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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I
To my motherlluminada,
my utife Imelda,
andour Children Kim Deunice,
KenDainiel
and Karla Denise
TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ilt
CHAPTER 3
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces............... ........T9
Total Hydrostatic Force on Plane Surface ................79
Properties of Common Geometric Shapes... ........76
Total Hydrostatic Force on Curved Surface...... .......28
Er
V
iv TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS /
CHAPTER B ,,',,481,
,,.,.'''.' 500
Flow AtULrrlLl
rIUl/v around \rlctlulEr Bends........
Channel pslluD........ ...'............'.1,, n1,
...'""""""".n z ,.lnn
to547
soLvEDPRoBLEMS................ . .. tun
CHAPTER ONE
VI TABLE OF CONTENTS FLUID MECHANICS
Properties of Fluids
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER 9
'
Force against Fixed Flat Plates ..............5S1
Chapter I
Force against Fixed Curved Vanes ....... S53
Force against Moving Vanes ................. S54 Properties of Fluids
Force Developed on Closed Conduit.... ..................556
FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULICS
Drag and,Lift............... ..........557
I:hii Meclunics is a physical science dealing with the action of fluids at rest or
ln motion, and with applications and devices in engineering using fluids.
Water Hammer...................... ..................560 Fluid mechanics can be subdivided into two major areas, fluid stntics) yvhich
clealswith fluids at rest, and fiuid dynamics, concerned with fluids in motion.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS .................................. 5 97 to S9B The term hydrodynamics is applied to the flow of liquids or to lowvelocity gas
flows where the gas can be considered as being essentially incompressible.
APPENDIX involving liquids, usually water or oil. Hydraulics deals with such problems
as the flow or nuias through pipes or in open channels, the design of storage
Properties of Fluids and Conversion Factors .,....5gg dams, pumps, and water turbines, and with other devices for the control or
Table A  1: Viscosity and Density of Water at 1 atm..... .........599 use of liquids, such as nozzles, valves, jets, and flowmeters.
Table A  2: Viscosity and Density of Air at 1 ahn...................600
Tab1e A  3: Properties of Common Liquids at 1 atm & 20"C..601
Table A  4: Properties of Common Gases at L atm & 20"C..... 601
TYPES OF FLUID
Table A  5: Suriace Tension, Vapor Pressure,
Fluids are generally divided into.two categories: ideal fluids and real fluids.
and Sound Speed of Waier ...,..602
Table A  6: Properties of Standard Atmosphere..................... 603 ldeal fluids
Table A  7: Conversion Factors from BG to St Units.............. 604 . Assumed to have no viscosity (and hence, no resistance to shear)
Table A  8: Other Conversion Factors .lncompressible
...................605
r Have uniform velocity when flowing l
Fluid p in kg/,ml
Air (STP) 7.29
Air (21'F, a Ltm) 1,.20
Alcohol 790
Ammonia 602
Gasoline 720
Glvcerin 1.,260
Mercury 13,600
Water 1,000
Figure 1  l: Types offluid
p=
massof fluid, M Vr= L Eq.13
Eq.11 p
I
volume, V
Units:
English: slugs/ft3 Note: pstug, = ptbn/ I
Metric : gram/cm3 UNIT WEIGHT OR SPECIFIC WEIGHT,t
SI : kg/m3 Specific weight or unit weight, y, is the weight of a unit volume of a fluid.
For an ideal gas, its densify can be found from the specific,gas constant and
ideal gas law:
y=pg, Eq.15
o=
'RT
P
Eq. 1.2
*!r
T
CHAPTER ONE FLUID MECHANICS FTUID MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE
4 Properties of FIuids & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Properties of Fluids 5
Units: llro upper plate will adhere to it and will move with the same velocity U while
English lb/ ftt thc fluicl in contact with the fixed plate will have a zero velocity. For small
Metric dyne/cm3 virlues of U and y, the velocity gradient can be assumed to be a shaight line
SI N/m3 or kN/mr rrrrtl Irvaries asA,U andyas:
^AU
toc Of
FU
v Ay
0c
SPECIFIC GRAVITY .U
but
dv
(from the figure)
Specific gravity, s, is a dimensionless ratio of a fluid's density to some ydy
standard reference density. For liquids and solids, the reference density is
water at 4" C (39.2" F). +A = Shearingstress, r
t oc
dv Of T =k.dv
Pliuuid
s= '''' Eq. 16 dy dy
Pwater where the constant of proportionality k is called the dynamic of
absolute viscosity denoted as p.
In gases, the standard reference to calculate the specific gravity is the density dv
T = Ll
'dy
of air.
 Pg*
LOt/
Pair
VISCOSIW, p (MU)
The property of a fluid which determines the amount of its resistance KINEMATIC VISCOSITY v (NU)
shearing forces. A perfect fluid would have no viscosity. Kirrematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the fluid, p, to its
rrr.rss density, p. .
Consider two large, parallel U
Area = A
plates at a small distance y
apart the space between
them being filled with a fluid.
Consider the upper plate to
{
be subject to a force Fso as to where:
move with a constant velocity p = absolute viscosity in Pasec.
U. The fluid in contact with p = density in kg/m3
fixed plate
CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER ONE
6 Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
Properties of Fluids 7
& HYDRAULICS
lbsec/ftr
English (slus/ftsec) ftz/ sec
dynes/cmz cm2/ s
Metric
(poise) (stoke)
Pas
S.I m2/s
(Ns/mz)
Note:
L poise = 1. dyne's/cmk 0.L Pasec (1dyne = 10s N)
1 stoke = Q.QflQl pz/g
cohesion
(a) Adhesion > cohesion (b) cohesion > adhesion
where:
AV= change in volume
V = original volume when temperature is held constan! Eq. 1  1.8 rgduces to (Boyle's Lmo)
Ap = change in pressure
dV/V = change in volume (usually in percent)
BUTKMODULUSOFELASTTCTTY, EB j
The bulk modulus of elasticity of the fluid expresses the compressibility of the
fluid. It is the ratio of the change in unit pressure to the corresponding
volume change per unit of volume.
II .T
t
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
FLUID MEcHANIcs
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
ll
For Adiabatic or Isentropic Conditions (no heat exchanged) Table 1  4: TYPical VaPor Pressures
i
FIUid kPa,20oC
mercurv 0.000173
turpentine 0.0534
water 2.34
ethvl alcohol 5.86
ether 58.9
butane 218
Freon12 584
propane 855
ammorua 888
where:
pr = initial absolute pressure of gas
pz= hnal absolute pressure'of gas
Vr = initial volume of gas
Vz= hnalvolume of gas
Tr = initial absolute temperatuie of gas in "K fK ='C'+ 273)
Tz = final absolute temperature of gas in oK
k = ratici of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at
Problem 1'1
of 0.952 cu. m.
constant volume. Also known as adiabatic exponent. A reservoir of glycerin has a mass of 1',200 kg and a volume
y,
Find ie (a) weight, W, (b) unit weight, (c) mass density' P' and (fl specific
gravity (s).
Problem 1 2 Problem 1  5
specific gril/ity of certain oil is 0.82. Calcurate its (a) specific weight, in what is the weight of a 45kg boulder if it is brought to a place where the
fh9 acceleration due to gravity is 395 m/s per minute?
lb/ ft} and kN/m3, and (b) mass density in slugs/ft3 u"a tg7*.
Sqtution Solution
(n) Specific weighL y = y*"t., x s
w= Mg
*/s , lmin
Specific weight, y = 62.4x 0.82 = 51.168 lbft3 o
o=3g5
min 60sec
Specific weight, y = 9.81 x 0.g2 = g.044 kN/ms
8= 6.583m/s2
(b) Density, p =p*,t",x s W= 45(6.583)
Density, p = 1,.94x 0.82 = 1.59 slugsff W= 296.25 N
Density, p = 1000 x 0.82 = Bil}kglma
Problem 1 6
Problem 1 3
If the specific volume of a certain gas is 0.7848 m}fkg,, what is its specific
A liter of water weighs about 9.7S N. Compute its mass in kilograms. weight?
Sotution Sotution
W 1
Mur, = . Vr=1
I p
Mur, =
9'75 11.
. 9.81 ' v,
J=
0.7848
Mass = 0.994k9
p=1.2742ke/*
Specificweight,y=pxg
Problem 1 4 =]'.2742x9.81.
If an object has a mass of 22 kgat seh lever, (a) what wifl be G weight at a Specific weight, y =lLS N/*'
point where tle acceleration due to gravity g = 9.TS m/ s2? (b) What will be its
mass at that point?
/
FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER ONE
I5
l4 CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
Properties of Fluids
Problem 1 7 Solution
8 r
v
What is the specific weight of air at 480 kPa absolute and 21oC? DensitY, P =
Solution _ 13.7
y=pxg 9'81'
= \.397 kg/m'
o = :P
,RT where D
.^^ R= tt. or.
287 J/kg:K
 ^or 0
DensitY, P =
480 x 103 iT
 (205 + 101'325) x 103
287(21. + 273)
L'r, :
1 ,on
R@2+273)
Note: Patm = 101'325 kPa
p = 5.689 kg
Gas constant, R = 718'87 l1r1g  "K
Y=5.689x9.81
y = 55.81N/m3
Problem 1 10
and a temperature of 30oC in a
Air is kept at a Pressure of 200 kPa absolute
Problem 1 8 li00liter container. What is the mass of air?
Find the mass density of helium at a temperature of 4 oC and a pressure of 184
kPa gage, if ahnospheric pressure is10L.92 kPa. (R = 2079I/kg . 'K) Solution
Solution o=
'RT
P
Densitv.
J'I o = RT
P 200 x 103
287(30 + 273)
P=Psase+Patm kglm'
P =2.3
= 184 + 101..92
P = 285'92kPa
1u1utt=PxV
I
I
T=4+273=277"K =2'3x ffi
.. 285.92x 103 Mass = 1.15 kg
ljenslw,
r' o =
i
' 2,079(277',)
Density, p = 0. 4955 kglm3 I
Problemtft
AcylindricaltankS0cmindiameterandg0cmhighisfilledwithaliquid. tank is 40
 'lrc tank and the fiq"ia*"igL; d 420 kg' The weight of the empty
'f
Problem 1 9 kN/m3'
k1i. What is the unifweight of the liquid in
At 32"C and 205 kPa gage, the specific weight of a certain gas was 13.7 N/ms.
Determine the gas constant of this gas.
l6 CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids FLUID MECHANICS FIUID MECHANTCS CHAPTER ONE
l7
& HYDRAUI.TCS I HYDRAULICS Properties of Fluids
Solution
Solutlon
p=_M
V ^dP
' 
LR=
420 _ 40 dv/v
''= =84okg/mr
,=p8
i1ffiy dp=pzpt
h=o
dp=p,
= 840(9.81) = 8240.4 N/ms
' '8.24 kN/mr dV = Vz Vt
dV = 0.6%V = 0 006V
Drobtem 1 f2 Eo= Pz
 o.oo6v =z.z
4 lead cube has a totar mass of g0 kg. 14/hat is the rength of its
/v
lead = 11.3. side?.sp. gr. of pz= 0.0132GPa
pz=13.2}NIPa
Solution
Let L be the length of side of the
cube:
Prcblem 1 15
M= pv Water in a hydraulic press, initially at 137 kPa absolute, is subjected to a
80 = (1000 x 11.3) Ls
pressure of 11,6,280 kPa absolute. Using Es = 2.5 GPa, determine the
L = 0.792m = 19.2 cm
pcrcentage decrease in the volume of water.
lotutlon
Problem 1 t3 do
A liquid cornpressed in a container has a volume
of L liter at a pressure of 1
= ..l_
ER
dv/v
MPa.ald a volume of 0.995 liter at u pr"rSr*
oi;;;; The bulk modulus of
elasticity (Ea) of the Iiquid is: 2.5 x 1oe  $1'6;280 T37)x1'03
dv /v
Solution dV
= o.o4o5
r 
E_D=
dP z'1, v
=_
L= *esrt decrease
Ea = 200 MPa v
l
Problem  t4 Prcblem 1 16
oC and 150 kPaa is compressed to 2 m3, (a)
what is
what pressure is required to reduce the vorume lf 9 m3 of an ideal gas at24
of water by 0.6percent? IBurk thc, resulting pressure assuming isothermal conditions. (b) What would have
modulus of elasticity of water, EB = 2.2 Gpa.
Lrccn the pressnre and temperature if the process is isentropic. Use k = 1.3.
L
T
I
T8
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Ftuids
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER ONE
Properties of Fluids t9
I
,[,wo is filled
For isothermal condition: large plane surfaces are 25 mm apart and the space between them
I
(a)
Pr Vt = pzVz Assuming the velocity gradiq:rt to be
I with a tfirria of viscosity p = 0.958 Pas.
150(e) = pz (2) to pull a very thin plate of 0.37 m2 area at
a etraighi line, what forie is required
pz= 675 kPa abs mm from one of the surfaces?
, .or.,,furrt speed of 0.3 m/s if the plate is 8.4
0.958(0.3X0.3n
l
F'"
12  = 12.56 N
0.0084
Problem L  t7
If the viscosity of water atz} oC
is 0.00402 poise and its specific gravity is a.97g F = 6.4+ 12.66
determine its absolute viscosity in pa  s and its kinernatic vis"cosity in m2/s F = 19.06 N
and in stokes.
