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Table of Contents
Course outline ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4

1.0 INTRODUCTION TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ............................................................ 7

Curriculum ................................................................................................................................................ 7
1.1 DEFINITION AND MEANING OF CURRICULUM ......................................................................... 11
1.2.0 Course objectives ........................................................................................................................ 11
2.0 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ................................................................................... 13
2.2 Functions of Education and Curriculum .............................................................................................. 14
2.3 Objectives of Curriculum Development Process .................................................................................. 14
2.4 Curriculum Development Process ........................................................................................................ 14
2.5 Criteria for selection of Curriculum Content ............................................................................. 17
2.6 Criteria for Organizing Content ...................................................................................................... 18
3.0 FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM .......................................................................................... 27
3.1 Purpose of foundations of curriculum ................................................................................................... 28
3.2 Types of Foundations of Curriculum .......................................................................................... 28
3.2.1 Philosophical foundation of Curriculum ........................................................................................ 28
3.2.2 Historical Foundation of Curriculum ............................................................................................. 36
3.2.3 Psychological Foundation of Curriculum ...................................................................................... 42
This unit focuses on: ............................................................................................................................... 42
3.2.4 Sociological Foundation of Curriculum ......................................................................................... 44
4.0 AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ................................... 53
4.1 Definition of Aims ......................................................................................................................... 54
4.2 Definition of Goals ........................................................................................................................ 55
4.3 NATIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION ............................................................................................. 55
4.4 Curriculum Goals ......................................................................................................................... 58
4.5 Definition of instructional Goals..................................................................................................... 61
5.0 CURRICULUMDESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 65
6.0 CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................... 77

7.0 TEACHER EDUCATION .......................................................................................................................... 86
7.1 Pre-Service Teacher Education ......................................................................................................... 91
7.2 In service Teacher Education........................................................................................................ 93
8.0 CURRICULUM EVALUATION ......................................................................................................... 99
8.1 Purposes of Curriculum Evaluation .................................................................................................... 100
8.2 Phases of Evaluation ........................................................................................................................... 102
8.3 Role of Evaluation in Curriculum ....................................................................................................... 103
8.4 Principles of Instructional Evaluation ................................................................................................. 105
8.5 Measurement and evaluation .............................................................................................................. 108
8.6 Gathering Evaluation Data .................................................................................................................. 112
9.0 CURRICULUM INNOVATION ........................................................................................................ 116
9.2 Curriculum Innovations in Kenya ....................................................................................................... 120
9.2 Forces Affecting Curriculum Innovation in Kenya ............................................................................ 130
9.3 Some curriculum development tips ........................................................................................... 135
Sample Question Papers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………136

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 138


Contact Hours: 42

Credit Hours: 3

Pre-requisites: None


To familiarize students with basic knowledge on general principles of curriculum development and
its application to teacher education

Expected Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course unit the learners should be able to:

i) Discuss the definitions, aims and purpose of curriculum

ii) Discuss emerging concepts of curriculum development, implementation and evaluation
iii) Discuss instructional strategies and styles of learning and teaching



INTRODUCTION TO  Meaning and functions of 1
CURRICULUM education
DEVELOPMENT  Aims, goals and objectives of
 Source of goals
 Dimensions of curriculum-
formal, informal and non formal
PURPOSE OF  Meaning of curriculum 2
CURRICULUM  Relationship between curriculum
and education
 Elements of curriculum 3
 Tyler’s basic questions for
curriculum development
STEPS/STAGES IN  Situational analysis/Information 4
CURRICULUM gathering
DEVELOPMENT  Formulation of objectives
 Setting up curriculum project
 Programme building
 Piloting/Try out
 Improving the new programme
 Implementation

 Evaluation
 Maintenance
AGENTS OF  Kenya Institute of Curriculum 5&6
CURRICULUM Development(K.I.C.D)
& THEIR ROLE  Sponsors/Donors
 Publishers
 Teachers
 Teachers Advisory Centre (TAC)
 Religious bodies
 Trade unions
FOUNDATIONS OF  Historical foundations of 7
CURRICULUM curriculum
 Sociological foundations of
FOUNDATIONS OF  Philosophical foundations of 8
CURRICULUM curriculum
 Psychological foundations of
MODELS FOR  Tyler’s Model 9
CURRICULUM  Hilda Taba’s model
DESIGN  Wheeler’s model
 Kerr’s model
PATTERNS OF  Subject centered design 10 & 11
CURRICULUM  Broad fields design
DESIGN  Learner centered design
 Activity experienced curriculum
CURRICULUM  Types of evaluation; pre 12
EVALUATION assessment, formative and
 Purposes of evaluation

Teaching / Learning Methodologies

 Lectures
 Tutorials
 Class discussion

Instructional Materials and Equipment

 Handouts
 Chalk board

Course Assessment

Examination 70%

Continuous Assessments (Exercises and Tests) 30%

Total 100%

Recommended Text Books

i) Arul Et Al Jothi (2009); Curriculum Development

ii) R P Vashist (2003); Curriculum Development; Commonwealth Publishers
iii) Oluoch G.P (1982); Essential of Curriculum Development; Elimu - Nairobi
iv) Anderson V.E (1985); Principles and Procedures of Curriculum Improvement; the Ronal Press Co.
New York

Text Books for further Reading

i) Saylor, J.G and Alexander W.M (2004); Planning Curriculum; Hilt Rinehart and Winston New
York (Reprint)


Curriculum is a plan of Education. This plan transforms ideas into curriculum which is related to
life, needs aspirations and problems of people. In this manner, the curriculum becomes a
powerful and dynamic instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation of the society.

Curriculum is a systematic and intended packaging of competencies (i.e. knowledge, skills and
attitudes that are underpinned by values) that learners should acquire through organised learning
experiences both in formal and non-formal settings (See: Different meanings of curricula).
Good curriculum plays an important role in forging life-long learning competencies, as well as
social attitudes and skills, such as tolerance and respect, constructive management of diversity,
peaceful conflict management, promotion and respect of Human Rights, gender equality, justice
and inclusiveness. At the same time, curriculum contributes to the development of thinking skills
and the acquisition of relevant knowledge that learners need to apply in the context of their
studies, daily life and careers. Curriculum is also increasingly called upon to support the
learner’s personal development by contributing to enhancing their self-respect and confidence,
motivation and aspirations.

In addition, there are many new and emerging challenges to education and demand on
curriculum, such as new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs); intercultural
understanding; Sustainable Development; Learning to Live Together (LTLT); HIV and AIDS;
Life skills; Competency development for life. Through their guiding function for education
agents and stakeholders, clear, inspired and motivational curriculum documents and materials
play an important role in ensuring education quality. Curriculum is implemented by teachers, and
depends moreover on the quality of teaching and learning strategies, learning materials and
assessment. The process of implementation of the curricula and the related issues are dealt in a
number of Analytical Tools which form the UNESCO General Education Quality
Analysis/Diagnosis Framework (GEQAF) of which this Analytical Tool is just one. This
Analytical Tool is intended to support national education authorities (i. e. decision
shapers/makers; curriculum specialists; teacher trainers; assessment specialists) to carry out a
critical scanning of their curriculum "system" with a view to identifying the strong elements to
be built upon, as well as the weaknesses/ shortcomings that hinder education quality.

The paramount question for this analytical Tool is whether or not the curriculum we have in
place enables us to impart on our learners the kinds of competencies (i.e. knowledge, skills and
attitudes that are underpinned by values) we require for the type of society we envision to build
and the challenges people have to face now and in the future. The paramount question can be
addressed by assessing the alignment of the curriculum to national development goals, the
effectiveness of curriculum policies as well as the development, design and planning of the

Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the curricula and its responsiveness to new
challenges and requirements is also a critical element which needs to be assessed. The diagnosis
and analysis section below raises some key questions in each of the stages of the curriculum
development and implementation process to support a structured discussion of the major issues
regarding curricula and its effect on education quality.

Diagnosis and analysis

Development relevance of curricula

1. What does the country/community want to achieve with regard to the personal development of
learners and societal well-being and advancements? And how well the curriculum reflects that
education vision?

2. What are the mechanisms for making the curricula to respond to national development policies
and strategies? Is there evidence that the mechanisms work effectively?

3. How well are the key/core/cross-cutting competencies identified in the curricula aligned to
education policy goals? Is there evidence that such key competencies have been at the core of
curriculum development?

4. How are education stakeholders (teachers, learners, private sector, civil society) involved in
developing the curriculum vision and appropriate curriculum policies? Is there evidence of their
involvement having made a difference?

Curriculum planning, design and content

1. Is there evidence of curriculum development being effectively led and guided in accordance to
the set education/curriculum vision and quality standards (i.e. Are there publicly-known and
recognized curriculum institutions/agencies and leaders of curriculum processes; Are there
guidelines developed for guiding the process of curriculum design, writing, piloting,
implementation and revision? Are those guidelines taking into account the results of curriculum
evaluation processes? Is the curriculum laid down in a set of public documents, such as
curriculum frameworks; syllabuses (subject curricula); textbooks, teacher guides; assessment
guides? How are stakeholders involved? (See: Common curriculum framework in Bosnia and

2. What evidence exist that curricula are grounded on up-to-date concepts of, and approaches to
learning and that the learning content is well selected and organised? For example, is there an
emphasis on learner-centredness and comprehensive/holistic learning; Are there broad Learning
Areas and subjects that cater for meaningful continuity and inter-linkages, balance and
curriculum integration; appropriateness to age/ stage of development; core curriculum and
differentiated curricula; How are ICTs and e-learning considered for improving the quality of
curricula and learning? (See: What makes a quality curricula?)

3. How well are cross-cutting & emerging issues covered in the curriculum? For example, what
are "current" issues to be addressed; How to incorporate issues such as gender equality; HR and
citizenship education; ESD; LTLT – peace education, intercultural understanding; HIV and
AIDS; Life skills; preparation for life and work; How to keep the curriculum open and flexible in
addressing new/emerging issues? (See: Viet Nam textbook review)

4. How do you keep a balance between the need of providing basic skills (i.e. reading, writing,
numeracy); the need of imparting relevant knowledge in different subject areas; and the need of
addressing cross-cutting and emerging issues, such as LTLT and ESD? (See: Defining the
curriculum content and Botswana curriculum framework)

Curriculum implementation, monitoring and evaluation

1. What is the evidence that teachers and students play an effective role in defining and
implementing the curriculum (i.e. how well teachers are trained and understand the curriculum;
whether teachers can participate in curriculum development processes; whether teachers are
prepared to take on new roles, i.e. teachers as facilitators; advisors, moderators; curriculum
developers; students as participating in selecting and structuring their learning activities) What is
evidence that curriculum implementation is supported by enabling learning environments?

2. What is evidence that schools make efforts to improve their learning environments? (i.e.
Communication strategies; Student participation; Enhanced access to learning facilities and
resources; Counselling; School ethos and Aesthetic)

3. How well are assessments aligned to the goals of the curriculum? What elements pertaining to
assessment have hindered curriculum implementation and hence education quality?

