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Fundamentals on Criminal Investigation

Traffic Management and Accident Investigation
Special Crime Investigation
Organized Crime Investigation
Drug Education and Vice Control
Fire Technology and Arson Investigation



CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION – is an art which deals with the identity and location of the offender
and provides evidence of guilt through criminal proceedings.

INVESTIGATION DEFINED: The collection of facts to accomplish a three-fold aim:

a. to identify the guilty party;
b. to locate the guilty party; and
c. to provide evidence of his guilt.


It is the knowledge/data which an investigator acquired from other persons and records.

 Regular Sources – records, files from government and non-government agencies, news items.
 Cultivated Sources – information gathered upon initiative of the investigator from informants,
vendors, taxicab driver, GRO, and others.
 Grapevine Sources – these are information coming from the underworld characters such as
prisoners and ex-convicts.


*interview-questioning of a person believed to possess knowledge that is in official interest to
the investigator.

 Identity – prior to the commencement of an interview, the investigator should identify
himself to the subject by name, rank and agency. Except, when there is no need to know
the officer’s identity.
 Rapport – it is good to get the positive feeling of the subject towards the investigators,
such friendly atmosphere is a vital for both the subject and the investigator t have a better
 Opening Statement – the investigator must have to indicate why the subject is being
 Narration – the witness should be allowed to tell all he knows with little interruptions
from the investigator.
 Inquiry – after all information have been given by the subject, that is the time for the
investigator to as question to clarify him about the case under investigation.
 Conclusions – after the interview, it is but proper to close the interview with outmost
courtesy and thanking the subject for his cooperation.


 One question at a time
 Avoiding implied answer
 Simplicity of the questions
 Saving faces
 Avoid close ended questions (yes or no)


*interrogation –is a questioning of a person suspected of having committed an offense or a
person who is reluctant to make full disclosure of information in his possession which is pertinent to the

What are the purposes of Interrogation?

a. To obtain confession to the crime
b. To induce the suspect to make admission
c. To learn the facts of the crime
d. To learn the identity of the accomplice
e. To develop information which will lead to the recovery of the fruits of the crime
f. To discover the details of other crimes participated by the suspect

 Emotional Appeal
Place the subject in the proper frame of mind. The investigator should provide emotional stimuli
that will prompt the subject to unburden himself by confiding. Analyze the subject’s personality and
decide what motivation would prompt him to tell the truth, and then provide those motives through
appropriate emotional appeals.
 Sympathetic appeal
- The suspect may feel the need for sympathy or friendship when he is apparently in
trouble. Gestures of friendship may win his cooperation.
 Kindness
The simplest technique is to assume that the suspect will confess if he is treated in a kind and
friendly manner.

 Extenuation
The investigator indicates he does not consider his subject’s indiscretion a grave offense.
 Shifting the blame
The interrogator makes clear his belief that the subject is obviously not the sort of person who
usually gets mixed up in a crime like this. The interrogator could tell from the start that he was not
dealing with a fellow who is a criminal by nature and choice.
 Mutt and Jeff
Two (2) Agents are employed.
- Mutt, the relentless investigator, who is not going to waste any time because he
knows that the subject is guilty.
- Jeff, on the other hand, is obviously a kind-hearted man.
 Bluff on a Split Pair
This is applicable when there is more than one suspect. The suspects are separated and one is
informed that other has talked.
 Pretense of Physical Evidence
The investigator may pretend that certain physical evidence has found by laboratory experts
against him.


Custodial Interrogation/Investigation – is the questioning of a law enforcement officer on a person
under custody and otherwise deprived of his freedom or liberty. This is the stage in investigation where
there is strict observance of the Miranda Doctrine.
*Miranda doctrine – this case which entitled Miranda vs. Arizona, is a US Supreme Court
Jurisprudence which laid down the constitutional rights of the accused during custodial investigation. It
was incorporated in our 1973 Constitution and later in the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.

It is the application of instruments and methods of physical science to the detection of crimes. In
cases where there are no significant physical evidence to be found, then the use of instrumentation is
relatively unimportant.


 Identification of criminals
 Tracing and locating the criminal
 Gathering of evidence to prove the guilt of the criminal


1. CONFESSION– is the direct acknowledgement of guilt arising from the commission of a crime.

a. Extra-Judicial Confession – those made by the suspect during custodial investigation.

b. Judicial Confession– those made by the accused in open court. The plea of guilt may be
during arraignment or in any stage of the proceedings where the accused changes his plea of
not guilty to guilty.

2. ADMISSION– is a self-incriminatory statement by the subject falling short of an

acknowledgement of guilt. It is an acknowledgement of a fact or circumstances from which guilt
maybe inferred. It implicates but does not incriminate. It is also an acknowledgement that a fact,
action or circumstances are true which strongly infer or directly admit guilt but lacks the detail of
the elements of the crime.

Rules to be observed in taking confession or admission:

 Confession or admission must be taken preferably in writing and under oath
 It must be written in the language known and understood by the accused, if not it must be
clearly translated
 It must be freely and voluntary given by the accused
 Under the New Constitution, it must be taken in the presence of competent and independent
counsel chosen by the accused

 Verbal description
 Photographic files (Rogues Gallery)
 General Photograph
 Artist sketch (Composite Criminal Illustration)


 Physical line-up – is a means of selecting a suspect from a group of innocent persons usually
composed of seven to ten persons. The purpose of line-up is to eliminate the power of
 Physical show-up – only one person is shown to the witness usually at the scene of the crime and
made immediately after the arrest of the suspect.

5. CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE - facts or circumstances from which, either alone or in

connection with other facts, the identity of the person can be inferred.

What must be inferred to prove identity by circumstantial evidence?

 Motive – is what induces the criminal to act
 Intent –is the result or accomplishment of the act
 Opportunity –is the physical possibility that the suspect could have committed the crime.
It could be inferred from the following:
a. The suspect could have been in the vicinity of the crime scene at the time it was
b. Knowledge of the criminal objective.
c. Absence of an alibi on the part of the criminal.


1. CORPUS DELICTI– is the body of the crime or fact of specific loss or injury sustained. It
constitutes the essential parts or elements in the commission of the crime.
2. ASSOCIATIVE EVIDENCE – these are the pieces of evidence that will link the suspect to the
crime scene. The suspect may leave some clues at the scene such as weapons, tools, garments or
3. TRACING EVIDENCE – articles which assist the investigator in locating the criminal. Stolen
goods in the possession of the suspect in an example of tracing evidence.

7. MODUS OPERANDI – is the method of operation by a specific criminal or criminal syndicate. It is

a distinct pattern of how a crime is committed and is established by a series of crimes under one
classification. The modus operandi of one criminal is distinct and different from the other. It is a
criminal trademark, logo or brandname.


INFORMANT – is a person who gives information to the police relevant to a criminal case about the
activities of criminals or syndicates.

Types of informants
 Anonymous informant – do not wish to be identified.
 Rival elimination informant – to eliminate competition.
 False informant – reveals information of no consequence or value.
 Frightened informant – motivated by anxiety.
 Self-aggrandizing – hangs about the fringes of the criminals.
 Mercenary informant – gives information for a price.
 Double crosser informant – to get more information from the police.


 Woman informant – female associate of the criminals.
 Legitimate informant – operators of legitimate business establishments.
Motives of informants
 Vanity
 Civic-mindedness
 Fear
 Repentance
 Avoidance of punishment
 Competition
 Revenge
 Jealousy
 Remuneration

SURVEILLANCE – is the secret observation of persons, places, and vehicles for the purpose of
obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of the subject.
 Surveillance of Place (fixed/ stake-out)
 Shadowing
 Roping

Surveillant – is the person who maintains the surveillance or performs the observation.
Subject – the person or place being watched or surveyed.

 Surveillance of places
 Tailing or shadowing
 Undercover investigation or roping

TAILING OR SHADOWING – is the act of following a person, depends on the number of surveillant
available, volume of pedestrian traffic and importance of concealing the surveillance.

Methods of Shadowing:
 One man –extremely difficult and should be avoided, if unavoidable keep subject in view at all
 Two man – two agents are employed to follow the subject.
 ABC method – reduces the risk of losing the subject, affords greater security agents detection.
 Progressive/Leap from method – poor chances of obtaining good results, agents are stations at
a fixed point assuming that subject followed the same general route each day.
 Combined foot-auto surveillance – employment of surveillants on foot and agents in an

What are the things that should be avoided during shadowing?

 Don’t meet the eye of the subject
 Don’t adopt a slinking, sleuthing, creeping manner
 Don’t wear story book disguises
 Don’t carry noticeable items
 Don’t greet fellow agents
 Don’t make notations ostensibly



 Custodial Investigation – investigation conducted by law enforcement officers after a person
has been arrested or deprived of his freedom of action.
 Neighborhood Investigation – one of the most crucial steps in kidnap for ransom cases which is
often overlooked. The objective is to identify and interview in person all individuals in the area
where the victim was kidnapped or last known sighting area during the window of
opportunity.(last time seen until the time discovered missing.
 Crime scene – a venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event has been committed.
*Corpus delicti – (latin for the body of the crime)
- used to describe the physical or material evidence that a crime has been
committed. Ex. Corpse of a murder victim.
 Confession – is an express acknowledgement by the accused in a criminal prosecution of the
truth of his guilt as to the offense charge.
 Admission – refers to statement of facts not directly constituting an acknowledgement of guilt.
 Physical evidence – evidenced addressed to the senses of the court that are capable of being
exhibited, examined or viewed by the court. This includes but not limited to fingerprints, body
fluid, explosives, hazardous chemicals, soil/burned debris, bombs, electronic parts used in the
commission of the crime.
 Victimology/victim profiling – a detailed account of the victims lifestyle and personality, assist
in determining the nature of the disappearance, the risk level of the victim and the type of person
who could have committed the crime. Complete information regarding the victim’s physical
description, normal behavior patterns, the family dynamics and known friends and acquintances
should be obtained as soon as possible.
 Miranda vs. Arizona – Ernesto Miranda had confessed to rape and kidnapping, after two hour
interrogation. Because the interrogators failed to inform Miranda of his right to counsel and
remain silent, his conviction was overturned.
 Waterboarding – refers to the practice of strapping a suspect to a board with his or her head
lowered, then the face is covered and water is poured over it causing the suspect to gag and
experience the sensation of drowning.
 Chinese water torture – interrogation technique, repeatedly dripping water on the forehead of
the suspect. The goal is to drive the suspect to near insanity thereby obtaining a confession.
 Serial Killer – is someone who murders 3 or more people with “cooling off” periods in between.
 Police Blotter – is an 18” x 12” logbook with hard bound cover that contains the daily register of
all crime incident reports, official summary of arrests and other significant events reported in a
police station. A separate police blotter shall be maintained for offenses requiring confidentiality
like violence against women and children and those cases involving a child in conflict with the
law to protect their privacy pursuant to RA 9262 (anti violence against women and children act
of 2004) and RA 9344 ( juvenile justice and welfare act of 2006).
 Actus Reus – proof that a criminal act has occurred


1. America's most famous private investigator and founder of
Criminal Investigation.
A. Alec Nayhem
B. Allan Pinkerton
C. Thomas Byrnes
D. None of these

2. The first woman detective in the history of criminal investigation.

A. Kathleen Jacob
B. Candy Miles
C. Kate Wayne
D. Pines Hamilton

3. He was known to be the creator of the "bow street runners", a

group of police officers attached to the Bow Street Court, and not
in uniform, performing criminal investigative functions.
A. Henry Fielding
B. John Fielding
C. John Howard
D. Robert Peel

4. The founder and chief organizer of the London Metropolitan Police,

the Scotland Yard, which became famous police organization
in the world.
A. Henry Fielding
B. John Fielding
C. John Howard
D. Robert Peel

5. As a rule, do not touch, alter or remove anything at the crime

scene until the evidence has been processed through notes,
sketches and photographs, with proper measurements.This refers to
A. the golden rule in investigation
B. the number one SOP in investigation
C. the act of note taking
D. the act of crime scene preservation

6. An Englishman who published a handbook for Examining Magistrates

in Munich, Germany and advocated the use of scientific methods
in criminal investigation process.
A. Hans Gross
B. Thomas Byrnes
C. Alphonse Bertillon
D. Francis Galton

7. The SC ruled the illegally obtained evidence is inadmissible in

state criminal prosecutions in the famous case of
A. Miranda vs Arizona


B. Otit vs Jeff
C. Mapp vs Ohio
D. Milkey vs Wett

8. The continues accountability of persons handling evidences, and

having responsibility of taking care and preserving the evidences
from the time it was found until brought to court for presentation
is called
A. Chain of events
B. Key events
C. Chain of custody of evidence
D. Chain of command

9. In England, he was a buckle maker then a brothel operator; a

master criminal who became London's most effective criminal
investigator. He was the most famous Thief-Catcher in 1720s.
A. Alexander Macanochie
B. Jonathan Wild
C. Billy Cook
D. John Howard

10. What is the Latin term for criminal intent?

A. Mens Rea
B. Magna Culpa
C. Inflagrante Delicto
D. Mala Vise


TRAFFIC- it refers to the movement of persons, goods, or vehicles, either powered by combustion
system or animal drawn vehicle, from one place to another for the purpose of safe travel
- originated from Greco-Roman word Trafico and Greek word Traffiga, origin of which is not

 Accident– an accident is any happening beyond the control of a person the consequences of
which are not foreseeable.


1. ENFORCEMENT-the action taken by the police, such as arresting, issuing traffic citation ticket
and providing warning to the erring driver for the purpose of deterring and discouraging and or
preventing such violation
2. EDUCATION- the process of giving training and practice in the actual application of traffic safety
- is priceless gem in the entire scale of social order of the road
- is the process of inculcating to an individual the knowledge, skill, responsibilities and values to
become a fully developed person
- the key to smooth traffic flow is discipline and to acquire discipline people must be educated


3. ENGINEERING-the science of measuring traffic and travel, the study of basic laws relative to the
traffic law and generation; the application of these knowledge to the professional practice of planning,
deciding, and operating traffic system to achieve safe and efficient transportation of persons and goods

4. TRAFFIC ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT- the study of potentially disastrous population

explosion, changes in urban environment due to the scale and density of new urban concentration and
new activities carried out, air pollution, water pollution and crowding, transport congestion which result

5. TRAFFIC ECONOMY- deals with the benefits and adverse effects of traffic to our economy

*Management -it is an executive function such as planning, organizing, Directing and supervising,
coordinating operating recording and budgeting traffic affairs

BIORHYTHM-the theory asserting that man exhibit constant variation of energy and mood states
The Biorhythm Cycle
 23 days of physical cycle
 28 days of emotional cycle
 33 days of intellectual cycle
The High State
Physically high-people are energetic, strong and agile
Emotionally high-people are creative, artistic and happy
Intellectually high-people think quickly and logically

The Low State

Physically low-people tend to be tired and succumb to sickness
Emotionally low-people are moody, irritable and depressed
Intellectually low-people find it difficult to think logically and lacks coordination


 LICENSING SYSTEM-administered by the LTO

- it is the system of issuing license to any person who is qualified to fulfill the responsibilities
required by the license.

