of the solar panel. A steel bar with a length of 42 cm was wielded

on one side of the upper pole at an angle of 30 degrees downward based on

the observation on Sta.Rosa Olango Island that at this angle we can capture

the maximum sunlight. A horizontal steel bar with a length of 36.4 cm is

then wielded and with one end meet the inclined steel bar. A supporting bar

27
is then added for additional support with a length of 35.5 cm placed below

the horizontal steel bar.

Front

View

Side View

Figure 16: Upper Pole

28
 POLE (LOWER)

The pole is intentionally designed to be divided into two parts for it to be


conventional during transportation and installation. The lower pole is designed to be built
a utility box with a dimensions of 18cm in length, 5 cm in width and a depth of 15 cm,
enough for battery, charge controller and boost converter to fit on it, this housing is located
50 cm when measured from the top of the lower pole. On the bottom part of the pole 3
metals in a form of square is attached, it has a dimensions of 8 cm on each sides. This
square metals plays a relevant rule during the erection of the lower pole to the ground.

Figure 17: Lower Pole

29
3.2.3 Technology Application

 DYNAMO
Connected with the shaft of the wind turbine. When turbine

rotates, electric dynamo creates a direct current that is the reason for power

to be generated. Dynamo uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to

convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current.

Specification:
Voltage Rating: 12 volts

Figure 18: Dynamo

 SOLAR PANEL

For the hybrid system, photovoltaic solar panel is added. This

is to increase the generation capacity of the system. Panel absorbs sun-

light as a source of energy to generate electricity. With enough irradiation

from the sun, solar panel is reliable source of electrical energy based with

respect to its manufacturer’s specifications

30
Table 1: Electrical Characteristics of Solar Panel

Panel Size 536mm(w) x 477mm(h) x 25mm(d)

Weight 3.1kg
Peak Power 30w
Open Circuit Voltage 22.5V
Short Circuit Current 1.8A

Power Allowance Range 5%


Max Power Voltage 18.3V
Max System Current 1.64A

Figure 19: Solar Panel

31
 BATTERY

For the system to be convenient, proposed design includes battery

where generated power is stored. This stored energy is capable to supply

the lighting system in maximum time of operation. In most cases, lith-

ium ion batteries are the best option for a solar panel system, though

other battery types can be more affordable and available in the market.

Lead acid batteries are a tested technology that has been used in off-grid

energy systems for decades.

Table 2: Battery Specifications

Manufacturer Name Panasonic Battery


Manufacturer Number LC-RD 1217 NA
Output Voltage Rating 12 volts
Capacity 17 ampere-hour
Type Sealed Lead Acid (Rechargeable)

Figure 20: LC-RD 1217 NA Lead Acid Battery

32
 CHARGE CONTROLLER

To protect from the system from overcharging and overvoltage from the

source. Charge controller limits the rate which electric current is added or

drawn from, the battery. It also avoids the battery from deep discharging

which can reduce battery performance or lifespan and may pose a safety

risk.

Table 3: Charge Controller Specifications

Rated Voltage 12 VDC

Max Current Load ≤5A


Final Charge Voltage 13.7VDC
Over Discharge Disconnection 10.5V~11V
Max own consumption ≤20mA
LED indicators: RED Solar panel active

GREEN Series regulator limiting current

Source Load

Battery

33
Figure 21: Charge Controller

 BOOST CONVERTER

Before the developed system employed in the area, researchers conducted a

dry run. Generated energy from wind turbine are too low in terms of

voltage rating and cannot be directly stored in a battery. A boost converter

is added to the system to address the problem. It is a DC-to-DC power

converter that steps up voltage from its input to its output.

Table 4: Boost Converter Specifications

Rated Input Voltage 2 - 6 VDC


Rated Output Voltage 12 – 15 VDC
Power Capacity 8w DC - DC

34
Figure 22: Boost Converter

 LOAD

The proposed systems use an LED DC bulb as the load to illuminate. To

lessen the cost, the system only limited to DC system. This type of load

draws much less power and avoid from voltage or current fluctuation.