Solution Problem 1 19
Absolute viscosity: A cylinder of mm radius rotates concentrically inside a fixed cylinder of
125
viscosity of
130'mm radius. Both cylinders are 300 mm long' Deterrnine the
u = 0.00402 poise x 0.88 Nm is
the liquid which fills the space betwEen the cylinders if a torque of
ffi required to maintain anangular velocity of 2n radians/sec. Assume the
p = 0.fi)0402 Pa  s
vel,ocity gtadient to be a staight line'
Kinematic viscosity:
.._ rr_ 0.000402
p (1000x 0.978)
v = 4.1.1. *19.2 ltz/s
L stoke
v= 4.1.1. x10, m2/ s x
' 0.0001m2/s
v= 4.1'1, x LO3 stoke

[
CHAPTER ONE
20 Properties of Fluids FLUID MECHANICS FIUID MECHANICS CHAPTER ONE
2l
& HYDRAULTCS & HYDRAULICS Properties of Fluids
So!!rtion
[E]: = o]
' u/v
T
Y = 0.005 m
Wsin0Fr=0
F, = Wsin 0
l,.L =r co
U=0.785 F=rA F,= 176.58 sin 15o
LI = 0.125(2r)
U = 0.785 m/s tl
fixed cylinder [F,=tA=paA]
y = 0.005 m v
Torque = F(0.125) 176.5gsin 15o = 0.0814# (0.3)
Torque = tA (0.125)
I Ll = 5.61.4m/ s
0.88 = t [2n(0.12s)(0.3)] (0.125) tt1=5'61'4m/s
I
t = 29.88 Pa
29.88 Problem 1 21
r, = dEEZdJdS
llstimate the height to which water will rise in a capillary tube of diameter 3
p = 0.1.9 Pas
mm. Use o = 0.0728 N/m and Y = 9810 N/m3 for water.
0.13 m
I Solution
Problem 1.26 Note: 0 = 90o for water in clean tube
An 18kg slab slides down a r.5o incrined prang on
a 3mmthick film of oir
with viscosity p = 0.0814 Pasec. If the contact area
is 0.3 m2,/ find
Capillary rise,h= 4
!r terminal
^'rru the
velocity of the slab. Neglect air resistance 4(o'ol?9.,
Capillary rise,h=
Solution e810(0.003)
W = 18(9.81) = 176.58 N
Capillary rise,h= 0.0099 m = 9.9 mm
s
y = 0.003 m
Problem L  22
Estimate the capillary depression for mercury in a glass capillary tube 2 mm in
diameter. Use o = 0.514 N/m and 0 = 1"40o.
plane
Solution
Problem 1 25 Problem L  27
Distilled water stands'in a glaSs tube of 9 mm At what pressure will 80 "C water boil?
diameter at a height of 24 mm.
What is the true static height? Use o = 0.0242 (Vapor pressure of water at 80"C = 47.AkPa).
N/m.
Solution Solution
, 4ocos0
'
Water will boil if the dtmospheric pressure equals the vapor Pressure'
h=
yd
Therefore water at 80 "C will boil at 47.LkPa.
where 0 = 0" for water in glass fube
l1=ffi=o.oo336m=3.36mm
Problem l  29
A verticar cyrindrical tank with Problem L  34
a diameter
a depth of 4 m is fired 1.1 kN and 250 mm on an edge slid.es down an
;l[nT:::r,,_1i,,:t.",,*
*ut", ut io.C' rrtil *;d;;:#;i"
?!!2 ^and
50oC, how
A square block weighing
incline on a film of oil 6.0 pm thick. Assuming a linear velocity profile in the
rf
l
tl.r7,,"i^o;;liil',fl::1".'rTj,;"ight or water at iorc ,"a'so.C is e7e oil and neglecting air resistance, what is the termin4l velocity of the block?
t
The viscosity of oil is 7 mPas. Angle of inclination is 20o.
I Ans:4.7 m3 Ant;: 5.15 m/s
i Problem 1 30
A rigid steer container is partiary
fired with
Problem 1 35
the liquid is 1,.23200 r. a liquid at 15 atm. ,he vorume
at pJ"*; #;o ,or, ,h" ,;t;;;
of Benzene at 20'C has a viscosity of 0.000551 Pas. What shear stress is required
1'231'00 L' Find
'the average"urrt riquid is
";.;" over the to deform this fluid at a strain rate of 4900 sr?
given range of pressure oarr,rr of erasticity of the riquid Ans'.r=3'19Pa
return to its initial value. ii.tr,"
t"*n".Ini" ur*, compression il arowed to
What i, ,f,J"""fil.ient of compressibilitu?
Ans: Ee =.t.g72Gpa; p
= 0.534 Gpa{ Problem 1 36
Probtem A shaft 70 mm in diameter is being pushed at a speed of 400 mm/s through a
1 3l
bedring sleeve 70.2 mm in diameter and 250 mm l,ong Theclearance, assumed
*u,", vapor at 350 kpa abs and uniform, is filled with oil at 20oC with v = 0.005 m2/s and sP. 8r' = 0.9. Find
I :x'."#l"rthrffi, 20.C if its gas constant
the force exerted by the oil in the shaft.
Atts: 987 N
l
Ans:2.S9kg/mz
Two clean parallel glass plates, separated by a'distance d = L.5 mm/ are dipped
ix##:'.?i;;1ff:H:,::iff"* and a temperature or 30"C
in a 500L in a bath of water. How far does the water rise due to capillary action, if o =
0.0730 N/m?
Ans:'1..15kg Ans:9.94 mm
7
CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER T\VO a
26 Properties of Fluids LUID MECHANICS
Principles of Hydrostatics Z I
I
I
I
HVDRAULICS
I
Problem I  38
Chapter 2
I
l Find the angle the surface tension film leaves the glass for a vertical
immersed in water if the diameter is 0.25 inch and the capillary rise
is
inch. Use o = 0.005 lb/ft.
Principles of HYdrostatics
Problem 1 39
what force is required to lift a thin wire ring 6 cm in diameter from a wr
surface at20"C? (o of water at 20'c = 0.072g N/m). Negrect the weight
of XHI"::"::I"T:: ;:i::lllll
acting at
*",,"u bv a riquid or sas on a bodv or
right angles to the surface uniformly in all
nng. turface, with the force
Ans: O.O274 rllrections.
I
inch
tn the English system, pressure is usually measured in pounds per square
(pni); in iit"rnatio.tul usage, in kilograms Per square centimeters(kg/cm2)' or
in ttmospheres; and in the international metric system (SI), in Newtons per
t(lunre meter (Pascal). The upit atmosphere (atm) isdefined as.a pressure of
t,ilggZe kg/cm2 (1,4.6961b/inz), which, in terms of the conventional
mercury
lrart,metei, corresponds to 750 rnm (29.92L in) of mercury' The
qnit kilopascal
(kl'n) is defined ui u pr"ttrt" of 0.0102 kg/ cm2 (0.145 lblsq in)'
FASCAL'S LAW
l,tnrnl's law, developed by French mathematician Blaise Pascal, states that
the
in all directions and in all parts ofthe container. In
rl.(!$sure on a fluid ir uq"ut
i,lp,uru 2L, as liquid flows into the large container at the bottom, Pressure
tubes above the container' The liquid
;ru8lr", the liquid equally up into the of the
rlrcs to the same level in aU of tne tubes, regardless of the shape or angle
Ittbc,
\
.T
CHAPTER T\vO
28 Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS i
ILUID MECHANICS
Principles of
GHAPTERT\x/O 20
HydrostaticstL
I & HYDRAULICS 3 HYDRAULICS '
IISOLUTE AND GAGE PRESSURES
pl =p!=p3
Abrolute Pressure i
Figure 2  2: Illustration of pascal,s Alrrolute pressure is the pressure above absolute zero (anurum).
aus = Pgage
+ Patnr Eq.Z  2
Note:
. Absolute zero is attained if all air is removed, It is the lowest possible pressur€ attainable.
Absolute pressur€ crn never be negative.
'. The smallest gage pressure is equal to the negative of the ambient atmospheric pressure.
30 CHAPTER TUTO
Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER TUTO
Principles of HYdrostatics
3l
& HYDRAULICS I HYDRAULICS
VARIATIONS IN PRESSURE
T' etrnrtder any two points (1" hxz),whose difference
in elevation is lr, to lie in the
60 gage area a a'.d a length of L.
enelt of an elementary prir* having a crosssectional
Standard 58.675 gage
atmosphere = 101.325 abs it must be in equilibrium'
[ilnce this Prism is at rest, all forces icting upon
I
I
v
pressures
60 abs Absolute zero = 101.325 gage
or 100 gage
Note: Unless otherwise specified in this book, the term pressure signifies gage pressure.
MERCURY BAROMETER
A mercury barometer is an accurate and relatively
simple way to measure changes in atmospheric
pressure. At sea level, the weight ofthe atmosphere
forces mercury 760 mm (29.9 in) up a calibrated
glass tube. Higher elevations yield lower readings Figure 2  4: Forces acting on elementary prism
because the atmosphere is less dense there, and the or with
to liquid surface subject to zero gage pressure
thinner air exerts less pressure on the mercury, Note: Free Liquid Surface refers
atmospheric Pressure only' '
I ('unsirlcr the tank shown to be filled rvitl"r liquids of different densities and
willr air at the top under a gage pressure of p.0,, the pressure at the bottom of
lltr'tirnl< is:
Ir.,, :
PRESSURE HEAD
I'r't,ssure head is the height "17" oI a column of homogeneous liquid'of unit
wt,iliht y that will produce an intensity of pressure p.
WWil;,:tar;
the product rf
;;r r'riff r,;:;;r;:i:;rf;r:;;r;
[f;1"; *::P,,,T
that h = o, o and o in Fisure
,r,""iq. i_ ;*:3;fl,,1 2 _ 4 rie on
To Convert Pressure head (height) of liquid A to liquid B
lxB = bAs
A or lts = lxAp
A or hr = n
1ro^l Eq.29
I;,r;;:; #t the p re
s su r e
zontal plane
So Ps YB
in a homogerrcous
Jluid
To convert pressure head (height) of any liquid to water, just multiply its
Pressure below height by its specific gravity
layerc of Different
liguids
llwater = huqq;4 x S1i.rr;d 2 10
CHAPTER T\vO T\VO
34 Principles of Hydrostatics FIUID MECHANICS ILUID MECI{ANICS
CHAPTER
Principles of
,E
Hydrostatics 5 )
6( HYDRAULICS I HYDRAULICS
MANOMETER
Itrpt ln Solving Manometer Probtems:
A ruanometer is a (rbe, usually bent in a form of a tJ,containing
a liquid 1, Decide on the fluid in feet or meter, of which the heads are to be
the surface of which moves proportionaly
Iil::":.f.t*^t:l:,y,
of pressure. It is used to measure pressure.
to chanl cxpressed, (water is most advisable).
2, Starting from an end point, number in order, the interface of different
fluids.
Types of Manometer 3, Itlentify points of equal pressure (taking into account that for a
homogeneous fluid at rest, the pressure along the same horizontal plane
open Type  has an atnnospheric surface in one Ieg
o and is capabre
'  of are equal). Label these points with the same number'
pressures.
measuring gage
4, Irroceecl from level to level, adding (if going down) or subtracting (if
Differential Type  without an atmospheric surface and capabre of going up) pressure heads as the elevation decreases or increases,
measuring only differences of pressure. ierp"ctirrety *ith due regard for the specific gravity of the fluids.
Piezometer  The simprest form of open
manometer. It is a tube tapped into a
wall of a container or conduit for the purpose
of measuring prJssure. ,*re
fluid in the container or conduit ris"r i^ tt i,
tube to ror* u"rrl" lil;;":':
Limitations of piezometer:
. Large pressures in the lighter liquids
require long tubes
' Gas pressures can not be meazured because
gi ,,ot form a free Problem 2  1
surface. "ur,
If n clepth of liquid of 1 m causes a pressure of 7 kPa, what is the specific
grnvity of the liquid?
tolution
Pressure, p=ylt
7 = (9.81x s) (1)
s= 0.714 ) SPecific GravitY
Solution
p=vh
p = (e.81x1.03)(12.5)
P =126'3kPa
h
7
CHAPTER T'fr/O
36 Principles of Hydrostatics FLU'D CHAPTER TWO
&
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics 37
Problem 2  3
Ifthe pressure 23 meter below Problem 2  5
a liquid is 33g.445 kPa, determine
weight I, mass density p and its lf the pressure in the air space above an oil = 0.75) surface in a closed tank
(s is
, ,p".ifi. gr;rrit r. 1 15 kPa absolute, what is the gage pressure 2 m below
the surface?
Solution
(o) Unit weight, y Solution
P=vh P=Prurtur"+Yh
938.44s = y Psurtace= 115  101'325 Note: Put = 101.325 kPa
eg) = 13'675 kPa gage
y =L4.715 kN/mr Psurface
p = 13.625 + (9.81x0.7s)(2)
,r) Mass density, p = 28'39kPa
P
^ 
p v
I
Problem 2. 6
^ _ 14.715x103
___
9.81 Find the absolute pressure in kPa at a depth of 10 m below the free surface oi
= 1,500 kglms oil of sp. gr. 0.75 if the barometric reading is 752 mmHg.
Pwater Patm=ftrhtr
= (9.81 x13.5)(0.752)
s= r1.500
1,000 P"t* = 100'329 kPa
s=L.5 pna, = 100.329+ (9.S1 x 0.75)(10)
Pnas=173.9kPa
Problem 2  4
If the pressure at a point in Problem 2  7
the ocean is 60 kpa, what is
below this point? the pressure 27 meters A pressure gage 6 m above the bottom of the tank containing a liquid reads 90
kpa. Another gage height 4 m reads 103 kPa. Determine thJspecific weight of
Solution the liquid.
The difference in Dresr
between anv two points in
riq"ia i, p, ';;:;!;'"t"te a Solution
pz=p+yh
= 60 + (9.81x 1..03)en P2tu=Yh
pz= 332.82kpa tog90=y(2)
y = 6.5 kN/ms
CHAPTER T\VO
38 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER T\vO 2GD
Principles of Hydrostatics
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principtes of Hydrostatics il
Problem 2  8
lolution
An open tank contains 5.g m of water covered
with 3.2 m of kerosene (y = g Since the density of the mud varies with depth, the pressure
kN/ma;. Find the pressure at the intqface
and at the bottom of the tank. should be solved bY integration
Sotution
dp=ydh
(a) ' Pressure at the interface
dp=(1.0+0.5h)dh
Pn=fxhr 'a
= (8)(3.2)
= o*o.snan
pe= 25.6kPa
Kerosene r
)+
00
)t
(b) Pressure at the bottbm r = 8 kN/m3 3.2 m 15
Pa =Z yh
o= 1,0h+O.25hz
= Yn,lq, + yp h* Water
' _l
I
o
y = 9.81 kN/m3
= e.81(s.8) + 8(3.2) = t10(5) + 0'25(5)'z1  0
pe = 82.498kpa P = 56.25kPa
Problem 2  9 Problem 2 LL
If atmospheric pressure is 9s.z.kpa and the
gage attached to the tank reads
ln the figure shown, if the atmospheric
mmHg,vacuum, find the absolute pressure 1gg pressure is 101.03 kPa and the absolute
iritt ir, the tank.
pressure at the bottom of the tank is
Solution 231 .3 kPa, what is the specific gravity
ptus=pmn+pgnge of olive oil?