4. Is there evidence of a country-wide system of monitoring and evaluation of curriculum

processes? Has it been used for continuous development of the curricula? What is the evidence
that evaluation of curricula and associated textbooks have influenced curriculum & textbook

5. What actions are taking place to frame future developments in the realm of learning and
curriculum? (i.e. National and/or international curriculum research projects; National curriculum
conferences; Forums and Task forces set up to define forward-thinking curriculum policies)

Priorities for action

What are the key areas and binding constraints to be addressed urgently to achieve major
improvements in the quality of our curricula?

What are the knowledge gaps which need to be filled for an evidence-based policy and practice
of curriculum development?

What are the required actions to deal with the priority constraints and the identified knowledge

By curriculum Bishop (1985) is the sum total of all the experiences a pupil undergoes. There are
many meanings attached to the word “curriculum sometimes it is referred to as “syllabus or list
of subjects or course of study of topics or terms of knowledge to be covered or content or
organization of teaching and learning or method or time table etc. curriculum is much wider than
syllabus, where a syllabus is only part of the total be acquired as with the area of learning
experiences to be organized by teachers, both within and outside of school to enable pupils to
adopt a positive attitude to learning, but also to acquire and apply knowledge and skills to
develop pupils tastes and a balanced sense of values.

Education on the other hand is life process to proved the pupil with knowledge, desirable
attitudes and skills. Hilda Taba (1962) sees education as a process of preservation and
transmission of cultural heritage. Education is life-long and is a continuous process.

1.2.0 Course objectives

The course aims at equipment the Bachelor of Education Degree students with basic knowledge,
describe attitudes and practical professional skills. Specifically, students shoul be able to do the

1 Explain common concepts, principles and terms as applied in the course

ofcurriculum development.
2. Assess the role of various agencies, institutions and personnel involved
curriculum development process.
3. Apply the theoretical knowledge attitudes and skills acquired to plan, develop,
implement and evaluate school curriculum individual subject areas.
4. Evaluate educational practices, experience in the process of curriculum

1.3.0 Course content

The content of this course is based on the stated objectives with specific emphasis on
application of curriculum.

The school curriculum, This will address areas such as; definitions of education, school,
curriculum and elements of curriculum. Dimensions of education.Curriculum documents
and curriculum questions.

Foundations of curriculum; these are sources of curriculum. They include; philosophical ,

historical, psychological, sociological and professional study what they are and how they
influence curriculum practices.

Aims, Goals and Objectives of Education. This topic will require the student to know
definitions of aims, goals and object of curriculum selections and classification of school
objectives. Interpretation of national goals. Into the teaching and learning of stated
objectives at school level.

Curriculum development process, the student will be required to learn how a curriculum
blue –print is developed from situational analysis to maintenance of curriculum.

Curriculum design. The topic will address; Definition of curriculum design. Theories of
curriculum design, patterns of curriculum design, principles of selection and organization
of design.

Curriculum implementation. The student will be required to learn. Importance of

curriculum implementation agents of curriculum implementation.The process of
curriculum implementation and teacher Education cycle in Kenya.

Curriculum evaluation; the topic will be concerned with; definitions, types of evaluation
and their role in curriculum role of formative and summative evaluation. Agents of
curriculum evaluation.

A process is the flow of an activity from the initial stage to the end stage without repetition.
Curriculum process undergoes systematic stages of development which are well ordered one
building unto the other in a sequential manner.

2.1 Purpose of education and curriculum

The main purpose of education is to socialize an individual among peer groups. Without a
community and group, life and socialization of an individual would have very little meaning.
From the beginning of human society, the main objective of education has been that of
transmitting to the child the accumulated experiences of his people and their culture as well as of
training him to fit into the membership of the group. It was through this background that the
society has managed to survive and gain increasing knowledge over all forms of human
institutions; governance, rituals, survival etc.

Curriculum on the other hand was prompted during the World wars, especially the 1st World War
(1918) when Franklin Bobbat published a book called “the Curriculum “ to provide a course of
operations on the war and its derived out comes. This period was marked by industrial and
technological development. There was need to design programmes of activity or events which
had profound effect on the social, economic and political life of people. Curriculum as seen now
is to create a situation of social activity- based on development of the people.
2.2 Functions of Education and Curriculum
 Education provides knowledge desired attitudes and practical skills to individuals.
 Education matures and individual for a sense of responsibility, accountability and
service to the society.
 Education trains an individual for self-discipline, self appraisal and sense of humour
for self-reliance.
 Education provides ways and means of recognizing the environment and its
ecological content for use of survival trends.
 Education also leads to corporate efforts at societal, national and global levels of
human existence.
 Curriculum is a blue print of education in systematically stated terms
 Curriculum offers guidance, knowledge, attitude and skill content for schooling and
 Curriculum directs the society through a school system to identify values, knowledge
and life instruments for survival.
 Curriculum organizes man into patterns of life type as organization fraternities and

2.3 Objectives of Curriculum Development Process

At the end of this unit the learner should be able to:

 Explain the meaning of curriculum

 Describe the curriculum development process
 Identify the stages of curriculum development process
 Describe reasons that govern curriculum in a given society or nation
 Describe factors that prompt changes in curriculum.

2.4 Curriculum Development Process

This is the process of choosing and refining the contents of an education system which may later
on be implemented in schools. It is in nature an improvement or modification or change on the

existing, educational programme. Curriculum improvement or curriculum development cannot
be made in a neat series of steps; it involves a lot of work.

There are several component processes that should be considered in the curriculum development

Let us consider them one by one:

 Situational Analysis

This is a type of information gathering which reveals both the need and feasibility of the
curriculum development intended. The main issues of concern here are; What information? From
whom? Who should gather it? From whom should it be gathered? Who should collect it? What
information should be used for?

Much information related to the curriculum development is gathered from curriculum experts,
educators, government, non-organizations employers, industrialists, Agricultural sector etc. The
reasons are that much information is revealed concerning needs, problems and interests of
learners and society.

From information gathered, curriculum workers (eg. in KICD) will come to know whether or not
there is need to improve the existing curriculum.

The information gathered will reveal the feasibility of improvement, the information may reveal
current social economic and political philosophies of the society. Also vital to know is the
employment chances and theaspirations of parents, children and society.


Explain the functions of KICD giving its structure

Describe the curriculum development process

Why should situational analysis be conducted in the process of curriculum development?

Formulation of Objectives

They are justifications for the need of providingeducation or various aspects of the school
curriculum and indeed a slogan support for education.

They help to guide the educational process. For example we cannot decide appropriately what to
teach or how to teach it until we know why we are doing it.

Objectives attempt to improve the practice of education by first obtaining clarity above
educational ends.

Objectives are a test to be applied to the educative process. They provide a precise basis for
evaluation, determining the extent to which the educational or instructional programmes is

To help you in formulation of objectives, consider Tyleys (1949) four significant questions.

i. What educational purposes should the seek to attain.

ii. What educational experiences or content should be effectively organized or ordered
or sequenced?.
iii. How can it be determined whether the purposes formulated in (i) above are being
iv. How can these Educational experiences or content be selectively organized.

Where do objectives come from?

To answer these questions think of Tyler’s (1949) suggestion of objective sources.

Sources (i) The study of nature, needs and problems of contemporary society

Sources (ii) The study of the needs, interests and problems of learners themselves.

Sources (iii) Suggestions from subject specialists and the nature of subject matter

Sources (iv) The nature of social values (Philosophy)

Source (v) The nature of learning theories (Psychology)

In Kenya curriculum development is done at K.I.E with selected panels whose members are
drawn from school teachers and other similar educational spheres.

The membership of the project teams include classroom teachers, university lecturers, members
of religious organizations, publishers, educational administrators, school inspectors, curriculum
developers, personnel of the Kenya National Examinations Council, teacher trainers and
representatives of several other organizations.

The team of the project will have been briefed, trained and presented with aims, goals and
objectives of education and other necessary facilities to help them in their duties. They should be
well trained as team members and given terms of references.

This is also referred to as the stage of curriculum designing and is actually the main task of the
project team selected.

The team tackles the question such as these:

What are we going to teach in schools to various grades of pupils?

From what subject matters shall the content be selected?

How shall learning opportunities be identified and used or applied to deal with learning activities
within the programme building stage?

In the programme there must opportunities, experience and a conducive atmosphere that will
make learning easy and possible so as to achieve theset objectives. In essence, the teaching and
learning process requires content or subject matter, methods, teachers learners, materials and
facilities all of which must be selected and organized for proper learning theories and principles.

2.5 Criteria for selection of Curriculum Content

Validity: They (Content or experiences) must be authentic or consistent with development in the
subject or knowledge area. All the materials must be up to date. Therefore teachers must be
given constant in –service courses and self-education in order to keep abreast in their disciplines.
Learnability: The learning experience must be adjusted to the abilities of the learners. It must be
appropriate to learners. The knowledge of the students is important to ensure that their
background, present attainment, mental age and set up makes it possible for learners to behave as
implied in the objectives.

Significance: Learning experience or learning activities must be meaningful. They should be

emphasized that any content, learning activities of learning resources are meaningful only when
they contribute to the process or learning. Significance refers to the essentials of content to be
learned. It requires that the content to be learned subscribe to the basic ideas, concepts principles
and generalizations.

i. Significance is related to the issue of breath and depth (Scope) of curriculum content.
Significance also pertains to how the content or experience contributes to the
development of particular learning abilities, skills and attitudes formation.
ii. Taba (1962) argued that one should not just select content based on the congnitive
aspect of learners but also on the affective dimensions of the learner.
iii. The importance of content also concerns the issue of durability. Significant content
will last over a period of time before becoming obsolete. Content relevant to current
times, but unlikely to be interest in five or 50 years is said to be of limited durability,
significance loses the meaning if there is too much emphasis on courage of content
because learners are likely to make little sense out of the bulky contents and many
learning activities.

2.6 Criteria for Organizing Content

Balance: A balanced curriculum implies structure, its scope and sequence leading to the
achievement of educational objectives (ends).

There is the balance sought in the curriculum provided by the school i.e. the subjects to be taught
or offered as required in the programs of study to be recommended, time allotments for various

subjects and activities, the use of books and other educational materials, the respective amounts
of general and specialized education to be provided.

Dimension of balance is the part of the curriculum actually selected by and/or experienced by
each individual child. Ideally, balance is attained in the individual’s own.

Curriculum as he or she develops an optimal level for competence in each of the areas where
provision is made in the curriculum.

Integration: Bloom (1958) defines as integrative thread as” any idea, problem, method or
device by which two or more separate learning experience are related” it is evident that the
concept of integration is used by persons engaged in designing curriculum according to broad
field and correlated designs. The concept is closely related to articulation, but frequency in
integrating content; the content areas lose their separate identifies e.g. teaching Geography,
History and Civics in Kenya. Those confronted with designing curricula hopefully realize that
learning is more effective when content from one field is related meaningfully to content in
another field.