Table 5: Load Specifications

Item No: LED-B-9W


Voltage Available 12V or 24V DC
Nominal Power 9W
Average Lumens 810 Lm

Figure 23: LED DC bulb

35
Vertical Axis Solar Panel
Wind Turbine

Dynamo 12V
Charge Controller

Boost Converter

Battery DC Bulb

Figure 24: Vertical Axis Wind Turbine-Photovoltaic

Hybrid Power Generation Pictorial Diagram

36
3.3 Prototype Fabrication

As for manufacturability, researchers having a hard time looking for shops or

industry where fabrication of composite materials could be done. Even without

aerodynamics background, researchers are challenged to come up with the design that max-

imizes the wind condition to harness electricity.

 Gathering of Materials
To minimize the cost, most
materials are purchased in
the junkshop.
(e.g. steel pole, aluminum sheet,
Steel plate, round bar, bearing)
Refer to bill of materials

 Fabrication of Parts
(Undergoes process such as meas-
uring, cutting, welding, casting,
and sand blasting)

 Dynamo Holder
(Researchers fabricated a genera-
tor holder that can hold the dynamo
in steady position.)

37
 Connecting the Wind
Turbine and Dynamo
Holder
(Turbine exerts weight that may af-
fect its rotation. This problem is mini-
mized by designing a bearing plant
that is connected to the shaft of the
turbine.)

 Steel Pole Construction


(Includes the elevated solar panel
holder that is welded into the pole
and constructing the base formation
that uses round bar.)

 Wire Installation in the


pole
(Before pole is installed in its base,
wires have been placed inside the
pole.)

38
3.4 Research Environment
The study is conducted at Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu

where mostly household depend on limited supply of electricity provider namely Mactan

Electric Company (MECO). Though there were streetlights in the opposite corner of the

street but there was no available service drop wire to allow connection from source of

power for structures nearby.

Olango Island is located five (5) kilometers east of Mactan Island, Cebu. With six

satellites islets that lies between the Camotes Sea to the north and Cebu Strait to the south.

A total area of 1,030 hectares and household individuals for estimated 31 000. Though the

island was not considered as a remote area, still several necessities were unavailable such

as water supply and limited electric supply. Specifically, prototype is installed

approximately 1 km away from the entry and exit point of Olango Island. Located along

the streets of Brgy. Sta. Rosa.

39
Figure 25: Actual Location at Sta. Rosa Olango Island

40
3.5 Employing the Developed System in the Area
To test the effectiveness of the developed system it is employed in the area.

Fabricated parts were transported from the city to the island of Olango. The researchers

spent 5 days for the system to be fully operated.

Here are the activities done;

 Constructing the base of the pole

To ensure safety, the team uses basic masonry skills to make the base strong

enough and can withstand external forces. This is done by digging up a hole

approximately 4 ft deep and 1.5 x 1.5 ft wide. For the foundation, steel bars

with 4 ft length were formed with ring bars are attached to it. To harden

more, boulder rocks found in the area were piled around the base.

Figure 26: Base Construction

41
 Attaching the pole to its Base

This is done by attaching the welded steel bar of the pole to the

foundation planted on its base. Then sealing these parts with use of cement

and gravel. To prevent the pole from moving, guy wires were attached to

the pole connected to the ground.

Figure 27: Base Concreting

 Installing of Wind Turbine and Solar-Panel to the pole

Parts of the prototype are bolted to the pole and tighten it up using wrench
and pliers. Solar panel Position: South-South east inclined at an angle of 30
degrees.

Figure 28: Installing parts

42
 Wiring all the components

The final procedure is properly connecting the components.

Refer to Schematic Diagram

Figure 29: Wiring Connection

43
Figure 30: Small Scale VAWT-Photovoltaic Hybrid

Power Generation System Prototype

Figure 31: Developed Prototype in the chosen location

44
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS &INTERPRETATION OF DATA

In this chapter, it presented the experimental data, analysis and interpretation in

order to identify the effectiveness of this study. The gathered data were processed as

response to the problems formulated in the first chapter of this study. Data were organized

as: Potentials in the development of the Small-Scale Vertical Axis Wind

Turbine–Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Generation System.