Pg,rg, = Tm.rcury lxmercury
= (e.81 x 13.6)(0.188)
= 25.09 kpa vacuum
Ps s= 25.08 kPa
pax=95.7 + (25.08)
paw= 70;62 kPa abs
Problem 2  l0 Solution
The weight density of a mud is given
by y = 10 + g.Slt,where y is in
*'^kN/me and Gage pressure at the bottom of the tank, P = 231"3  101'03
ft is in meters. Determine the pr"essur",'i"
tpu, d;p;;f;,;. Ga[e pressure at the bottom of the tank, p = 130.27 kPa
"t "
lp = zvhl
.P ='(u,hu,
* Yoho * Yu,hru t Yothoit
130.27 = (9.81x 13'6)(0.4) + (9.81x s)(2.9) + e.81(2'5) + (9'81 x 0.8e)(1.5)
s = L.38
40 Ff*?;l::H,!o,o,,,,,., FTUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULTCS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER
Principles of
T\VO
Hydrostatics 4lI !
Problem 2  12 Probfem 2  t4
If air had a constant specific weight of. 12,2 N/m3 and were incompressible, (irnrpute the barometric pressure in kPa at an alritude of 1,200 m if the
what would be the height of the atrnosphere if the atmospheric pressure (sea conditions a 21"C. Use
level) is 102 kPa? l,Icfisure at sea level is 101.3 kPa. Assume isothermal
ll  287 Joule /kg'K.
Solution Solution
Height of atmosphe re, h = L I:or gases:
v
102 x 103
12.2
Height of atmosphere,ll= = 8,360.66 m o=
"RT
P
_0
287(2"1 + 273)
 13 (CE Board May 1994)
2
p = 0.0000L185 p
Assuming specific weight of air to be constarit at 1.2 N/m3, what is the
approximate height of Mount Banahaw if a mercury barometer at the base of dp = (0.00001185 p)(9.8i) dft
the mountain reads 654 mm and at the same instani, another barometer at the
top of the mountain reads 480 mm. lL : o.ooorru, nn
p
Solution p 1200
1p 11200
lnp l_.^ .^, = 0.0001163,, .lu
J 101.3xlo'
P = e17.386
P = 88,080 Pa
Pactptop=fh
(Y, h,,)uo,to.  (yn, h*)op = (y h)ai,
(9,810 x 13.6X0.554)  (9,810 x18.6)(0.48)=t/tu
h=7,934.53m
lT
CHAPTER T\VO
42 Principles of Hydrostatics ILUID MECHANICS +3
I
& HYDRAUTICS
l,r Problem 2  15
I
Convert 760 mm of mercury to (a) oil
IfOblam 2  18 (CE November 1998)
of sp. gr. 0.g2 and (b) water. piston B is 950 sq. cm'
Fllton A has a crosssection of.1,200 sq. cm while that of
!
l
are
wlth the latter higher than piston Aby L15 m. If the intervening Passages
I
Sotution
fllled with oil whose specific gravity is 0.8, what is the difference in Pressure
(a) 1611 = lrmercury
ncrc ry between A and B.
I 5 oit
tolutlon
= 0.76#
l'^'PB = lolh
I
hoit='1.2.505m of oil = (9,810 x 0.8)(1.75)
lr,t  Pe = 13,734 Pa
(b) fr*r,", = hnre.cury smercury
,
lr = 0.76(13.6)
l
h*ater ='1,0.34m of water
lr
l
Probtem216@ 1200 cm2
Problem 2  tz
A hydraulic press 'is used to raise an gOkN
cargo truck. If oil of sp. gr. 0.g2
acts on the piston under a pressure
of 10 Mpi wtat aiamlie.of piston is
required?
Solution Solution
Since the pressure under the piston Since points 1 and 2lie on the 300 mm Z
is uniform:
Force=pressurexArea same elevati on, Pl = P2
80,000 = (10 x 103)
D=0.1.m=1.(X)mm
tD2 1.5_w
t(o.m)2 t(0.3)2
W= 150 kN
CHAPTER T\vO
44 Principles of Hydrostatics FIUID MECHANICS MECHANICS CHAPTERT\VO A"\
6. HYDRAUTTCS 'tUID
& HYDRAULICS Principles of Hydrostatics ' r
Problem 2  20
A.drum 700 mm in diameter and lolutlon
indiarneter, il;il filled with
to the top.
poured into the pipe to exert a
H;;;,:fKHiiflI.#JJi?11,7 W=44kN
=44kN
foice of 6500 N on the top of the = 0.323 m2
drum?
Solution
Force on the top:
F=pxArea h=4.6m a = 0.00323 m2
6500=px
tV002_202)
p = 0.015904 Mpa
1t= 1.6,904pa
Cylinder Problem 2  22
W=44kN
A = 0,323 m2
l'he hydraulic press shown is filled with oil with sp. gr.0.82. Neglecting the
weight of the two pistons, what force F on the handle is required to suPPort
the 10 kN weight?
4.6 m
46 CHAPTER T\YO
FLUID MECHANICS FTUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER T\vO a7
I
Principles of Hydrostatics
6. HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of HYdrostatics ' '
Solution of gasoline'
lilnce the gage reads 'FIJLL" then the reading is equivalent to 30 cm
Since points 1 and 2lie on the same
elevation, then; Reacling (pressure head) when the tank contain
P't = Pz
F'=F' 7s water = g + Zfu)cm of gasoline
. A"t A2 Then;
L0 F,
Y+2# =30
U = 27'06 cm
+(o.o7qz te.o2q2
Fz = 1.11kN
I
@November20oo)
lxMo=ol Ibr the tank shown in the Figure, ht = 3m and lrg = 4 m. Determine the value
F(0.425) = Fz(0.025)
L
of ln.
r(0.425) = 1.11(0.025)
I
F = 0.0654 kN
i F=65.4N
Problem 2  29
The fuel gage for a gasorine.(s! gr. 0.6g) Solution
= tank in a car reads proportionar to
its bottom gage. If the tank is so cm deep an
accidentaly 2 Summingup Pressure head
cm of water, how many centimeters of gasoline "or,t#ir,'uted,with
does the tar.,t act rutty contain from L to 3 in meters of water
when the gage erroneously reads "FUL?,?
L +t4(0.84)*= b
Sotution yY
0+0.84h2$3\=0
hz=1.19rlr
r
=l 30 cm
l_
"Full"
r
ll 48 CHAPTER TWO
FLUID MECI{ANICS CHAPTER T\vO
Hydrostatics 40
Principles of Hydrostatics FIUID MECHANICS t'
1
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of
lr
li
Problem 2  ZS (CE Board May 1992)
In the figure shown, what is the static pressure
Froblem 2  26
I
in kpa in the air chamber?
For the manometer shown, T
I
determine the pressure at the
I
center of the pipe. 1m
I
I'
l
th
ril
l_
li '
rI
I
irr ,
ltr
Solution
ri
lr'
The pressure in the air space
Sotution
;t equals the pressure o., th" surface
il of oil, p3. Sumup pressure head from
i
1 to 3 in meters of water:
i
i
I Another solution:
I
i,
Sumup pressure head from 1 to 3 in meters of water:
?Yy* r 4(o.so; = Ps
0 +23.2= Pt
9.81
pt= _t't.77 kpa
,i..
'
r
so CHAPTER T\x/O T\vO
l Principles of Hydrostatics FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAUL'CS
;LUIP MECHANICS
I HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER
Principles of HYdrostatics rtr II
Problem 2  27 (CE Board November 2OOf)
lroblom 2  28 (CE MaY 1993)
Determine the value of y in the manometer
shown in the Figure. Itr llrr: figure shown, when the
futrncl is empty the water surface
T'
b nl point A and the mercurY of
1m
rp. gr, 13.55 shows a deflection of
lc 15 cu1. Determine the new
I rlt,flcction of mercury when the
3m
Irrrrnel is filled with water to B.
I
+_
1m
J
Solution
30cmo
Solution
T
Sumrningup pressure head from
1m
A to B in meters of water:
+
?*
yf re.t)+ 1.s  y('13.q = PB I
I
3m
Mercury
s=13.55
Figure (a): Level at A Figure (b): Level at B
T , ln Figure (b):
113.6yx=13.6yxl
Problem 2  29 8.183  212 sine = ,*
Th^e_ presr,rre at point sin 0 = 0.3852
n in the figure
shown was increased from 70 0 = 22.66"
kp"a to
105 kPa. This causes the
top fur.i oi
mercury to move 20 mm in the
sloping
tube. What is the inclination, 0? Problem 2  30
A closed cylindrical tank contains 2 m of water, 3 m of oil (s = 0.82) and the air
nbove oil has a pressure of 30 kPa. If an open mercury manometer at the
bottom of the tank has 1 m of water, determine the deflection of mercury.
Solution
Solution
Sumup pressure head from
1 to 4 in meters of water:
?nir *3(0.82) + 2+ 1.  y(13.6) =
P+
v v
ffi +2.a6+3i3.6y=0
ll= 0'526m
Figure (a)
Figure (b)
In Figure (a):
CHAPTER Tlil/O
54 Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANTCS
& HYDRAULICS
Problem 2  31
ln lilgure (b):
The Utube shown is 10 mm in diameter Summingup pressure head from 1 to 3 in mm of water:
and contains mercury. If 12 ml of water is Pl + 1s2.8
poured into the righthand leg, what are R(13.6) ='{a
yv
the ultimate heights in the two Lgs?
R = 11.24 mm
ln Eq. (2):
11..24+7s.=240
r = 114.38 mm
El.8m
L  t,r(t.o) = ?
yY s(0.4+
+ a(1)
1 # *2.1.+41.6h2=0
3m ln=2.7r^
Surface elevation = 8 + Its
i
4m
Surface elevation = I + 2.72 = 70.72 m
Deflection of mercury
Sumup Pressure head from 1 to 5 in meters of wateri
Pr + Zp.4 +4+4  ha(13.5\ = lL
1 YY
4m
I
# *10.713.6hE
pr = pair = '17.L kPa lk = 0.514 m
t v
El.4 m
Problem 2  33
An open manometer attached to a pipe shows a deflection 9ffSO lmng with
Column E
the lower level of mercury 450 mm below the centerline of the pipe carrying
Sumup pressure head from L to e in metes of water; water. Calculate the pressure at the centerline of the pipe'
P, *rrr(o.n=P,
y'y Solution
t# * h1(o'7)=s
h=2.5m
Surface elevation = 15  hr
Surface elevation = 15  2.5 = 1.2.5 m
Column F
Sumup pressure head from 1 to/in meters of wateri Sumup pressure head from 1
3 in meters of water;
Pl +g(0.7)n0=L
yrl L * o.Es 0.15(13.6) = i
T
01# * 2'1'h2=s
lu= g.r\,
Pt *0.452.04=o
^ = 12 + lg
Surface elevation
9.81
pr = 15.6 kPa
Surface elevation = L2 + O.\SZ = 1Z,3ST m
r" CHAPTER T\X/O T\yO iltro
58 Principles of Hydrostatics FLUID MECHANICS rLUID MECHANICS
CIAPTER
Principtes of HYdrostatics
& HYDRAUTICS & HYDRAULICS
Problem Z  g4
Solution
For the configuration shown, calculate the
m
weight of the piston if the pressure gage @) Gage liquid = mercury, h = 0.1
reading is 70 kpa. Sumup Pressure head from
1 to 4 in meters of water;
l1q
w
i
CHAPTER T\YO
60 CHAPTER TWO , ,.
Hydrostatics (, I
Principles of Hydrostatics TIUID MECHANICS
3 TIYDRAULICS Principles of
Solution
Sumup absolute pressure head Sumup pressure (gage) head from 1 to 4 in meters of water;
from B to 2 in meters of water; Pt +xp.9\+1.3(0.e) 1.3(13.6)= b
!2 o1og.e\n= Pz
tla T: Yv
yy I 40 *0.9x15.51=0
h
9,81
ffi o.szn= L75 I
r = 13.81m
+
9.81
h =2.203 m
700 mm
J,.' Then,r+y=28.42m
i
I
I Sumup absolute pressure head
ftom B to A in meters of water; 238 Oil, s = 0.85
,t
ll
Problem ZE
i1
In the figure shown, the atrnospheric
pressure is 101 kpa, the Solution
gage
reading atA is 40 kpa, and the
vlpir a+0.58=y+1.7
pressure of alcohol is .12
tpu xy= 1.02m ) Eq. (1)
absolute. Computex+y.
Sumup pressure head from A to B
in meters of water;
Po *0.68(0.85) *y= b
yv
Pa Ps =xrt+0.578
. )Eq.(2)
Solution vv
fumlup absolute pressure head from Substitute x  y = 1..02 in Eq. (1) to Eq' (2):
1 to 2 in meters of water;
Pa Pe n,.02+ 0.578

l 'v0sl = b vy
PaPa ",
40 + 101o'sv= 9.81
 ,.598
72
y
ls1 # PA Pr = 15.68 kPa
= 74.67 m
CHAPTER T\VO CHAPTER T\YO
62 Principles of Hydrostatics
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
Principles of Hydrostatics
63
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS
Problem 2  39 Problem 2  40
A differential rnanometer is In the figure shown, the
attached to a pipe as shown. deflection of mercurY is initiallY
Calculate the pressure 250 mm. If the Pressure at A is
difference between points A increased by 40 kPa, while
and B. maintaining the Pressure at B
constant, what will be the new
mercury deflection?