 DRIVER’S LICENSE-issued to the drivers as privilege granted by the government providing

statutory qualification

Requisites: - At least 16 years old for student’s permit
- 17 years old for sub-professional
- 18 years old for professional

Kinds of driver’s license:

 Student permit
 Non-professional
 Professional
 Military
 International


 KEEP RIGHT - (two lanes, two ways) in case of one way the left lane shall be the fast lane and
the slow lane is the right.
 OBSERVE ROAD COURTESY- yield to emergency vehicle, pedestrians, trains, vehicle with
right of way, vehicles ahead, large vehicles, uphill traffic, vehicles with momentum, straight
traffic, and traffic signs.

Emergency Vehicles:
1. Vehicle with physician
2. Ambulance on emergency call
3. Vehicle with wounded or sick person
4. AFP/ PNP vehicle on official call
5. Vehicle in pursuit of criminals
6. A police or fire on call


 the right to proceed ahead of another vehicle or pedestrian

 Intersection- when two or more vehicle is entering an intersection the one on the left will give
way to the right vehicle.
 Pedestrian- drivers should yield to pedestrian crossing except at intersection whereas the
movement of vehicles is regulated by a police officer.
 Through highway/ railroad crossing- the driver shall bring to a full stop before traversing to an
intersection. If there is no hazard the driver may slowdown to 5mph.
 Police /emergency vehicle- all drivers should yield to emergency to emergency vehicle except as
directed by traffic enforcer. Fire trucks are accepted to speed limit but they are prohibited to have
unnecessary speed.
 From private road to highway- vehicle from private road must yield to that on a highway.

Places where parking is prohibited:
 Near an intersection
 Crosswalk/ pedestrian lane
 Within 6 meters from drive way of any response installation, fire hydrant and private roads
 Double parking
 Sidewalks, alleys, foot of the bridge
 Places wherein official signs are posted


- overtaking lane is the lane to the left of overtaken vehicle going in the same direction, overtaken
vehicle is the privileged vehicle


 Signal the intention.
 Make sure that the overtaking lane is clear.
 Maneuver at own risk, the vehicle being overtaken is the privileged vehicle. Drivers keep his
lane, maintain speed and yield to overtaking vehicle.


 He shall increase his speed until the overtaken vehicle has cleared the way
 In a two lanes, on a divided roadway, they may use either of the lanes.
 In an expressway with fast and slow lanes, on a divided roadway, they may use either of the
 Overtaking is prohibited at crest of a grade curve, railway crossing, at the intersection and
between construction and caution.


 The buses queue up in a single file in their order arrival.
 Lead bus moving toward the center of column of busses lining on the bus stop zone, and remain
until zone is filled with busses, but longer than three minutes.

6. RULE TO PREVENT OR UNTANGLE TRAFFIC JAMS- Keep lanes and intersection open in
heavy and slow traffic to avoid overtaking. In a construction, vehicles should merge alternately.

7. OBSERVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MEASURES- Observe and obey traffic notices sign like
notices and pavement markings.

8. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PINOY DRIVER- Motorist should observe equity of the lead vehicle,
doctrine of the last clear chance on rotunda drive.

9. ON PEDESTRIAN- Keep off the roadway except when crossing on crosswalk. Wait embark and
alight at bus or jeepney stop.


TRAFFIC LAW ENFORCEMENT- the action taken by the police to compel obedience to traffic laws
and ordinance regulating the use and movement of motor vehicle for the purpose of creating a deterrent
to unlawful behavior by all potential violators

Traffic Law Enforcer- a person duly deputized by an agency of government authorized by law to
enforce traffic laws, rules and regulations

Police traffic law enforcement- the part performed by the police and other agencies with police power
including deterrent to law violations created by the presence of uniformed police officer and their
special equipment, special assistance to court and prosecutor and incidental service to highway users

Court traffic law enforcement- the performed by the court through adjudication and penalization


Five essential steps:

 DETECTION - wholly police activities and entails looking for defects in the behavior motorist,
pedestrian, vehicle, equipment and roadway condition.
 APPREHENSION - a police responsibility wherein the police are required action to prevent
continued and future violation.
 PROSECUTION - it is a court function, the police also provides corresponding influence
through preparation and introduction of evidence or close contact with the prosecution office.


 ADJUDICATION - it is court function, the police provides influence on this step by as a
witness to the prosecution by supplying additional evidence. It determines the guilt or innocence
of the accused.
 PENALIZATION - the imposition of penalty upon the accused. Penalty can be influenced by
previous records of conviction as provided by the police.


 Preventive activities
 Persuasive activities
 Punitive activities


Characteristic of traffic laws:

1. Laws are developed from experiences of the public over the years.
2. Laws reflect beliefs, behavior and standards agreed upon by society.

Classification of violation:
 Hazardous traffic violations-that cause danger to road users. Unsafe behavior and unsafe
conditions are the causes of these violations.
 Non-hazardous violations-that do not affect safety of the public but affect the use of roads.


 Traffic arrest - the taking of a person into custody of the law. It is made when:
a) the offense is serious;
b) detection is needed to avoid continued violation; and
c) there is reasonable doubt that violators may not appear in court.

 Traffic citation - made to compel violators to appear in court in absence of arrest.

 Traffic warning - an act reminding the driver of his violation in order for him to not do it again.
No arrest or citation is made.

 Visual warning - using gestures and signals.
 Verbal warning - oral warning made when there is newly enacted law
 Written warning - combination of two preceding types with written note of citation.

Types of patrol:
 Line patrol- it is assigned to a particular place
 Area patrol- type of patrol assigned to an area of vicinity

 Stationary traffic observation - officer is assigned at specific place
 Conspicuous traffic observation - officer attracts attention
 Visible traffic observation - stationary observation that the observer is in full view
 concealed traffic observation - observer is not visible to the public

*Supervised route- A street or highway on which traffic is supervised to some considerable degree


*Point/ area control- It is the part of the traffic direction concerning the control of vehicular/ pedestrian

*Police traffic escort- It involves mobile supervision of traffic movement, directing orally and visually
are done to allow free and safe movement of escorted vehicles.

*Traffic direction and control- It is the control direction of traffic units according to proportionate time
to prevent traffic accident to maintain smooth flow of traffic.

*Traffic jam- It is caused by such factors as vehicular accident, stalled vehicle, absence of traffic
enforcer and road construction.

*Drunken drivers- it is a driver who drives under the influence of alcohol with 10% of intoxicating
level .

Field sobriety test:

 Walk on straight line
 One foot balance
 Reading
 Spelling
 Counting from 1 to 10
 Video tape the movement
 Photograph the unguarded movement

Chemical test:
 Blood test
 Urine test
 Perspiration test
 Breath test
 Skin test

Evidence against drunken drivers:

 Drivers admission
 Co-occupants testimony
 Material witnesses testimony
 Photograph of drunken driver
 Video/ voice tape of driver
 Officers testimony


Classes of traffic signs:

- priority signs
- prohibitory signs
- mandatory signs
- advance sign


- place identification sign
- confirmatory sign

Principles of signs:
 Red triangle connotes hazard
 Red ring with diagonal line connotes prohibition
 Blue/ green provides information
 Signs on blue disc give positive instruction

International sign:
 Round and red; regulatory movement
 Round black yellow sign, warning sign
 Equilateral triangle red sign, directing to yield the right of way
 Octagon red and white, STOP
 Red triangle and black sign, approaching danger zone

Traffic lights:
1. Red- stop
2. Amber- slowdown
3. Green- go

Pavement markings:
1. Arrows point to direction
2. Straight lines means no overtaking
3. Broken lines means overtaking is allowed


 National road- right of way 20 to 120 meters

 Provincial road- link between to municipalities, 15 to 60 meters
 City road- interlink in the city, 15 meters
 Municipal road- within town proper 10 meters
 Barangay road- from market to town 2 meters


1. MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT- event resulting in unintended injury or property damage

attributable directly or indirectly to the action of a motor vehicle or its load

 NON-MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT - refers to any accident occurring on a

traffic way involving persons using the traffic way or travel or transportation, but not involving a
motor vehicle in motion (ex. Pedestrian and a cyclist in a traffic way)
 MOTOR VEHICLE NON-TRAFFIC ACCIDENT - any motor vehicle accident which occurs
entirely in any place other than a traffic way (ex. Accident on a private driveway)

 MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT- any motor vehicle accident occurring on a

traffic way (ex. Collision between automobiles on a highway)



 Perception of hazard – it is seeing, feeling or hearing and understanding the usual or unexpected
movement or condition that could be taken as a sign of an accident about to happen
 Start of evasive action – it is the first action taken by a traffic unit to escape from a collision
course or otherwise avoid a hazard
 Initial contact – the first accidental touching of an object collision course or otherwise avoids a
 Maximum engagement – it is the greatest collapse or overlap in a collision; the force between
the traffic unit and the object collided with are greatest at maximum engagement
 Disengagement – it is the separation of a traffic unit in motion from an object with which it has
collided; the force between the object ceases at this time
 Stopping – this is when the traffic units involved come to rest; it usually stabilizes the accident
 Injury – it is receiving bodily harm; this event does not necessarily occur after the accident but
within any of the chain of events; it may also happen right after the evasive action taken by the
drivers involved or during the initial contact

 Fatal
 non fatal
 Property damage


 Running off road
 Non-collision on road
- overturning
 Collision on road of vehicles with the ff:
- pedestrian
- moving vehicle
- parked vehicle
- bicycle
- railroad train
- fixed objects


Land Transportation Office

- tasked to enforce laws, rules and regulation governing the registration of motor vehicles,
operation of motor vehicle and traffic rules and regulation as provided by RA 4136 as amended.
Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board
 tasked to regulate transport route
 regulate franchising
 prescribe fare rates
 investigate traffic cases
 perform judicial function
 promulgate rules
 impose and collect fees
 formulate and enforce rules and regulation for transport operation for promotion of safety and
convenience of public
 coordinate with concerned agencies and enforce E.O. NO 125,124-A and


E.O. 202 dated June 19,1987

DOTC- in charge of planning programs coordinating implementing and perform administrative

function and promotion development and regulation of dependable and coordinated network of
transportation and communication in order to have fast, safe, efficient and reliable postal transportation
and communication services (EO No. 125.)

MMDA- created under RA. 7924 and sets policies concerning traffic in Metro Manila, coordinates and
regulates implementation of program related to traffic

Congress and Local Council- the branch of government primarily tasked to create laws for the welfare
of the public

Judiciary- the branch of government that interprets the law through adjudication of cases

Traffic Management Group (TMG)- the basis service of the PNP tasked to direct and control traffic,
perform accident investigation, enforce the laws and issue citations.


Department of Public Works and Highways -has responsibility of determining traffic flow planning
approval of program and budget finding of construction and maintenance of road and instrument

Local Public Works and Engineering Offices- local government units and instrumentalities that have
the same function as the DPWH
- perform such powers within their territorial boundary


 MOTOR VEHICLE – any device which is self-propelled and every vehicle which is propelled
by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails
 KEY EVENT – an event on the road which characterizes the manner of occurrence of a motor
vehicle traffic accident
 DEBRIS – the scattered broken parts of vehicles, rubbish, dust and other materials left at the
scene of the accident caused by a collision
 SKID MARKS – these are marks left on the roadway by tires which are not free to rotate,
usually because brakes are applied strongly and the wheels locked
 TRAFFIC UNIT – any person using a traffic way for travel, parking or other purposes as a
pedestrian or driver, including any vehicle, or animal.
 HAZARD - a hazard is generated when a critical space-motion relationships between a traffic
unit and another object develops due to the movement of either or both (ex. A curve in the path is
a hazard; another traffic unit in the path is a hazard.)
 SAFE SPEED – the speed adjusted to the potential or possible hazards or the road and traffic
situation ahead; safe speed on the road is determined by the road rather than the particular driver
of a vehicle (ex. A curve ahead is a hazard and a safe speed for it is a speed at which it can be
taken comfortably
 STRATEGY – the adjusting of speed, position on the road, and direction of motion, giving
signals of intent to turn or slow down, or any other action in situations involving potential


 TACTIC – any action taken by the traffic unit to avoid hazardous situations like steering,
braking or accelerating to avoid collision or other accident.
 IMPACT – the striking of one body against another or a collision of a motor vehicle with
another motor vehicle.
 CONTACT DAMAGE – damage to a vehicle resulting from direct pressure of some foreign
object in a collision or roll over; it is usually indicated by striations, rub-off of material or
 FACTOR – any circumstance contributing to a result without which the result could not have
occurred or it is an element necessary to produce the result, but not by itself sufficient.
 PRIMARY CAUSE – a misnomer loosely applied to the most obvious or easily explained factor
in the cause of an accident or the most easily modified condition factor.
 CAUSE – the combination of simultaneous and sequential factors without any one of which
result could not have occurred.
 ATTRIBUTE – any inherent characteristics of a road, a vehicle, or a person that affects the
probability of a traffic accident.
 MODIFIER – a circumstance that alters an attribute permanently or temporarily.
 Transportation-is an act or process of conveying from one place to another
 -from the Latin word “Terans” meaning across or and move and “Portare” means to carry
 Articulated Vehicle - shall mean any motor vehicles with a trailer
having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer rest
upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the
trailer and of its load is born by the motor vehicle.

 Benz Patent-Motorwagen - (motorcar) built in 1886, is widely regarded

as the first automobile. It is a vehicle designed to be propelled by
an internal combustion engine.

 Box Junction - is a road traffic control measure designed to prevent

congestion and gridlock at junctions. A road area at a junction marked
with a yellow grid, which a vehicle should enter only if its exit from
it is clear. Box junctions were introduced in UK during 1967,
following a successful trial in London.

 CONDUCTOR- Licensed person allowing limited number of passengers, freight or cargo in

public utility truck or buses

 Management -it is an executive function such as planning, organizing, Directing and

supervising, coordinating operating recording and budgeting traffic affairs.

1. Yardstick of an effective traffic law enforcement program.
a. Smooth traffic flow
b. Increased traffic enforcement action
c. Less traffic law enforcement officers deployed with the same output
d. Reduction of traffic accidents and delays

2. A suspected drunk driver should undergo this last test.

a. Pupils of the eyes c. Breath test


b. Walking and turning d. Balance test

3. When a traffic officer halts a driver for traffic violation, the remark “do you know why I
called your attention” should be avoided, mainly because:
a. It implies corruption
b. It is a leading question
c. It is a presumption that it is a false arrest action
d. It invites a denial on the part of the traffic law violator.