Developed Small Scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine –


Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Generation System Prototype
 Open Circuit Test
4.1  Short Circuit Test
 No load Test

3 Day Monitoring of these parameters:


Photovoltaic Cell:
 Temperature Rating
 Average Sun Irradiance
4.2  Power Availability
Wind Turbine
 Wind Velocity
 Power Availability

 Hybrid System Assessment


4.3

45
4.1 Potentials of Renewable Dual Source System: Wind & Solar

This study uses both wind and solar energy as source of renewable energy. The

researchers used solar panel to convert sunlight and a fabricated wind turbine coupled to a

dynamo to generate electricity. This harvested energy then stored in a battery and supply

to a lighting system of Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu City.

4.2 Initial Testing

After prototype was employed in the area. Researchers conducted initial testing to

ensure that some used techology were ready to operate.

4.2.1 Instruments Use During Testing

 Digital Multitester

Figure 32: Digital Multitester

A Multitester is an electricnonic device that is use for measuring

several functions such as voltages, currents and resistances. Multitesters can

be digital or analog, depending on the type of applications a tester best suits

to. During the testing the researchers used digital multitesters to measure

46
the currents and voltages on both solar panel and wind turbine. This result

was very significant in order to analyze the output of the system and

determine it’s effectiveness.

 Smartphone Wind meter Application

Figure 33: Zephyrus Basic Anemometer

Zephyrus was an application develop by Gaia Consulting that works

as an anemometer using the microphone of smartphones. The application

also shows a real time display of graphical representation of wind speed

every seconds. Zephyrus has a typical wind speed range of 1-16 m/s.

47
4.2.2 Solar Panel Testing

 Open Circuit Voltage

Based on manufacturer specification, open circuit voltage is ranging from

19 to 20 volts. On these test conducted, voltmeter probes were connected to

both wires of the panel as polarity follows and it was measured 19.18 volts.

This is also based no load condition.

Figure 34: Open Circuit Voltage

 Short Circuit Current


To measure the capability of the solar panel to generate power, short circuit

current was measure. This was based on no load condition and probes of

ammeter were connected according to polarity

Figure 35: Short Circuit Current

48
4.2.2 Charge Controller Testing

This was done to test the reability of operation of the device used. Solar panel was

connected to a charge controller to step down the volatage rating for an energy can be

stored in a battery.

Figure 36: Short Circuit Current

4.2.3 Battery Rating

This was done to measure the voltage rating of the battery. Probes of voltmeter were

connected to the terminals of the battery according to its polarity. This was conducted

prior of energy generation process happen.

Figure 37: Battery Voltage Rating

49
4.3 Monitoring of Parameters

4.3.1 Date of Testing: January 31, 2019

The wind turbine performance is so much dependent on the wind velocity of the area.

Previous discussion has proven the relationship of the amount of power can be generated

to the rotation of the turbine caused by wind.

Wind Velocity (January 31, 2019)


12
10
Wind Velocity(m/s)

8
6
4
2
0
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 19:00 8:00 9:00
AM AM AM AM AM AM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM

Time of the day

Figure 38: Wind Speed Graph

50
Experimental Test: Generated Power

This was done to approximately measure the amount of power generated in a

single day of operation. The parameters on this testing was not constant since wind speed

is a varying quantity.

Table 6: Experimental Results for Solar Panel

Voltage w/ charge Current Available Power


Time controller (amps) (watts)
(volts)
12.35 0.74 9.139
8:00 am
12.51 0.91 11.38
9:00 am
12.49 1.15 14.36
10:00am
12.33 1.32 16.28
11:00am
12.64 1.49 18.83
12:00
12.69 1.60 20.30
1:00 pm
12.55 1.63 20.46
2:00 pm
12.54 1.49 18.68
3:00 pm
12.30 1.12 13.776
4:00 pm
12.2 0.91 11.10
5:00 pm

Based on the 10 hours of monitoring, the solar panel able to generate an average power
of 15.43 watt-hour per day. This amount is equivalent to 5.35 ampere-hour of energy that
was stored in a battery. Moreover, it also recorded that between 1 and 2 in the afternoon,
peak power generation happen.

51
For wind turbine, power generation is dependent on wind velocity. Data shown the

relationship of these two parameters. As wind velocity increases, it allows the turbine to

rotate more, thus, it increases the power generation of the dynamo.