Solution
Solution
rDr +40
^'
Benzene l
' *= lLy
 0.6 + x 2.427.2x + z.Zs + s = 0.88 E
v E
Im tr
E
o
. lL o
+
? #'1"6s2s'2x=
150 mm
Pa Pa
yy =2s.2x2.4?s B* PA
.'l
 P,
y
=1..6s
tl
'1,.65=25.2x2.4?S
x = 0.162m = 162 mm
Sumup pressure head from A to B in meters of water;
New mercury deflection = 250 + 2x = 250 + 2(162) b + o.z(0.s8)  0.0e(13.5)  0.31(0.82) + 0.25  0.1(0.0012) = Pp
,
New mercury deflection = 574 mm v
Pa  Ps = 1.0523 m of water
Problem 2  4l
vv
Pa  Pa = 9.81(1.0523) = 10.32 kPa
In the figure showry determine the difference in pressure
between points A
and B.
Problem 2  42 (CE Board)
Assuming normal barometric pressure, how deep in the ocean is the point
where an air bubble/ upon reaching the surface, has six times its volurne than
it had at the bottom?
$olution
Applying Boyle's Law
(assuming iso thermal condition)
lpVr= pzVz)
p=107.3+9.81(1,03)r,
fi=101.3+1.0,7041r
Vt= V
pz=101.3+0=101.3
Vz= 6V
(101.3 + 70.704h)V = 101.3 (6 V)
10.104 ft = 101.3(5)  101.3
h = 50.13 m
_V
t't
CHAPTER TUTO
66 Principles of Hydrostatics FLUID ILUID MECHANICS
&
Problem 2  4l
A vertical tube, 3 m long, with one end Slnce the pressure in air inside the tube is uniform,
closed is inserted vertically, with tlren p,, = p6= 20.0124kPa
:::ljll
connected i:yl
to the li:
upper
y,,",.. such a d;p,h ;i.;;;;;; il,"","
t1,.1. o1
: end of the Pc=T*h
tube reads 150 mm of *ur.ri.y. Neglectr 20.0124 = 9.81h; h = 2.04 m
alsuming normat cond.itions, how far is
I#::lT:i:l1.yd
the tube below the water surface in
the tank?
the,lower end
Then; x=lr+ y=2.04+0.495
x = 2.535 m
Solution
I
Problem 2  44
0.1s m
{r A bottle consisting of a cylinder L5 cm in diameter and 25 cm high, has a neck
rl, which is 5 cm diimeter and 25 cm long. The bottle is inserted vertically in
water, with the open end down, such that the neck is completely filled with
p
3m,
water. Find the depth to which the open end is submerged' Assume normal'
I
t'
ll barometric pressure and neglect vaPor Pressure'
d Solution 15cmO
PtVr='
P,>V,
Tt T2 Probfem 2  47
l'lrt' tube shown is filled with oil. Determine the pressure heads at B and C in
At sea level,
rrrt'[t'rs of water.
Absolute pressure of air, p1= 101.3 +
445 Pa
Absolute pressure, pr = = 546.3kpaa Ans'. = 2.38 m
Volume of ah, V1= l/
Absolute temperature of air. T1 2.2m Pc
t
= 21, + 27g = Z94oK = 0.51 m
I
v
On the top of the mountain:
Absolute pressure of air, p2 = 47.22 +
a 0.6 m
Since the tire did not expand, uol,rmJ
of air, V2 = l/ J
Absolute temperature o7 air, Tz= S +
Z7Z = 27g,K
Oil, s = 0.85
, PtVt P>V,
r I
'T1Trl =1
s = 0.85
s46.s(vi _ g7.zz+p)v
294 2?T Problem 2  48
47.22+p=51.6.57
p  469.35 kpa For the tank shown in the figure, comPute the pressure at points B, C, D , and E
in kPa. Neglect the unit weight of air.
Ans pe = 4.9; pc = po = 4.9; Pe = 21.54
"
70 CHAPTER T\x/O
FTUID MECHANICS rLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER TWO a 'tI
Principles of Hydrostatics Hydrostatics '
& HYDRAUTICS & HYDRAULICS Principles of
Problem 249 ?
Problem 2  52
A glass Utube open tothe atmosphere at both is a
contains oil and water, determinethe specific
ends is shown. If the u_tube A r.ylinc{rical tank contains water at a height of 55 mm, as shown. Inside
gravity of ,,,rnll np".t cylindrical tank containing cleaning fluid (s'g' = 0'8) ata.height
the oil. Ir'
Assume the cleaning
Ans:0.96 l,lr,, pr"rsure ps = 13.4kPa gage and pc = 13.42 kPa gage.
l'lrrlti is prevented fro l.,Ittg to the top of the tank' Use unit weight of
wrrtcr = b.Zl tN7*r. (a) Determine the pressure pA in kPa, (b) the
value of lt in
rnrn, itnd (c) the value of y in millimeters'
Ans: (a) 12.88; (b\ 10.2; (c)'101
Problem 2  50
A glass 12 cm tall filled with water is inverted.
The bottom is open. what is
the pressure at the closed end? Barometric
pressure is 101.325 kpa.
Ans: 100.15 kpaa
Problem 2  51
In Figure 13, in which fluicl will a pressure of 700 kpa first be u.nrX,ir1!rr""rr"
Problem 2  53
A differential manometer shown is measuring the difference in pressure two
 Po=90kPa
w ve_e_ ,*ewvs
ethyl akohol mm, L,r is 225 mm, and 7r,,2is 300 mm' What is the pressure differential
p = 773.3 kglm3 60m between the two PiPes.
Ans:89.3ZkPa
p = 899.6 kg/m3
oil : . lom
water
p = 979 kglm3 5m
glycerin
p = 1236 kglm3 5m
CHAPTER T\YO
7Z Principles of Hydrostatics FLUID MECHANICS
& lflDnAUUCs
Problem 2  54
A force of 450 N is exerted
onrever AB as shown. The
5;:j""1ff1"1j::*:
acts on the larger piston, :XTi::1i;;;s;;;*"ter
ii *,e .,otui";;i""""
or
end B is connected t
60 mm what rorce
i ""JJ;?il, #d,jfi::t Chapter 3
Ans:15.83
460 N
Total Hydrostatic Force
on Surfaces
F=pA Eq.31
t Problem 2  Ss
where p is the uniform pressure and A is the area.
An open tube open tube is attached
I to a tank as shown. If water rises to a
height of 800 mm in the tube
l what are the prr
water? Neglect."pillr.y;if*;ffi" Pa and pB of the air above tn the case of an iriclined or vertical plane submerged in a liquid, the total
,]
ffiPressures pressure can be found by the following formula:
I
Ans: pe = 3.92kpa; pa = 4.90
kpa
l
I
E
E
o
o
of gravity, cg
of.pressure, cp
F=ysin0 Ay
F=y(isin0)A
From calculus, p , dA =Is (moment of inertia about S)
AYYo=ls
From the figo.e, /sin0= f,
Then,
a+b
k o_J l"='ttlo"
,1
1""=o.l"l
51f
t'
i
t,
h
t
l
Area = 1/z rt (20) = 7z 6 ' Aruu= ?bl,
x.=
2 rsin9 3
"30 2,
x,=
'5811 y,= 3,
o
l,= f,.(O %sin2e)
Area=t/ezr2; xr=y" ,4
Afea fir2 = 1/4 z D2
I= 2 2
t*=t*=+=+ fir'
n
.4 '15"7 lrb, 1,,= bh,
Ir=1,= tr=
"L6 4
(0+t/zsn2O)

Ir,=1r=0.055/
Spandrel Segment of arc
T h ,s)
l_
k_ol
Area=t/zn12; y,= Area= rab Length of arc = r(29) = 2rO
. rab3 1
x,=,r siurt9
rf4 l9r
4 Area = : b/r
Ir=1n=
*8 n +L 0
Is, = 0.1't ,a , 
ttba3 )i.=
1 tt.=
rt +'L \Alhen 0 = 90' (semicircle)
tsy=
Z ' n+2 "' 4n+2
h
2r
Y=
b:  T
7a
.v CHAPTER THREE
FLUID MlcHANlcs CHAPTER THREE ao
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
& Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces ' 7
TOTAL HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON
CURVED SURFACES
CASE I: FLUrD iS ABOVETHE CURVED SURFACE.
Whcrc:
1 A  vertical projection of submerged
r pressure at the centroid of A
curve (plane area)
[,Ls
Note: The procedure used in solving Fx is the same are that presented in Page 73.
Vertical projection iltrE III: FLUID BELOW AND ABOVE THE CURVED SUR'FACE
of the cunred surface
l
IIIEIEFF==
CHAPTER THREE
80 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE ^ t
& HYDRAULICS * HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces U I
DAMS
Dams are structures that brock the flow of a river,
stream, or other waterway.
Some dams divert the flow of river water into
a pipeline, canal, or channel,
others raise the lever of inrand waterways to make'tt,e.r.r,arrig;ie
by ships
and barges. Many dams harness theenergy of falling
power' Dams also hold water for drinking and
*ut".io g"'rr"rute electric
crJp irrigatiJn, urra prorriae
flood control.
To ttanrmirrion linrt
TYPES OF DAMS
1. Graoity ilams :use only the force of gravity to resist water pressure
that is, they hold back the water by the sheer force of their weight
pushing downward. To do this, gravity dams must consist of a mass
so heavy that the water in a reservoir cannot push the dam
downstream or tip it over. They are much thicker at the base than the
top  a shape that reflects the distribution of the forces of the water
against the dam. As waiter becomes deeper, it exerts more horizontal
pressure on the dam. Gravity dams are relatively thin near the surface
of the reservoir, where the water pressure is light. A thick base
enables the dam to 44withstand the more intense water Pressure at
Figure 3  2: Section of a dam used for hydroelectric the bottom of the reservoir.
'"
CHAPTER THREE
82 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
83
& HYDIIAULICS
ii'
CHAPTER THREE
84 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces FTUID MICHANICS CHAPTERTHREE ftF
I
&l Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces O)
ANArY$rs oF GRAVTry DAM
i
l. A dam is subjected to hydrostatic forces A, VcrLical forces
due to water which is raised on
l, upstream side' These forces
cause thu Ju^ to slide t o.iror.,tuuy
1, Weight of the dam
Wr=f"Vr) W2=f,Vz) Wz=!"Vz
*lf:::"::1^:^".:lyl it "uo"iii*dl_*t
on
tendencies are resisted by fricuon "u* edge or roe. rh
on;";;;;;T,:X.*T 2, Weight of water in the upstream side (if any)
#r;"^i
opposit" io ih" o,",tu,,,ing moment.
Ws=YVa
:i:,:T:.:::::::,i11il
fmay also be prevented from sliding
Uy t"yi"g f;b"r".
rhe 3. Weight or permanent structures on the dam
4, Hydrostatic Uplift
Upstream Side
Ur=f Vut
Downstream Side Uz=! Vuz
(Tailwater)
Headwater Il. l{orizontal Force
1. Total Hydrostatic Force acting at the vertical projection
of the submerged portion of the dam,
Vertical p=yhA
I Projection of
I
I
the jubrleqed 2. Wind Pressure
I
I
A. Vertical Reaction, R,
1m Heel
Ry = XF,,
l Rv=Wt+Wz+Ws+WaUtUz
Uplift Pressure
Diagram > B. Horizontal Reaction, R,
R' = EFr'
R'=P
Zz IV. Moment about the Toe
&i A. Righting Moment, RM (rotntion toroards tlrc upstream side)
Figufe 3  8: Typicar section of gravity
a dam showing the possibre forces KM=W, h + Wz xz+Vrls xe + We xt
acting
Steps of Solution
B, Overturning Moment, OM (rotation towards the downstream sidc)
to Figrrr:
,Sr.forpurposes of illustratiory qrr qooq, OM=P!+UtztrUzzz
made l"Y*:"
I:,1 B
in the shape of the'uptift prdr";  *", an assunption was
;;;u*.
I. Consider 1 unir (1 m) Iength of dam V. Location of R, (; )
lf,erpenaicular to rhe sketch)
II. Determine all the forces acting:
KM_OM Eq.3  11
R,
CHAPTER THREE
86 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
CFIAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 87
where: Ir.
Factors of Safety
Factor of safety against sliding, FS5:
Ure (+; to get the stress at point where R, is nearest. In the diagram
tbove, use (+1 to get 4r and () to get qH. A negative stress indicates
stress and a positive stress indicates tensile stress:
Factor of safety against overturning, Fse: loll cannot carry any tensile stress, the result of Eq. 3  L4 is invalid if the
lo positive. This will happen rt e> B/6' Should this happen, Eq.3  15
be used.
Foundation pressure
7 =a/3'
t Bl3 I BIS t, eB
r Middle Third I
For e 3 8/6 a37
I
d&i
l'l'
CHAPTER THREE
88 llUlo tvtpcsANtcs CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
I HYDRAULICS fotal Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces 89
BUOYANCY
where:
y = unit weight of the fluid
ARCHIMEDES' PRINCIPLE yD = volume displaced. Volume of the body below the liquid surface
A principle discovered by the Greek scientist
Archimedes trrat states that ,,,
body innrcrsed in a fruid is acted acting and npply conditions of static
"p;i;;;;';iiora y*r, (buoyant To mlae problenrs in buoynncy; identifu the forces
roeigli of the di splnied force) equal to
fhtid,' . aquilibriuru:
IFs=0
This principle, also known as the_lazo XFv=0
of lrydrostatics,
, applies to both
and submerged bodies, and to all
fluids.' " 2M=0
yr= rp.g..oLfod,y,
sP. 8r. ot llquld
v=To"dv t/ Eq.z_L7
Y [quitl
p= sP'Er.ofbody Yuoay
H= , Eq,3  18
Figure 3  9: Forces acting on a submerged
body
BF=FvzFvt
= y(Votz)  7(Volr) If the body is of uniform vertical crosssectional area A, the area submerged A'
BF=y(VoI2Volr) is:
RMoTOM=WI*) ,8q,320
lVoMBosin0=yos
VALUE OF MBO
The stabirity of the body depends
on the arl0unt of the righting momr
which in turn is der:endent o, t."