Integration, sometimes seen as emphasizing horizontal relationships among various curricular

areas, attempts to interrelate content themes, ideas, and facts in order to ensure students
perceiving a unity of knowledge. Thus what is learned in language study may be related to study
with a social studies units on communication in modern times, What is learned in science be
further interpreted within the realm of mathematics (Taba, 1962).

Continuity - refers to the continuousness with which individuals will experience content at
various levels with an educational system. However community and sequence are considered in
Tandem (One behind the other)

It can also be considered as a horizontal concept if one thinks of the continuousness of particular
topics or experiences at any particular time, For instance during a certain day or days.
Curricularists often extend theme vertically throughout an entire curriculum. The spiral
curriculum organization exemplifies continuity in that the key concepts are experienced

successively by students throughout the curriculum, for example, “persons,basic needs” can be a
theme that might extend through 13 years of a school curriculum.

Continuity deals with the continued presence of curriculum elements (Content topics or concepts
or issues) and relates very closely with the concept of articulation.

Sequence: (Content selected must be arranged in time)

Sequence addresses the problem of ordering the curricular offering so as to optimize students’
learning’ and questions posed by sequence.

 What content and experiences are to follow what content and experience?
 How can curricula be place in time?

Piaget’s (1960) research has provided a framework for sequencing content and activities and
relating expectations to what we know and about how individuals function at various cognitive

Frequently, curricularists faced with sequencing content have drawn some fairly well accepted
principles, smith, Stanelys and Shores (1957) introduced four such principles

a) Simple to complex
b) Prerequisitelearning’s
c) Whole to part
d) Chronology

The first simple-to complex indicates that content is optimally organized in a sequences going
from simple subordinate components or elements to complex components depicting
interrelatedness of components. It draws on the idea that optimal learning can proceed to the
more difficult material, often abstract.

Scope: This is common to selecting and organizing criteria. The scope of curriculum content is
regulated in part by goals and objectives generated during the diagnosis stage curriculum
planning. It is the breadth and depth of content.

Activity 3
Answer this question; why should the curriculum content be carefully selected.

Try out/Piloting

The curriculum materials and equipment should be tried out, in sample schools, feedback
obtained and used to revise the curriculum materials during equipment.

By trying out curriculum it is easy to identify and correct major defects before implementation.
The try out must be done using real learners, real teachers in actual schools.

At this stage, it is necessary to identify major problems that would arise during the
implementation, and work out solutions to them before the new curriculum is implemented or the
new materials go into schools. These problems are distribution, storage and general follow up.

By so doing a method could be determined as to how they could be solved once a big number of
pupils teachers and schools are involved. Another reason for trying out is that some mistakes
could have been unnoticed during development and planning which could be easily detected and
corrected through try out.

The try out should not begin until the planning is complete and the whole range of curriculum
materials and equipment prepared and produced in trial forms.

The fairest try out would be one on which the students use the new curriculum and materials
through a complete educational cycle or phase so that the curriculum workers can be able to see
the cohort of children using new curriculum systematically through a complete educational

Curriculum development process takes a log take to come to fruition.

In summary form; there are six sub-processes of the try-out process that may be identified.

1. Section of schools and colleges

2. Briefing of education and general public,
3. Prepare of school teachers and heads for try out
4. Supply of materials and equipment to the try out schools.
5. Conducting try out in schools
6. Gathering and analyzing feedback
7. Use of feedback for the modification

Improving the new programme in light of data gathered during the try out is the next step.

As the piloting goes on, some modification also is made on the programme based on the
feedback but at certain point piloting stops to allow for major revision and consolidation of the
programme in order to address more effectively the needs of the learners and other requirements
of the programme.

During the stage try-out the suggestions from the piloting personnel are used to modify the
programme in order to make it appropriate to; the real school and instructional situation, the
number of students with diverse backgrounds; teachers and the general educational environment.

Modifications at this stage must address deficiencies discovered during the fieldwork and
modified on the basis of field data including reactions form the lay public.

No curriculum planner should assume and implement the new curriculum without careful
revision of the curriculum being tried. Several piloting programmes can be done especially when
the feedback from the tryout reveals many problems within the programme. It is more
professional and even economical to subject the project to several tests than to implement what is
not understood because it may be problematic.

Activity 4
Why should curriculum be tried out or piloted before being used? Give a full discussion

This is the stage at which the planned curriculum is introduced into the schools and colleges. It is
the stage in which the newly developed and tried curriculum is made publicly available. This is
the logical process to undertake after the tryout of the curriculum.

Implementation of new curriculum should only be attempted by the institutions (Schools) in

which the right conditions prevail. These are the schools and colleges for which satisfactory
arrangements can be made for in servicing of teachers, purchase of adequate be provided.

Implementation can hardly take place uniformly across the country or geographical are
concerned. The schools should be grouped together according to their degree of readiness and
implement the curriculum accordingly.

In summary form there are nine sub-processes of implementation stages to be followed:

(Oluoch, 1982)

 Persuading a variety of people to accept the new curriculum.

 Keeping the general public informed
 Education the teachers.
 Education the teacher educators
 Provision of necessary facilities
 Supply of materials and equipment.
 The actual presentation of the new curriculum
 Institutionalization of appropriate student assessment procedures.
 Provision of continuous supports for the teachers
 Project evaluation

Activity 5

a) Discuss reasons why general public should be informed

b) How should actual presentation of curriculum be conducted and where?

Project evaluation
It is vital that curriculum development projects be evaluated as they are planned and as they are
executed (formative) and after they are completed (Summative).

Some steps of evaluation are:

Specification of what exactly is to be evaluated and why.

Finding out how the objectives and processes to be evaluated can be observed and measured.

Selecting or developing the necessary observation and measurement techniques or instruments.

Collecting, analyzing and using data to make decisions.

Curriculum development project evaluation may be defined as the process of gathering and
preparing needed information for making decisions on the planning, execution, completion and
worth of the projects. It is the process of gathering and using information to detect problems or
modify the project.

Purposes of Evaluation are:

To know the state of the project.

To take corrective measures if necessary or to continue with the project as it is if there is nothing
requiring adjustment.

To find out how the project has worked if it has already come to an end.

Evaluating curriculum development is a must if the project is to achieve its objectives. There are
some things requiring modifications in a project and it would not be possible to know them
unless an evaluation programme is built into the project.

Formative evaluation is important in the project.

It is always important to know how the project has been when it is completed so that if nothing
else, the knowledge can be used when planning the executing of another project. It is therefore
mandatory to carry out summative evaluation in order to know the situation of the project.
Summative evolution is performed at the end of the project implementation.
The scope of evaluation will be determined by the resources available both human and materials
for the purpose.

Scriven (1967) coined two time accented concepts used to describe curriculum evaluation
Namely: formative and summative evaluation in order to avoid confusion which might arise in
understanding the process of curriculum evaluation.


Curriculum maintenance refers to activities and procedures that allow the operation of the
programme to continue. It involves several tactics whose prime purpose is to monitor all
curriculumelements and the roles of persons supporting this element, as it is people oriented.

This stage attends to actions and reactions of students, teachers, parents, administrators and other
in response to the on-going programmes.

In Maintaining the programme, the curriculum leaders strive to stabilize it and keep operational
the content; experiences and environments. The maintenance requires the steady flow of accurate
data or information in order to assess continual programme performance. It means managing the
curriculum and support systems.

The major curriculum elements to monitor include; objectives, content, environments,

educational personnel, school organization, students, school community parents and the
programmers’ budget in order to ensure that they relate positively all through the curriculum
process to ensure positive results. The following principles are basic to the guidance of
curriculum maintenance.

Monitors must understand the total curriculum process that occurred and the place of
maintenance in the whole process.

A firm co-operation network must be established between all the staff concerned with the

The communication network needs to identify data from students’ and teachers’ behavior and
performance to be communicated to those administering and implementing the programme.

There should be an established communication network to allow for the quick detection of
programme deficiencies and rapid relay of such information to the relevant people. The
monitoring process itself needs to be re-examined from time to time for relevance and effectives
and eventually make the necessary re-adjustments.

The procedures used in monitoring must be in line with the overall educational or school
philosophy, initially determined during curriculum conceptualization.

Activity 6
Should evaluation tools be followed to dominate the curriculum?
Should teachers put emphasis on only teaching to pass national

This section provides studies on foundations of curriculum. The cordinal principle in foundations
of curriculum is that in a democratic society such as Kenya, education should develop in an
individual knowledge, attitudes, skills and powers whereby the individual would find his place in
the society and be able to use the foundations to shape both himself and the society for noble

You will find in this, statements of the aims of education with specific objectives based.

Objectives of Foundation of Curriculum

At the end of lectures on foundations of curriculum, you should be able to;
 Define major terminologies used in foundations of curriculum
 Name major foundations of curriculum in development
 Discuss how foundations of curriculum influence Kenyan are
decision-making and policy on education.
 Identify various ways in which foundations of curriculum are used in
 Suggest ways and means of how to develop and utilize Kenyan’s
resources in curriculum development.
 Identify strengths and weakness of the Kenyas 8:4:4 system of
education in line with foundations of curriculum.

3.1 Purpose of foundations of curriculum
According to Bishop (1985),themain purpose of foundations of curriculum are to:-

 Preserve cultural Heritage

 Control Direction and Size of Education
 Assist in Designing Curriculum
 Use for selecting Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
 Use for identify Curriculum Implementation STRATEGIES
 Guide in the Development of Evaluation Instruments
 Used for identifying innovation Needs
 Used for cultivating Desired Attitudes, knowledge and Skills
 Used in policy and Decision making.

3.2 Types of Foundations of Curriculum

3.2.1 Philosophical foundation of Curriculum

 What is philosophical foundation of curriculum
 How does this foundation influence curriculum practice?
 In what way is philosophical foundation of curriculum the main curriculum source?
 What is the meaning of the following terms as used in philosophical foundation of
curriculum; Realism, pragmatism, Idealism, Existentialism, Axiology, Perenniaism,
Essentialism, Progressivism and Reconstructionalism?

Activity 7
How can schools promote the ideas of equality and Excellence at the same

Philosophical foundation of curriculum refers to the nature of man in respect to his policy to
select, design and formulate objectives to develop and evaluate his objectives and evaluate
his knowledge, attitudes and skills of man in decision making for situational, society’s and
learning needs.

Man also derives his methods of presentation, expression, skills to develop and formation of
desirable attitudes from philosophical foundation of curriculum.

Objectives of the lecture on philosophical foundation of curriculum are to:

 Identify major philosophies of education in ancient and modern periods

 Discuss how the major philosophies of education influence curriculum decision
 Establish the fact that philosophies of education influence is the centre of all
educational activities.

Decisions are made on; communities, societies and learners needs. Methods of presentation,
skills to be developed and desirable attitudes to be formed, require correct decision making
denved from philosophy and policy of a country. Philosophy has entered into every sphere of
decision making abount curriculum teaching. This view caters for approaches to;

 Formation of education purpose

 Selection of knowledge
 Organization of knowledge, attitudes and skills
 Formation of basic procedures in education and curriculum
 Selection of education resources such as personnel, materials and equipment
 Identification, selection and development of assessment instruments.