Table 7: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine

Wind Veloc- Air density Current Voltage Experi-


Time ity (m/s) (kg/𝒎𝟑 ) (ampere) (volts) mental
Power Out-
put

7.29 1.192 0.17 12.08 2.0536


6:00 am

7.13 1.192 0.15 12.07 1.8105


7:00 am

7.54 1.188 0.16 12.07 1.9312


8:00 am

9.18 1.184 0.19 12.21 2.3199


9:00 am
10:00am 8.76 1.180 0.19 12.38 2.3522
11:00am 7.16 1.180 0.15 12.08 1.812
12:00 6.79 1.176 0.12 12.04 1.4448
1:00 pm 8.6 1.176 0.17 12.20 2.074
2:00 pm 8.69 1.172 0.17 12.25 2.0825
3:00 pm 8.89 1.176 0.19 12.38 2.3522
4:00 pm 10.64 1.180 0.41 12.18 4.9938
5:00 pm 9.47 1.180 0.39 12.18 4.7502

6:00 pm 9.14 1.188 0.19 12.21 2.3199

7:00 pm 7.47 1.192 0.16 12.07 1.9312

8:00 pm 6.08 1.196 0.15 12.1 1.815

9:00 pm 5.23 1.20 0.13 12.2 1.586

52
4.3.2 Date of Testing: February 1, 2019

Here are the results based on the test conducted on this day. For figure below,

temperature rating of the location were monitored for every 3 hours. Based on the data

sheet of the solar panel, it shows the relationship of the dependnece of performance to its

temperature. (Solar Electric Supply, Inc.330J) This also done to identify the peak time of

power generation.

Wind Velocity (February 2, 2019)


10
WIND VELOCITY(M/S)

0
6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 11:00 10:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00
AM AM AM AM AM AM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM
TIME OF THE DAY

Figure 39: Wind Speed Graph

53
Experimental Test: Generated Power

This was done to approximately measure the amount of power generated in a single

day of operation.

Table 8: Experimental Results for Solar Panel

Voltage w/ charge Current Available Power


Time
controller (amps) (watts)
(volts)
8:00 am 12.28 0.78 9.57
9:00 am 12.32 0.85 10.47
10:00am 12.31 1.13 13.91
11:00am 12.42 1.28 15.89
12:00 12.48 1.38 17.22
1:00 pm 12.56 1.52 19.09
2:00 pm 12.73 1.68 21.38
3:00 pm 12.41 1.62 20.10
4:00 pm 12.34 1.31 16.17
5:00 pm 12.32 0.82 10.10

Based on the 10 hours of monitoring, the solar panel able to generate an average power of

64.125 watt-hour per day. This amount is equivalent to 5.34 ampere-hour of energy

that was stored in a battery. Moreover, it also recorded that between 2 and 3 in the after-

noon, peak power generation happen

54
Table 9: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine

Wind Velocity Air density Current Voltage Experimental


Time (m/s) (kg/𝒎𝟑 ) (ampere) (volts) Power Output
6.7 1.192 0.12 12.08 1.4496
6:00 am
8.1 1.192 0.19 12.4 2.356
7:00 am
8.02 1.184 0.19 12.3 2.337
8:00 am
7.92 1.180 0.17 12.1 2.057
9:00 am
6.3 1.176 0.11 12.09 1.3299
10:00 am
7.03 1.176 0.15 12.08 1.812
11:00 am
5.9 1.172 0.13 12.06 1.5678
12.00
6.82 1.172 0.15 12.1 1.815
1:00 pm
4.32 1.168 0.11 12.05 1.3255
2:00 pm
5.86 1.172 0.12 12.05 1.446
3:00 pm
3.87 1.176 0.11 12.01 1.3211
4:00 pm
2 1.180 0 0 0
5:00 pm
2.38 1.180 0 0 0
6:00 pm
3.75 1.188 0.11 12.04 1.3244
7:00 pm
2.69 1.196 0 0 0
8:00 pm
1.24 1.196 0 0 0
9:00 pm
For wind turbine, power generation is dependent on wind velocity. Data shown the rela-

tionship of these two parameters. As wind velocity increases, it allows the turbine to

rotate more, thus, it increases the power generation of the dynamo.

55
4.3.3 Date of Testing: February 2, 2019

Here are the results based on the test conducted on this day. For figure below,

temperature rating of the location were monitored for every 3 hours. Based on the data

sheet of the solar panel, it shows the relationship of the dependnece of performance to its

temperature. (Solar Electric Supply, Inc.330J) This also done to identify the peak time of

power generation.