*"iu.u"oi" heightMG. wh;;; body tt
the center of buovancv shifts
to , ;;;;ri,t" n (Bo). This shifting urro
the wedge to rhift io u ,,"* position o. The
the buoyant'' force BF(z) is mustLquario
"aur
moment due to tlie shifting
*o*"r,t due to wedge shift F(s). Ilmll vALUE oF MBo
F€] tmall values of 0, (0 ^, 0 or 0 = 0):
Pitching
ee
(B/2) tan e
Forsmallvalues of 0,so !B
94 CHAPTER THREE GHAPTER THREE oq
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces Totat Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces ' r
MB"=
*ts3
Jt (B/2) sec e
VD
}(B/2)
tan e
t_
Note: This formula can be applied to any section,
since the metacentric height &rG is dependent with MBo, Centroid of wedge
the stability
floating body therefore depends on the moment of inertia [1q, 3  22,
of the watt
section. It can also be seen that the body is more stabre in pitching
rolling because the moment of inertia in pitcning is greater
than
tnan trrat in rolllt
irr,dk
Vn BDL where L is the length perpendicular to the figure
rt * t/z(B/2)l(B/2) tan0lL
MOMENT
1r fiLBztan0
('entroid of triangle, f
The righting or overturning moment on a floating body
is: xt + xz + xz
From geome try,i =
3
 0+ (B/2)sec9+ (B/2)cos0
B ('
*.ore)= r [r+cos'?e]
t = A[..oro'""",, 5[ coso )
s  n (t+.or'e)
2 6 [ cos0 )
n (t+.or'e')
s=ll
3[ cos0 )
,ar
'1
CHAPTER THREE
96
I
I
I ias,= Ll,+.r)
24D\"r"2,'1
Applying equilibrium condition;
[EFa = 0]
rf o2 F =27
t'
*r"=#(secz0+1; butsec20=1+14n26 F=pA=pDs
T = Sr A*"n
I T=51(sxf)
,r
I
pDs=2x[Sr(sxf)]
nD
Tangential stress, Sr= Eq.3'26
fr
p 1D'= StrDt
Solution
p=yhA
watlstress, s=+
4t
Eq.329 n=a/z
A=bd
F = y(d/z)(bd)
F=r/zybilS
SPACING OF HOOPS OFA WOOD STAVE PIPE
t.o
e=
Ay
I =h =d/2
*ua'
(bd)(d / 2)
e=d/6
yr=i +e
yo= d/2+ d/5
Vp= 2iV3
F= Yr=r+e
lrb* 'yu=r+rf4
Pressure diagram
yo= 5r/4 (cylindrical wedge)
t"6
Ay Using the pressure diagram for this case is quiet complicated. With the
shape showry its volume can be computed by integration. Hence, pressure
y =i =Zd/g
diagram is easy to use only if the area is rectangular, with one side horizontal.
1 UU
r:3
TE
r
Gbd)(zd /3)
e = d/12 Problem 3  4
pressure diagram
( (pyramid) A vertical rectangular gate L.5 m wide and 3 m high is submerged in water
yo= i + e with its top edge 2 m below the water surface. Find the total pressure acting
on one side of the gate and its location from the bottom.
Yo= ?d+ d112=s4tr4
CHAPTER THREE
l
t" *(r.sxs)3
Ay t+(1.5X3)l(3)
e = 0.\67 rn
yr=i +e
y, = 3.167 m from the oil surface
Fw
Ratio =
Fo
o.g25t*bl2
Ratio= =g.x
0.1y,ubd'
r
I 04 f#,t;ffi:[ff Force on surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
6. HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t05
Problem 3  7 (CE Board May 1994)
Problem 3  8 (CE Board May 1992)
A vertical circular gate in a tunner g m in diameter has oil
 (rp. gr. 0.g) on one A closed cylindrical tank 2 m in diameter and 8 m deep with axis vertical
side and air on the other side. If oil is r.2 m above tt,e inrreit
and the air contains 5 m deep of oil (sp. gr. = 0.8). The air above the liquid surface has a
pressure is 40 kPa, where will a single support be rocated
(above the invert of pressure of 0.8 kg/cm2. Determine the total normal force in kg acting on the
the tunnel) to hold the gate in position?
wall at.its location from the bottom of the tank.
Solution Solution
Oil; s 1 0,Q
Air)P=agP3
+, 8mA
4m
I
Foit=loli. A
r"i_J_
F,l = (9.81 x 0.S0)(S) Fr=P"nA
><
f (8),
par = 0.8kg/ crfi = 8,000 kg/ rr:,2
F ir = 3,t56 kN
F1 = 8,000(2n x 2) = 349ggn Ut
,=" h=5+1=7m
Ay
Fz= PreA
e +8\4
n'=' =0.5m p.s = (1000 x 0.8X3) + 8,000
f (8)'(8) Pcs= 10,400k9/m'
z=4e=3.5m Fz= 70,400(2n x 6) = "124,800nkg
Solve for e:
Fair=PairAr=40x
f;(8), Fz=y"i A
Fop = 2,01L kN
124,800n= (1000 x 0.8) h (2n x 6)
The support must be located at point O where the moment due n = v =13m
to Fur
and F,ir is zero. Since F4 ) Fri,, O must be below Foir.
[XMo = 0]
r I g1zn11oy3
i
I^ T
$t
e= L
Av
where / = ft z
frl
L
IE
fll
8 g=
1r.s11r13 1
I 6
(1.5 x 1)h 12h
Htil I
i i l'; z=0.5
 +e=0.5*

1
{
i P.= P1 + P2=156,800*kg ) Total normal force
Problem 3  10
lPy=hy1+Pzllzl is flushed
(155,800r) y = (128,000n)( ) + (2S,800r)(2) A vertical circular gate is submerged in a liquid so that its top edge
with the liquid suiface. Find thJ ratio of tolal force acting on the lower
y = 3.53m ) Location of P from the bottom the
half to that icting on the upper half,
Problem 3  9 Solution
In the figure showry stop B will ' Ratio =
F2
1.5 m At= Az
Ratio = b
h7
Ratio = =2.475
#,
I oB fL:i;;H?[:J: Force on Surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS TotatHydrostatic
CHAPTER THREE t ,it
Force'j"=';#;::: lOq
Problem 3  11 Solution
A 30 m long dam retains 9 m of L=30m
water as shown in the figure. Find
r=y nA
the total resultant force acting on the
dam and the location of the center of
i =3.5 + 2/3
pressure from the bottom. i = 4.157 rn
A=1/z(7)(2.51)
A = 1,305 m2
P= (9810 x 0.$)(a.157)(1.305)
F = 44,277 N
Solution E = tM.277kN
f=yhe
f = e.81(4.5)[(30)(10.3e2)]
F = 13,763 kN
Problem 3  13
L=30m
I. An inclined, circular
6
gatewith water on one
AV
side is shown in the
fi1ao;1ro.sez;3
.h = 4;5 figure. Determine the
e= total resultant force
(30 x 10.392)(4.5 / sin 60")
acting on the gate.
e =L.732m
y = 1/z(10.392)  1..73;2
y = 3.464m
y= +(10.3s2',)=3.464m
Problem 3  L2
Solution
The isosceles triangle gate shown
in the figure is hinged at A and F=vhA
weighs 1500 N. What is the total
 i =2+o.5sin5oo
hydrostatic force acting on one side i =2.433
of the gate in kiloNewton? F =e.87(2.433)t GF
F = 18.746 kN
I r o ;:lfff;il:l:ffForceonsurfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces ttl
Problem 3  14 I.6
(b)
#(r.sXs.o)3
The gate in the figure,shown is L.5 m wide, hinged at point A, and rests Ay (7.5x3.6)(7.21)
against a smooth wall at B. Compute (a) the total force on the gate due to
seawater, (D) the r€action at B, and (c) the reaction at hinge A. Neglect the e = 0.1.5 m
weight of the gate. r=1.80.15
x=1.65m
[XM^ = 91
F(x)Rr(2)=g
218.25(1.65) = 2P,
RB = 180 kN
(c) [EFg = 0]
' Ra,+Fsin0RB=Q
Rar, = 180  278.25 sin 33.69o
Rei, = 58.94 kN
tEf,=01
RauPcose=0
Rm=218.25 cos 33.69o
Ra, = 181'5 kN
181.6)2 + (s8.94)2
Solution
Problem 3  15
*32+22 Determine the magnitude
d=3.6m and location of the total
hydrostatic force acting on
tan9 = 2/3 the?mx4mgateshown
0 = 33.69' in the figure
i
" .sin e
_4
;li
'u= sin 33.59o
i =7.2t m
(a) r=yia
F = (e.81 x 1.03)(a)[(1.sX3.6)]
F = 218.25 kN
I l2 CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULTCS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t t3
Solution
Problem 3  16 (CE November 1997)
1
m
90,000 N/m,. Use %800
N/cu. m. for water.
;rr1,;1t1qil,::t!\./f
'v
, )q
ll'
.l
i'
F = prrA
P,s= zyb + p
p,s= (9.8tx1.26)(3) + (9.81)(1.5) + (9.81x0.80)(1) + sz
p,r= 97.645kPa
Solution
F=97.645(2x4)
F = 733.15 kN
F = pr"A
Solving for e: Pz  Pcg= \h
for h and
90000  p,s= 9,800(2,55)
Solve ! :
p,g= 6403APa
F=yh a F = 54030 (0.5 x 1.5)
733.1,6= (9.81x7.26)n p* +1 F = 48,022.5 N
i =7.41,4m
i = n /sin 60. =7.414/ sin 5o'
7 = 8.551m
o=',
Ay =(2 x a)(8.s61)
#(z)(+)'
Pz = 90,000 Pa
e = 0.156 m
Problem 3  L7
z=2e=1.844m The gate shown in the figure is hinged at A and rests on a smooth floor at B.
The gate is 3 m square and oil of having sp. gr. of 0.82 stands to a height of 1.5
Therefore, F is located 1.8rM from the bottom of the gate.
m above the hinge A. The air above the oil surface is under a pressure of 7 kPa
above aknosphere. If the gate weighs 5 kN, determine the vertical force F
required to open it.
T'
t l4 CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces I l5
Problem 3  18 (CE Board)
Iron pins 20 mm in diameter are used for supporting flashboards at the crest
of masonry dams. Tests show that the yield point of iron to be 310 MPa
(extreme fiber stress). Neglecting the dynarnic effectof watqr on flashboards
and assuming static conditions, what is the proper spacing, S, of the iron pins,
so that the flashboards 500 mm high will yield when water flows 150 mm deep
over the top of the flashboards.
Sotution
I
Solution
P = prrA
,iN pcg= pair + loJlo
P,s = 7 + 9.81(0.82)(2.55)
lr
pcg=27.59kPa
l,'
P =27.5e tG)G)l
P = 248.34 kN
p=yhA
248.34 = (9.81x0.82)E 1a, a;
Ir
h =3'.43m
h 3.43
sin 45o sin 45o
3 sin 45' = 2.12 m Moment capacity of one iron pin (20 mm @):
= 4.85 m
lFn= Mc/4
t M(4)
g= ! = #(e)(s)' 310= ':'\2/'
Ai (3 x 3)(4.85) *(20)*
e = 0.155 m M=243,473.43 Nmm
x=1.5+e M= 0.24347kNm
x  1.655 m
Moment caused by F (considering S m width of flashboard):
[El't^ = g 1 Mr;F xY
P(x) + W(1.06)  F(2.7\ = a
2.1,2F = 248.34(1.55s) + 5(1.05)
P=yhA whereA=0.6S
. F=L95.37kN F = 9.8L(0.45)t0.5 Sl
. I '
I IO
CHAPTERTHREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces tl7
F = 2.6495 Problem 3  20
lt=0.3e At 20'C, A in the figure reads 290 kPa absolute. The tank is 2 m wide
gage
t"o_ #(sxo.6)3 perpendicular to the figure. Assume atrnospheric pressure to be 1 bar. Sp. gr.
Ai (0.6 s)(0.4s) of mercury = 13.6. Determine the total pressure acting on side CD.
e = 0.067 m
y = 0.3  0.067 = 0.233 m T
Mr=Fry=M 1m
.1.
2.6495x0.233=0.24347
S=0.394m=394mm t
h
J
Problem 3  19
70 cm
The semicircular gate shown
in Figure 28 is hinged at B. Gage A
Determine the force F required
to hold the gate in position.
Solution
Solving for ft:
, Solution %=Zyh+pnp
i = y =101.598 299 = (9.81. x 13.6)(0.70) + (9.81)h + 175
h=2.2m
i =, =8.302ft
f=yhe Total force on side CD: (Note: 1 bar = 100 kPa)
P = 62.4(8.302)flzrcg)21
P = 13,019.89Ibs pr=175100
t"d 7=75kPa 1m
c
p2= 9.81(2.9)
AY
p2= 28.M9kPa
I
I
Ig = 0'1098
i, = 0.1098(4)a Ft= pr(3.9)(2)
ls = 28'77 fta h75(3.e)(2)
4fr.
_
e
28_.11
(8.302) _L_
Fr = 585.kN
+n(4)2
z Fz= 1/zpz(2.9)(2)
', ,=0.1347ft Fz = 1/z(28. aae) (2.9) (2)
b = 1,.698  01347 = 1.5533 ft Fz = 82.5 kN 2m
lIMs = 0I F=h+Fz
P(b) = F(4) F = 657.5 kN
13,019.89(1.5 633) = P g7
F = 5088.5 lbs
I l8 fI*i;;I..lH:[ Force on surraces
FLIJID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUTD MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTERTHREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces It lg
t7
Problem 3  21 Solution
The funnel shown in the figure is p=yhA
full of water. The volume of the r = e.81(2.6X1.6 x1,.2)
upper part is 90 liters and the F = 48.97 kN
lower part is 74 liters. What is the
I.
force tending to push the plug e=4
out? AY
t.z0.q3 2.5m,
72
Afea = 100
(1.6x1,.2)(2.6)
e = 0.082 m
z=0.8e
z=0.718m
= 460 cm2
T=Fxz
Solution T=48.97x0.718
since the plug area in contact with water is horizontal, the pressure all over T = 35.15 kNm
it is uniform. The shape of the container does not affect the pressure on the
Plug'
Force=pxA Problem 3  23 (CE Board)
9,810(3)(#
Force = ) A cubical box, 1.5 m on each edge, has its base horizontal and is halffilled
Force = 1353.78 N with water. 'The remainder of the box is filled with air under a Sage Pre55ure
of 82 kPa. One of he vertical sides is hinged at the top and is free to swing
inward.' To what depth can the top of this box bei submerged in an open body
Problem 3  22 of fresh water without altowing any wafer to enter?