Activity 8
Identify areas in which philosophy in relation to school purposes is based on
five criteria for selecting educational purposes.

We shall examine four major schools of philosophy, which have guided the writing, organizing
and designing of school curriculum. Some of these philosophies are knowen by names. We shall
refers to them as reconstructionism is the most educational practitioners have used a combination
of essentialism and progressivism in curriculum planning construction.

Progmatism: This philosophy is sometimes referred as experimentalism, which is based on

change process and relativity while idealism and realism philosophies emphasize subject matter,
disciplines and content or ideas, pragmatism construes knowledge as progress in which reality is
constantly changing. Learning goes on as the student engages variety of subjects and
environment and are constantly changing.

To a pragmatism nothing can be viewed intelligently except in relation to a pattern.


In considering the influence of philosophy though on curriculum, several classification schemes

are possible. The cluster of ideas as organized in idealism are those that often evolve during
curriculum development. Plato is the father of idealist/philosophy.

Idealism emphasizes moral and spiritual development reality as the drier explanation of the
world. Truth and values are seen as absolute, timeless and universal. The world of mind and
ideas is permanent, regular and orderly, it represents a perfect order. The idealist educator prefers
the order and pattern or subject matter curriculum that relates ideas and concepts to each other.


Aristotle of often linked to the development of realism, which is another school of thought in
philosophical foundation of curriculum. The realism views the world in terms of objects and
matter. People came to know the world through their serieses and reason. Everything is derived
from nature and is subject to its laws. When behavior is relational, it conforms to the laws of
nature and is governed by physical and social laws.

Like the idealist, the realist stresses a curriculum consisting or organized, separate subject matter,
content and knowledge that classifies objectives. The realist locates the most general and obstract
subjects at the top of the curriculum literally and gives particular and transitory subjects a lower
order of priority.

They believe that the main aim of education is the disciplining of the mind, the development of
the ability of reason and pursuit of truth. Therefore, curriculum should emphasize grammar,
rhetoric, logic, classical and modern languages, mathematics and the great books of the truth,
which is the same today as it was then and always, shall be. These thinkers add to the curriculum
the study of the Bible and Theological writings.

Perennialsm can afford education, which is suitable to a small percentage of students who
possess high verbal and academic aptitude. The ideal education is not directed to immediate
needs, specialization but it is education calculated to develop the mind.

Activity 9
Identify some of the beliefs concerning values that are held by educators
who belong to the school of perenialists.


Reconstructionism is a philosophical school of thought that broke off from the progressive
movement because of unresolved problems of democracy when they wanted to rebuild the social
order. They see education as a powerful instrument for effecting planned social changes in given
society. It is most likely to be favored in times of economic, political and technological
turbulence such as has been experienced recently by the newly independent countries of Africa.
They believe that new education can make new and better men and women therefore the school
should transmit cultural heritage. Also the school is seen as an agent of solving political and
social problems.

These schools of thought can be regrouped into two big schools.

a) Progressivism (Reconstructionism)
b) Traditionalism (Perennialism and Essentialism)
c) However, progressivists and traditionalists disagress on many points concerning subject
matter which is to be included in the curriculum, such as;
- Which knowledge is most worthy?
- Should we emphasize process or information?
- Should a curriculum be fixed or flexible, constant or differentiated, practical or

To a large extent one’s answers to these questions depends upon one’s system of values.


The school of perennialist teaches subjects in their customary separate forms, history as history,
geography as geography etc. Rather than in the combination as general (social) studies.

The teachers and patrons of this school are sure that some subject is too trivial to be included in
the curriculum. Only subject matter that is alleged to be hard to learn is admissible. They do not
believe in the feelings and emotions of body movement, memory and thinking.

Activity 10
Identify some of the beliefs concerning values which are held by educators
who belong to the school of reconstructinists.


Historically, essentialism and progressivism have succeeded in commanding education in the

western world. But essentialism is the more powerful than the progressivism. It was only in the
early 1950’s specifically 1957 the year of sputnik that the progressivism emerged for a short time
as the victor among the world philosophies of education. This did not last long. During the
1970’s upto now, essentialism has proven that it was not the looser but the leader.

Activity 11
Identify some of the beliefs concerning values, which are held by educators
who belong to the school of essentialism.


In the late nineteeth and early twentieth centuries. Progressivism also known as pragmatism,
swept through the educational structure of America challenging the time honoured doctrines of
essentialism. This movement was led by Joh Dewey, Willian H. Kippatrick, Hohn Childs,
George S. Counts (faculty Mmebers at Teachers Collee, Columbia University). Boyd Bodode the
progressivist maintained that it was time to subordinate subject matter to the learner. Borrowing
from time European philosophers like Rousseau who advocated rearing a child in a relaxed
environment without forcing learning, the progressivists created the child- centered school. John
Dewey formulated progressive beliefs in a series of publications that included among other
Democracy and Education, Experiences and Education. How we think and my pedagogic
creed progressivists captured the attention of educators when they insisted that the needs and
interests of learners bring their bodies; needs and interests or learners bring their bodies,
emotions and spirits to school with their minds.

Progressivistsview education not as a product to be learned (E.g. facts, and motor skills) but as a
process that continues as long as one lives. To their way of thinking a child learns best when
actively absorbing presented content. If experiences in school are designed to meet the needs and
interests of individual learners, it follows that no signle pattern of subject matter can be
appropriate to all learners.

At the heart of progressivism thinking is an abiding faith in democracy. Hence the progressivists
see little place of authoritariam practices in the classroom and the school pupils and facilitators
of learneing rather than expounders of the subject matter. Cooperation is fostered in the
classroom rather than competition. Individual growth in relationship to one’s ability is
considered more important than growth in comparison to others.

Diagram 1 ancient Education Philosophers

Philosophy Area Knowledge Curriculum Content

Idealism Rethinking latent Knowledge based humanities

(Spiritual concepts)

Realism Natural laws scientific Humanistic and science-based subject

Inquiry sensations abstraction

Pragmatism Experience-based scientific Problem solving subject preparation

Inquiry change in knowledge fro change

Environmental knowledge.

Existentialism Attitude –based Ego-centrism Affective subject matter emotion

Subject knowledge personal Aesthetics value judgment


Epistemology Originality Truth Nature of truth

Axiology goodness worth, interest Learner centered subject matter


Logic Reason Deductive and Inductive forms

Order of inquiry


Diagram 2 Modern Education Philosophers

Philosophical Area Knowledge Curriculum Content

Perennialsim Past and permanaentStudies Classical subjects literary analysis

Mastery of concepts and Constant curriculum

Principles of subject matter.

Essentialism Essential skills mastery of Essential skills such language

Concepts principles of matter

Subject Matter

Progressivism Growth and development Student-based Interdisciplinary

Living and learning process Subject matter methods of

And relevant learning instruction.

Reconstruction Skills and subjects for Emphasis on social sciences,

Change. Problem solving Research methods problems and

and focus on Education. Issues.

You should note that philosophy is a basis for curriculum decisions.

A concern for the many unresolved problems of democracy led to a split in the progressive
movment with a group calling itself, “Reconstructionists” advocating that schools become the
instrument for building a new social order.

It has been mentioned that the perenialist consider truth to be absolute, enduring, and found in
the wisdom of the past; the essentialist regards truth as relative, changing and in many cases as
yet to be discovered. Education for the pragmatist is continuing search for the truth utilizing
whatever sources are needed to discover that truth.

Activity 12
Identify some of the beliefs concerning values, which are held by educators
who belong to the school of progressivists.

3.2.2 Historical Foundation of Curriculum

This topic deals with past events, which have led to present trends of education. By analyzing
past periods of curriculum, it is possible to view and review the needed curriculum in terms of
current and future education needs.

In this topic, historical foundation is addressed with the Republic of Kenya’s perspective.

What contributions has foundation based on to our education systems and practices?

Sources of this contribution are listed as:

 Foreign influence, especially in communication

 Contradictions between foreign and traditional ideology in education
 Greeks classical period on Kenya’s curriculum subjects.
 The reformation period, especially martin luther
 Age of reason, known as the scientific world
 Return to nature as a way of reconstruction in modern history of curriculum
 Kenya’s progress in curriculum during pre and post independence.
History repeats itself, you will find interesting views, which have come from far in man’s thirst
for knowledge to where you are as a student of this day.

Historical foundation of curriculum raises some persisting questions in education such as;

 How have foreigners (Europeans, Americans and Asians) influenced Kenyan’s education
in theory and practice?
 How has Kenya emerged between traditional and foreign curricula in her education
 What do we mean by the phrase; Under development through a curriculum concepts?
 Which traditional forms of education have persistent in Kneya’s curriculum despite
modern forms?
 Is there a relevant curriculum in Kenya’s Curriculum in Kenya’s systm of education? If
yes, what is it if none, why not?

In consideration of African Traditional curriculum such forms of content were addressed.

 Rituals and culture patterns

 Discipline and behavior norms
 Leadership training and the potentials of leaders
 Selection and practice of desirable attitudes
 Doctrinal and non-doctrinal forms of religion
 Entertainment concept and the theory of survival skills.
 Reliance on group force for unity and collective bargain.

To bring Africa where we are, foreign influence has meandered into African society both directly
and indirectly, by periods. These are;

 Ancient Times; which address individual naturity (Indians), moral value (Chinnes),
practical knowledge and civilization of man (Egyptians) and livelihood as an aspect of
 Classical period; which belonged to the Greeks and passed on knowledge on; self –
improvement, education as a continuous process, emphasis on practical experience,

national unity concept, introduction of mathematics and science, Liberal arts education
which people like; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle , Rousseau and Pythagoras pioneered in
knowledge areas/
 Architecture, design, sports, music leisure and laws are also subjects of this period.
Worth wisdom service and sysmposia also appeared.
 Roman Empire period; the roman colnized the Greeks. Greek contributions, formal
school system, language for sciences (Latin), literature and humanities were introduced
in education. Christianity, the recognition, the recognition of wisdom, home
improvement generousity and other values of mankind were set up.

Education was home school and community – centred and self – control led by all was
emphasized in this period of the Roman Empire.

Christian period; During the Roman period two religious forces emerged by jews and Arabs.