Wind Velocity (February 2, 2019)


12

10
WIND VELOCITY(M/S)

0
6AM 7AM 8AM 9AM 10AM11AM 12:00 1PM 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM

Figure 40: Wind Speed Graph

56
Experimental Test: Generated Power

This was done to approximately measure the amount of power generated in a single

day of operation.

Table 10: Experimental Results for Solar Panel

Voltage w/ charge Current Available


Time controller (amps) Power
(volts) (watts)
12.31 0.73 8.98
8:00 am
12.34 .90 11.10
9:00 am
12.33 1.13 13.93
10:00am
12.41 1.18 14.64
11:00am
12.38 1.22 15.10
12:00
12.45 1.28 15.93
1:00 pm
12.42 1.33 16.52
2:00 pm
12.56 1.42 17.84
3:00 pm
12.36 1.31 16.19
4:00 pm
12.32 1.12 13.79
5:00 pm

Based on the 10 hours of monitoring, the solar panel able to generate an average

power of 60.0 watt-hour per day. This amount is equivalent to 5. Ampere-hour of energy

that was stored in a battery. Moreover, it also recorded that between 2 and 3 in the

afternoon, peak power generation happen

57
Here are the results of the wind turbine generation:

Table 11: Experimental Results for Wind Turbine

Time Wind Ve- Air density Current Voltage Experimental


locity (kg/𝒎𝟑 ) (am- (volts) Power Output
(m/s) pere)
6:00 am 9.72 1.188 0.39 12.18 4.7502
7:00 am 7.56 1.188 0.16 12.08 1.9328
8:00 am 7.68 1.184 0.17 12.1 2.057
9:00 am 7.97 1.180 0.17 12.15 2.0655
10:00am 8.53 1.180 0.19 12.4 2.356

11:00am 8.36 1.180 0.19 12.4 2.356


12:00 8.64 1.180 0.19 12.3 2.337
1:00 pm 8.75 1.180 0.19 12.4 2.356

2:00 pm 8.31 1.176 0.19 12.4 2.356

3:00 pm 8.37 1.176 0.18 12.3 2.214

4:00 pm 8.43 1.180 0.19 12.4 2.356

5:00 pm 7.8 1.180 0.17 12.1 2.057


6:00 pm 6.72 1.184 0.15 12.3 1.845
7:00 pm 7.41 1.184 0.18 12.4 2.232
8:00 pm 9.21 1.192 0.29 12.5 3.625
9:00 pm 10.14 1.192 0.35 12.2 4.27

58
4.4 Energy Stored

Based on the 3 day experiment, the developed system can generate an average power of

6.82 Ah that is being stored in a battery. Moreover, it was noticed that the generation ca-

pacity of the wind turbine was much lesser and it draws researcher’s attention for further

improvement.

Table 12: Energy Stored in Battery (Ah/ Day)

WIND PHOTOVOLTAIC HYBRID SYSTEM

TURBINE CELL

January 31, 2019 1.54 5.35 6.89

February 1, 2019 1.05 5.34 6.39

February 2, 2019 2.17 5 7.17

4.4.1 Battery vs. Load

In analyzing system performance, the lighting system run for maximum time of

8 hours per day. Thus, it discharge an approximate amount of 5.33 Ah of the battery.

Moreover, system include technologies that also utilize energy such as charge controller

and voltage booster that also factors for battery discharging. Analyzing data, for a given

maximum time of load operation, the developed power generation system can sustain the

load in any given day.

59
4.4.2 Graphical Representation of Power Outputs

Here is the graphical representation to summarize the overall performance of the

system based on the 3 day experiment.

Power Generation Modeling


8

7
ENERGY STORED(AH)

0
31-Jan 1-Feb 2-Feb
DATE OF EXPERIMENT

Wind Turbine Photovoltaic Cell Hybrid system

Figure 41: Summary of 3 Day Monitoring

Graph shows the representation of the generation capacity of individual inputs and

their combined rating. This was done to compare the 3 variables and to easily interpret

these data. All these data gathered during the 3 day experimental testing.

60
Chapter V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS.

5.1 Summary

This study aims to obtain the effectiveness of a hybrid system consisting of wind

turbine and solar panel that serves as generation system to illuminate a particular location.