In the figure showrU the gate AB
Sotution
rotates about an axis through B.
The gate width.is 1.2 meters. A
torque I is applied to the shaft
through B. Determine the torqre T
to keep the gate closed.
;ill
l
i;i'
i
in,,'
li,
]ii
9.81(oJ5) 82 kPa
= 7,36 kPa
I 1.5mx1.5m
I
,]
l
tul
:t
l
l,.r[,i,,
lr
rl
il 4=.yi A i_
il
ll Fs= e.81ii 11r.sy1r.sy1
',1
rl
Fs= 22.07i
!l .h Location of F:
l,
x = o.z5+
0'1875 t*f(l.s)n xQ)4
 Av n[(1.5)2
i1, h  (1)2](4)
ir In Equation (1): e = 0.203 m
I
Solution :
Solution
Considering 1 m length dF=pdA
F1 = 17, (9.81,,) (hX1)
Fr = 4.9051,2 kN dA=2x dy
r', = 9.81h(1.sX1)
tsy squared propelty of parabola:
Fz = 14.715ft kN v
*' =2' dy
lEMo = ol y3
F{h/3) + W(0.5) Fz(1..5/2)= s
4.e05tP (tr/3) + s(0.6)  1.4.71sh (0.2s; = 6 xz = tlt
1..6351f11..04h+3=0
*=zJv /3
Solve ft by trial and error
h= 0.2748 m dF,=w122 (2r JM ) dvl
dF'= 2.311yf/,'2 dy
F 3
s13
f== 2.317 lz ,rr2
Solution _t
l
v I
= 2.31(9.81) f 135/2  Os/z1
[rMo = o] L5' I'
F lh / 3) + W (0.6) + P(1.s) / 2) = o
f==147.3r ttl
P2(1..s
4.905tt2 (h/3) + s(0.6) + P(1.5)
t '14.715h (0.751 = 0
Location:
P =1,.09h3 _7.359h+3
J
741.8 yo = 1 z dvl
tob.rr*'
Problem 3  27
3
Determine the force due waterto
acting on one side and its location on yo = 0.1,604
I the  parabolic gate shown using 0
F',,*
integration.
y,= 0.1.604lt,tn
I
"')'o
yr= 0.1.604 (2/4lg?/2' Ouzl
yo= 2.14 mlelow the w.s.
)
from sliding. The specific gravity and the foundation is 0.8. Determihe (a) the maximum and minimum unit
of concrete is 2.4 and the presoure on the foundation, and the (b) factors of safety against overturning
coefficient of friction between the and against sliding.
base of the dam and the
foundation is 0.4. Use 1.5 as the Solution
factor of safety against sliding. Is
the da{. also safe from Sp,g..ofconc,r.o..=
overturning ? Y
Sp.gr.of conc, ,,,n = ?!!J9 =2.4
Solution
. 1000
Consider 1 m length of dam
Consider L m length of dam
Wr=yrV,
W,= y(2.4)l(ax6)(1)I w=yrv
W,=74.4by =
Qx2.4) [r1011a11r1]
F =y(2.2\19.5)(1)I
F = 10.1?5y
P=yhA .trn w's'
t<( B = 6m
= 7(4)(8 x 1)
R' = f'= 10.125Y f =32y
,l Rv=W,
Rv= L4.4AV
&=P=32y
l
Ru=W=57.6,
rRY
rs..R,
= XM=W(4\
= 57.6y$)
0.4(14.4bt\ RM=?30.4y
1.5 =
1.0.1,25y
OM=P(8/3)
b=2.537 m = 32y(8/3)
" OM=85.33y
Fs.= RM
OM x=RMOM
Rv
B/5=lm U
Dc _ wc(b /2)
r(1.s)
7=
*'a= 85.33v
230.4v '' =2.519m<B/2
1,4.aQ.937)y(2.637 /2) 57.6y
,r"_ = 3.3 > 1 (Safe)
10.1257(1.5)
e=B/2 i
e=32.519 =0.481mc8/6
'
Figure:
'=+(,"#)
tl_ _s7.6(e.81) [, * e(0.+Sr)l
6 L'= 6 )
Using (+): q7 =  139.47 kPa ) soil pressure at the toe
Using (): 4p =  48.88 kPa ) soil pressure at the heel
"" _ Rl _
FR, _o.s(S7.by)
,,n_
w
FS" = 1.44
RM 230.4y
FS, =
Ol/I 85.33y
FS' = 2.7
R, = XF, =Wr+ Wz
=217.2y + 24By g6y
Rr=248Y +115.4
128 fl"1fi;il:*ff Force on surraces
FLUID
&
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER'THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Sirrfac€s 129
& I{YDRAULICS
a'.1
^u.atw
B =17.175m
Factors of Safety:
Factor of safety against sliding:
uR,,v
rc:'
Les
F R*
I
(0.s\[2a01,.175)y + "t"tl.zyj
I
20ll 200y
FS, = 0.9585
FSo= 2,97
IV. Moment.about the toe
RM = W1(B  2) + Wzt$ 1a . +11 A. Considering hydrostatic uplifh
= 211.2y(B  z) + (zuB^t  s6y) 4)l
t+ @ _
i,
I
r 30 ;:HI;ffi:[:]: Force on surfaces FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTERTHREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces tt J
? tI
lr
Problem 3  31 (CE Board May 2002) &=F=176.58kN
I The section of A concrete gravity Ry = W, + Wz= 376 + 1.88
I dam shown in the figure. The RY = 564 kN
depth of water at the upstream side
is 6 m. Neglect hydrostatic uplift uR..Y
FS"='
R,
and use unit weight of concrete
equal to 23.5 kN/fm3. Coefficient of 0.6,(56,4)
friction between the base of the FS, = =1.97.5
176.58
dam and the foundation is 0.5.
Determine the following: (a) factor RM=Wh+Wzxz
of safety against sliding, (b) the = 376(3) + 188(1.333)
factor of safety against RM= 1378.604 kNm
overturning, and (c) the
OM= F xy
overturning moment acting against
= 176.ss(2)
the dam in kNm.
OM = 353.16 kNm ) overturning moment
"oM
""=RM
1378'6u

Pg^=
353.1,5
= 3.904
. ^ CHAPTERTHREE
CHAPTERTHREE
I 5Z ?3
Surfaces II r,
Totat Hydrostatic Force on surfaces FLUID MECHANICS
& I{YDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on
Problem 3:32 (CE Board November 2001)
Problem 3  33 (CE Board May 1986)
The section of a gravity dam is
The section of the masonry dam is as shown. The specific weight of water is
as shown in the figure. Assume
f 9,81 kN/mr and that of concrete is 23.54 kN/ma. Assuming uplift pressure
hydrostatic uplift to vary I
varies linearly from 7m El.52m
uniformly from full hydrostatic I maximum hydrostatic
uplift from the heel to zero at
pressure at the heel to zero at
the toe. Determine the total
I
Ry=W, +Wz+Wll
Wt=yrVr
w1= (52.4 x 2.4\!+:(60X1)
Wt = 224,6401bs
Wz=f,Vz
wz= (62.4x2.4)9#$)(1)
w*z= 44,9281bs
rl !
!
. t;l CHAPTERTHREE
I 5+ Totat Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLU'D MECHANICS
& ItfllBilf,:liANrcs rotarHvdros,,r,. rTf;J',tT,H#! I 35
('') t''o= Rtr/l= TrTisB
I. Consider 1. m length of dam 683,900."12
oLt
Il. Forces FSo = 1'31
W't ='l' Vr
wt = 23.54lvz(s.2)(s2)(1)l = 3,183 kN (d) FoundationPressure:
wz= 23.54 Knp2)(1) = 8,569 kN e=B/2i
e =38.2/213.2=5.9 m< B/6
Wt= 23.541y,(26)(s2)(1)l = 15,913 kN
W+ = 9.81[1/z(5X50)(1)] = 1,226.3 kN R,, ( 6e)
a=
. B\' 1+lB)
U =1/z(4e0.5)(%.2)(1) = 5,6e0 kN l
23,201..3[, * ots.sl
F= yiA = 9.81(25)[s0(1)] = L2,263 kN '
o =_
38.2 L 38.2 I
III. Reaction
Stress at the toe, (use "+'r);
R,=F=12263kN
q= 1,170'27kPa
Rv=Wr+Wz+W+WtU
= 3,183 + 8,569 + 15,913 + 1,,226.3  5,690 Stress at the heel, (use "J'1
Ry = 23,201.3 kN qr, = 44.52kPa
0.75(23,201.3)
FS, = = 7.42
12,263
,.nl" l
iri
:lr
I '
I 5()
CHAPTERTHREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS CHAPr_ER
Total Hydrostatic Force on
rHREE
Surfaces It J t
& HYDRAULICS
"7
;ili
,,I
Solution
Fr=yi A
Another way of solving r :
4m
t"6 circle O, hence the moment about O due to
li V=5m F or due to Fs and Fv is zero.
Ay
FH=yh A 3olution 
Fu = 9.81. (4.33) [10(8.56)] Considering 1 meter length:
Frr = 3679 kN Fp=yh A
y= \(s.6e=2.887rn FH=9.81(3)(6x1)
Fs = 176.58 KN
Therefore; Fs is acting 2.88V mabove O
Fv=tV,
A,=Ar*torAtria.gte
Fv=yV$c
Vasc=VeoacVaoB
,r(6)2 (60')
A"" =  v26\2sin 6oo
360'
vasc= $
1s.ooy. x10 *vz(10)z [00.5.] " ro A"=3.26m2
Vaac= 125.9 rnl
Fv=9.81(3.26x1)
Fv = 9,87(125.90) Fv = 31.98 KN
kN
Fv = 1235
F= W *P;
Moment about O due to Fn and Fy = Q F= 1@ssf *(31es)'
Fv (x) = Fu tg) F = 179.45 KN
1235 x=3679(2.BZn
x=8.57m
Therefore; Fy is acting 8.57 m to from O Problem 3  37
Calculate the magnitude of the
resultant pressure on a lftwide strip
Problem 3  36 (CE May 1999) of a semicircular taintor gate shown
Calculate the magnitude in Figure12.
of the
resultant force per meter length due
to water acting on the radial tainter
gate shown in Figure 021.
Solution
Fu = p,cA
i
P, = (62.4x 2.s)(5 x 1) = /36 16t
,I Fv=lVzulc
Fv = 62.4 x If (s)'z(l)] = 1225tbs
F= .ffif *(Frf
P = ,,1 1ZSO12 + (1225\2 = 1452lbs
r"
lr Problem 3  38 39
Froblem 3  (CE Board November 1993)
I
Determine the magnitude of
Itr tlrc figure shown, the 1.20 m
I
,r,=rh A
Fm = 9.8\(1.2) (1.2 x 1'.2)
Far = 16.95 kN
Fw = YVt
F w = 9.81lVz a (0.6),(1.2)l
Fvr = 6.657 kN
Fuz=Th A= (g.51, x 0.8)(0.6)(1.2 x 1.2)
Fsz = 6.78 kN
Fn=yh A lIf, = 91
ra = e.81(3)[(1)(2)] FmFuzRaH=0
Fs = 58.86 kN Rsn=16.956.78
RsH = 10.17 kN
Rav+F1n+FvzW=0
Rsv=19.626.657 5.32
Rav = 7.64 kN
Fv =tVol
Fv = 9.81[4(2X1) + 0.7sln(2)r(1)]
Fv = L70.94 kN
CHAPTER TIITEE 43
Surfaces II Ti
.I CHAPTERTHREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUTD MECHANICS
I +Z
^ Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on
:"",l Problem 3  41
A 2 m diameter horizontal cylinder 2 m long plugs a 1m by 2m rectangular_
hole at the bottom of a tank. With what force is the cylind,er pressed against
the bottom of the tank due to the 4m depth of water?
Solution
h = 2* (L cos 30")
lu=L.732m
hz=4ht
hz= 2.258 m
I
li, Ft = lV.r
Vt=Atx2
1, Area, Ar = Area bf rectangle DEFG  A4
l
j
I
Area or sesment, A. = '(?:f:0')  v,(l)(1.)sin 60o
I
il,
ll L, n= TVt Area of 6egment, Ar = 0.09059 m2
'il,l Fl = (e.81 x 0.82)[r(0.1),(0.as)]
1r[rl] Fr= 0.114 kN Area,Ar =2.1774m2
1,' V = 2.1774(2) = 4.355 me
ti l
Fz= YVt
Fr = 9.81(4.3s5)
Vz= VFrustum  Vcyltnd",
I
I
h=42.72kN
%= *(0.2)(0.1)+(0,1)rl  r(0.1),(0.1s)
I ry[0.21, Fz= Fs= yVz
= 0.00528 ma Vz= Azx 2
ir Vz
i
h
CI'IAPTERTHREE t rF
t 44 fI*iI;H:[:J: Force on surraces FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS surfaces I '+)
Total Hydrostatic Force on
I
r(1)?0') fs=yh A
Area of segment,A, = %G)$)sin 120o
Fu = e .81(6.12)t$.24) (11
Area of segment, Az= 0.614m2 Fs = 254.56 kN
vz= 0.61,4(2) = 1,.2?3 mg
Fz=Fr=9.81,(1,.228) Fv = Y Vrnua"a
Fz = Fr = 12.05 kN %fr"a"a = (Asemictrcle + {610"ro1,1) x 1
Problem 3  42
Problem 3  43
In the figure shown,
determine,the horizontal and The gate shown is a
vertical components of the quarter circle 2.5 m
total force acting on the wide. Find the force F
cylinder per m of its length. iust sufficient to prevent
rotation about hinge B.