 Christianity which introduced the Bible and catechism for spiritual education,
Christianity also paid tribute to the teaching of Jesus Christ and emphasized; moral
behavior, ethical God, teacher-based instruction, discipleship, the concept of church,
doctrine ship and informal theories of education. Medical doctors and the spread of
Christianity were the main contributions.
 Islamic Period; Arabs mainly based in Egypt introduced the Islamic religion,
mathematics (algebra) science (Chemistry and Medicine). This period also brought in
Arabic language, science of astronomy and business. Architecture (Urban planning) was
introduced. Morality and behavior wer emphasized. Mohamed as a counter part of Jesus
Christ disappeared in Mecca. Arabs Moslem University in Cairo (Al-Ashar) is evidence
of the Moslem contribution in education.
 Martin lurther and Ignatius of Loyola reformation introduced the idea of constitution,
sacred scriptures, uniform instruction and student teaching practice.
 Age of reason; popularly known as the scientific world saw the introduction of solar
system.(Nicholars Copernicus). Sir Francis bacon introduced scientific methods.
Authority of the church, analytic methods, the four introduced the idea of physic based sir
Isaac Newton introduced the idea of physics based on gravitational theory. Amos
Comenius introduced he idea of child development and natural methods of teaching
(Experience- centered design).
 Return to nature introduced a child’s stages of development (Piagets Studies) free paly
with objectives, specially the cognitive stages of human development.

o Infancy (upto 5 years)

o Childhood (From 5-12 years)
o Youth (from12 – 15 years)
o Maturity (From 15 -20 years)

Some outstanding scholars emerged and addressed the following areas of education;

 Society needs, child-centered education order of nature, doctrine of unity and Fredrick
Froebel introduced sense of perception. He also addressed the concept of cooperation,
manual training and kindergarten education.
 Immanuel Kent introduced virtues of man to include; obedience, goodness and justice.
Johan Pestalozzi introduced physical laws of nature while Montessori introduced the idea
of individual instruction, special education of mentally retarded childreb and sensory
 John Loske (1959 – 1952), A British Educationist founded the idea of studying the role of
school, society and community. He introduced the study of individual differences for
instruction, democratization. Occupational education, moral educationand the art of
teaching as a profession.
 The reflection of these historical events moved into Africa and thereafter to East Africa
and then in Kenya. For curriculum development purposes, the lessons on historical
foundation fo curriculum are numerous.
 Pre-colonial discovers (Christopher Columbus) withnessing the reduction, which split
religion into protestant and Catholic.

 Events which lead to castle school abilities of slave trade, coming of Christian
missionaries with missionary education training in basic skills the curriculum of 3 R’s
(arithmetic, writing and reading, hospitals and Christian secretariat.

Diagram 3 Events in Kenya

Year Event Product
1920 The Indian Question Legco Representation
1923 White paper Kenya colonized
1924 Phelps stoke commission Practical education
1925 Advisory Commission
Alliance of Missionaries
(African inland mission church)
Missionary society and united
Methodist church
1939 World war II THE TURNING POINT Foundation of Catholic
Secretariat for
For secondary or technical education
1944 British Education Act Establishment of District Education
1955 Higher Education Founding of Royal Technical College in
1963 Kenya’s Indepence Focus on National Education
1964/65 Ominde Commission National unity and medium of
instruction to be
English language
1965 Sessional paper No. 10 African socialism
1966 Kericho Conference Integration of Education
1972 The International Labour Office Education for Employement study of
Kenya Education curriculum
1972 Bassey commission

1976 Gachathi Commission Education Curriculum to be practical
For all.
1981 Mackay Commission The 8:4:4 system of Education
Education for self reliance.
1988 Kamunge Commission Education for beyond – a vision
And a mission in curriculum
1998 KoechCommision Search for more relevant education

Many other events took place, but those listed are across section of curriculum progression in

Issues for awareness in Kenya’s history of education are;

 Medium of instruction, national language, official business language, sustainable

economic for survival, multipatism and change process, emphasis quality or quantity of
education products, search for relevant curriculum and literacy and reading culture.
 In the colonial period especially for Kenya and other parts of Africa, Europeans mvoved
in and shared Africa (Scramble for Africa). You cn read Nyerere’s book “Education for
self-reliance’ 1967’. Edication development programmes were undertaken.
 Missionary converted African into Christianity
 World wars brought in the need for money, medicines and literacy.
 The British finally colonized Kenya. Missionaries served both the African and the
Europeans when schools emerged especaill after phelps stoke commission (1924). The
educational institutins followed; alliance (1925), Kabaa and Yala (1939). Kagumo
Teachers College (1944) Siriba, college MasenoUnversity) (1948). Education has
reached university status in Kenya. (Eduation Commission in Kenya)
 Education in Africa moved from colonial to independec perspectives. Missionaries,
colonial governments and world wars introduced; literacy, money and medicines with
religious sects.

3.2.3 Psychological Foundation of Curriculum

This unit focuses on:

Definition of terms: Behaviorism, Cognitive Development and Gestalt Theory as learning
theories. Study how the various steps of psychology are solving, teaching and learning in
learning how to use the term ‘Creativity’ and explain the concepts of creative thinking.What
constitutes humanitistic learning in Kenya`s Schools.

Psychology has significant impact on curriculum. It focuses on learning and teaching theories
through three major theories:

 Behavioral
 Cognitive
 Humanistic

Behavioral psychology is the oldest theory of learning. It illustrated by such teaching learning
trends as:

 Micro-Teaching
 Instruction Training Models
 Individual learning
 Direct instruction
 Mastery learning

Most learning theories today are cognition-oriented (intellectual). Piaget’s stages of cognitive
development show stages of human development. They are:

 Sensori Motor (0-2 years)

 Pre0oprational (2-7 years)
 Concrete (7-12 years)
 Formal (over 12 years)

Humanistic approach to curriculum is the most recent learning theory. It emphasizes that
curriculum be based on society’s needs. This approach includes:

 Formation of desirable attitudes

 Development of Human feelings
 Self Actualization
 Freedom to learn
 Value classification

You should note that behaviorist component is needed for planning and developing curriculum.
Cognitive component is for development of the intellect through subject content and humanist is
for instruction. Each theory of learning is incomplete by itself; the three theories should be inter-
In behaviorist class, Cogne’ identified these levels of learning:

 Signal (stimulus)
 Motor chains (Linkages)
 Multi-Discrimination (Different responces)
 Concepts (Abstract Reactions)
 Rules (Chain Family Relationship)
 Problem-Solving (Use of Rules)

Other theories of learning and teaching include:

 Maslow’s on Human Needs

 Rogers on freedom to learn
 Guilford on structure of intellect
 Dewey on Reflective thinking
 Brunner on Structure of Subject and Inquiry/Discovery Methods
 Genstalt Theory on Shape, Form and Configuration (Stimulus Vs Response)

You should note the influence of psychology on curriculum resources, teaching strategies,
designs and stages of human development.

3.2.4 Sociological Foundation of Curriculum

This unit addresses the following areas:

Application f the terms: Curriculum, Education, Schooling and Moral Development

 How do you describe the rate and direction of change in a social setting?
 What knowledge is most worthwhile for students of your level? Why?
 How do curriculum developers organize knowledge?
 What type of knowledge should students learn to better cope with the future?
 In what ways can schools and society change the c\focus or priorities of education in
 Explain in details how you use sociological foundation of curriculum in selecting
curriculum content.

Social forces have always had major influence on schools and in terms of curriculum decisions.
Some of these forces originate from the society and others from the local community. Educators
are faced with a choice:

 To accept and mirror and tendencies of times or

 To appraise and improve the times

The first view represents a permanent notion of education while the second view represents a
reconstructionist notion, which is the way of viewing the choice in terms of traditional against
way of looking at schools.

The latter (futuristic) suggests that the educator can analyze and evaluate the trends lacking
shape in society. In doing so, they can decide on appropriate aims of curricula and can therefore
prepare students for the world of tomorrow by providing them with the type of knowledge,
attitudes and skills needed for making wise decisions.

Curriculum workers whom merely participate in curriculum decisions play a major role in
accomplishing the nationally stated, goals and objectives in curriculum content and process.

Sociological foundation of curriculum considers curriculum areas such as:

 Home, school and society for corporate curriculum development.

 Individual socialization as one of man’s to human rights practice
 Social implication of knowledge change for change changes the changeless.
 Aims of education as man’s right and his nature of knowledge, attitudes and skills.
 Various reform strategies in education planning and practice.
 Political reforms as a means of fulfilling social change and adjustment.

Special consideration for sociological foundation of curriculum are:

 Society and modal personality in those members of society have a lot in common.
 Gender roles and differences.
 Special sex roles
 Patrolocalism and Matrocalism roles
 Gender parity and sensitivity
 Opportunity criteria
 Staffing criteria
 Gender sensitivity

Another special consideration in sociological foundation of curriculum is the Human Task

Needs, according to Robert Havighurst, with six periods of human development:

 Infancy and Early Childhood

 Middle Childhood
 Adolescence
 Early Adulthood
 Middle Age
 Late Maturity

There are moral development norms attached to these human task needs:

 Culture
 Language
 Politics
 Religion
 Interests
 Standards

Phenix called these needs, moral traditions for curriculum. He calls for a changing and
continuing curriculum to cater for:

 Human Rights
 Sex and family Relation Code
 Social Relationship Within Society
 Property Rights and Succession
 Politics and Matters of Justice and Power
 Change and the curriculum
 Society as a Change Agent
 Rate and Direction of change
 Education for Diversity (Variety)
 Knowledge as a source of change (worth)
 New Core-Curriculum (Knowledge and Future Learning)

Main features in sociological foundation of curriculum centre on:

 Schools and Society

 Individual; Socialization
 Social Implications of Knowledge Change
 Aims of Education
 Various Reform Strategies
 Political Reforms
Education is a sharp instrument in dealing with sociological foundation of curriculum:

 Constructive or Destructive Ends

 Promotion of Human Institutions
 Type of Society Depends on Type of Education
 Transmission of Culture (Education System)
 Values
 Beliefs
 Norms

Dewey says that Education is the means of perpetuating and improving society through
organizing of experiences of learners through environmental and cultural influences.

The cultural roots of curriculum also are important for considering in the context of curriculum.
Experience shows that curriculum is interwoven with the social fabric that sustains it. Every
society distinguishes between the curriculums of:

 Common Education
 Universal Elements of Culture
 Curriculum of Special Education

These phases of curriculum are coupled with the requirements of social special groups within the
society. When a society passes from a class system, the special education for the upper classes in
the phase tends to persist in the later phase, under the guise of common education. The three
aspects of cultural roots of curriculum are:

 Common education based on cultural universals

 Special Education related to the specialties of the culture
 Class Education against common education

Which policy does the Kenya society opt for a context of curriculum? How is this done?

Consideration in Social Context:

Society and Modal Personality (According to Ruth Benedict)

No culture yet observed has been able to eradicate the differences on temperature of the persons
who composed it. However, members of a society have much in common.

 Sex Roles and Sex Differences

 Specialized Sex Roles
 Patrolocalism
 Matrolocalism
 Gender issue
 Staffing Criteria
 Gender Sensitivity
 Human Tasks Needs: Robert Havighurst identified six periods in human development:
 Infancy and Early childhood
 Middle Childhood
 Adolescence
 Early Adulthood
 Middle Age
 Late Maturity
 Needs assessment to fit each period

Moral Development and Sharing of Common Norms:

 Culture
 Language
 Politics
 Religion
 Interest
 Standards
 Kholberg outlines six developmental types of moral judgments grouped into three moral
levels or stages corresponding to Paiget’s cognitive stages of development:
 Pre-conventional Level:
 Children who do as they are told because they fear
 Children who realize that certain actions bring rewards
 Conventional Level
 Children who seek their parent’s approval by being nice.
 Children who view morality in terms of individual
principles of conscience.

Extentialist educators view morality as something beyond cognitive processes.