4. A traffic patrol not engaged in taking action against a particular violator; should without any
a. Keep off congested routes but in a location to spot traffic violations
b. Park in position visible to motorists to act as deterrent
c. Use its own discretion in achieving maximum efficiency
d. Maintain visible patrol continuously

5. Most common defect attributed to the human element in cases of traffic vehicular accidents.
a. Intellectual c. Perceptual
b. Decision d. Attitudinal

6. This represents the ratio of traffic arrests, citations and warnings to the frequency of traffic
a. Enforcement tax c. Non-index crime
b. Crime Index d. Crime rate

7. It is the sum of indulgence or restraint by the public in judging the reasonableness of the
traffic enforcement program.
a. Traffic tolerance c. Fair play enforcement
b. In the hole enforcement d. All of these

8. It refers to the practice of traffic law enforcers to hide in places where they await traffic
a. In the hole enforcement c. Fair play enforcement
b. Traffic tolerance d. None of these

9. The installation of traffic lights will logically result to a decrease in:

a. Accidents involving right of way c. Cross traffic accidents
b. Accidents of confusion d. Accidents due to drunk driving

10. Statistically it is considered as the most common reason for public utility vehicular accidents.
a. Not observing the proper distance and following too close.
b. Unnecessary speed
c. Recklessness
d. Discussion regarding fare

11. A passenger AUV skidded on a wet pavement, injuring several bystanders in the process. In
making the report, apparent good condition should not be employed in reference to.
a. The injured by-standers c. The driver
b. The brakes d. The tires


12. The predominant factor which causes traffic accidents.
a. Traffic educational background of the traffic law violators
b. Human behavior
c. Unsafe road conditions
d. Speeding

13. To best determine the proper distribution of personnel the best criterion would be the number
a. Fatal accidents c. Accidents involving negligence
b. Reported accidents d. Amount of traffic using the public road

14. The standard behind selective enforcement in traffic control.

a. A warning for minor offenses
b. Direction of enforcement activities to areas prone to traffic danger
c. Selection of strategic areas for strict enforcement
d. Concentration of enforcement activities during peak traffic hours

15. The fundamental rule in traffic accident investigation.

a. Consider road conditions
b. Look for the key event
c. Consider the degree of damage or injury
d. Consider the violation of traffic law

16. In implementing new parking regulations it is most advisable to utilize.

a. Verbal warning c. Issue citation
b. Written warning d. Traffic arrest

17. It is considered as the most effective deterrent to traffic accidents.

a. Regular maintenance and check-up of the traffic units.
b. Increase insurance premium
c. Arrest and prosecution of traffic law violators
d. Decrease car insurance liability to a minimum

18. In Metro Manila the responsibility for developing traffic program primarily rest with:
a. Department of Transportation and Communication
b. Land Transportation Office
c. Metro Manila Development Authority
d. Land Transportation Franchising Regulatory Board

19. In the Independence Day parade, a traffic officer is instructed not to allow vehicles to cross
the route where the parade is to pass, however an ambulance vehicle with an injured passenger is
about to cross the route, the traffic law enforcement officer should:
a. Direct the driver to the nearest short cut without passing the route
b. Follow the order not to allow any vehicle to cross the route
c. Stop the parade to allow the ambulance to cross the street
d. Call his superior office for the prompt decision.


20. It has been observed that the intersection of Lacson and Dimasalang has more traffic
accidents than any other area in your jurisdiction, the traffic law enforcement officer assigned in
that area should be advised to:
a. Park near the intersection within view of passing vehicles to act as deterrent.
b. Park near the intersection hidden from view to surprise traffic law violators
c. Give an extra attention to the particular intersection but cruise all areas within his jurisdiction.
d. Park his vehicle in the center of the intersection to help control and direct traffic flow.

21. Foremost among the preliminary action when the officer receives a call regarding the
occurrence of an accident.
a. Number of injured c. Name of the victim
b. Seriousness of the injury d. When and where the accident occurred

22. In interviewing persons involved in a traffic accident what is the primary consideration to be
taken by the police investigator.
a. Conduct each interview separately
b. Listen only to witnesses because they are not biased
c. Listen to both sides
d. Conduct the interview jointly

23. Skid marks as evidence in accident cases would show:

a. If the vehicle was traveling in the wrong direction or on the wrong side of the road.
b. If the driver failed to observe the right of way
c. If the driver did not obey the traffic signal
d. All of the foregoing

24. Refers to the distance traveled before applying the brakes.

a. Coefficient of friction c. Maximum accident speed
b. Drag factor d. Reaction time

25. The measurement of the maximum frictional resistance of pavements.

a. Skid marks c. Drag factor
b. Scuff marks d. Reaction time

26. When two vehicles approach or enter an intersection at the same time who shall yield the
right of way as a general rule.
a. The driver on the left c. The faster vehicle
b. The driver on the right d. The slower vehicle

27. An executive function, which includes planning, directing, organizing, supervising,

coordinating, operating, recording and budgeting the affairs of traffic.
a. Traffic management c. Traffic law enforcement
b. Traffic supervision d. All of these

28. Agency which regulates and prescribes transport routes for public utility vehicles.
b. LTO d. MMDA


29. A traffic control signal by which traffic is alternately commanded to stop and permitted to
proceed in accordance with a pre-determined time schedule.
a. Fixed time signal c. Alternative system
b. Simulated system d. Simple progressive system

30. Number of days which constitutes the physical cycle or man’s cycle of strength.
a. 21 c. 28
b. 23 d. 33

31. It refers to the right to proceed ahead of another vehicle or pedestrian?

a. Right-of-way c. Go
b. Last clear chance d. All of these

32. It is an accident wherein one or more person was seriously injured or has died as a result of
the mishap. In traffic accident investigation how is it classified?
a. 1 c. 4
b. 2 d. 5

33. It is an accident, which is always accompanied by an unidentified road user who usually
flees immediately after the said collision.
a. Hit and run accident c. Motor vehicle non-traffic accident
b. Motor vehicle traffic accident d. Non motor vehicle non traffic accident

34. It refers to the separation of traffic units involved in a vehicular accident.

a. Final position c. Disengagement
b. Hazards d. Stopping

35. It is the place and time at which the normal person could perceive the unusual or unexpected
condition or movement.
a. Point of no escape c. Perception of hazards
b. Point of possible perception d. All of these

36. It is a regulation which prescribes proper conduct and decorum during confrontation with or
of traffic law
a. Memorandum circular 19-05 c. Memorandum circular 19-0005
b. Memorandum circular 19-005 d. Section 55 of R.A. 4136

37. In cases wherein a vehicle on the traffic way suddenly stopped due to engine failure. What
would be then duration period of the validity of the citation given by the enforcer?
a. 2 days c. 72 hours
b. 1 days d. 7 days

38. What refers to an occurrence in a sequence of events, which usually produces unintended
death, injury or property damage?
a. Motor vehicle traffic accident c. Non motor vehicle non-traffic accident
b. Motor vehicle non-traffic accident d. Accident

39. It is defined as telling the drivers and pedestrians when, how and where they may or may not
move or stand at a particular place.


a. Traffic supervision c. Traffic control
b. Traffic direction d. All of these

40. It is a means to control the movements of vehicles, pedestrians at certain point of a certain
area by mechanical objects or manpower.
a. Traffic supervision c. Traffic control
b. Traffic direction d. None of these

41. Prohibitive signs and restrictive signs shall have:

a. Green background with white and black symbols.
b. White background with black symbols and red border
c. Red background with white symbols and red border
d. Blue background and white symbols.

42. It refers to any motor vehicle accident occurring on a place other than traffic way.
a. Motor vehicle traffic accident
b. Motor vehicle non-traffic accident
c. Non motor vehicle non-traffic accident
d. Non motor vehicle traffic accident

43. What are physical channels within the roadway, which are constructed to establish physical
channels thru which vehicular traffic is guided without the use of signals?
a. Traffic Signs c. Pavement markings
b. Traffic Islands d. Traffic signals

44. A term used to denote any vehicle used for commercial purposes without any franchise.
a. Tricycle c. Mega taxi
b. FX d. Colorum
45. What is the real objective of traffic enforcement?
a. To apprehend traffic law violators
b. To improve safety traffic conditions
c. To change the wrong driving habits and attitude of violators
d. To prevent traffic accidents

46. Common cycle length is used at each intersection and the GO indications are given
independently in accordance to the time schedule designated o permit a continuous movement of
vehicles along the street at a designed speed.
a. Flexible progressive system c. Simulated system
b. Simple progressive system d. Alternative system

47. All signals along a given street always show the same indication at the same time.
a. Flexible progressive system c. Simulated system
b. Simple progressive system d. Alternative system

48. A power operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some
specific action.
a. Traffic signs c. Traffic islands
b. Warning lights d. Traffic light signals


49. Period of validity of a professional driver’s license which may be renewable every 3 birth
months of succeeding years and automatically expires if not renewed on due date.
a. One year c. Three years
b. Two years d. Four years

50. Refers to seeing, feeling or hearing and understanding an unusual or unexpected condition
indicative of a sign that an accident might takes place.
a. Perception of hazard c. Initial contact
b. Start of evasive action d. Maximum engagement
51. In hit and run accident investigation, what should be the initial step or phase in the
investigative process?
a. Gather the evidences
b. Establish the identity of the persons involved
c. Cordon the area
d. Check the victims for injuries

52. Common type of thing carried away in cases of burglary and hit and run vehicular accident.
a. Glass c. Hair
b. Blood d. Metal

53. All lines, patters, words, colors or other gadgets EXCEPT signs set into the surface or
applied upon or attached to the pavement or curbing officially place for the purpose of regulating
traffic is called.
a. Pavement markings c. Traffic signs
b. Traffic islands d. Traffic engineering

54. Any motor vehicle accident that result in injuries other than fatal to one or more persons.
a. Non-fatal injury accident c. Fatal accident
b. Traffic accident d. Property damage accident

55. Refers to traffic signs intended to warn road users of special obligations.
a. Danger warning signs c. Informative signs
b. Regulatory signs d. Mandatory signs

56. It includes pedestrians, pedal cyclist, drivers and passengers utilizing the public roads.
a. Road users c. Traffic system
b. Road user system d. Enforcement system

57. Traffic warning, is an enforcement action which does not contemplate possible assessments
of penalty by the court or otherwise as a result of a warning alone. What kind of activities it
a. Preventive activities c. Persuasive activities
b. Punitive activities d. All of these

58. It refers to a dangerous conduct and attitude, which indicates lack of concern for injurious
consequences likely to result from such a behavior.
a. Drunk driving c. Reckless imprudence
b. Reckless driving d. Reckless negligence


59. It is a wholly police responsibility and entails looking for defects in the behavior of the
motorist, pedestrian, vehicles and roadway condition.
a. Apprehension c. Adjudication
b. Defection d. Prosecution

60. Hazardous traffic law violations are:

a. Unsafe condition and unsafe behavior c. Disregarding safety of others
b. Physically handicapped drivers d. Obstructions

61. The theory which asserts that man exhibits a constant variation of life energy and mood state.
a. Biorhythm c. Right of way
b. Last clear chance d. None of the foregoing

62. A number representing the resistance to sliding of two surfaces in contact is known as:
a. Attribute c. Contact damage
b. Traffic jam d. Coefficient of friction

63. The first action taken by a traffic unit to escape from a collision course or otherwise to avoid
a. Final position c. Start of evasive action
b. Point of possible perception d. Point of no escape

64. Key to determining which traffic unit first tried to prevent the motor vehicle accident, this
marking is made while the wheel is still turning.
a. Pavement markings c. Scuff marks
b. Skid marks d. All of these

65. As a rule, traffic control devices and aids have elementary requirements before they are
installed on the roadway, which among the following is not considered as a requirement for such
a. They should compel attention
b. They should convey meaning which are simple and easy to understand
c. They should command respect
d. They should not allow time for proper response

66. If a traffic law enforcer would decide to arrest a traffic law violator, what would not be his
basis for such action?
a. The offense is serious
b. Detention is necessary to avoid continued violation
c. There is a reasonable doubt that the person will appear in the court.
d. The offender would attend the hearing

67. What is the goal of Traffic safety education for drivers?

a. To give them the basics regarding traffic safety
b. To give them actual application of traffic safety knowledge
c. It is a pre-requisite for licenses
d. To impart traffic morality to drivers for safe movement on public roads

68. They are objects commonly left at the scene of the collision involved in accidents.


a. Debris c. Skid marks
b. Scuff marks d. Hazards

69. It is an enforcement action, wherein the violator is commanded to appear in court, but
without detaining him
a. Traffic arrest c. Traffic warning
b. Traffic citation d. All of these

70. It is the last part of the enforcement process wherein penalties are imposed by the court to
parties found guilty of an offense pertaining to traffic law violations.
a. Adjudication c. Penalization
b. Apprehension d. Prosecution

71. The greatest advance in land transportation after the sled was the _____ and originated in the
Tigris Euphrates valley about 3,500 B.C.
a. Feeder roads c. Wheel
b. Roads d. The harness

72. The credit of having invented the internal combustion engine was given to a Frenchman
a. Napoleon Bonaparte c. Nicolas Otto
b. Etiene Leonir d. Gottlieb Daimler

73. The Romans brought road building to its peak of perfection in ancient times, hence the
saying “all roads, lead to _______.”
a. Forum c. Paris
b. Coliseum d. Rome

74. Refers to the main road as conduit system with a right of way ranging from 20 meters to 120
a. Provincial roads c. City roads
b. National roads d. Municipal roads

75. Linkages between two municipalities with a right of way from 15 meters to 60 meters.
a. Provincial roads c. City roads
b. National roads d. Municipal roads

76. A road intended for farm to market traffic.

a. Local collector road c. Feeder road
b. Expressway d. Subway

77. A modern urban system of roadway above street level for free flow of traffic.
a. Expressway c. Skyway
b. Subway d. Major collector road

78. A road intended for free flow vehicular movement.

a. Expressway c. Skyway
b. Subway d. Subway


79. For private vehicles a green sticker is issued, for hire vehicles yellow, red for government
vehicles and _____ for diplomatic vehicles.
a. Pink c. Black
b. Blue d. Orange

80. For open country roads with no blind corners the maximum allowable speed is 80 km/h for
passenger vehicles and motorcycles, 50 km/h for trucks and buses; for through streets clear of
traffic 40 km/h and 20 km/h respectively; for city and municipal streets 30 km/h and for through
crowded streets approaching intersections at blind corners passing school zones the maximum
allowable speed is ___ km/h for both passenger cars, motorcycles as well as trucks and buses.
a. 10 c. 20
b. 15 d. 25


 PARRICIDE – Any person who shall kill his father, mother, or child, whether legitimate or
illegitimate, or any of his ascendants or descendants, or his spouse, shall be guilty of parricide.
Penalty: Reclusion Perpetua (20 years and 1 day to 40 years imprisonment) to death.
 That a person is killed.
 That the deceased is killed by the accused.
 That the deceased is the father, mother, or child, whether legitimate or illegitimate, or a
legitimate other ascendant or other descendant, or the legitimate spouse, of the accused.


CIRCUMSTANCES– Any legally married person who, having surprised his spouse in the act
of committing sexual intercourse with another person, shall kill any of them or both of them in
the act or immediately thereafter, or shall inflict upon them any serious physical injury. If he
shall inflict upon them physical injuries of any kind, he shall be exempt from punishment.
These rules shall be applicable, under the same circumstances, to parents, with respect to their
daughters under eighteen years of age, and their seducer, while the daughters are living with their
Any person who shall promote or facilitate prostitution of his wife or daughter, or shall otherwise
have consented to the infidelity of the other spouse shall not be entitled to the benefits of this article.

Penalty: DESTIERRO(prohibition to enter the place or places designated in the sentence, nor within
the radius therein specified, which shall be not more than 250 and not less than 25 kilometers from the
place designated.

– Any person who, not falling with the provisions of Article 246, shall kill another, shall be guilty of
murder and shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death, if committed with any of the following
attendant circumstances:
1. With treachery, taking advantage of superior strength, with aid of armed men, or employing
means to weaken the defense or of means or persons to insure or afford impunity;
2. In consideration of a price, reward or promise;


3. By means of Inundation, fire, poison, explosion, shipwreck, stranding of vessel, derailment or
assault upon a railroad, fall of an airship, or by means of motor vehicles or with the use of any
other means involving great waste and ruin;
4. On occasion of any of the calamities of an earthquake, eruption of a volcano, destructive
cyclone, epidemic or other public calamity;
5. With evident premeditation;
6. With cruelty, by deliberately and inhumanly augmenting the suffering of the victim, or
outraging or scoffing at his person or corpse.