Neglect the weight of
the gate.
Solution
6 cos45o
= 4.24m
Solution
Fs=yh A
:{
t;$ Fr = 9.81(1)(2.5 x,2)
oll
Fs = 49.05 kN
Fv = Y Vasc
F v = 9.81[(2 x 2)  0.25n(2)z
Fv ='21.05 kN
I ,i ()
, CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTER THREE I a7
I 'f rotal Hydrostatic Force on surfaces & HYDRAULICS, & HYDRAULTCS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces ' t '
rl
il
.

I
l
Hemispherical
surface
Solution
Convert 100 kPa to its
equivalent pressure
head, }* lh Solution
, P_
,req _
.
v
100
IL Since the gate has circular surface,
the total water pressure passes
through point O which is also the
ftm
' 9.81 location of the hinge, therefore the

h"c= 10.194 rn T,I, moment due to water pressure
about the hinge is zero.
h=10.1945
h=5.194m lxMo = 0l r=2,5m
l_i_
^
100 kPa
F(2.5) = s0(1.2) + Fr(0)
F=24kN
F = Weight of imaginary water above the hemispherical
surface
F=Y'v,' Problem 3  47
= Volume of cylinder + Volume of hemisphere
Vu,
A hemispherical dome shown is filled with oil (s = 0.9) and is attached to the
V*= n(2)2(5.1ea) +
!x floor by eight diametrically opposed bolts. What force in each bolt is required
tr(2)3
V,,= $).Q/g sP to hold the dome down, if the dome weighs 50 kN?
F = 9.81(82.025)
F = 8M.7 kN
L
r ! _l
Solution
[IFy=0]
F+ForFrir=0
F=F"irF"it
Fnil = YVoil the cone
"uote
P,u = (9.81 x0.8) [r(0.805)r(5)
 { r(0.80s)'?(3)l
Foir = 63'9L kN
Fat = Pair A
F"i' = 20 tt $.51)'z I = 40.72 kN
F=63.91,40.72
Solution F = 23.19 kN
FY = Y %.uginary oil above the dome
Solution ;
$,= tl p$so)
. 124x looo 
2t
t =9.98 mm say 10 mm
t
q
Solution "_

s4.e36(6000)
S = 200.?3run say 200 mm
p=pinsidepoutside
p = e.81(150)  e.81(1.03)(20)
p = 1269.4 kPa = 1.269 MPa
A thinwalled hallow sphere 3.5 m in didmeter holds helium gas at L700 kPa.
 = J3
5'1
7.2o9Q00\
=12.69MPa Determine the rninimum wall thickness of the sphere if its allowable slress is
2(10) 60 MPa.
Solution :
pD
Wall'skess, S,=
A 100mmID steel pipe has a 5 mm wall thickness. For an allowable tensile T
stress of 80 MPa, what maximum pressure can the pipe withstand? 1,700(3.5 x L000)
60,000 =
Solution
t=24.79mm
rt,=
*l
Problem 3  55
3s = P(1oo)
2(6) A vertical cylindrical tank is 2 meters in diameter and 3 meters high. Its sides
p =9.6 MPa = 9,500 kPa are held in position by means of two steel hoops, one at the top and the other
at the bottom. If the tank is filled with water to a depth of 2.1. m, determine
the tensile stress in each hoop.
Problem 3  53
A wooden storage vat is 6 m in diameter and is filled with T m of oil, s = 0.g. Solution
The wood staves are bound by flat steel bands, 50 mm wide by 5 mm thick,
whose allowable tensile stress is 110 MPa. what is_the required spacing of the
Solution
'l
Tz = 16.58 kN (tension in the bottom hoop)
TT
I tm
lI FH:01
272+ 27r= P
l1
+r'
16l3
2Tr=Prr, I l3/3
I
6m
t'
lll
I
'i:
sl3
Problem 3  56
A vertical cylindrical iank, open at the top, is filled with a liquid. Its sides are
held in position by means of two steel hoops, one at the top and the other at p=yhA
the bottom. Determine the ratio of the stress in the upper hoop to that in the F = e.81(8/2)[8(3)]
lower hoop. F = 941.76 kN
[ZMopr,oop = 0]
Solution
272(6) = F (13;/3)
Tz= 13F/36
Ratio=Tt/Tz Tz= 13(941.76)/36
Tz = 340.08 kN
[EMt"p = 0]
2r2(h) = F(2h/3) [XMuotto^ r,oop = 0]
Tz= F/3 2r{6) = F(5/3)
Tr = 5F /36 = 5(941.75)/36
Tr = L30.8 kN
[XMuotto^ = 0]
Zr{h) = F(h/Z)
Tt= F/6
Problem 3  58 (CE Board November f982)
F/6 A cylindrical tank with its axis vertical is 1 meter in diameter and 5 m high. It
Ratio= =o.s
F/3 is held together by two steel hoops, one at the top and the other at the bottom.
ThreeliquidsA,B,andChavingsp.gr.ofl.0,2.0,and3.0,respecfivelyfillthis
tank, each having a depth ot'1..20 m. On the surface of A there is ahnospheric
pressure. Find the tensile stress in each hoop if each has a crosssectional area
of 1250 mm2.
156 ;#i;;5,:H:,: Force on surraces CHAPTER THREE
Surfaces I' rtr^Z
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on '
Solution
r
Tz = 3.6(9810) = 35316 N
m
2Tr pr=0 T. 35316 
A2 7250
Liquid A
s=1,0
Skess, Sz = 28.25 MPa ) stress in bottom hoop
= [IFu = 0]
3.6 m Liquid B 271 + 77r= Fr + Fz + F3 + F4 + F5
s=2.0 1.2 m 2T1= 9.7r, + 1.44y + 1.44y + 4.32y + 2.L6y  2(3.6y)
Tt = 1.44y
Tt = 1,.44(9810)
L, Tt = 1.4L26.4N
sh'ess.s,= I
A114'126'4
1.,250
Pz= pr + Yaha
pz=0+ (yxt)(t.2)=1.2y
Problem 3  59
Pt=P2+Ysl1o An open cylindrical tank of 1..86 m2 cross:sectional area and 3.05 m high
h = 1.2y + (yx2)(1.2) = 3.6y water. Into it is lowered another smaller tank of the
contains 2,ti31 liters of
same height but of 093 rfr crosssection in the inverted position, allowing its
P4=h+ychc
pt = 3.6y + (yx3)(1.2) = 7 )y open end to rest on the bottom of the bigger tank. Determine the maximum
lcnsion per vertical millimeters on the sides of the bigger tank, Neglect the
h =r/z@z\(1.2[1)
thickness of the metal forming the inner,tank and assume normal barometric
h = th(1.2:i (1..2) (1\ = 0.72y
pressure.
Fz = pzl1..2)(1)
Fz= 1.2y(7.2)(1) = 1.aay Solution
h= Vz(ps  pz)(1.2)(1) 1.86 m2
Fq = p{1.2)(1)
ir Ft = 3.6y (1.2) (L) = 4.22y
,l
Fs=lh(pt  p)(1.2)(t)
Itiliii; Ft = lz(7 .2y  z.6y)(1..2)(1) = Z:!.6t0
i
[EM"p = 0]
1.6QD = Fr(0.s) + Fz(1.8) + Fs(2) + Fr(3) + Fs(3.2)
7.2T2= 0.22y(0.8) + 1,.My(7.8) + Laaye) + 4.32y(i) + 2.16y(3.2)
Tz= 3.6y O Before lowering o After lbwering
l
.iiu
I 58 ;IfiI;I.:H:[ Force on surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces t59
In Figure G) Problem 3  60 (CE Board November L977)
Volume of water = (1.86  0.93)(b + h) + 0.93b = # An iceberg having specific gravity of 0.92 is floating on salt water of sp. gr.
"t.86b + 0.93h  2.831 1.03. If the volume of ice above the water surface is 1000 cu. m., what is the
2h+lt=3.044 total volume of the ice?
b = 1.522  0.5h ) Eq. (1)
Solution
lpt Vt = pz Vz) Let V = total volume of ice
pt = 101.325 kPa (atmospheric pressure) Vb = volume displaced
Yl = 0.93(3.05) = 2.8365 m3 Vo= V 'l'000
pz= 101.325 +.9.81.h
v2= 0.93(3.05  b) LV.e = Ti.e V = (9.87x0.92)(1)
Wi,"= 9.0252 V
7o1.s2s(2.836s) = (1 01.32s + 9.81/r) [0.93(3.0s  b)] BF = r""*."t", fo
309.04 = 309.04 '10't.325b + 29.921t  9.81.bh BF (9.81x10.3XY' 1000)
29.92h  1.01..325b  9.81.bh = 0 =
BF=10.1043(v1000)
29.92h  1 01.325(1.522  0.51 1  9.8L(L.s22  0.5/r)/, = 0 [EFv = 0]
29.92h  754.22 + 50.66h = 74.93h + 4.905ll = 0 Wx.= BF
4.905h2 + 65.65h  154.22 = 0 9.02s2V = 10.1043(V  1000)
1,.0797 = 10104.3
h= 65.65!@ = 2.039 V =9,364cu,m.
2(4.e}s)
b = 0.5027 m Another Solution:
H=b+h=2.542m For homogeneous solid body floating on a homogeneous liquid:
sbodY YbodY
The maximum tensile stress occurs at the bottom of the tank. vo = vuoay = yuoay
1
sliquirt Y Iquid
p=yH=9.81(2.542)
p = 24.937 kPa = 0.024937 MPa
then; V1000 =ffiv
T 0.106796V = 1000
Tension, T: V =9,364ca.m.
2T = pD(l)
f Dz = 1.86 m2
D=1,539m=1,539mnl Problem 3  61 (CE Board May 2003, Nov 2002, May 200O, Nov 1992)
A block of wood 0.60 mx m x /r meters in dimension was thrown into the
0.60
2T = 0.024937 (1,,539) (1) water and floats with 0.18 m projecting above the water surface. The same block
T=19.2N was thrown into a container of a liquid having a specific gravity of 0.90 and it
floats with 0.L4 m projecting above the surface. .Determine the following:
(a) the value of /r,
(b) the specific gravity of the block, and
(c) the weight of the block.
l60 ;I*i;;ilH:[ Force on Surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l6l
Solution Wrron"
In Water: Istone  :
Vstone
Draft =
Jwood
7'
. 460
S*,ater tstone = 28,204 N/m3
0.0153
c
rwood
h_ 0.lg _ 7,
1 Problem 3  63 (CE Board May 1993)
S*noa /z = ft  0.18 ) Eq. (1)
A body having a sp. gr. of 0.7 floats on a liquid of sp. gr. 0.8. The volume of
the body above the liquid surface is what percent of its total volume?
ln another liquid
S*oo'1 Solution
Draft = 7,
Stiqui.l
Vo= fuVo"ay
Si,ooa sliquid
tt_0.14 7,
0.9
S*,o4 /r = 0.9h  0.126 ) Eq. (2)
Vr= #Vuo,ry = 0.875V6"6y
In other liquid (S = 0.9)
Since the volume of the body displaced (below the liquid surface) is 0.875
[S*ooa /t = S*oo,1 /t]
/,0.18=0.9h0.126 or 87.5% of its total volume, then the volume of the body above the liquid
h = 0.54 m ) height of the block surface is 12.5o/o of its total volume.
Solution
Weight of stone = 460 N
Weight of stone in water = 300 N [XFv = 0]
BF=W^"n*l/Vwood
Buoyant force, BF = 460  300 = 160 N
= LV^"n f y*ood Vwood
yrn, V*ood
CHAPTER THREE
162 Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER THREE
Problem 3  65 (CE Novemb
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
 t63
er 1997)
A cubc of wood (s'g' = 0.60) has gin Problem 3  67
sides.
of the force required to hold the Cornpute the r.*agnitude and A uniforrn block of steel (s = 7.g5) .I7t **
l,;;::il"^ wood comptetety submerged in 
will float at a mercurywater Water
interface as shown in Figure 27.
Solution What is the ratio of the distar.rces
1,1
t "a" and"b" for this condition?
Weight of wood = (62.4x 0.60) (+I
= 15.295 lbs
,i Buoyant force when
submerged in water:
I
BF : 62.4(+I = r::j;l[:t
Required force = Z3.g2S _ 1l.7gs
Required force = 10.53 lbs downward Figure 27
Solution
Probtem 3  66 GE G;2oo0,
I
The block shown in Figure 04 t2' x 12'
I
B\+ Sf2=1,1
fu,V\r,,*fnVor,=ysV
I
9.81(Ax a) + (9.81 x 13.56)(4 x D) = (9.81 x 7.8s)[A(a + b)l
Figure 04 a + 13.56b =7.85a + 7.85b
Solution
5.71b = 6.85 a
From the figure shown:
a/b = 0.834
llr, = o,
B\ + BPr= 35,000
Probtem368(eEMm98,
BFt = Tol Vo
B\ = (62.4x0.8X12x12x3) If a 5kg steel prate is attached to one end of a
0.1 m x 0.3 m x 1.20 m wooden
Bh = 21,,565.44ibs il::f 3,ote,
wfat is the rength of the pole above water? use s.g.
Neglect buoyant force on steel
or *ooa of 0.50.
21,565.44 + BFz= 35,000
BFz= 73,434.56hbs
BFz = T,,, Vo
13,424.56 = 62.a
[e2)(12) ttl
h ='1.495 ft
164 fL:iJ;H?.:ff Force on surraces
FLUID MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS CHAPTERTHREE . .