Researchers come up with a design that was based on the selected inputs. Materials

carefully selected and undergone different process in fabricating the prototype.

Different tests were done in finding a location that maximizes the generation

capacity of the prototype. , This was done by measuring the wind speed and temperature

of the location. Measured parameters serve as inputs for the system. Based on the gathered

data, it was found out that a certain structure in Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu

City exhibited a great potential in production of electrical energy with the use of renewable

resources as inputs.

The selected area was directly hit by the sun radiant causing photovoltaic cell to

reach its maximum power generation. Moreover, having enough wind velocity were

suitable for production of energy through wind turbine that was coupled to a generator. By

this conditions, researchers came up an idea to develop a hybrid power generation system

that provide enough energy to supply the lighting system of the structure. In this way, it

addressed the problem of the community which was the lack of illumination of the location

during night time.

In fabricating the prototype, intensive planning in designing the system was done.

To avoid any obstruction, researchers secured a permit from the Barangay for the
61
installation of the prototype. Materials used in fabrication were carefully selected and

gathered. But researchers were having a hard time in finding a shop that can meet the

proposed design. Finally, prototype was installed in the chosen area with its base connected

with metal bars and then cemented for strong foundation.

5.2 Findings

In this study, data show that a chosen geographical location in Brgy. Sta. Rosa

Olango Island, Lapu-Lapu City exhibited a sufficient wind speed and sun radiant that were

capable to produce electrical energy.

Based on the gathered data, inputs such as wind and sun radiant were essential in

power generation of the system. Increasing these inputs thus also increased the capability

of the system to harvest more energy. Results on experimental test showed how critical the

design of the system in terms of operation. Due to heavier turbine blades and using lesser

capacity dynamo, generation capability was greatly affected. Considering the identified

problems, still the system has the capability to supply the lighting system for maximum

time of 8 hours per given day. During the time the researchers conducted their testing and

observation it was found out that the hybrid system generated an average of 6 ampere-hour.

5.3 Conclusion

Renewable energy as alternative sources in generating electricity are promising part

for the future. This type of power generation draws attention from government agencies

and people who advocate clean energy production. The quest for harnessing renewable

energy and able to apply in a community is never easy. It requires effort and financial

support to be implemented.

62
This study was started based on the perception of the researchers to apply the

acquired knowledge in school to a community. Aimed to solve the lack of illumination in

a ticketing booth located at Brgy. Sta. Rosa Olango Island. This problem was an

opportunity for the researchers to develop a power generation system that only requires

wind and sun radiant as inputs.

It was concluded that the developed hybrid system exhibited a potential in terms of

power generation particularly in the area where the study conducted.

5.4 Recommendations

This section was formulated based on the results of data gathered. The system was

able to meet the requirements needed in order to produce electrical energy and got a high

rating of acceptance by the respondents. However, even with this result, further

improvement of the design was still necessary to improve the operation of the system. Since

the area was suitable for wind and solar driven projects, it is recommended to conduct more

extensive study. For this study, improvement may include;

1. To produce more output, using of permanent magnet dynamo is advised to increase the

generation capacity of wind turbine.

2. In terms of design, it is highly recommended to fabricate carbon fiber material instead

of aluminum for wind turbine.

3. Inverter can also be added for the system not to be limited to dc load such as lighting

system. But this also requires much greater power generation to supply new energy de-

mand.

63
Based on researchers experienced, it is highly recommended to get an advice to people

with great knowledge in mechanical assembly and design before creating your own to min-

imize effort, cost and time.

64
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APPENDICES

A. Permit to Conduct Study

B. Documentation

C. Maintenance Guide

D. List of Technology Used

E. List of Materials and their Uses

F. List Tools and Equipment

G. List of Bill of Materials

H. Curriculum Vitae

68
Permit to Conduct Study

69
70
Appendix B

Documentations

71
72
Appendix C

Maintenance Guide

External factors may cause for the failures and lessen efficiency of the prototype as

time passed by. Researchers looked for solutions to minimize them from occurring,

improve the reliability and to ensure the prototype will operate in its maximum lifespan.

Here are some of the activities needed to be done in order to maintain the reliability

of operation of the Small Scale VAWT-Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Generation System

prototype.