Penalty: Reclusion perpetua (20 years& 1 day to 40 years imprisonment) to death.

Elements of murder:
1. That a person is killed.
2. That the accused killed him.
3. That the killing was attended by any of the qualifying circumstances mentioned in Article 248.
4. The killing is not parricide or infanticide.

Plain and simple, there is treachery if the offended party was not given opportunity to make a

*Premeditation- Premeditation is the act of mediating in advance; deliberation upon a contemplated act;
a design form to do something before it is done.
The essence of premeditation is that the execution of the criminal act must be preceded by cool
thought and reflection upon the resolution to carry out the criminal intent during the space of time
sufficient to arrive at a calm judgment.
There is no evident premeditation without proof of planning.

*Evident – Clear to the eye or judgment.

Penalty: Reclusion temporal (12 years& 1 day to 20 years imprisonment)

-The killing of a child less than three days of age, whether the killer is the parent or grandparent,
any other relative of the child, or a stranger.

1. The penalty provided in parricide and murder shall be imposed.
2. If the crime penalized in this article be committed by the mother of the child to conceal
dishonor, she shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor (6 years & 1 day to 12 years imprisonment) in its
medium and maximum periods. If committed by maternal grandparents or either of them, the penalty
shall be reclusion temporal (12 years& 1 day to 20 years imprisonment).

 HOMICIDE – Any person who, not falling within the provisions of Article 246 (Parricide) shall
kill another, without the attendance of any of the circumstances enumerated in the next
preceding article (Article 248), shall be deemed guilty of homicide.



 Establishing the Facts of Death

The first essential step of the homicide investigation is to establish that the victim is, indeed,
dead. Police officers do not have the legal authority to pronounce death, only physicians/medical doctor
can establish the fact of death. For this reason, the police officer should never assume death unless the
condition of the victim’s body demonstrates death in a totally obvious manner.

*DEATH – death is defined as the absence of life in a living matter.

 Somatic Death – Clinical Death
It is a complete, continuous, persistent cessation of *respiration, *circulation and almost *all
brain functions of an organism. It is usually pronounced by a physician or other members of
the family.
 Molecular Death- Cellular Death
It is the cessation of life of the individual cells in the whole body, which occurs one at a time
after somatic death.
 Apparent Death – State of Suspended Animation
It is the state of temporary cessation of vital activities of the body or vital processes were
depressed to the minimum compatible with life. This condition is not actually death although
classified under the kinds of death, because the person or organism is still alive although it
seems that there are no signs of life.

 Cessation of respiration
 Cessation of Heart Beating and Circulation
 Cooling of the body
 Insensibility of the body and loss of power to remove
 Changes in the eyes
 Changes in the skin

Identifying the Cadaver

A. Points Taken into Consideration when Finding Human Dead Body Elsewhere:
1. Place where the body was found
2. Date and time when found
3. Cause of death
4. Time when death occurred
5. Approximate age
6. Possible occupation
7. Complete description of the body

Determination of Time of Death:



 Post-mortem lividity (Livor Mortis)– Discoloration of the body after death; setting of blood in
the dependent portions of the body following death).
It is a reddish purple to purple coloration in dependent areas of the body due to accumulation
of blood in the small vessels of the dependent areas secondary to gravity. This pooling of blood begins
immediately after death and becomes fixed in approximately 8-12 hours. The investigator can press on
the skin in the dependent regions and if the skin blanches, death has probably occurred less than 12
hours. This becomes fixed after a while and can tell if the body has been moved. This is not a reliable
indicator of time of death. This is a better indicator of whether the body has been moved since death.

The Color of Lividity may Indicate the Cause of Death:

 Carbon monoxide poisoning/ cyanide – cherry red to pinkish color
 Asphyxia – dark lividity
 Phosphorous poisoning – dark brown

Types of lividity:
1. Hypostatic – Blood is still in fluid form inside blood vessel; change as position of the body
changes. Blood remains fluid in the blood vessel for 6- 8 hours.

2. Diffusion– Coagulated inside blood vessel; Change in position will not change its location.

2. Post mortem rigidity (Rigor Mortis)

Stiffening of the body which occurs 2-6 hours after death and is characterized by hardening of
the muscles; the chemical reaction that causes rigidity in the muscle groups or stiffening of the body after
death due to the disappearance of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) from the muscle.
- Rigor mortis disappears with decomposition.
- Cold and/or freezing will delay the onset of rigor mortis as well as prolong its presence
- Involves all muscles the same time at the same rate.It appears first in the smallermuscles such
as the jaw and then gradually spread to upper and lower extremities.
- Instantaneous rigidity can also be found following ingestion of cyanide and strychnine poison.
Rigor Mortis has duration of 24 to 48 hours in the Philippines and other tropical countries and 36
to 48 hours during summer in the same.

3. Algor mortis(Cooling of the body)

The body cools following death at approximately 1.5 degrees F per hour, under normal
conditions and assuming the body’s temperature at death is 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C).

Factors Affecting Algor Mortis:

1. Illness
2. Clothes
3. Obesity
4. Room temperature
Decomposition is the action of bacteria on the dead body. The onset of decomposition is 1 to 2
days after death and then finally the dead body becomes skeletal remains in months considering the
factors that influence the rate of putrefaction.



The eggs of ova laid by the flies on the dead body will hatch to form maggots within 24 hours.
The maggots will feed vigorously on the damaged dead body, then transform into pupal stage and finally
into adult flies within a few days.


The blood remains fluid in the body after death after 6-8 hours. After which it gradually clotted
or coagulated in a slow process until 12 hours wherein the lividity is already fully developed.

It usually takes three to four hours for the stomach to empty its contents after meals.

Examination of the Cadaver at the Crime Scene

Defense wounds- are the result of a person’s instinctive reaction of self-protection. It may be
found on the hand in the effort of the victim to grasp the wounding instrument or by raising the hand to
protect the vital parts of the body. Absence of defense wound does not eliminate the possibility that the
victim made some form of defense.

Common External Injuries Sustained by the Victim from Homicidal Attack

 Contusion – an injury in the substance of the skin, discoloration of the surface due to
extravasation of blood. This is due to the application of a blunt instrument.
 Hematoma – this is the extravasation of blood in the newly formed cavity.
 Abrasion – an open wound characterized by the removal of the epithelial layer of the skin
brought about by the friction against hard, rough object.
 Incised wound – produced by forcible contact on the body by sharp edge instrument.
 Stab wound – produced by the forcible application and penetration of a sharp instrument.
 Punctured wound – penetration of a sharp pointed weapon
 Lacerated wound – tearing of the skin due to forcible contact of a blunt instrument.

Gunshot Wounds- result from the entry of a projectile into the body, and the frequent presence of
undispersed explosive gases.

Determination whether the wound is suicidal, homicidal, or accidental

1. Near contact- presence of burning, singeing and tattooing of the area around the gunshot wound.
2. One gunshot wound- after a shot, especially at the head, the victim can no longer voluntarily act
to inflict another shot.
3. Portions of the body involved - accessible to the hand of the victim utilized in committing
suicide, he will not think of the difficult way of ending his life unless he has the intention of
deceiving the investigators.
4. History of despondency, family problem which may cause him to commit suicide.

 Usually one shot
 no special area of the body involved
 Testimony of the witnesses

 The site or sites of the wound of entrance has no point of election.
 The fire is made when the victim is usually some distance away from the assailant


 Signs of struggle/ defense wound maybe present in the victim.
 There may be disturbance of the surrounding on the account of the previous struggle.
 Wounding firearm is usually not found at the scene of the crime
 Testimony of the witnesses


Determination whether hanging is suicidal, homicidal, or accidental

1. Hanging – is a state of injury or death of the body whereby the ligature tightened around the neck by
the suspension of the body.

A. Suicidal Hanging – in death by hanging, it is usually suicidal unless proven otherwise. Some
evidence to prove are the following:
 Accessible materials used for ligature like rope, rolled beddings, or wires.
 Identification of the fibers from the rope in the hands of the victim.
 Evidence of movement of the rope on the beam or anchorage from upward and downward as
the body has been suspended.
B. Homicidal Hanging
 Presence of defense wound in the body of the victim.
 Presence of blood stains and other injuries to the body of the victim.
 Presence of signs of struggle in the clothing, furniture, beddings, and others.
 Nature of the window, curtains, and doors.

2. Strangulation -done by tying the ligature around the neck and the two ends pulled in the opposite
direction in such a manner that tightens the ligature. Ligature used may be rope, chain, wires, vines,
rolled clothing.

Ways of Committing Suicide
 By cut-throat
 By puncturing the left breast
 By gunshot
 By hanging
 By drowning
 By poisoning

 ROBBERY - the taking or personal property belonging to another, with intent to gain, by means
of violence against, or intimidation of any person, or using force upon anything.
*Robber-Any person who, with intent to gain, shall take any personal property belonging to
another by means of violence or intimidation of any person, or by using force upon anything
shall be guilty of robbery.

 That there be personal property belonging to another;
 That there is unlawful taking of that property;
 That the taking must be with intent to gain; and
 That there is violence against or intimidation of any person, or force upon things.


Robbery with force upon things:
The malefactors shall enter the house or building in which the robbery was committed by any of
the following means:
 Through an opening not intended for entrance
 By breaking any wall, roof, floor or breaking any window or door.
 By using false key or picklocks
 By using fictitious name or pretending the exercise of public authority
 By breaking of doors, wardrobes, closets or any kind of locked or sealed furniture or
 By taking such furniture or objects away to be broken or forced open outside the place of


Piracy – any attack upon or seizure of any vessel, or taking away of the whole or part thereof or
its cargo, equipment or the personal belonging of its complements or passengers, irrespective of value
thereof, by means of violence against or intimidation of persons or force upon things, committed by any
persons, including a passengers or member of the compliments of said vessels in Philippine waters.

Highway Robbery/ Brigandage – the seizure of any person for ransom, extortion or other
unlawful purposes, or the taking away of the property of another by means of violence against or
intimidation of persons or force upon things of other unlawful means committed by any person or any
Philippine highway.


Cattle Rustling – Is the taking away by any means, methods or scheme, without the consent of
the owner/raiser, or any of the above animals (cow, carabao, horse, mule or other domesticated member
of the bovine family) whether or not for profit or gain, or whether committed with or without violence
against or intimidation of any person or force upon things. It includes the killing of large cattle, or
taking its meat or hide without the consent of owner/raiser.

 ANTI-FENCING LAW OF 1979 (P.D. 1612)

Fencing – is the act of any person, who, with intent to gain, for himself or for another shall buy,
possess, keep, acquire, concealed, sell or in any other way, deal on any articles, items, objects, or
anything of value which he knows to have been derived from the proceeds of crime or robbery or theft.
Fence – includes any person, firm, organization, association or corporation or partnership and
other organization who/ which commits the act of fencing.


 That the offender is a private individual;
 That the kidnaps or detains another, or in any other manner deprives the latter of his liberty;
 That the act of detention or kidnapping must be illegal;
 That in the commission of the offense, any of the following circumstances is present:
a. That the kidnapping of detention lasts for more than 3 days
b. That is committed simulating public authority


c. That any serious physical injuries are inflicted upon person kidnapped or detained of
threats to kill him are made; or
d. That the persons kidnapped is a minor, female, or a public officer.

Penalty: reclusion perpetua to death if:

1. The kidnapping or detention shall have lasted for more than five days.
2. Committed by simulating public authority.
3. Any serious physical injuries shall have been inflicted upon the person kidnapped or detained
or if threat to kill shall have been made.
4. The person kidnapped or detained shall be a minor, female or public officer.

The penalty shall be death where the kidnapping or detention was committed for the purpose of
extorting ransom from the victim or any other person, even if none of the circumstances above
mentioned were present in the commission of the offense.

1. An extra judicial confession obtained from a suspect is admissible
in a court of law if it was made in the presence of a counsel
of his own choice and must be in
A. the presence of a fiscal
B. the presence of a police investigator
C. writing
D. front of a judge

2. Fiscals and Prosecutors are under the control and supervision

of the
A.National Bureau of Investigation
B. Department of the Interior and Local Government
C. Supreme Court
D.Department of Justice

3.The questioning of a person in a formal and systematic way and is

most often used to question criminal suspects to determine their
probable guilt or innocence.
A. Inquiry
B. Interview
C. polygraph examination
D. interrogation
4. A form of investigation in which the investigator assume a
different and unofficial identity.
A. Tailing
B. Casing
C. Espionage
D. Undercover work

5.A type of surveillance in which extreme precautions and actions

are taken in not losing the subject.
A. loose tail


B. casing
C. pony tail
D. close tail
6. A type of shadowing employed when a general impression of the
subject’s habits and associates is required.
A. loose tail
B. casing
C. pony tail
D. close tail

7.A surveillance activity for the purpose of waiting the anticipated

arrival of a suspect or observing his actions from a fixed location.
A. Casing
B. Tailing
C. Stake out
D. Espionage

8.An examination of an individual’s person, houses, or effects or a

building, or premises with the purpose of discovering contraband's
or personal properties connected in a crime.
A. Search
B. Raid
C. Investigation
D. Seizure
9.A kind of evidence that tends to prove additional evidence of a
different character to the same point.
A. Corroborative evidence
B. Circumstantial evidence
C. Direct evidence
D. Real evidence

10.it is the process of bringing together in a logical manner all evidence collected during the
investigation and present it to the
A. case preparation
B. order maintenance
C. crime prevention
D. public service


ORGANIZED CRIME- mean a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time
and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences in order to
obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit

For Organized Group to Work usually it has at least the following:

 AN ENFORCER -the one who makes for the arrangements for the killing (injuring or carrying
out the task physically, economically or psychologically) the members or non members.


- the one who corrupts or bribes, intimidate or threatens, negotiate or “sweet talks” into a
relationship with public officials, law enforcement officer, or anyone who would be of help in obtaining
security and immunity from possible arrest, prosecution and punishments.

- a public officials, law enforcement officers or anybody who not a member of the organization who can
helps the organization


 Has no Political Goals
Organized crime is basically motivated by money and power. It is not social doctrine
neither political belief nor ideological concerns that motivated leaders and members of the
organized crime groups. Political involvement may be part of its activities for the purpose of
gaining protection for its illegal activities.

 Hierarchical
An organized crime has a vertical power structure with at least three (3) ranks. The authority is
inherent in the position and does not depend on who happens to be occupying it at any given time.

 Limited or Exclusive Membership

The criteria such as ethnic background, race, kinship, criminal record and other similar
consideration seems to be the basis for membership in an organized crime group.
Sponsorship by a ranking members and behavior characteristics also plays important factors for
recruitment such as but not limited to: willingness to commit criminal act, follow the rules and
regulations and secrecy in the organization.

 Constitute a unique subculture

Members of the organized crime group considered themselves distinct from the conventional
society. They look at the society as “weak and stupid” and treat them with derisions if not contempt, and
therefore not subject to its rules. This is sometimes referred to as “the underworld”.

 Perpetuates itself
An organized criminal group constitutes an ongoing criminal conspiracy designed to persist
through time; that is, beyond the life of the current membership. In order for the group to survive, it
must have an institutionalized process for inducting new members and inculcating them with the values
and ways of behaving of the social system. This is shown by the depth of the sub-cultural orientation
exhibited by the group.