Surfaces I (l5
& HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on
So.lution
' Neglecting the buoyant force on steel: Problem 3  70
BF*noa = TVsteel i LV*"r,.l A wooden buoy (s.g. = 0.62) is 50 mm by 50 mm by 3 m long
is made to float
1000(0.1 x0.3xJ/)=5+ in sea water (s.g. = 1.025). How many N of steel (s.g. 7.85)
= should be
x 0.3 x 1.2] attached to the bottom to make the buoy float with
^1000(0.5)[0.i exactly 450 mm exposed
y = 0.77 nr above the water surface?
h ='1.2
 !/ Solution
It=1.20.77
It = 0.43 m IFy=g
BF"t""r + BF*ooa W*ood I/1y's6""i =g
BF"t*t = Y. %t*r
BF,t".r = (9810 x 1.025)%t*r
BFrt*r = 10,055.25 %t"o N
BF*ood = l"n Vo
Problem 3  69 BF*ooa= (981.0 x 1.025)[(0.05)r(2.55)]
If a Skg steel plate is attached to one end BF*ooa = 54.1 N
of a 0.1 mx0.3mx1.20mwooden
pole, what is the ler.rgth of the pole above W*ood= wood Vwood
water? Use sp. gr. of wood of 0.50
arld that of steel 7.g5. LVwood = (9810 x 0.6,2)[0.05)r(3)]
LVwood = 45.62 N
Solution
LVrt*r = hrur %t".r
W*ood = (1000 x 0.5X0.1 x 0.3 x 1.2)
W*ooa = 18 Kg = (9810 x 7.85) V,ua
LV.t""r
W,t*r = 77008.5 %t.l
W'r"a = 5 kg
10055.25 %tu"r + 64.1"  45.62  Z70Oq5
%t""r = 0
BFw=1000(0.1x0.2xd) 65953.25 %eu = 18.48
BFyy= 39 4 %t".t = 0.000276m3
BFs = 19gO ,. Id.t*r = 9810 (7. 85X0. 0027 G)
I//s = (1000 x 7.85) V5 = g Wrt""t = 21.255 N
Vs = 0.000637 ms
BFs= 0.637 Kg
I
I
I OO Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces
i
,l I Solution Solution
ri
I
lIFv = oI
Wc+Wr=BFc+BFr
Wc= Yc Vc
Ws = (1x 0.25)(130)
Wc= 32.5 grarns
i
BFc = yu, Vc
BFc = (1Xi30)
BF6 = 130 grm
Wr=tuVt
Wt= (1x 11.3) Vi
1,, , Wr=11.3 Vt
I BFr  \u' Vt
BFr = (1) Vt= yt
32.5 + 11.3 VL= 130 + VL
Vr = 9.47 cc
(a) Lead is fastened outside the cllinder (b) Lead is placed inside the cylinder
Wy = 1.1,.3(9.47)
Wt= 706.97 grams
(a)Lead is fastened outside
BFc= y* Vo
Problem 3  72 (CE November 1993) BFc = 9'311* (1)'z(1's)l
A hallow cylinder 1 m in diameter and 2 m high weighs 3825 N. (a) How BFc = 11'55 U*
many kN of lead weighing 110 kN/m3 must be fastened to the outside bottom BFt= y* Vr
of the cylinder to make it float with 1.5 m submerged in water? (b) How many BFY= 9'g1Y'
kN of lead if it is placed inside the cylinder?
Wr= ytVt = L10Vr
[XFv=0]
BF6 + fif't =Wc+WL
11.55 + 9.B7Vt = Z.B2S + 1t OVr
Vr= 0.0772n:F
Wr = 110(0.07727 = g4g U*
Solution
W= 425 N
BFp = yyV6p1
BFpl= (9,810 x 13.6)[0.28,(x)]
BFu ='10,459.81 x
BFw=yrvVorv
BFr,r= 9,616t(0.28)'?(0.28  r)l
BFw=769.L(0.28x)
Problem 3  74
A cube 2.2 teet on an Problem 3 75 (CE May L997)
edge has its lower half of s.g. ='0.8 A 100mm diameter solid cylinder is 95 mm high and weighing 3.75 N is
s.B. = 1.5 and upper half immersed in a liquid (y = 8.175 kN/m) contained in a tall metal cylinder
of s.g. = 0.7. It rests in a having a diameter of 125 mm. Before immersion, the liquid was75 mm deep.
twolayer fluid, with At what level will the solid cylinder float?
lower s.g. = '1..4 and
upper s.g. = 0.8.
Determine the heighf /r
of the top of the cube
above the interface. See
Figure 33.
Figure 33
THREE t ,r t
l7 o ;IfiI;ilH.',[ Force on Surfaces
FLUID MECHI\NICS
& HYDRAULICS
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER
Totat Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces I I I
Solution Problem 3  76
L25 mm a
A wooden beam of sp. gr. 0.54 is 150 mm by 150 mm and is hinged at A, as
shown in the Figure. At what angle 0 will the beam float in water?
Solution
E T
I
E 1m
E
6
N
125 mm a
(d/ Eerore tmmerston (b) After immersion
Solution
F =yi A:
F = 19.62 kN
e.81(1)(2 x 1)
r
0.5 m
4*, D+0.07620.1524
v= +Q)=0.567m
[>Ma = 0]
i_
I
*"_ ,v = D  0.0752
Fxy=Tx2.S ioo
19.62(0.66n = 2.57
T = 5.232 kN 2m
l3 Figure (c)
From the FBD of the
,ir concrete block:
t. we have to assume that the boat have a constant crosssectional area A below
rl
[IFv = 0l the water surface and use ]water = 1000 kg/mo.
1il1i,
T + 3P =1,a1
l In Figure (a):
BF = YruVror, = 9.8L %on.
W = yro* V.on. = 23,6 Vrrr*
B\=77
T"nVo=W
5.?32+ g.g1 %o,,. = 23.6 V,o,,, w= (1000 x 1.03)IA(D)I
%o^. = 0.3796 ms W=1030AD ) Eq. (1)
r I
ll rli i
Total Hydrostatic Force on Suifaces & HYDRAULICS & HYDRAULICS Total Hydrostatic Force on
iil
.ji In Figure (b): Solution
[l'
BFzW For any floating body; Buoyant force = Weight
ii 'YwVo=W
{lr
I
w= 1000[A(D+0.0762)) Solving for displacement in sea water:
li
1
ll
Problem 3'83
A right circular cone is 100 mm in diameter and 200 mm high and weighs 1..6
Problem 3  82 N in air. How much force is required to push the cone (vertex downward)
into a body of liquid having sp. gr. of 0.8, so that its base is exactly at the
The buoy in Figure 3  t has 80 N of steel weight attached. The buoy has
surface? How much additional force is required to push the base 10 mm
lodged against,a rock 2 m deep. Compute the angle 0 with the horizontal at below the surface?
which the buoy will leary assuming the rock exerts no moment on the buoy.
Solution
Solution
The required downward vertical force is:
F=BFW
BF = ]tquto %one
6p = (9,810 x 0.8) [(n/3)(0.1,/2)2(0.2)l
BF = 4.11 N
F=4.11.1..6
'F=2.51 N
t
I
I
I
I
I
t
"]
I
ilmi, rHREE
rli
rl
t,
l7 8 ;Ifilff.:Ht[ Force on surraces
FLUID
&
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l79
t' '
rl
I
Problem 3  84
lr F
To what depth will a 2mdiameter log, 4 m long and of sp. gr. 0.425 sink F=40N = 100N
I
t]" fresh water.
rl
Solution
For a homogeneous solid body floating on a
homogeneous liquid:
v, =
jlEL yo"o..
sliquid
arr=off at
As = 0.425nP (shaded area)
Let V = volume of wood
From geometery: In water:
As = Aru.tor  At i".gru [>Fv = 0]
0.425n* = Yz i 0,.  lz P stn 0 BFIWF=0
0,sine=2.67 9810YW = 40
40+W
Solve 0 by trial and error:
,, 
9810
) Eq. (r)
Try 0 = 170"
ln glycerin:
770'@/180")  sin170" = 2.76 (*2.67)
[xFv = 0)
Try 0 = 1660 BFzWF=0
766"(n/1,80')  sin165' = 2.655 (*2.67) (9,810 x 1.3)Y W=100
Try 0 =166.M" (e.810 x r.arlao*
wl  r= roo
't66.44"(n/L80')  srn166.44'
= 2.67 O.K.
'L e81o .J
t
I 80 ;#I;I,H:[ Force on Surraces
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS .
FLUID MECHANICS
& HYDRAULICS
CHAPTER THREE
Total Hydrostatic Force on Surfaces l8l
Problem 3  86 Since the volun\e of oil remain unchanged;
A rectangular tank of internal width of Vo,t (iniu"D = Vou (rinat)
5 m, as shown, contains oil of sp. gr. = (0.5XsX1.25) = (0.sxsx,x')  0.1,274
0.8 and water. (a) Find the depth of oil, h'=L.30Lm
h. (b) lI a 1000N block of wood is
As shown in Figure &, if the oilwater interface drops by a distance of y, the
floated in the oil, what is the rise in free
free surface of water will rise by y / 2, since the crosssectional area of the
surface of the water in contact with air?
right compartment is twice that of the left compartment.
Problem 3  87
An open cylindrical tank 350 mm in diameter and 1.8 m high is inserted
vertically into a body of water with the open end down and floats with a 1300
N block of concrete (rp, gf. = 2.4) suspended at its lower end. Neglecting the
weight of the cylinder, to what depth will the open end be submerged in
water?
(a) I rsurtr (b)
Figure \u,,
Figure
Solution
After insertion:
1.8m
1
D
Absolute pressure in air, pz = 101.325 + yh H
Absolute pressure in ab, p2= 101.325 +
i.Af (O.SO3)
Absolute pressure in alu, p2= 109.2 kpa
Volume of air inside the cylinder, Vr=
Volunre of air insicle the cylinder,
t(O.eS;z
Vz = O.Og62x
* ',,1 t*,
[pt V., = p, Vr) Figure a: High Tide
L01,.325 (0.1,73)
Figure b: Low T'ide
= 109.,2(0.0s 6Lx)
x=7.67m Weightof chain =12kg/m
xh+!/= 1.g Density of steel = 7,790 kS/ *
y =1.81.67+g.gg3 Volume of steel (chain) = 12/7790
y = 0.933 m Volume of steel (chain) = 0.00154 m3 per meter length
Therefore' the open end is submerged
0.933 m berow the water surface.
In Figure a:
[>Fv = o]
Problem 3  8g (CE Board) Bfi+BPrWrWz=0 ri
D=6.025.13=0.89
Problem 3  90
y=1'8D A hydrometer weighs 0.021.4 N and has a stem at the upper end which is Z.T9
y=1.80.89 mm in diameter. How much deeper will it float in oil (sp. gr. = 0.78) that in
y = 0.9't m (length of protrusiott)
alcohol (sp. gr. = 0.821)?
Solution
Problem 3  89 (CE Board)
In alcohol:
A wooden spherical ball with specific gravity of 0.42 and a diameter of 300 BF =W
mm is dropped from a height of 4.3 m above the surface of water in a pool of (9810 x 0.821)Vo,= 0.0214
unknown depth. The ball barely touched the bottom of the pool before it Voo= 2.657 x L06 m3
began to float. Determine the depth of the pool. Ven=/$$/ rr'6nt
InOil:
BF W
(9810 x 0.78)V o, = 0.02'1.4
Von= 2.797 x L06 m3
Vpo= /,/S/ rrsP
i LVp=Vp6Vpn
Alcohol, s = 0.821 Oil, s = 0.78
I .LVo=2,797 2,657 = 140 mm3
LVo= f,(2.z97zlr=140
h=229mn
Ir
=
l1
I
Problem 3  91 Problem 3  93
il
A plastic cube of side L and sp. gr.0.82 is placed vertically in water. Is A block of wood (sp. gr. = 0.64) is in the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped
having a 10cm square base. If the block floats in salt water with its square
I
cube stable?
I base horizontal, what is its maximum height for stable equilibrium in the
Solution upright position?
The body is stable if Mis above G.
Sf3t Solution
Draft, D=
Note: The body is stable when M is 10cmx10cm
Draft, D = 0.82L
above G and uhstable if M is below
G. With smaller value of H, the
l = +(LXL)3
'vD
MB"=
' ,[ , :'", metacenter M will become higher
till
(L x t)(0.821)
than G making it rnuch stable.
MB,,= 0.102L When H increases, M will move
down closer to G making it less
GB"= L/2D/2 I i",. l stable. Hence, the maximum
l
Seawater, s = 1,03
Gn,=6'9" height for stable equilibrium is
Since MB, > GB,,M is above G.
The body is stable. 'riil
waterliJe Seaion
when M coincides with G, or MBo=
GBo
Problem 3  95
Problem 3  94
A rectangular scow 9 m wide, 15 m long, and 3.6 m high has a draft in sea
A wood cone, 700 rnm diameter and 1,000 mm high floats in water with its water of 2.4 m. Its center of gravity is 2.7 m above the bottom of the scow.
vertex down. If the specific gravity of the wood ii o.oo, would it be stable?
Determine the following: .
Deternrine also its initial metacentric height.
(a) The initial metacentric height,
(b) The righting or overturning moment when the scow tilts until one side
Solution
is just at the point of submergence.
V*ood = $ n(350),(1000) K 350
I
Vo = 0.6 (128,281,700)
where 0 = 0o
Vo = 76,969,020 mm3
"
MB^= P)' [, * tu"'o'l
By similar solids: 12(2.4)L 2 l
vwoo,t _r1000)3
 l. D J MB, = 2'91"
v, ^
GB,= 2.7  1.2 = 1..5 m
B=9m
vu,oo,l _ lrooo13
osv* t D,/ Initial metacentric height, MG = MB,  GB"
Initial metacentric heighf MG = 2.8125  1..5
D:843.4 mm Initial metacentric height, MG = 1.3125 m
x _350 t
843.4 1000
Waterline Section
x = 295.2mm tano = ffi 
= "14.93
Q *
MB^= I +Q95.2\4 ' 2.zn ,j J.3r{9 1,2 n
'vD = sl
l,
ffi=77.4emm ' Ei
MB^=
't2Dln 2 l
tan2 i}
I
From the Figure:
MB= ez Il1+'n.z/4.5\21
' '
K/ I
FI
:*./
3.6 rn
GB,=750 3D/4
GB,=750 3(843.4)/4
" 12(2.4)1 2 l I
GBo=117.nU*r, MB,=2.91
^
Since MBo < GBo, M is below G and the cone is UNSTABLE.