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NEBOSH International General Certificate

Paper 1 Management of Health and Safety


Element 6 Principles of Control
Question and Answers

1. An organization is introducing a new work activity that requires a safe system of


work.
Explain:
(a) Why it is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of
work; (4)
(b) Why it is important for safe systems of work to have written procedures. (4)

Answer
(a) It is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work
because of their knowledge of the particular working environment involved, their
ownership of the system and encourage workers to use and follow safe system of
work, it emphasize management's commitment to health and safety, it shows a
clear method of communication to the workers.

(b) It is important to have procedures to contain complex information, to ensure


correct sequence of operations, to aware of the procedures, for audit purposes, it
acts as an evidence in defending an enforcement action or a civil claim, a
requirement of the organization’s quality assurance procedures.

2. Outline, with examples, the general hierarchy that should be applied in order to
control health and safety risks in the workplace. (8)

Answer
The general hierarchy for controlling health and safety risks in the workplace
include the possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out,
changing the process or contracting the work out. The next step would be the
reduction of the risks by, for example, the substitution of hazardous substances
with less hazardous substances, and reducing exposure time for example by job
rotation. If this were not possible, then isolation, using enclosures, barriers or
worker segregation, engineering controls such as guarding, the provision of local
exhaust ventilation systems, the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current
devices, finally when all above controls failed, the provision of personal
protective equipment such as ear defenders or respiratory protective equipment.

3. (a) Identify FOUR types of emergency that would require an organization to have
an emergency procedure. (4)

(b) Explain why visitors to a workplace should be informed of its emergency


procedures. (4)

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Answers
(a) Four emergencies which require emergency procedures include evacuation in
case of fire, for accidents, for dangerous occurrences such as a chemical spillage,
and in the event of explosions.

(b) Visitors should be informed of the emergency procedures so that they could
react appropriately in the event of an emergency, to prevent visitors obstructing
workers and putting them at risk, the moral responsibility of the organization for
the safety of visitors and the duty of care it might owe them under law.

4. Explain why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as a last


resort in the control of occupational health hazards. (8)

Answer
Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as last resort when all
hierarchy of controls have been failed. Other reasons include that PPE may not
provide adequate protection because of such factors as poor selection, poor fit,
incompatibility with other types of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-use by
employees. In addition, PPE is likely to be uncomfortable and relies for its
effectiveness on a conscious action by the user. In certain circumstances, its use can
actually create additional risks for instance, warning sounds masked by hearing
protection.

5. Identify EIGHT sources of information that might usefully be consulted when


developing a safe system of work. (8)

Answer:
The eight sources of information include statutory instruments, approved codes of
practice and guidance such as HSE, manufacturers' information, European and other
official standards, industry or trade literature, results of risk assessments, accident
statistics and health/medical surveillance records, the employees involved, and
enforcement agencies and other experts.

6. (a) Give the meaning of the term 'permit-to-work'.(2)


(b) IdentifzZy THREE types of work that may require a permit-to-work, AND give
the reasons why in EACH case.(6)

Answer:
(a) A permit-to-work is a formal and controlled document authorized by the client
to protect personnel working in hazardous areas or carrying out high risk
activities.

(b) The types of work where a permit-to-work system might be required such as
confined space work where there is a danger of being overcome by fumes or
gases or by a shortage of oxygen; work on live or high voltage electrical

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equipment where there would be a danger of electrocution; hot work involving
welding or cutting operations, where the risk of sparks may ignite nearby
flammable materials; maintenance work on dangerous process plant or
production machinery where it may not be possible to keep the normal
standards of protection in place and work at heights.

7. (a) Identify TWO main purposes of first-aid treatment.(2)


(b) Outline the factors to be considered when carrying out a risk assessment of
first-aid requirements in a workplace.(6)

Answer:
(a) The two main functions of first-aid treatment are, firstly, the minimization of
the consequences of injury, and secondly, the treatment of minor injuries that
do not need medical attention.

(b) The factors to be considered include the number of trained first-aid personnel
and first-aid facilities in relation to, for example, the size of the organization;
the distribution and composition of the workforce including the special needs
of employees such as trainees, young workers and the disabled; the types of
hazard and level of risk present; the past history of accidents and their type,
location and consequences; the proximity of the workplace to emergency
medical services; the special needs of travelling, remote or lone workers; the
need to train the first aid personnel in special procedures; and the ability to
provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other
absence.

8. Identify reasons why workers may fail to comply with safety procedures at work.
(8)
Answer:
There are many reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety
procedures at work, which include inadequate resources whether of tools,
equipment or employees; ill-considered procedures; a perceived lack of
commitment to health and safety by management and emphasis on other priorities
such as production; the lack of adequate information and training and a perceived
lack of consultation; a poor safety culture within the organization; fatigue, illness
and stress; lack of concentration because of boredom and repetitive work tasks;
poor working conditions; mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into
account; inadequate supervision and a failure to enforce compliance with the
procedures; peer group pressure; a failure to recognize risks and ultimately a
willful disregard of the safety procedures.

9. With respect to the management of risk within the workplace


(i) Explain the meaning of the term hierarchy of control, (2)
(ii) Outline, with examples, the standard hierarchy that should be applied
with respect to controlling health and safety risks in the workplace.

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Answer:
(a) Hierarchy of control measure is controlling the risks with respect the relative
costs, effort and time of the each control measure against the degree of control
which provides. The hierarchy starts from elimination and ends up with PPE.

(b) The general hierarchy for controlling health and safety risks in the workplace
include the possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out,
changing the process or contracting the work out. The next step would be the
reduction of the risks by, for example, the substitution of hazardous substances
with less hazardous substances, and reducing exposure time for example by job
rotation. If this were not possible, then isolation, using enclosures, barriers or
worker segregation, engineering controls such as guarding, the provision of local
exhaust ventilation systems, the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current
devices, finally when all above controls failed, the provision of personal
protective equipment such as ear defenders or respiratory protective equipment