 Willingness to use Illegal Violence and Bribery

Violence is readily available and acceptable in an organized crime group as a means to achieve
its goal. Bribery becomes necessary so as to protect its operation and insure lesser chance of detection
and suppression.

 Specialization/Division of Labor
There is a need for established functional position filled with qualified members. Commonly,
there is a need for:


(1) an enforcer, one who carries out difficult assignments involving the use of violence,
including murder, in a rational manner. He may use members or non members or even a specialist to
carry out the assignment; and
(2) a corrupter (fixer/money mover), excels in developing contacts.

An organized crime group eschew competition. It strives for hegemony over a particular
geographic area, a particular “industry”, legitimate or illegitimate, or a combination of both.
A monopoly, of course, restrains “free trade” and increases profits. An organized crime
monopoly is maintained by violence, by the threat of violence, or by corrupt relationships with law
enforcement officials. A combination of both methods, violence and corruption, may be employed.


An organized crime group, like a legitimate organization, has a set of rules and regulations that
members are expected to follow.
In an organized crime group, however, a rule-violating member is not fired but, more likely,
fired upon


 The Bureaucratic/ Corporate Model
The corporation, the police, and the military are examples of bureaucracies, that mode of
organization essential for efficiently carrying out large scale tasks.

 Patrimonial/ Patron Client

It is a characteristic of traditional societies that centers on families, patrons and their clients, and
other personalities networks.


 Political Graft- committed by political criminals for purposes of gaining profit though violence
or force for the attainment of political goals or ambitions such as used of private armies, buying
of votes or threatening voters.

 In-Group Oriented Organized Crime - manned by semi-organized individual with the end
view of attaining psychological gratification such as adolescent gangs.

 Mercenary/Predatory organized crime - perpetuated for the attainment of direct personal gain
but prey upon unwilling victims.

 Syndicated Crimes
- comes with a structure organization that participates in illicit activity in society using
force, or intimidation.



 Victimizing business:
Hijacking of cargo trucks
Bankruptcy fraud (“bust-out”)


Insurance Fraud
Stock Fraud (Inside Trading)
 Victimizing individual persons:
Car theft (chop-shop or export)
Burglary (robbery in a building)
Stock Fraud (pump and dump scam)
 Victimizing State:
Bid-rigging public projects
Counterfeiting of Money
Smuggling (Alcohol –bootlegging; Cigarettes – butt legging)

 Providing immigrant workers to avoid taxes


 Loan Sharking
 Murder for hire
 Book making
 Toxic Substance
 Gambling
 People Smuggling
 Prostitution
 Trafficking in human beings
 Drug Trafficking
 Arms dealing
 Pornography


 Casino skimming
 Setting up monopolies in rigid market low tech industries.
 Bid-rigging
 Abusing labor unions
 xtortion (e.g. construction, transport, etc)
 Use of non-union labor and pocketing the wage difference.
 Monopolizing the supply of immigrant workers with the associated people; smuggling.

4. Miscellaneous Activities:
 Money laundering;
 Political corruptions;
 Bullying; and
 And Piracy.

MAFIA- is a term used to describe a number of criminal organizations around the world
- the first organization to bear the label was the Sicilian Mafia based in Italy, known to its
members as Cosa Nostra
“The foundation of the entire mafia is respect. Fear is the engine, and money is the fuel. But
longevity of the mafia as an enterprise is built upon an abiding and uncommon sense of respect”

OMERTA- is a code of silence and secrecy that forbids Mafiosi from betraying their comrades to the



- aka “ thieves with code of honor”. It is the Sicilian counterpart, linked to a territorial-based
provision of protection services and to alliance between upper world and the underworld. It is
characterized by the three types of actors in crime picture at Russia namely:
(1) corrupt government officials,
(2) shady business tycoons (oligarch); and
(3) members of criminal gang headed by a so called authorities and loosely tied with
criminal fraternity known as “thieves in law” (Vory V. Zakone). They were able to
create protective roof through their financial and fraternity connection.


LATINO GANGS -It first formed in the barrios in the 1920s. By 1990s, the Major Latino gangs
had joined into two syndicates.
1. Nortenos-based in northern California. Include such gangs as Big Hazard, the Breed Street
Gang and the Silver Leaf Nortenos (SLN).

2. Surtenos based in Southern Califoria. The Surtenos include the Assasins, King Kobra and
Mara Salvatrucha.
La Gran Raza -The Great Race
La Gran Familia -The Great Family
Dominican Gangs-became the major player in Drug trade in Metropolitan New York and in Northern
New Jersey.
CUBAN MAFIA-- has built a strong base, having taken advantage of an alliance with Santo
Trafficante’s Italian American Mafia family based in Tampa.
NETA ASSOCIATION-began as a prison gang, but it has spread beyond the island and beyond the
prison walls.


China Organized Criminal Groups

1. Gangs (Triad) = work in cooperative ventures involving black market activities, burglaries and
thefts, hijackings and extortions.
2. Criminal Syndicates = commonly involved in sophisticated crimes such as prostitutions, human
trafficking and other organized form of both are involved in drug trafficking particularly of
heroin from the golden triangle as well as Exploitation of women and children and smuggling of
illegal immigrants vices.

Dragon Syndicates is another name for the Chinese Triads, a name popularized by Martin Booth’s
much acclaimed study “The Dragon Syndicates: the Global Phenomenon of the Triads (New York:
Carroll and Graf, 2000).
The Triad came from the symbolic triangle in their flag which indicates the three (3) elements: The
Heaven, The Earth and the Man.
Hong Kong Organized Criminal Groups
Triads, such as “Wo Sing Wo” and 14K are two of the many triads in Hongkong. They are
involved in various activities ranging from drug trafficking to corruption.


ICAC- Independent Commission Against Corruption is one of the most active Criminal Justice
Unit involved in controlling illicit activities of these triads


Yakuza (8-9-3) or Boryokudan

- is the most influential organized crime group in Japan.
- Yakuza makes billions of dollars through corporate extractions and the Sokoiya (shareholders
meeting men).
- Other activities that they are involved include exploitation of women, prostitutions (mostly
coming from the Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan) and gambling den.

Drug trafficking and human smuggling are the most notable organized criminal activities in
Cambodia which are widely controlled by the Chinese and Myanmorese.
Other activities involved gambling, corruption, prostitution and money laundering. Due to
people’s belief of the effect of having sex with virgin women, prostitution became one of the most
expensive organized crime and virgin women are the highest valued commodities.



Although not considered as criminal groups, they also engage in criminal activities someway to
help the weak and the poor. They are notable for their loyalty and faithfulness.
Organized criminal groups come in the form of political groups used as henchmen to attack
political rivals
. Several organized groups are associated with YAKUZA and other groups in the United States
are involved mostly in drug trafficking, prostitution and exploitation of women.

Myanmar has the largest organized crime groups controlled by military Junta. It includes the
*United Wa State Army (UWSA) – under the command of Wei-Huseh-Kong – has connection
with Southeast Asian and North America.
* Kinkang Chinese – in coordination with MNDAA, protects cultivation areas and refining of
* Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army – control the plantations and refine opium into
heroin and also produced methamphetamine.
Trafficking of women and children to Pakistan and Thailand and corruption are also some of the
activities of the group.

Taiwan organized crime has close connection with the Chinese Triads and Hong Kong
particularly the United Bamboo Gang. They are involved in drug trafficking, prostitution, women and
child trafficking.



This is the country with the lowest cases of organized activities due to stringent laws and severe
penalties and the government’s strong will power for the implementation of laws.

The country considered to be the most notorious in the world in terms of sex industry. Supplies
or imports about one (1) million women in different countries in Asia.

“Nam Cam Gang” is one of the most noted organized crime group in Vietnam and known for
drug trafficking and one of the major transit point of drugs in Laos, Myanmar, China and Taiwan from

The country considered as the heaven for the sex industry. A number of women are sent abroad
as entertainers but later end-up as prostitutes. Thailand, Japan and other Asian Countries are common
places of their destination. Young children for pedophiles are also being catered.

 Francisco Group
Dragon or Kuratong Baleleng Group, now led by Manuel Francisco, operates in Visayas and
 Pentagon Group
operates in Mindanao headed by Tahir Alonto, a creation of MILF to generate funds. Alonto is a
nephew of MILF Chairman AL HAJ MURAD
 Lexus Group
specializes in carnapping and operates in NCR and Luzon
 Rex “Wacky” Salud Group
engaged in illegal gambling and operates in Cebu
 Vic Yu Group
engages in illegal gambling and operates in Visayas.
 Superable Family
a kidnapping for ransom (KFR) group with a 1 Million prize for the leader’s head who was
killed in action during a shoot-out with law enforcers
 Martires KFR group
killed in Action (KIA)
 Waray-Waray Group
an ethnic group engaged in kidnap for ransom operations. Members are either belong from the
family clan or natives from Samar and Leyte. Their leader was arrested on September 24, 2005.
 Lupo Rhu Group
lead by Lupo Miguel Tuliao; Agustin Cavilan; and Nestor Merin.


TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - continuing illegal activities of group of person which is primarily

concerned with the generation of profits, irrespective of national boundaries as a result of globalization.


*Globalization - refers to the rapid development of the western culture that ultimately affects other
cultures in the world as brought by intellectual and technological advances, in which some crimes
occurring in other countries are attributed.

*Transnational organized crime - is a crime perpetuated by organized criminal group which the
aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offenses in order to obtain directly or indirectly, a
financial or other material benefits committed through crossing of borders or jurisdictions

ORGANIZED CRIMINAL GROUP- shall mean a structured group of three or more persons, existing
for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing or more serious crimes or offenses
established in accordance with this convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly , a financial or
material benefit

SERIOUS CRIME- shall mean conduct constituting an offence punishable by maximum deprivation of
liberty of at least four years or a more serious penalty

An offense is transnational in nature if:

 It is committed in more than one State
 It is committed in one State but substantial part of its preparation, planning, direction or control
takes place in another State;
 It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal group engages in criminal
activities in more than one State;
 It is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another State.

Executive Order No. 265

- creating the OSETC for a stronger campaign against transnational crime
- the Office of the Special envoy on Transnational Crime is the agency concerned in resolving
overlaps in systems and procedures and determines the appropriate agency competent to address
a specific transnational crime issue



- refers to the recruitment, transportation, transfer or harboring, or receipt of persons with or
without the victim's consent or knowledge, within or across national borders by means of threat
or use of force.
*Republic Act 9208- Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003

COMPUTER CRIME- Also known as Cybercrime.

 any crime accomplished through special knowledge of computer technology.



By far the most popular incidence of cyber crime in the Philippines is the “ILOVEYOU Virus”
or the LOVE BUG. The suspect in the case, a 23-year old student from a popular computer university in


the Philippines drafted the virus with the vision of creating a program that is capable of stealing
passwords in computers, ultimately to have free access to the internet.
During the height of the LOVE BUG incident, Reuters has reported: "The Philippines has yet to
arrest the suspected creator of the 'Love Bug' computer virus because it lacks laws that deal with
computer crime, a senior police officer said". The fact of the matter is that there are no laws relating to
Cybercrime in the Philippines. The National Bureau of Investigation is finding it difficult to legally
arrest the suspect behind the 'Love Bug' computer virus.
As such, the need for countries to legislate Cyberlaws relating to Cybercrime arises on an urgent
priority basis. Due to the incident, the Philippines have seen the necessity for the passage of a law to
penalize cyber crimes, thus the enactment of Republic Act 8792 otherwise known as the Electronic
Commerce Act.

*RA 879- "Electronic Commerce Act.”

-legislated because of I love you virus
-Approved June 14, 2000


 Hacking-is the act of illegally accessing the computer system/network of an individual, group or
business enterprise without the consent or approval of the owner of the system

 Cracking-is a higher form of hacking in which the unauthorized access culminates with the
process of defeating the security system for the purpose of acquiring money or information
and/or availing of free services

 Malicious Sending of E-mails- the sending of malicious and defamatory electronic mails for the
purpose of extorting money, or threatening prospective victims

 Internet Pornography-The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene

material including children’s nude pictures, indecent exposure, and child sex slavery posted into
the internet, live streaming videos aired through the internet.

 A computer virus-is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without
permission or knowledge of the user.


*Worm -spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host

*Trojan horse- is a file that appears harmless until executed. Trojan horses do not insert their
code into other computer files

*Logic bomb-a set of instructions secretly inserted into a program that is designed to execute if a
particular program is satisfied The bomb lies dormant until a particular date is reached or
command entered


 Identity theft- defined as the criminal act of assuming person’s name, address, social security
number, and date of birth in order to commit fraud

 Phishing- sending fraudulent e-mails or website pop-ups, to get victims to divulge sensitive
financial information such as credit card numbers or social security numbers
 DDoS- Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. Committed by employing multiple computers
controlled by a single master computer server to target a particular server by bombarding it with
thousands of packets of data in an attempt to overwhelm the server and cause it to crash
 Website defacement- is the unauthorized modification of a website.


ISP – stands for Internet Service Provider. It provides internet service to internet users.
IP Address – series of numbers assigned by an Internet Service Provider to an internet user when it
connects to the Internet
Dynamic IP Address – a type of IP Address that changes every time the internet user accesses his
Internet Service Provider. It is usually assigned to dial-up or base speed broadband service subscribers
Static IP Address – a type of IP Address that is constant regardless of the time or number of attempts
the internet user accesses the internet. It is usually assigned to High-Speed Internet Users or Corporate
Accounts connections, E1 Internet Connections, OC3 Internet Connections, T1 Internet Connections,
Leased Line Internet Connections)
Website – a portfolio of a person / organization / entity / company which is posted on the Internet for
accessibility worldwide.

TERRORISM- The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or
coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social

Al Qaeda- in Arabic, this means The Base.

- founded by Osama bin Laden in 1980

*Osama bin Laden- born in 1955 or 1957 in the city of Riyadh

- responsible for truly heinous terrorist incidents, including the 2001 destruction of the World Trade
Center (WTC)
- died killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 (Operation Neptune Spear)

*Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri - Born June 19, 1951

-An Egyptian physician, Islamic theologian and current leader of al-Qaeda.

Hamas- "enthusiasm“
- an acronym of Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah "Islamic Resistance Movement")
- is the Palestinian Sunni Islamic or Islamist political party that governs the Gaza Strip.
- Sheikh Ahmed Yassin & Mahmoud Zahar
- “Hamas is an extremist group...it is one of the deadliest terrorist organizations in the world today.”
George W. Bush

Hezbollah- literally "Party of God“

 is a Shi'a Muslim militant group and political party based in Lebanon.


 receives financial and political support from Iran and Syria, and its paramilitary wing is regarded as
a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab and Muslim worlds
 the United States, the Netherlands United Kingdom, Israel, Australia, and Canada classify Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization, in whole or in part.