 Phenix outlines five basic moral traditions that encompass society:

 Human Rights
 Sex and family relations codes
 Social relationship with society
 Economic matters- Property and Distribution of Goods and Services
 Political Matters Dealing with Justice and Power.
 Change and the Curriculum
 Society as a source of change
 Rate and Direction of Change
 School as a source of change
 Education for diversity (variety)
 Knowledge as a source of change (worth)
 New Core-Curriculum (Knowledge and Future Learning)
 Knowledge should comprise basic tools
 Knowledge should facilitate how to learn
 Knowledge should be applicable to the real world
 Knowledge should improve the learners’
 Self concept
 Awareness skills
 Sense of personal integrity
 Knowledge should comprise of many forms and methods
 Knowledge should prepare the individuals for the world of work
 Knowledge prepares individuals for the world of bureaucracy
 Knowledge should permit the individual to retrieve information
 Knowledge acquisition should be a lifelong process
 Knowledge should be taught in context with values
 Professional Foundation of Curriculum
Focus: This unit focuses on:
 Professional Role Models
 Role of Professionals
 Characteristics of professionals
 Teaching authority
 Teaching Profession and Efficiency
 Teacher as a researcher
 Roles of a teacher
 Methods and learning
 Some selected methods of teaching

This unit addresses various ways in ways in which curriculum products are marketed through
role models, characterization, tripartition and sport checks on research, teaching and publication.
Professionals are skilled specialized and experts in particular areas of curriculum subjects’
content: languages, humanities, sciences, technology and mathematics.

Professionals normally:

Teach, research and publish materials through workshops, symposia, seminars, conferences,
projects, exchange programs, excursions etc. Professionals also interpret curriculum through
design, development, implementation, evaluation and innovation. They use curriculum
documents such as the syllabi, circulars, legal acts, reports, journals, textbooks, minutes,
hansards, commission reports, schemes of work and archives among others.

 Characteristics of Professionals include

Productive personality, critical attitude, measurable responsibility, accountability, transparency
and development conscience. In all, a professional must be balanced, mature and upright person.
Such a person reads widely and wisely. The person is mindful of others’ needs and maintains a
guiding personality to develop others for solving and not creating problems.

 The Teacher as Authority in the Profession

Every time a teacher steps into a classroom to teach, they are putting themselves on the ‘firing
line’ and students either shoot at them down or claim them. Students continually asses their
teachers informally and the amount of confidence in the subjects they teach. Students rate very
highly their teachers who ‘know their stuff’.

Studies have shown that in some cases, teachers fail to perform efficiently because of the
following reasons:

 Lack of adequate preparation

 Poor delivery techniques
 Pitching the lesson above or below academic level of the students
 Insensitivity to the expectation of the students.
 Un-called for arrogance in the teacher’s personal qualities as a role model
 Failure to adhere to professional ethics.
 Lack of research experience and interest.

In many instances, the ultimate goal of carrying-out research is to publish in learned documents.
Being published constitutes a vital criterion for promotion. Three indicators of a professional
teacher by efficiency are linked to: research, publication and promotion.

 A professional Teacher is a Consultant

Many members of the public and scholars look upon a professional teacher to::

 Give public lessons on academic topics

 Chair functions organized in the community
 Carry out research on relevant issues
 Participate in the politics
 Act as role models
 Assist with extension work

 Roles of a teacher

Whether teachers are experienced or not, there is general agreement that using the right methods
to teach is important because teaching forms significant part of the noble profession, so quality
learning depends on the effectiveness of the approach used. Teaching has become complex due
to variables and constrains involved in the education options.

In teaching and learning situation, the following areas receive unchallenged attention:

 Teaching environment
 Protracted teaching methods
 Objectives of learning
 Group size and anatomy of students
 Teachers’ like and dislikes in the teaching area.

List of some commonly used Methods of Teaching follow:

 Lecture
 Laboratory work
 Tutorial
 Project
 Case study
 Problem-solving in groups
 Simulation
 Excursions

It is important to note that the degree of student anatomy in learning is increasingly featuring in
the selection of methods for teaching.

Full text of methodologies of teaching and learning are left to the Curriculum Implementation
section of this module.

Activity 13

Why are professionals role models?

Which characteristics do professional portray?

State some important roles of professionalism.

What do you understand by the term: ``teaching authority? ``

How is efficiency in the professionals established?

Why is a teacher a researcher?

State specific roles of a professional teacher.

List some teaching methods and explain how they affect learning.


In some educational literature, the terms educational goals, objectives and aims are used to mean
different things together. Some people view educational goals and objectives as curriculum
objectives for instructional goals. There are also people who use aims of education objectivesfor
instructional goals and objectives.

An agreement has not been reached by most curriculum experts on the correct definitions of and
differences between aims, goals and objectives. Most writers on education use the three concepts
synonymously. Some adequate aims of education with goals. There is nothing wrong with this.
In general terms we use aims, objectives and goals to refer to purposes, outcomes, and ends.

i. Objectives
iii. By the end of the lecture the learner should be able to:
 Define aims, goals and objectives as defined in the lecture.
 Explain the difference between curriculum and objectives.
 Identify several curriculum goals and objectives found in educational literature.
 Write precise curriculum goals and objectives.
 Analyze characteristics and reasons for goals and objectives in curriculum planning.
4.1 Definition of Aims

We indicated in the previous paragraphs that educational literature uses terms loosely to signify
terminal expectations of education, terms such as ends, purposes, out-comes, goals, functions,
aims and objectives are used by educators alternatively.

Aims should be equated with ends, functions or purposes. Aims are therefore defined as broad
general statements of purposes of education for a given country. The purposes of aims of
education are to give a general direction on education system throughout the country. Curriculum
developers divide aims, and even individual aims. The following statements found in Gachathi
Report (1976), Ominde Report (1965) and Ndegwa Commission (1971), should be seen as aims
of education rather than objectives.

 Aims of Education in Kenya

 Education must serve the needs of national development
 Education must assist in fostering and promoting national unity.
 Education must prepare and equip the youth so that they can play a leading role in
life of the nation.
 Education must assist in the promotion of social equality, train in social obligation
and responsibility
 Educational system must foster and develop our rich and varied cultures
 Global Aims of Education

Sometimes attempts are made to define aims of education on a global scale e.g. UNESCO
attempts to state the aims of education to promote in the world are such areas:

a) Fostering international understanding among all the people of the world

b) Improving the standard of living of people in various countries.
c) Solving continuing problems that plague people or humanity, such as wars,
diseases, hunger and unemployment.
4.2 Definition of Goals

Goals and objectives are categorized at two levels. The first is defining goals and objectives at
the curriculum level. The second one is defining them at the instructional level. Teachers and
people involved in the process of curriculum planning and improvements need to know the
difference between the two levels. They also need to know the level at which each one is
applicable in the whole process of curriculum development. You as a teacher should know
something about them.


Education in Kenya should:

1. Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national unity

Kenya's people belong to different communities, races and religions, but these differences need
not divide them. They must be able to live and interact as Kenyans. It is a paramount duty of
education to help the youth acquire this sense of nationhood by removing conflicts and by
promoting positive attitudes of mutual respect, which enable them to live together in harmony,
and foster patriotism in order to make a positive contribution to the life of the nation.

2. Promote social, economical, technological and industrial needs for national development

Education should prepare the youth of the country to play an effective and productive role in the
life of the nation.

a) Social Needs

Education in Kenya must prepare children for the changes in attitudes and relationships , which
are necessary for the smooth progress of a rapidly developing economy. There is bound to be a
silent social revolution following in the wake of rapid modernization. Education should assist our
youth to adapt to this change.

b) Economic Needs

Education in Kenya should produce citizens with skills, knowledge, expertise and personal
qualities that are required to support a growing economy. Kenya is building up a modem and
independent economy, which is need of adequate domestic manpower.

c) Technological and Industrial Needs

Education in Kenya should provide the learners with the necessary skills and attitudes for
industrial development. Kenya recognises the rapid industrial and technological changes taking
place, especially in the developed world.

We can only be part of this development if our education system deliberately focused on
knowledge, skills and attitudes that will prepare the youth for these changing global trends.

3. Promote individual development and self- fulfillment

Education should provide opportunities for the fullest development of individual talents and
personality. It should assist children to develop their potential, interests and abilities. A vital
aspect of individual development is character building.

4. Promote sound moral and religious values

Education should provide for the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes that will
enhance acquisition of sound moral values and help children to grow up into self-disciplined,
self-reliant and integrated citizens.

5. Promote social equality and responsibility

Education should promote social equality and foster a sense of social responsibility within an
education system which provides equal educational opportunities for all. It should give all
children varied and challenging opportunities for collective and corporate social services
irrespective of gender, ability or geographical environment.

6. Promote respect for and development of Kenya's rich and varied cultures

Education should instil in the youth of Kenya an understanding of past and present cultures and
their valid place in contemporary society. The children should be able to blend the best of
traditional values with the changed requirements that follow rapid development in order to build
a stable and modem society.

7. Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitudes towards other nations

Kenya is part of the international community. It is a part of the complicated and interdependent
network of peoples and nations. Education should therefore lead the youth of the country to
accept membership in this international community with all the obligations, responsibilities,
rights and benefits that this membership entails.

8. Promote positive attitudes towards good health and environmental protection

Education should inculcate in the youth the value of good health in order to avoid indulging in
activities that will lead to physical or mental ill health. It should foster positive attitudes towards
environmental development and conservation. It should lead the youth to appreciate the need for
a healthy environment.

Activity 14
Identify curriculum goals in the 1985, KCSE syllabus and regulations

Discuss the goals of education and how they influence curriculum development

4.4 Curriculum Goals

Curriculum goals are purposes or ends stated in general terms without criteria of achievement.
People who plan a curriculum wish students to achieve them after being exposed to or taking a
section or all of a program study. Statements which appear in the preamble of subjects included
in syllabus and regulations for Kenya Certificates of Education should rightly be seen as
curriculum goals. They do not specify criteria of accomplishments at any level of learning.

Curriculum goals and objectives are usually written by curriculum planners at the Kenya
Institute of Education (KIE). All schools in the country are expected to implement the stated
goals and objectives. How every school implements them is left entirely to the teachers to
determine. The following are some of the goals of secondary school curriculum contained in the
Secondary Education Project Document 1984. The secondary school curriculum should enable
the students to:

 Understand his physical environment, its potentials, the factors which control it and
methods of managing and conserving the environment.
 Understand the basic concepts and principles underlying different methods of utilizing
resources for production of goods and services.
 Become aware of the social environment, its controls, (Customs, traditions, beliefs, moral
codes) and the rights , obligations and duties of an individual in the conservation and
develop his special abilities by making maximum use of opportunities for intellectual ,
social and moral growth;
 Develop the ability to understand, analyze and interpret available data on issues affecting
life and draw vaild conclusions;
 Use ideas, concepts and skills acquired in the learning process in diverse ways in
preparation for adaptation to changing social –economic and political situation in the
past, now and in the future.