1. Regularly check for loose bolts and parts in

the installed pole. Always keep this tighten

by the use of wrenches or other tightening tools.

This is to avoid any falling debris that may cause

accidents.

2. Always check for damage wire insulation and

loose contact in connection of wires and

that may cause the system short circuited or

stop the system from working.

73
3. Dust and debris may block sunlight that can affect the

generation capacity of the solar panel. Therefore,

regularly clean and wipe this dirt.

4. Regularly clean the box containing the charge

controller. Check this if the box is exposed to rain

water that may cause damage to the devices inside.

Always keep the door of the box locked.

5. Pour lubricant oil in the bearing located in the top of

the generator holder that connects the wind

turbine. These keeps the turbine rotates freely.

74
Appendix D

Table 13. List of Technology Used

Material Description Pictorial Usage

Used as the Prime Mover to


generate electricity.
Small Scale Vertical
Axis Wind Turbine

Coverts mechanical energy


12v DCDynamo into electrical energy.

Limit the ampere rating that is


12vDC 5a Charge Control- added to the battery storage.
ler

Converts sunlight into electri-


30w Peak Solar Panel cal energy

Used as energy storage which


12v 18 Ah Lead Acid Stor- is generated by the hybrid sys-
age Battery tem.

Boost Converter
Step up the generated voltage.
2.7 Vin –12 Vout

75
Appendix E

Material Resources

The list of material that was used in the making of the Small Scale VAWT-Photo-

voltaic Hybrid Power Generation Prototype. Materials are just readily accessible in the

local market.

Table 14. List of Materials and their Uses

Item Material Description Purpose

1 Pole Use as post for the turbine and solar panel

2 Bolt and nut Use to join the parts of the system

3 Spray paint Use to color the enclosure and several parts of


the system
4 Coupling Use as locking system between the shaft and the
generator
5 Sandpaper For sanding parts that was turns rusty overtime

6 Aluminum sheet Use for fabrication of blade

7 Metal sheets and metal bars Use in the fabrication of the rest of the parts

8 Stranded Wire #18 Use to carry electricity

9 Electrical tape To ensure connection and avoid lose contact

10 Shrinkable tube To protect the electrical connection

11 Cement Use during construction of the base

12 Welding rod Connecting metallic parts

13 Grinder blade For cutting metal parts

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Appendix F

Tools and Equipment

In fabricating and installation of the prototype, researchers used tools and equip-

ment such as for cutting and welding. Since materials used are mostly metals, the re-

searchers decided to rent a machine shop located near the university. Through the help of

the workers, the proposed design was visualized.

Table 15: Tools and Equipment

Item Tool or Equipment Purpose

1 Welding machine Use to solder metal parts to ensure durability

2 Grinder For cutting metallic parts

3 Screw driver Use for tightening and losing bolt screws

4 Pliers Use for electrical connections

5 Tape measure Use for measuring dimensions of parts

6 Anemometer Use to measure wind speed

7 Thermometer For measuring temperature

8 Multi-tester Use to measure voltage and current

9 Pillar drill Use to make holes for bolt and nut connections

77
Appendix G

Bill of Materials
During the construction of the prototype, materials used with its purchased

price are being listed for further evaluation. Some of the materials used are being pur-

chased in the junkshop to lessen the cost of the developed prototype. Since researchers

fabricate the prototype for the first time, the cost of fabrication is high.

Table 16 : Bill of Materials

Item Qty Unit Description Unit Cost Total Cost


(Php) (Php)
1 0.4 𝑚2 Aluminum 400 1000
2 59.3 kg Metal sheets and metal bars 35 2077
3 1 pc Solar panel with charge con- 1500 1500
troller
4 1 pc Dynamo 700 700
5 1 pc Bearing plans 350 350
6 1 pc Lamp holder 760 760
7 1 pc Battery 3500 3500
8 2 pcs Spray paint 235 470
9 12 m Stranded wire #18 10 120
10 1 pc Electrical tape 90 90
11 1 pc 12CDC bulb 220 220
12 17 kg Cement 10 170
13 14 pcs Welding rod 150 2100
14 7 pcs Grinder blade 100 700
15 48 pcs Grinder hole 25 1200
16 1 pc Boost Converter 175 175
Total 15132

78
79