Jemaah Islamiya- Base of Operation: Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore

 Founding Philosophy: Create an Islamic state across Southeast Asia to include Singapore,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, and southern Philippines.
 JI was added to the United Nations 1267 Committee's list of terrorist organizations linked to al-
Qaeda or the Taliban on 25 October 2002 under UN Security Council Resolution 1267

Domestic Terrorism- politically oriented extreme violence that is perpetrated by residents of a country
within that country in order to force a change in government or how in society functions


Rajah Solaiman Movement- aka “Balik Islam” or “Back To Islam”

- founder Hilarion del Rosario Santos III aka Hannah Santos, aka Ahmed Santos, aka Hilarion del
Rosario, converted to Islam in 1993 and married into the top ranks of the leadership of the Abu
Sayyaf Group (ASG)
- one of the latest groups affiliated with ASG, MILF and JI

ABU SAYYAF GROUP (ASG)- Al-Harakat Al-Islamiyyah, Bearer of the Sword, Father of the
 The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) was formed in 1991 during the peace process between the Philippine
government and the nationalist/separatist terrorist group, the Moro National Liberation Front
(MNLF). Angered by the movement toward a peaceful resolution, certain MNLF members formed
Abu Sayyaf

JIHAD - the term which refers to the holy war waged by members of the Islamic religion against the

IDEOLOGY- body of ideas affecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual or group, a class
or a culture”
-Bovier defines it as “a set of doctrines or beliefs that from the basis of a political, economic and other

 Bombings
 Assassinations and Assaults
 Kidnapping
 Hostage-taking/skyjacking
 Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

Categories of chemical agents (mostly in liquid form)

1. Nerve Agents - agents that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves communicate with organs they
- in other words the agents gets the nerves to send the wrong signal to the muscles they control and
hence, disrupt muscle function of the body


ex. Sarin Gas

2. Blistering Agents - there are three common of this type; the most widely known are mustard gas,
lewisite, and phosgene oxime. Mustard gas, first used in World War I, will caused blistering on the
exposed portions of the body, as well as on internal organs. It will generally cause blindness and then
death by respiratory failure

3. Chocking Agents- one of the deadliest choking agents is phosgene gas. This agent damages the
respiratory system and causes the lungs to fill with water, and thus chokes the victim.
Ex. chlorine

Biological Agents (liquid or dry form)

 Anthrax-a single cell organism that is produced by a fermentation process, such as that by which
beer is made.
- caused by Bacillus anthracis and the effects of exposure include a severe infection that attacks the
skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract
-direct contact will cause formation of dry scabs all over the victims body and can develop into
systematic infection
- when inhaled, the agent attacks the respiratory system with symptoms appearing from one to seven
 Botulinum toxin-a protein made by the clostridium botulinum bacteria
exposure to the toxin, the nerve cell synapses are affected, causing palsy, spasms, and then paralysis

 Brucellosis- also known as undulant fever

symptoms can include intermittent or prolonged fever, headaches, profuse sweating, chills, pains in
the joints and muscles and fatigue

 Cholera- an acute gastrointestinal disease caused by Vibrio Cholera

-symptoms include a sudden onset of nausea and or vomiting accompanied by severe diarrhea and a
rapid loss of body fluids

 Plague- transmitted from person to person by respiratory transmission, through rats, or from the bite
of an infected flea
- symptoms are high fever accompanied by general aches, severe weakness, and pneumonia

 Typhoid fever- caused by an organism called salmonella typhosa which causes fever and frontal
headaches and is usually accompanied by rose colored spots on the skin
- must employed through food and limited water contamination

 Rickettsia - disease that appears in domesticated animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats
-spread to human through inhalation of particles contaminated with organism
-incubation period, ranging from 10 to 14 days


Types of bombers:
 Amateur-can be described as experiments


 Professional-builds or bombs or does both for profit
 Psychopathic-acts without rhyme or reason
 Suicidal- major attack weapon in recent years, particularly among Islamic terrorist groups

***R.A. 9372- Human Security Act of 2007 (*CLE DEC. 2018)

-Approved on March 6, 2007
-Effective on May 15, 2007

MONEY LAUNDERING - process through which the existence of an illegal source of unlawful
application of illicit gains is concealed or disguised to make the gains legitimate, thereby helping to
evade detection, prosecution, seizure and taxation.”

“Money Laundering” is called what it is because the term perfectly describes what takes place,
illegal or dirty money is put through a cycle of transactions, or “washed”, or “laundered”, so that it
comes out the other end as legal, or clean money.

Money laundering is not a single act but is in fact a process that is accomplished in three basic
steps or stages:
a. Placement-This is the movement of cash from its source. On occasion the source can be easily
disguised or misrepresented. This is followed by placing it into circulation through financial institutions,
casinos, shops, bureau de change and other businesses, both local and abroad.
b. Layering- The purpose of this stage is to make it more difficult to detect and uncover a
laundering activity. It is meant to make the trailing of illegal proceeds difficult for the law enforcement
c. Integration- This is the movement of previously laundered money into the economy mainly
through the banking system and thus such monies appear to be normal business earnings. This is
dissimilar to layering, for in the integration process detection and identification of laundered funds is
provided through informants.

Republic Act No. 9160

- approved on September 29, 2001
- this Act shall be known as the "Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2001.“
The Anti-Money Laundering Council (AMLC) is the financial intelligence unit of the Philippines
and is composed of the following officials :
 The Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
 The Chairperson of the Securities and Exchange Commission
 The Commissioner of the Insurance Commission

COVERED TRANSACTION- is a transaction in cash or other equivalent monetary instrument

involving a total amount in excess of PHP500,000.00 within one (1) banking day.

- also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point
where prohibited, such as out of a building, into a prison, or across an international border, in
violation of the law or other rules


Section 1, Republic Act No. 8294:


- Acts punishable: Unlawful Manufacture, Sale, Acquisition, Disposition or Possession of
Firearms Ammunition or Instruments Used or Intended to be Used in the Manufacture of
Firearms or Ammunitions.
- Penalty:Prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine of Thirty Thousand pesos (30,000.00)
- (high-powered firearm which includes those with bores bigger in diameter that .38 caliber and
9 millimeter such as caliber 40, 41, 44, 45 and also lesser calibered firearms but considered
powerful such as caliber 357 and caliber .22 center fire magnum and other firearms with firing
capability of full automatic and by burst of two or three: Provided however, That no other crime
was committed by the person arrested)

DRUG TRAFFICKING- refers to the illegal process through which narcotics and other illegal drugs
are produced, transported, and sold.
- The illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation, manufacture, sale, trading,
transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and possession of any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.


1. He founded the MNLF.

A. Hashim Salamat
B. Nur Misuari
C. Jose Maria Sison
D. Abu Sabaya

2. The compromise agreement to establish the Autonomous Region in

Bangsamoro land.
A. Tripoli Agreement
B. Treaty of Paris
C. Bangsa Moro Law Agreement
D. None of the Above

3. Jabidah Massacre took place in what island?

A. Aklan
B. Corregidor
C. Sulu
D. Basilan

4. It literally mean Islamic Congregation, It is a Southeast Asian

militant Islamist terrorist organization dedicated to the
establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah (regional Islamic caliphate)
in Southeast Asia.
A. Taliban
B. Abu Sayyaf
C. Buko Haram
D. Jemaah Islamiah

5. It is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan.

It is founded by Mullah Mohammed Omar Mujahid.


A. Taliban
B. Abu Sayyaf
C. Buko Haram
D. Jemaah Islamiah

6. It literally means "father and swordsmith", is a militant Islamist

group based in and around Jolo and Basilan, Philippines.
C. Abu Sayyaf

7. It means "Western Education is Forbidden", is an Islamist terrorist

movement based in north-east Nigeria.
A. Taliban
B. Abu Sayyaf
C. Buko Haram
D. Jemaah Islamiah

8. It means "The Base', is a global militant Islamist organization

founded by Osama bin Laden and Other militants.
A. Taliban
B. Al-Qaeda
C. Buko Haram
D. Jemaah Islamiah

9. It is an Islamic extremist rebel group controlling territory in

Iraq and Syria, with operations in Lebanon, Libya, the Sinai
Peninsula of Egypt, and other areas of the Middle East.
B. Al-Qaeda
C. Buko Haram
D. Jemaah Islamiah

10. It literally means "The Youth", is a jihadist terrorist group

based in Somalia.
B. Al-Qaeda
C. Buko Haram
D. Al-Shabaab

1. It is a a street gang and organized crime group with origins in
the Philippines. The gang was formed in the early 1940s among
Filipino inmates in large and dangerous Manila correctional
facilities. Member's value of fatalism is that it didn't really
matter what one did if fate was against you.


A. Akya-Bahay Gang
B. Bahala na Gang
C. Kuratong Baleleng
D. Martilyo Gang

2. It is an organized crime syndicate in the Philippines that once

was an anti-communist vigilante group.
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Bahala na Gang
C. Kuratong Baleleng
D. Martilyo Gang

3. This gang is notoriously known for robbing jewelry shops and uses
wrench, hammer and other tools to smash store windows.
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Bahala na Gang
C. Kuratong Baleleng
D. Martilyo Gang

4. The conman or woman suddenly hugs the victim like they’re old
friends. With a knife poked on his side, victim is ordered to
quietly turn over cash and other valuables. A Modus operandi
of what criminal gang?
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ativan Gang
D. Martilyo Gang

5. Two cohorts falsely accuse victim of stealing. Naturally denying

it, victim is asked to show proof of character. Once he fishes
out an ID card from the wallet, the gang men grab the money and
scram. An MO of what criminal gang?
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ativan Gang
D. Martilyo Gang

6. Three to four males and females befriend a lone tourist. After

gaining his confidence, they tour him around, then invite him to
dine in their shanty. Then a potent sleeping pill, is slipped into
the drink. The drugged victim is stripped of belongings, then
dumped in a secluded place. A Modus Operandi of what criminal gang?
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ativan Gang
D. Martilyo Gang

7. A woman seducing the victim, then drugging him in the hotel room.
Most victims are knocked out for days learning later all of his/her


belongings are gone. Committed usually by what criminal gang?
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ativan Gang
D. Martilyo Gang

8. This Gang operates in threes or fours. Victim is shoved into

distraction, while his pocket is picked or mobile snatched. The
usually operates in buses, trains and stations and crowded areas.
A. Tutok-Kalawit Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ipit Gang
D. Budol-Budol Gang

9. The conman or woman suddenly hugs the victim like they’re old
friends. With a knife poked on his side, victim is ordered to
quietly turn over cash and other valuables. This MO is committed
by what criminal gang?
A. Tutok-Kalawit Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ipit Gang
D. Budol-Budol Gang

10. Perpetrators are courteous and well dressed, with props like
attaché case or jewelry to look businesslike and affluent. They
pick out a victim who is so engrossed in talk or texting to leave
belongings unattended. In swift motion they swipe the bag or
laptop, and casually leave. A Modus Operandi committed by what
criminal gang?
A. Tutok-Kalawit Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ipit Gang
D. Budol-Budol Gang

1. A kind of modus operandi where the victim is shown a bundle of
fake money to gain trust and usually accompanied by hypnotism.
This is employed by what criminal gang?
A. Tutok-Kalawit Gang
B. Salisi Gang
C. Ipit Gang
D. Budol-Budol Gang

2. An adult or child, posing as a vendor or pretending to be lost,

distracts the victim. A cohort swiftly slashes the victim’s pocket
or bag to filch the wallet, a crime committed by what criminal
A. Dura Boys


B. Estribo Gang
C. Ipit Taxi Gang
D. Laslas Gang

3. A gang spray-paints the taxi with a different name and license

number. Not long after picking up a lone victim the cabbie stops
on pretense of engine trouble. Two cohorts jump into the rear and
sandwich the victim, demanding his valuables. This is the Modus
Operandi of what criminal gang?
A. Dura Boys
B. Estribo Gang
C. Ipit Taxi Gang
D. Laslas Gang

4. Robbers position themselves on the running board (estribo) of bus

or jeepney, then announce a holdup. A Modus Operandi of what
criminal gang?
A. Dura Boys
B. Estribo Gang
C. Ipit Taxi Gang
D. Laslas Gang

5. A pair of thieves, forcibly would open the car doors to rob the
motorist. Or they’d pick the locks to strip parked cars of
accessories or they will hijack the car. A Modus Operandi of
what criminal gang?
A. Dura Boys
B. Pitas Gang
C. Bukas Kotse Gang
D. Laslas Gang

6. A man would spit at a victim who, while wiping it off, is mugged.

A Modus Operandi of what criminal gang?
A. Dura Boys
B. Pitas Gang
C. Bukas Kotse Gang
D. Laslas Gang

7. A lone or gang of porch-climbers would invade homes left for the

holidays or disasters. Youngsters are employed to break into small,
unsecured windows. A Modus Operandi of what criminal gang?
A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Pitas Gang
C. Laslas Gang
D. Dura Boys

8. A thief picks out a victim seated by the window, to snatch the

wristwatch, necklace, or earring. A modus operandi of what
criminal gang?


A. Akyat-Bahay Gang
B. Pitas Gang
C. Laslas Gang
D. Dura Boys

9. The gang operates in threes, with one, in bus conductor uniform,

asking the passenger, “(How many)?” Victim would reply how many
riders they are. He is given the equivalent number of juice drinks,
then charged a fortune for it. Burly cohorts menace him into
paying up. A Modus operandi employed by what criminal gang?
A. Zesto Gang
B. Dura Boys
C. Estribo Gang
D. Pitas Gang

10. Coins or bills are dropped. As victim helps pick them up, his
pocket or bag is picked. Usually employed by what criminal gang?
A. Zesto Gang
B. Laglag Barya Gang
C. Estribo Gang
D. Pitas Gang


Drugs-Any chemical substance, other than food, which is intended for used in the diagnosis, treatment,
cure, mitigation or prevention of disease or symptoms.

Drug Abuse- Any non-medical use of drugs that cause physical, psychological, legal, economic, or
social damage to the user or to the people affected by the user’s behavior.


1. STIMULANT- Drug that excite the central nervous system, increasing alertness, decreasing
fatigue, delaying sleep, also impale appetite and cause weight loss.

 Methamphetamine hydrochloride/SHABU - street names, poor man’s cocaine, S, ice,

Shabs, Ubas, bato, Siopao
-is a white, odorless crystal or crystalline powder with a bitter numbing taste.

 Cocaine – Street names: Coke, Snow, Flake, Bow an agent that produces a temporary
increase of the functional activity or efficiency of an Organism or any of its parts.
- drug from the leaves of the Coca plant, a shrub that originated in South America. -The name
comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant, an appetite
suppressant, and a topical anesthetic.
2. OPIATES/NARCOTIC- Group of drugs that are used medically to relieve pain, but have a
high potential for abuse.
-In medicine, the term opiate describes any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as
natural products in the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum.


 Opium – is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Opium
contains up to 12% morphine, an alkaloid, which is frequently processed chemically to
produce heroin. The latex also includes codeine.
*Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum- is the species of plant from which
opium and poppy seeds are derived. Opium is the source of many narcotics,
including morphine (and its derivative heroin), thebaine, codeine, papaverine and noscapine. The
Latin botanical name means the "sleep-bringing poppy", referring to the sedative properties of
some of these opiates.

 Morphine – is a potent opiate analgesic drug that is used to relieve severe pain. It was
first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Serturner, first distributed by him in 1817, and first
commercially sold by Merck in 1827.
- It took its name from the Greek god of dreams Morpheus.
- The most abundant alkaloid found in Opium, the dried sap (latex) derived from
shallowly slicing the unripe seedpods of the opium, or common and/or edible,

 Heroin – is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the
seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants.
- It is typically sold as a white or brownish powder or as the black sticky
substance known on the streets as "black tar heroin”.

3. Hallucinogens- Drugs that are derived from plants chemical substances which affects the
perception, sensation, behavior and produces hallucination on the user.

Marijuana - is the term used to describe all the plant material like leaves, tops, stems, flowers
and roots from a cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa), dried and prepared for smoking or taken orally
as “brownies”.