Characteristics of Curriculum Goals

The following are some of the characteristics of curriculum goals

 They relate to educational aims of philosophy

 They are programmes. Although they speak to one or more areas of the curriculum,
they do not delimit specific courses or specific items of content.
 They refer to the accomplishments of a group i.e. all students in general, most
students rather than the achievement of individual students.
 They are always stated in general terms that provide directions for curriculum
 They are broad enough that lead to specific curriculum objectives.

Curriculum Objectives

Curriculum objectives come from curriculum goals. Curriculum objectives are defined as
purpose or end, stated in specific, measurable terms. People who plan curriculum wish students
to achieve certain behavior, knowledge and skills after going through a section or whole
programmes. Curriculum objectives provide opportunities for evaluating the students

Characteristics of curriculum objectives

The following are some of the major characterisitics of curriculum objectives

 They relate to the educational aims and philosophy

 They are practical in nature
 They refer to the achievement of groups and not individual students
 They are stated in specific measurable and behavioral terms
 They are refined statements from curriculum goals.

Activity 15

Are Curriculum Objectives Really Necessary?

Why Do We Need Objectives?

Hilda Taba, identified several reasons or factors which warrant the writing of objectives in

The first important function of objectives is that of guiding decisions about the selection of
content and learning experiences and alsoproviding criteria on what to teach and how to
teach it.

Secondly, a clear statement of objectives helps to select from vast areas of knowledge in the
various disciplines that which is realistically necessary for some valid out-comes.

Thirdly, objectives serve to clarify the types of powers mentally or otherwise which need to
be developed. The definition of these powers and how it is handled in the classrooms.

Fourth, objectives are needed to provide a common consistent focus for the many activities
that go into curriculum. The programme of the schools is managed by many people. There
are many subjects, classes and teachers. Some unity is emphasized; some common focus is
needed to make their efforts coverage on certain common consistent goals.

Fifth, the objectives serve as a guide for the evaluation of achievement. Discrepancy between
what is taught and what is evaluated is a common fault of school programmes. This
discrepancy is caused by limitation in the available means of measuring a sufficiently broad
range of achievements of information and skills. Sometimes discrepancy may be due to
badly formulated objectives

4.5 Instructional Goals And Objectives

When curriculum decisions have been made at the national level, teachers in schools
educational supervisers and admi;nistratiors are left with the major role of implementation.
Teachers have to decide how they will organize the instructional in their respective schools.

They will be occupied with decisions of methodology. Some of the questions teachers will
ask themselves are;

i. What are the objective to be achieved as a result of instruction?
ii. Which procedures are appropriate for directing the learning
iii. How will evaluation be carried out?
iv. Teacher in this country face a lot of challenge. They are first and foremost
expected to prepare children at all levels of schooling to pass national
examinations. National examinations in this country include, the Kenya
Certificate and Primary Education(KCPE), and Kenya Certificate of
Secondary Education (KCSE). Secondly schools are expected to prepare
children to acquire basic skills and knowledge necessary for functioning in
our society.


At the end of this lecture you should be able to:

Define instructional goals and objectives;

Identify characteristics of instructional goals and objectives;

Explain in importance of writing instructional objectives

Write clear and correct instructional goals and objectives.

State instructional goals and objectives for the three domains (Cognitive,

4.5 Definition of instructional Goals

An instructional goal is defined as a statement of performance expected for each student in a

class phrased in general terms without criteria of achievement sometimes the term instructional
goals is used to refer to general objectives. The writers used tentative general objectives when
they mean instructional goals.

Examples of instructional Goals

i. The student will show an understanding of the causes of inflation

ii. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the works of great philosophers.
iii. The student will demonstrate his ability to read novels without difficulty.

Activity 16

Are Instructional objectives to be written at the beginning or end of your lesson plan; Give your

Instructional Objectives

An instructional objectives is a statement of performance to be demonstrated by each student in

the class, derived from the instructional goals, phrased, immeasurable and observable terms.

Instructional objectives are also called.

a) Behavioural objectives
b) Performance objectives
c) Competencies
d) Teachers are always encouraged to state instructional objectives whenever they are
planning instruction.

Examples of Instructional Objectives

a) The student will be able to identify and name five main parts of a flower, using a
specimen given from the school garden.
b) The student will be able to identify and write correctly, the nouns, verbs, adjectives and
adverbs in a given English passage.
c) At the end of the lesson students will be able to name the main sources of revenue from
local government.

Many teachers in our schools find it difficulty to plan and state instructional objectives; On many
occasions, they have regarded instructional objectives as they useful. Some of the uses of

instructional objectives as waste of time and unnecessary. However, instructional objectives are
very useful. Some of the uses of instructional objectives are specified below:-

 Instructional objectives force the teacher to be precise about what to accomplish.

 They make evaluation procedures easy
 They make accountability possible
 They make sequencing quite easy
 They make the students to be aware of what they are expected to learn I a given lesson.
Activity 17
Write two instructional objectives of your own and then find out if you followed the
guidelines as stated.

Taxonomic levels

Classification of educational objectives was introduced for the first time by an American
Educationist. In his book “Taxonomy of Educational objective,” Benjamin Bloom (1956)
Identified three levels of taxonomies, though the third level is not a taxomy.

i. Cognitive Taxonomy

Bloom and his colleagues developed taxonomy for classifying educational objectives in the
cognitive domain. Taxonomy of cognitive domain is widely used and followed; cognitive
learning was classified into six major categories by the writers.

Knowledge level; the student will name the three longest rivers of Africa.

Comprehension level; the student will read things fall apart by chinua Achebe

Application level the student will demonstrate how to prepare ugali dish using the information

d) Analysis level; the student will analyse the function of local government in Kenya
e) Synthesis level. The student will write two paragraphs on the straggle for uhuru in Kenya.
f) Evaluatio level; the student will evaluate the role of women in the struggle for uhuru in

ii. Affective Taxonomy

Bloom and Krathwohl developed taxonomy of objectives in the affective domain.
They categorized them into five levels.
 Receive the student will listen while the teacher explains new points.
 Responding; the student will answer acall for volunteers to plant trees groups in
the development of this country
 Organizations; the student will choose nutritious foods over junk food
 Characteristics the students will be bound by the school rules, at all times.
iii. Psychomotor Domain
iv. Taxomy in the psychomotor domain has not been give prominence to cognitive
domain. The following examples will help to islllustrate the levels of objectives in the
psychomotor domain.

Perception; the student will identify a woolen fabric by feel.

Set; the student will demonstrate how to hold a plan when planning a piece of wood.

Guided response; the student will imitate the sound of a lion.

Mechanism; the student miz water and flour to make dough for chapatti

Complex over response; the student will operate a 16 mm projector.


 Objectives:
 By the end of the lecture the learner should be able to:
 Explain the organization of subject-centred curriculum design
 State the advantages and disadvantages of subject-centered curriculum design
 Describe the meaning of broad field designs
 Explain the extent of broad field curriculum design as applied in Kenya;

The concept curriculum design is used in educational literature to refer to the organization of the
components of curriculum element. Some people refer to curriculum organization when they are
actually referring to curriculum patterns when they mean curriculum organizations or designs.

Components, which are involved in any curriculum design, are aims, goals and objectives,
subject content, learning activities and evaluation. We usually refer to how all this components
are structured in any curriculum as design.

How a curriculum is conceptualized, organized, developed and implemented depends on

particular country’s educational objectives and whatever, design a country may adapt depends
also on the country’s philosophy of education. There are several ways of designing school

 Subject-centered design

The organization of curriculum in terms of separate subjects has far been the commonest all over
the world. It is also the oldest school curriculum design in the world. It was even practiced by
ancient Greek educators. The subject centered design was adapted by African education system
from Europe.

For a long time content has been arranged in the curriculum by specific subjects representing a
specialized body of common areas of content.

An examination of subject-centered and curriculum design will show that it is used mainly in the
upper-primary sections, secondary school classes and colleges. This is the commonest
organization, which you teachers are familiar with. Frequently, lay people or professional
training in this system. Teachers, for instance, have been trained and specialized to teach one or
two subjects at secondary level in this country. No teachers are trained to teach as many subjects
as possible.

You are quite aware of how subjects are organized in our high school syllabus. The whole high
school curriculum has been organized around subject areas such as- English, mathematics,
chemistry, biology, physics, computer science, home economics, Kiswahili, geography, history,
Christian education, economics, commerce etc. this type of curriculum organization is still being
used in African schools today.

Let us examine the advantages and disadvantages of this design. We shall be able to see why
some educators advocate for it while others criticize this approach.


 It is possible and desirable to determine in advance what all children will learn in various
subjects and grades (classes). For instance syllabus for all schools in Kenya are prepared
and approved centrally at the KIE for ministry of education science and technology –The
Kenya national examinations council is also involved. All the syllabuses are then sent to
all the schools in the country irrespective of geographical position, status, resources, and
manpower available and cultural variations. It is expected that teachers prepare students
based on the same syllabus. Students in all schools cove the same amount of content in
various subjects sat at end of every level of education (primary and secondary levels).
Students sit for the same examination to determine whether they have covered the
amount of content expected of them.
 It is feasible and necessary to determine minimum standards of performance and
achievement for the knowledge specified in the subject area.
 Almost all text books and support materials present on the education market are
organized on subject-by-subject format.
 Also tradition seams to give the design greater support. People have become familiar and
more comfortable with this design and seem to view it as part of the system of the school
and education as a whole.
 The subject centered curriculum is better understood by teachers because their training
was based on this method as specialization.
 The advocates of the subject-centered have argued that intellectual powers of individual
learners can be developed through this approach.
 Curriculum planning is easier and simpler in the subject centered curriculum design.
Imagine the period of planning, developing and implementing the curriculum. Also
imagine what goes in your first staff meeting when every teacher is to be allocated his/her
teaching load for the year and how this should be plotted on the daily school time-table. It
is simple and easily achieved at a short time.

Criticisms of subject centered design

Critics of subject centered curriculum design have strongly advocated from it. These criticisms
are based on the following arguments:

 Subject-centered curriculum tends to bring about a high degree of fragmentation. They

argue that with the current increase in knowledge more subjects are created and added to
the school curriculum as areas of study.
 Subject-centered curriculum lacks integration of content. Learning in most cases tends to
be compartmentalized. Subjects or knowledge are broken down into smaller seemingly
unrelated bits of information to be learned.
 There has always been an assumption that information learned through subject matter-
curriculum will be transferred for use in everyday life situations. This assumption of
claim has doubted by many schools of thought that argue that automatic transfer of the
information already learned is not possible.
 The design stresses content and tends to neglect the needs, interests and experience of
students. It is examination oriented.

Activity 18
Why can’t subject-centered curriculum design function at the lower primary level?

 Broad field curriculum design.

Broad-fields curriculum design is generally considered to be expanded version of the idea of

fusion. In this approach, two, three or more subjects are unified into one broad-course of study.
This organization is actually a system of combining and regrouping subjects that are related in
the curriculum into separate broad fields of study.