-The mind altering component is the tetrahydrocannabinol, which is concentrated in the resin.

4) Depressants/Sedatives
- Drugs that have mild-calming or sleep-producing effect upon the central nervous system.
- e.g. Valium

5) Inhalants - drugs whose volatile vapors are taken in via the nose and trachea.
- includes solvents, bases and aerosol, rugby, gasoline, hair spray, lighter fluid and air freshener


Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or commonly known as "Ecstasy", "X-TC",

"Adam", "Eden Tablet", or by its any other name - refers to the drug having such chemical
composition, including any of its isomers or derivatives in any form;

Sedatives - Sedative-hypnotics such as tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and sedatives are drugs,
which depress or slow down body functions. These drugs ca be dangerous when not taken
according to physician's instructions.


Ketamine - is an anesthetic that is abused for its hallucinogenic properties. Its predominant
legitimate use is as a veterinary anesthetic.

-can cause dream-like states and hallucinations. Users report sensations ranging from a pleasant
feeling of floating to being separated from their bodies. Some ketamine experiences involve a
terrifying feeling of almost complete sensory detachment that is likened to a near-death

-is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class that produces
increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite.

– Drug that is stimulant to the central nervous system. It is colorless and maybe inhaled, injected
or swallowed. It may be used medically to treat depression, and obesity.


1) Oral Ingestion-Taken by the mouth and must pass through the stomach before being absorbed in the
2) Inhalation- Drug in gaseous from enters the lungs and is quickly absorbed by the capillary system.
3) Injection- Administered into the body by the use of a stringe or hypodhermic needle.
4) Snorting- Inhalation through the nose of drugs in gaseous form.
5) Buccal- Drugs is administered by placing it in the buccal cavity just under the lips.

MEDICINES-Drugs used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment, and prevention of disease or for the relief of
pain or discomfort.

THREAPEUTICS- Use of drugs in treating and preventing disease and in preserving health.

ABSTINENCE- Cessation of use of a psycho-active substance previously abused, or on which the user
developed drug dependence.

DRUG DEPENDENCE-Term relates to physical or psychological dependence or both.

- Impaired control over drug-taking behavior is implied.

DRUG ADDICT-Person who is physically dependent on one or more psycho-active substances, or

whose long term use has produce tolerance, who has lost control over his intake, and would manifest
withdrawal symptoms if discontinuance were to occur.

DRUG ADDICTION-A chronic disorder characterized by the compulsive use of a substance resulting
in physical, psychological, or social harm to the user and continued use despite of that harm.

OVERDOSE- The inadvertent of deliberate consumption of much larger doses that the habitually used
by the individual in question and resulting in serious toxic reaction or death.

POLY DRUG ABUSE- Use of two or more psycho-active substance in quantities and with frequencies
that cause the individual significant physiological, psychological, or sociological distress or impairment.


REHABILITATION- Restoration of an optimum state of health by medical, physical, psychological,
social and peer group support for a chemically dependent person and his significant others.

TOLERANCE- Physiological adaptation to the effects of drugs so as diminish the effects with constant
dosages or to maintain the intensity and duration of effects through increased dosage.

TREATMENT- Application of planned procedures to identify and change patterns of behavior that are
mal-adoptive, destructive, health injuring or to restore appropriate levels of physical, psychological or
social functioning.

CLANDESTINE LABORATORY- is any facility used for the illegal manufacture of any dangerous
drug. (*CLE DEC. 2019)

CULTIVATE OR CULTURE- Any act of knowingly planting, growing, raising, or permitting the
planting, growing or raising of any plant which is source of a dangerous drug.

ADMINISTER- Any act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person, with or
without his/her knowledge, by injection, inhalation, ingestion or other means.

CHEMICAL DIVERSION- Sale, distribution, supply or transport of legitimately imported, in transit,

manufactured or procured controlled precursors and essential chemicals.

DELIVER-Any act of knowingly passing a dangerous drug to another, personally or otherwise, and by
any means, with or without consideration.

DEN, DIVE, RESORT- Place where any dangerous drug and essential chemical is administered,
delivered, stored for illegal purposes.

DRUG SYNDICATE-Any organized group of two or more persons forming or joining together with
the intention of committing any offense prescribed in RA 9165.

PRACTITIONER- is any person who is a licensed physician, dentist, chemist, medical technologist,
nurse, midwife, veterinarian or pharmacist in the Philippines.

ILLEGAL TRAFFICKING- is the illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation,

manufacture, sale trading, transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and possession of any
dangerous drugs.

PLANTING OF EVIDENCE- Willful act by any person of maliciously and surreptitiously inserting,
placing, adding or attaching directly or indirectly, through any overt or covert act any dangerous drugs
in the person, house, effects or in the immediate vicinity of an innocent individual for the purpose of
implicating, incriminating or imputing the commission of any violation of RA 9165.

PUSHER- Any person who sells, trades, administers, dispense, delivers or gives away to another,
distributes, dispatches in transit or transports dangerous drugs or who acts as a broker.

USE-Any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consuming any dangerous drugs.


CONFINEMENT-Refers to the residential treatment and rehabilitation of trainees, clients and patients
in a center.

CONFIRMATORY TEST- An analytical test using a device, tool or equipment with different
chemical or physical principle that is more specific which will validate and confirm the result of the
screening test.

CONTROLLED DELIVERY- The investigative technique of allowing an unlawful consignment of

any dangerous drug, essential chemical to pass into, through out of the country under the supervision of
an authorized officer, with a view to gathering evidence to identify any person involved in any
dangerous drug related offense.

DISPENSE-Any act of giving away, selling or distributing medicine or any dangerous drug with or
without the use of prescription.

DRUG DEPENDENT- Refers to a person suffering from drug dependence.

FINANCIER-Any person who pays for, raises or supplies money for, or underwrites any of the illegal
activities prescribed under RA 9165.

INSTRUMENT- Anything that is used or intended to be used, in any manner, in the commission of
illegal drug trafficking or related offenses.

LABORATORY- Refers to the facility of a private or government agency that is capable of testing a
specimen to determine the presence of dangerous drugs

PROTECTOR/CODDLER- Any person who knowingly and willfully consents to the unlawful acts
provided in RA 9165 and uses his/her influence, power or position in shielding, harboring, screening or
facilitating the escape of any person he/she knows or has reasonable grounds to believe on or suspects,
has violated the provisions of RA 9165 in order to prevent the arrest, prosecution and conviction of the

SCREENING TEST- A rapid test performed to establish potential/presumptive positive result.

TRADING- is a transaction involving the illegal trafficking of dangerous drugs.

THE PDEA- Philippine Drug Enforcement Agancy

RA 9165- created PDEA
- Signed June 7, 2002
- Published June 19, 2002
- Took effect July 4, 2002
PDDG Anselmo Avenido- first Director General

-The PDEA shall exercise operational supervision and provide technical support to the main task force
created by the PNP.

-Serves as the implementing arm of the Dangerous Drug Board (DDB).

-Responsible for the efficient and effective law enforcement of all the provisions on any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical as provided in RA 9165.


-Headed by Director General with the rank of Undersecretary, appointed by the President.
-The head of the PDEA is assisted by 2 deputies Director General, with the rank of Assistant
Secretary, 1 for Operations and 1 for Administration, also appointed by the President.


-Created by virtue of Republic Act 6425 otherwise known as Dangerous Drug Act of 1972
subsequently repealed by RA 9165.
- is the policy-making & strategy-formulating body on drug prevention & control.
-DDB composed of 17 members wherein 3 of which are permanent members. The other 12 members are
ex- officio capacity and 2 regular members.


- At least 7 years of training and experience in the field of the ff: fields in law, medicine,
criminology, psychology or social work.
- Appointed by the president.
- One designated as the Chairman with the rank of Secretary (with the term of 6 years) and the two
other regular members as undersecretary (one with 4 years term and the other 2 years but
succeeding appointment will serve six years and until their successors shall have been duly
appointed and qualified.


- Secretary or representative of the following Department:
- Chairman CHED, NYC
- Director General - PDEA


4. President of Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).
5. Chairman or President of a non- government organization involved in dangerous drug campaign
to be appointed by the President.

*The Director of NBI and Chief, PNP are the permanent consultant of the DDB.

DRUG MULES or “DRUG COURIERS” - Are individuals who transport dangerous drugs in
exchange for a huge amount of money, depending on the amount of drugs to be delivered and the
route/distance to be traveled.

The Task Force Drug Couriers (TFDC) -It is an inter-agency team tasked in the deterrence,
prevention and protection of Filipinos from being victimized as drug couriers by international drug
trafficking syndicates.

The Task Force is composed of 13 agencies, chaired by the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency and
co-chaired by the Department of Foreign Affairs with the following agencies as members
1. Bureau of Customs
2. Bureau of Immigration
3. Commission on Higher Education
4. Department of Justice


5. Department of Labor and Employment
6. Manila International Airport Authority
7. National Bureau of Investigation
8. Philippine Information Agency
9. Philippine National Police – Aviation Security Group
10. Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (formerly Philippine Tourism Authority)
11. Office of the President thru the Office of the Executive Secretary


*Couriers are usually recruited by casual acquaintances they meet in key cities here or abroad, mostly
fellow Filipinos connected to drug syndicates like the African Drug Syndicate offering plane tickets,
hotel accommodation and huge amounts of money.

*In some instances, members of syndicates befriend/marry potential recruit then later turn him/her into a
courier or cohort. On the other hand, unwitting victims were duped by acquaintances into carrying
packages in exchange for money, not knowing that drugs were placed inside.

*Couriers may also be recruited through the internet and social networking sites.
Syndicates also engage in travel & tours businesses/agencies to arrange airline and hotel bookings of the
couriers and use fraudulent documents/fake credit cards.

*They use stolen and/or falsified documents to go about with their transaction (i.e. purchase of plane
tickets, hotel bookings) and usually communicate with their cohorts thru phone or the internet.

*Members are proficient in English and well-versed, very persistent and are generally friendly which
makes them recruit potential victims easily.

VICES- is any immoral conduct or habit, the indulgence of which leads to depravity, wickedness and
corruption of the minds and the body.

Different Forms of Vices:

1. ALCOHOLISM- which is also known as “Alcohol Dependence Syndrome” is a disease
characterized by the following:
a) Craving – strong need or compulsion to drink
b) Loss of Control – frequent inability to stop drinking once a person has begun to drink.
c) Physical Dependence – The occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, such as shakiness and anxiety
when alcohol use is stopped.

Alcoholic- is a person who has experienced physical, psychological, social or occupational impairment
as consequence of habitual, excessive consumption of alcohol.

Alcohol abuse- is the use of ethyl alcohol or liquor in a quantity and with a frequency that causes the
individual significant physiological, psychological, or sociological distress or impairment.

Alcoholic dependence- A chronic lost of control over the consumption of alcoholic beverages despite
obvious psychological or physical harm to the person. Increasing amount are required overtime and
abrupt discontinuance may precipitate a withdrawal symptoms.


Alcoholic liquor- Any beverages or compound, whether distilled, fermented, or otherwise, which will
produce intoxication or which contains in excess of one percent of alcohol and used as a beverage.

Drunkard-A person who habitually takes or use any intoxicating alcohol liquor and while under the
influence of such, or in consequence of the effect thereof, is either dangerous to himself or to others.

Intoxication- It is considered a mitigating circumstance when the offender has committed a felony in a
state of intoxication, if the same is not habitual. It is considered an aggravating circumstance, when the
intoxication is habitual or intentional.

2. PROSTITUTION-act or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for

-is the exchange of money for the performance of sexual act.

-Customarily used, to refer to a female person who engages in sex in exchange for money as profession.

Philandering- Is having casual/illicit sex with a number of people.

-It usually refers to men, and often in the context of cheating on a wife or girlfriend.

To Philander-Is to carry on romantic and/or sexual affairs outside a committed relationship.

Philander- Is a serial cheater who betrays his spouse or long term partner repeatedly.
-The term usually refers to men (obviously, women have also been known to carry on affairs).

Vagrants- any person having no apparent means of subsistence, who has the physical ability to work
and who neglects to apply himself or herself to some lawful calling.

-Any person found loitering about public or semi-public building or places, or tramping or wandering
about the country or to the streets without visible means of support.

-Any idle or dissolute person who lodges in houses of ill-fame, ruffians or pimps and those who
habitually associate with prostitutes.

Prostitutes – women, who for money or profit, habitually indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious

*RA 7610- Special Protection of children against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination Act.
- Penalize those who engage in or promote, facilitate or induce child prostitution, who commit the act
of sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct with a child exploited in prostitution and who derived
profit on advantage therefrom, whether as a manager or owner of the establishment.
-penalty of reclusion temporal in its medium period to reclusion perpetua

6. GAMBLING- Wagering of money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain

outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods.

Bettor (Mananaya)


-Any person, who places bets for himself/herself or in behalf of another person, other than the personnel
or staff of any illegal numbers game operation.

COLLECTOR or AGENT (Cabo, Cobrador)

-Any person who collects, solicits or produces bets in behalf of his/her principal for any illegal numbers
game who is usually in possession of gambling paraphernalia

Maintainer/Manager/Operator-Any person who maintains, manages, or operates any illegal number

game in a specific area.

Financiers or Capitalist- is any person who finances the operations of any illegal numbers game.
Protector or Coddler-is any person who lends or provides protection, or receives benefits in any manner
in the operation of any illegal numbers game.

PD 449 – Cockfighting Law of 1974

PD 483 - Penalizing Betting, Game-fixing or point shaving and Machinations in Sports Contents.
PD 1602 – Prescribing stiffer penalties on illegal gambling.
RA 9287 – An Act increasing the penalties for illegal numbers games, amending certain provisions
of P.D. 1602, and for other purposes.


1.It is a kind of abused drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep.
A. Sedatives
B. Stimulants
C. Hallucinogen
D. Narcotics.
2.It is the most important alkaloids and constitutes about 10% of the use raw opium.
A. Morphine
B. Heroin
C. Codeine
D. Opium
3.The drug taken from the cola bust plant Ertyroxylon coca.
A. Cocaine
B. Marijuana
C. Papayer Somniferum
D. claviceps purpurea
4.Opium subjected to Marquis Test will run into ___ specs.
A. Blue
B. Orange
C. Violet
D. Red
5.PDEA is headed by Director General with the rank of ___
A. Assistant Secretary
B. Secretary
C. Chairman
D. Undersecretary


6.What is the minimum age required to be able to become a PDEA agent?
A. 16
B. 18
C. 21
D. s25
7.The Academy shall be headed by a ____, with the rank of Director. He/She shall be appointed by the
A. Chairman/President
B. Secretary/PDEA DG
C. CSUPT/President
8.The policy-making and strategy-formulating body in the planning and formulation of policies and
programs on drug prevention and control
C. PNP Narcotics
D. NBI Narcotics
9.They serve as permanent consultant of the Dangerous Drug Board:
A.NBI Director and PNP Director General
B.PDEA Director General and PNP, Chief
C.PNP Director and PDEA Director
D.Secretary of DILG and Secretary of Justice
10. If the clandestine laboratory is established in the following circumstances such will serve as
Aggravating Circumstances:
A.Conducted in the presence or with the help of minor/s
B.Established within one hundred (100) meters of a residential, business, church or
school premises.
C.Secured or protected with booby traps
D.Concealed with legitimate business operations
E.Employment of a practitioner, chemical engineer, public official or foreigner
F.all of the choices


4 General Categories of Heat Energy:
 Chemical Heat Energy
 Electrical Heat Energy
 Mechanical Heat Energy
 Nuclear Heat Energy
Backdraft – is a phenomenon in which a fire that has consumed all available oxygen suddenly explodes
when more oxygen is made available, typically because a door or window has been opened.
Boiling Point - The temperature of a substance where the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of
British Thermal Unit - (BTU) The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of
water one degree F.
Calorie - The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree
Centigrade - (Celcius) On the Centigrade scale, zero is the melting point of ice; 100 degrees is the
boiling point of water.


Chemical Heat Energy:
Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the combustion (oxidation) process.
Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from decomposing compounds. These compounds may be
unstable and release their heat very quickly or they may detonate.
Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of matter in a liquid. Some acids, when dissolved,
give off sufficient heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.
Spontaneous Heating - is heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat.
Spontaneous heating occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the heat
produced. The speed of a heating reaction doubles with each 180 F (80 C) temperature increase.

Classification of Fires:
Class A Fire - Fires involving ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and
many plastics.
Class B Fires - Fires involving flammable liquids, greases and gases.
Class C Fires - Fires involving energized electrical equipment.
Class D Fires - Fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium
and potassium.
Class K Fires - Class K is a new classification of fire as of 1998 and involves fires in combustible
cooking fuels such as vegetable or animal fats.

COMBUSTION - is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel being reduced by an

oxidizing agent along with the evolution of heat and light.

*Dry Chemicals and Halons- method of fire extinguishment that interrupts the flame producing
chemical reaction, resulting in rapid extinguishment.


Dielectric Heating - The heating that results from the action of either pulsating direct current, or
alternating current at high frequency on a non-conductive material.
Heat from Arcing - Heat released either as a high-temperature arc or as molten material from the
Heat Generated by Lightning – The heat generated by the discharging thousands of volts from either
earth to cloud, cloud to cloud or from cloud to ground.
Induction Heating - The heating of materials resulting from an alternating current flow causes magnetic
field influence.
Leakage Current Heating - The heat resulting from imperfect or improper insulated electrical materials.
This is particularly evident where the insulation is required to handle high voltage or loads near
maximum capacity.
Resistance Heating - The heat generated by passing an electrical force through a conductor such as a
wire or an appliance.
Static Electricity Heating - Heat released as an arc between oppositely charged surfaces. Static
electricity can be generated by the contact and separation of charged surfaces or by fluids flowing
through pipes.
Endothermic Heat Reaction - is a chemical reaction where a substance absorbs heat energy.
Exothermic Heat Reaction - is a chemical reaction where a substance gives off heat energy.
Fahrenheit - On the Fahrenheit scale, 32 degrees is the melting point of ice; 212 degrees is the boiling
point of water.
Fire point - The temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce vapors sufficient to support combustion
once ignited. The fire point is usually a few degrees above the flash point.


Flame - A gas-phased combustion.
Flammable or Explosive Limit – the percentage of a substance in air that will burn once it is ignited.
Most substances have an upper (too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit.

Flashover - an instance of a fire spreading very rapidly across a gap because of intense heat. Occurs
when a room or other area becomes heated to the point where flames flash over the entire surface or
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors to form an
ignitable mixture with the air near the surface. At this temperature, the ignited vapors will flash, but will
not continue to burn.
Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.
- Materials such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned to produce heat or power.
Fuel Removal - method of fire extinguishment, fire is effectively extinguished by removing the fuel
source. This may be accomplished by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid
fuel in the path of the fire or allow the fire to burn until all fuel is consumed.

HEAT - The form of energy that raises temperature. Heat is measured by the amount of work it does.
 Conduction - Conduction is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. Heat
may be conducted from one body to another by direct contact of the two bodies or by an
intervening heat-conducting medium.
 Convection - is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. Transfer of
heat by the movement of air or liquid.
 Radiation - Electromagnetic waves that directly transport energy through space.

Ignition Temperature – is the minimum temperature to which a fuel in air must be heated in order to
start self-sustained combustion independent of the heating source.
Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from decomposing compounds. These compounds may be
unstable and release their heat very quickly or they may detonate.
Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of matter in a liquid. Some acids, when dissolved,
give off sufficient heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.
Mechanical Heat Energy Frictional Heat - The heat generated by the movement between two objects
in contact with each other.
Friction Sparks - The heat generated in the form of sparks from solid objects striking each other. Most
often at least one of the objects is metal.
Heat of Compression - The heat generated by the forced reduction of a gaseous volume. Diesel engines
ignite fuel vapor without a spark plug by the use of this principle.
Nuclear Fission- The heat generated by the splitting of atoms.
Nuclear Fusion - The heat generated by combining of atoms.
Oxidation - The complex chemical reaction of organic material with oxygen or other oxidizing agents in
the formation of more stable compounds.
Oxidizing Agents- are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a
chemical reaction.
Oxygen Dilution - is the reduction of the oxygen concentration to the fire area.

 Incipient Phase (Growth Stage)
 Free-Burning Phase (Fully Developed Stage)


 Smoldering Phase (Decay Stage)
 Fire gases
 Flame
 Heat
 Smoke
Pyrolysis (also known as thermal decomposition)- is defined as the chemical decomposition of matter
through the action of heat.


RA 6975 - created the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) - administers and enforces the fire code of the
Philippines. The Fire Bureau shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires and, if necessary, file
the proper complaints with the city or provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case.
 Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.
 Deputy Chief for Administration of the Fire Bureau - 2nd highest officer in the BFP. Rank is
Chief Superintendent.
 Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau - the 3rd highest officer in the BFP. Rank is
Chief Superintendent.
 Chief of Directorial Staff of the Fire Bureau - 4th highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief
 Directors of the Directorates in the respective national headquarters office - rank is Senior
 Regional Director for Fire Protection - The BFP shall establish, operate and maintain their
respective regional offices in each of the administrative regions of the country. Rank is Senior
Superintendent. - He/She shall be respectively assisted by the following officers with the rank of
a. Assistant Regional Director for Administration
b. Assistant Regional Director for Operations, and Regional Chief of Directorial Staff.
*Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - The assistant heads of the Department's
regional offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.
 District Fire Marshall - the heads of the NCR district offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.
 Provincial Fire Marshall - the heads of the provincial offices - rank is Superintendent.
 District Fire Marshall - heads of the district offices - rank is Chief Inspector.
 Chief of Municipal/City Fire Station - (also called City/ Municipal Fire Marshall) - the heads
of the municipal or city stations - rank is Senior Inspector.
*Fire Station - at least one in every provincial capital, city and municipality. LGU - (Local
Government Unit) - shall provide the site of the Fire Station.
*RA 9263 - this Act shall be known as the "Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management
and Penology Professionalization Act of 2004.
*The BFP is headed by a Chief to be assisted by 2 deputy chief, 1 for administration and 1 for
operation, all appointed by the President upon recommendation of DILG Secretary from among
qualified officers with at least the rank of Senior Superintendent in the service. In no case shall any
officer who has retired or is retirable within six (6) months from his/her compulsory retirement age be
appointed as Chief of the Fire Bureau or Chief of the Jail Bureau.


*The Chief of the Fire Bureau and Chief of the Jail Bureau shall serve a tour of duty not to exceed four
(4) years.
*The President may extend such tour of duty in times of war or other national emergency declared by
RA 9514 - this act shall be known as the Fire Code of The Philippines of 2008.
Definition of Terms under RA 9514
Abatement - Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard.
Administrator - Any person who acts as agent of the owner and ma nages the use of a building for him.
Blasting Agent - Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used to set off explosives.
Cellulose Nitrate or Nitro Cellulose – is a highly combustible and explosive compound produced by the
reaction of nitric acid with a cellulose material.
Cellulose Nitrate Plastic (Pyroxylin) - Any plastic substance, materials or compound having cellulose
nitrate (nitro cellulose) as base.
Combustible//Flammable– are materials that are easily set on fire.
Combustible Fiber - Any readily ignitable and free burning fiber such as cotton, oakum, rags, waste
cloth, waste paper, kapok, hay, straw, Spanish moss, excelsior and other similar materials commonly
used in commerce.
Combustible Liquid – is any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 C (100 F).
Corrosive Liquid – is any liquid which causes fire when in contact with organic matter or with certain
Specific Gravity - the density of liquids in relation to water.
Spontaneous Heating – is heating of an organic substance without the addition of external heat.
Spontaneous heating occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the heat
Temperature Reduction – is the method of extinguishing fire, cooling the fuel with water to a point
where it does not produce sufficient vapor to burn.
Vapor Density - the density of a particular gas or vapor relative to that of hydrogen at the same pressure
and temperature.

Curtain Board – is vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive materials attached to and
extending below the bottom chord of the roof trusses, to divide the underside of the roof into separate
compartments so that heat and smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent.
Cryogenic – is descriptive of any material which by its nature or as a result of its reaction with other
elements produces a rapid drop in temperature of the immediate surroundings.
Damper - A normally open device installed inside an air duct system which automatically closes to
restrict the passage of smoke or fire.
Distillation - The process of first-raising the temperature in separate the more volatile from the less
volatile parts and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor so as to produce a nearly purified
Duct System - A continuous passageway for the transmission of air.
Dust - A finely powdered substance which, when mixed with air in the proper proportion and ignited
will cause an explosion.
Electrical Arc - An extremely hot luminous bridge formed by passage of an electric current across a
space between two conductors or terminals due to the incandescence of the conducting vapor.
Ember - A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned, and is still oxidizing
without the manifestation of flames.
Finishes - Materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental or protective purposes. Fire - The
active principle of burning, characterized by the heat and light of combustion.


Fire Trap – is a condition wherein a building is unsafe in case of fire because it will burn easily or
because it lacks adequate exits or fire escapes.
Fire Alarm - Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warm the occupants of the
building or fire-fighting elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to undertake
immediate action to save life and property and to suppress the fire.
Fire Door - A fire resistive door prescribed for openings in fire separation walls or partitions. Fire
Hazard - Any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the
occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with fire fighting operations and the
safeguarding of life and property.
Fire Lane - The portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept opened and unobstructed at all
times for the expedient operation of fire fighting units.
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor in sufficient
concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air.
Forcing - A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or dimensions.
Fulminate - A kind of stable explosive compound which explodes by percussion. Hazardous
Operation/Process - Any act of manufacturing, fabrication, conversion, etc., that uses or produces
materials which are likely to cause fires or explosion.
Horizontal Exit - Passageway from one building to another or through or around a wall in
approximately the same floor level.
Hose Box - A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other equipment are stored and arranged for
fir- fighting.
Hose Reel - A cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a fire hose is wound and connected.
Hypergolic Fuel - A rocket or liquid propellant which consists of combinations of fuels and oxidizers
which ignite spontaneously on contact with each other.
Industrial Baking and Drying- The industrial process of subjecting materials to heat for the purpose of
removing solvents or moisture from the same, and/or to fuse certain chemical salts to form a uniform
glazing the surface of materials being treated.
Jumper - A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device in an electrical
Occupancy - The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is used or intended to be used.
Occupant - Any person actually occupying and using a building or portions thereof by virtue of a lease
contract with the owner or administrator or by permission or sufferance of the latter. Organic Peroxide -
A strong oxidizing organic compound which releases oxygen readily. It causes fire when in contact with
combustible materials especially under conditions of high temperature.
Overloading - The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw or consume electrical
current beyond the designed capacity of the existing electrical system.
Owner - The person who holds the legal right of possession or title to a building or real property.
Oxidizing Material - A material that readily yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to stimulate or support
Refining - A process where impurities and/or deleterious materials are removed from a mixture in order
to produce a pure element of compound. It shall also refer to partial distillation and electrolysis.
Self-Closing Doors - Automatic closing doors that are designed to confine smoke and heat and delay the
spread of fire.
Smelting - Melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to separate impurities from pure
Sprinkler System - An integrated network of hydraulically designed piping installed in a building,
structure or area with outlets arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically discharges water
when activated by heat or combustion products from a fire.


Standpipe System- A system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire hoses can be attached on each
floor, including a system by which water is made available to the outlets as needed.
Vestibule - A passage hall or antechamber between the outer doors and the interior parts of a house or
Vertical Shaft - An enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from floor to floor, as well as from
the base to the top of the building
1. Oxygen from the air and typically give out bright light,heat and
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke

2. It is hot glowing body of ignited gas that is generated by something on fire.

A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke

3. It is an extensive fire that destroys a great deal of land or property.

A. Conflagration
B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion

4. It means on fire or very hot or bright.

A. Flame
B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion

5. It is he rapid chemical combination of a substance with oxygen

involving the production of heat and light.
A. Flame
B. Burning
C. Fire
D. Combustion

6. It is the quality of being hot or high temperature at which fuel will

continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open
A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Fire
D. Smoke

7. It is the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible.


A. Flame
B. Heat
C. Light
D. Smoke

8. Is one of the 4 fundamental states of matter, the other being

solid-liquid and gas.
A. Flame
B. Plasma
C. Light
D. Smoke

9. It is the lowest temperature on which the vapor of a combustible liquid

can be ignited in air.
A. Flash point
B. Ignition temperature
C. Fire point
D. Boiling point

10. Is the temperature at which fuel will continue to burn for at least
five seconds after ignition by an open flame.
A. Flash point
B. Ignition temperature
C. Fire point
D. Boiling point


1. The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw

or consume electrical current beyond the designed capacity of the
existing electrical system
A. self-closing door
B. jumper
C. overloading
D. oxidizing material

2. An enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from the floor

to floor, as well as for the base to the top of the building is called
A. sprinkle evidence
B. vertical shaft
C. flash point
D. standpipe system

3. A wall designated to prevent the spread of fire having a fire

resistance rating of not less than four hours with sufficient
structural stability to remain standing even if construction on either
side collapses under the fire conditions.
A. Wood rack


B. Fire wall
C. Post wall
D. Fire trap
4. Any act that would remove or naturalized a fire hazard
A. Allotment
B. Combustion
C. Distillation
D. Abatement

5. The ____ shall be conducted as a pre-requisite to grant permits

and/or license by local governments or other government agencies.
A. Fire safety inspection
B. Fire protection assembly
C. Fire alerting system
D. Fire service

6. An instance that may cause fires from the heat accumulated from
the rolling, sliding or friction in machinery or between two hard
surfaces, at least one of which is usually a metal is called.
A. static electricity
B. overheating of machine
C. friction heat
D. heat from arching

7. Method of heat transfer by direct contact

A. nuclear fission
B. conduction
C. convection
D. Radiation

8. Instrument used to open and close a fire hydrant

A. hydrant key
B. kilowatts
C. key board
D. bunch of key

9. Energy is transferred from one body to another by thermal

A. Fire
B. Smoke
C. Heat
D. Ember

10.The transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement

of fluids.
A. Convection
B. Radiation
C. Conduction
D. None of the above


Here’s something I learned from heroes past and present. Don’t let the level of difficulty keep you
from going after your dreams. Fight for what’s right no matter the cost.
Don’t give up just because you find it hard. Push through the pain. Don’t stop just because you find
that you’re alone. It doesn’t matter if you’re the only one fixing that problem or if you’re the only one
who believes that it’s possible. Keep going.

If it really matters, what others say shouldn’t.

_Coach Lyqa Maravilla