The broad fields approach attempts to develop some kind of synthesis or unity for the entire
branch of knowledge. It may even involve synthesizing two or more branches of knowledge into
new fields. Good examples would be;

I. Ecology
II. Environmental education
III. Family life education

Activity 19
Which are the related subjects that form separate groupings in the present secondary school

No doubt, you are familiar with some of the following groupings that have been attempted in
recent years. The present 8:4:4 curriculums contain enough examples of broad-fields
organization. You will need to get a copy and just go through it to be familiar;

 Language arts- (both at primary and secondary levels). Reading, writing, grammar,
literature, speech etc. Kiswahili and foreign languages.
 Social science fields- (high school and colleges) history, political science, government,
economics, anthropology, sociology etc.
 Social studies- (primary school level)
a. History, geography and civics
b. Social education could also fall under these broad fields.
 general science-to include natural and physical sciences
a. physics, chemistry, geography, astronomy physical geographical
b. botany, zoology, biology and physiology
 Humanities – (both primary and secondary school levels) art, music, design, literature.
 Industrial education –
a. All vocational courses maybe included – commerce, typing, bookkeeping, accounts and
office practice.
b. All industrial and technical courses maybe included – carpentry, masonry, plumbing,
metalwork, engineering etc.
 Physical education – health and safety education
 General mathematics – to be included in this group are – arithmetic, algebra, geometry,
trigonometry and calculus.
 Home science – all courses which are taken care of in this group may include –
needlework, cookery, nutrition, home management, clothing and textiles etc.

Advocates of broad field design believe that the approach would bring about unification and
integration of knowledge. However, looking at the trend of events, in curriculum practice in this
country, this has not materialized. Several reasons could be given for this drawback. Three of
them will be discussed here with reference to the present situation in Kenya.

First, teachers trained at the university and diploma teachers colleges are expected to specialize
in two or three subjects thought in secondary schools. A teacher who specializes in history,
geography or any other subjects finds it difficult in an integrated curriculum.

Good examples can be drawn from the teaching of social studies in our schools. Most teachers
would be comfortable to teach history and geography as separate subjects on the school
timetable. The same problems are experienced in the teaching of general sciences. Secondly,
universities and diploma colleges in this country still return their subject-centered curriculum.
Before 1985, candidates for admission to universities and diploma colleges in this country are
expected to have studies three or four subjects at form five and six. Aggregate points obtained in
the final advanced level examination were then use for selection into university.

Students tended to special in their later years of secondary education. Thirdly, the Kenya national
examination council has in 1985 come up with a unified syllabus to be adapted for integrated
studies in schools. All national examinations are still set on subject basis.

 Advantages of broad fields design

The advocates of broad field design argue that;

 It is based on separate subjects, so it provides for an orderly and systematic exposure to

the cultural heritage
 It integrates separate subjects into a single course. This enables learners to see the
relationships among various elements in the curriculum.
 It saves time on the school timetable.
 Prepares a student for self-reliance and survival skills.
 Criticisms of broad fields design

Opponents of broad field curriculum design claim that;

I. It lacks depth and cultivates shallowness

II. It provides only bits and pieces of information from a variety of subjects
III. It does not account for psychological organization by which learning takes place.
 Learner- centered design

The curriculum designs, which come under the name learner centered, may take various forms.
Some curriculum experts refer to them as child centered or individualized approaches. It is the
curriculum planers ho decide how the design should be organized.

This design puts great emphasis upon individual development. The curriculum is therefore
organized around needs, interests, and purposes of students who attend to particular subject
matter. Advocates of the design believe that while developing the curriculum, great attention
should be paid to what is known about human growth, development and learning. But due the
nature of human beings, planning any curriculum of this type in detail before the students arrive
should be avoided. When students have arrived, an attempt can be made to identify varied
concerns, interests and priorities and then develop appropriate topics to address meaningful

However, this type of curriculum design has not been popular in developing parts of the world
for various reasons, which we shall identify in the following paragraphs. Only in well developed
nations has this design been practiced to some extent because they have enough manpower and

 Advantages of learner- centered design

People learn only what they experience and that learning which is related to active purposes and
is rooted in experience translated it into behavior changes. Children like best those things that are
attached to solving actual problems that help in meeting real needs or that connect with some
active interests. Learning in its true sense is an active transaction.

Some of the advantages given by the advocates of the learner centered design are as follows:

 The needs and interests of students are considered in selection and organization of
 Since the needs and interests of students are considered in the planning of student work
for whatever reason will be applicable to the outside world.
 Criticisms of learner- centered design

There are disadvantages of the learner centered design. Those who challenge this type
curriculum design argue that the needs and interests of students may not be valid or long-lasting.

 The interests and needs of students may not reflect specific areas of knowledge that could
be essential for successful functioning in the society in general. Quit often, it has been
observed that the needs and interests of students are not those that are important for
society in general.
 Interests and needs of students are usually short lived, change with time and influenced
by available conditions. Students may develop new needs and interests based on external
influence within the society.
 Another limitation of this design is that, we may not be in a better position or assumption
to know enough about human growth, development and learning to be able to plan for
individual student as stated above. The nature of our education system and the Kenyan
society for whom the system is intended may not permit learner centered design to be
implemented effectively.
 Another important limitation of this design is expensive to produce materials to satisfy
the needs and interests of individual students in a school. Imagine what would happen in
our schools if we were to implement this type of curriculum design.
 Core -curriculum design

The concept core-curriculum is used to refer to areas of study in the school curriculum that are
required by all students. The core-curriculum provides students with “common learning” or
general education- that will be necessary. Therefore the core curriculum constitutes the segments

of the curriculum that teach common concepts, skills and attitudes needed by all individuals in
order to function effectively within the society.

Two definitions for core-curriculum will be adopted for use in this section:

 The core-curriculum is a way of organizing important common learning in the high

school or college using a problem solving approach as its procedure, having social and
personal significance to youth “as its content, and the development of the behaviors
needed in a democratic society as its purpose”
 In modern education, the term core has come to be that part of curriculum which is
concerned with those types of experiences thought to be necessary to all learners in order
to develop certain behavior competencies considered necessary for effective living in our
democratic society.
 Characteristics of core- curriculum design

The core curriculum design constitutes the following features:

 They constitute a section of curriculum that all students are required to take
 They unify or fuse subject matter, especially in subjects such as English, social studies
 Their content is planned around problems that cut across the disciplines. In this approach,
the basic methods of learning is problem solving using all applicable subject matter.
 They are organized into blocks of time. Two or three periods under a core teacher may be
organized. Other teachers may be used where it is possible.
 They encourage teachers to plan with students in advance
 They provide pupils with necessary guidance.
 Types of core -curriculum design

Many types of core-curriculum design are recognized in the literature of education. Most of these
designs tend to appear like the other designs discussed elsewhere in this literature. If you can
look back at the characteristics of core-curriculum design, it will help you to perceive the great
differences that exist between the pure-curriculum design and other curriculum designs
The following types of core-curriculum design are commonly found in our schools and college
curriculum in Kenya.

 Type one:

Separate subjects may be taught separately with little or no effort to relate them to each other
e.g. mathematics, sciences, languages, humanities, may be taught as unrelated core-subjects in
high school.

 Type two:

Two or more subjects may be correlated. For instance topics in history, geography and
economics may be able to see their relationship e.g. a topic on energy can easily be taught in this

History: discovery and use of oil as a source of energy. Discovery and use of oil as a form of
energy by man

Other forms of energy that have been used in the past;

Geography forms of energy.

I. Use and conservation of energy by man

II. Where oil is mined in the world
III. Importance of oil in world trade
IV. Production of cheap forms of energy for man’s use
V. Linkage of oil production to a nation’s development
 Type three

The fused core is based on the overall integration of two or more subjects:

1. History, geography, economics, sociology and anthropology may be combined and taught
as social studies.
2. Physics , chemistry, botany and zoology may be taught as general science

3. Environmental education studies – some colleges in some parts of Africa have introduced
this core-curriculum as a component of the entire curriculum.

Activity 20
1. In your own words, state what the concept core-curriculum means
2. State three characteristics of a core-curriculum design
3. Write three examples of core-curriculum designs. If you can give examples from the
school where you teach.

 Activity-experienced design

This type of design is one form of the learner-centered design. It originated in eighteenth
century in Europe. The design became popular in American public schools during the
progressive movement in the 1920’s and 1930’s. It was basically organized in the elementary
schools in America. The design is included in our study to provide us with an opportunity to
examine another attempt to improve learning with others; you are advised to go back to the
previous discussions on learner-centered curriculum design. Read Hilda Taba(1962)

The activity-experienced design is organized around the need and interests of learners. These
must be the immediately felt needs and interests of students and not what the adults feel and
ought to be the case.

First, there are roles for the teacher in this design, if the curriculum is to be implemented
appropriately. First, the teacher who is implementing this design should discover what the
interests of the students are; secondly, he must help them select the most significant interests
for study. This is not a simple task as you can see; the role of the teacher is made harder
when the student’s genuine needs and interests have been distinguished.

To do this effectively, the teacher is expected to have a thorough knowledge of the students.
Knowledge of a child and adolescent growth and development is necessary in the planning of
activity/experience curriculum.

The second feature of the activity/experience design comes from the first. Since students
interests and needs determine the structure of this design, the curriculum cannot be planned
in advance. Advance planning is possible in subject-centered and related curriculum designs.

Teachers and students plan together the goals to be pursued, the procedures for assessment to
be followed by cooperative planning. However, advance planning does not mean that the
teacher will not carry out any preparation. The teacher still has many responsibilities which
require a lot of planning. He is responsible for discovering for students’ interests, guiding
students in the selection of interests, helping individuals and groups to plan and appraise their
experience. From this description, the teacher must prepare in advance to help learners to
carry out the required activities in every stage of learning.

The third features of the activity/experience design in its focus on problem solving approach
which to learning. While pursuing their interests, student’s come across specific problems
must be overcome. Such problems pose challenges that students eagerly accept. In the course
of finding out solutions to these problems, students achieve results that reflect major values
among the goals of this curriculum significance, immediacy, vitality and the relevance of
activity and experience.

Three main advantage of the activity/experience design school activities are based on
students needs to be externally induced. Facts, concepts , skills and processes are learned
because they are important for students, not because they are needed for college or because
teacher will be testing them.

Learning should be real and meaningful it if has to be relevant. The second advantage of the
activity/experience curriculum design is that it provides for the individual difference
between students. For instance, Students may join a class or group if its interests are unique.
Thirdly, the problem – solving approach emphasized in this design provides students with the
process skills such as reading, writing and numeracy they will need in order to cope with life
outside school.

Crities of the activity/experience design have grace reservations concerning its effectiveness
as a process of educating students. They argue that a curriculum strictly based on students
needs and interests cannot possibly provide an adequate preparation for life. This is so
because many areas of knowledge necessary for effective functioning in the modern society
would be omitted if students were allowed to exclude from their curriculum anything that
does not immediately interest them. It is also argued that this design neglects criticals social
goals of education, which all students must acquires. Important among these is cultural
heritage, which should be provided to all student the school.

Critics also point out that activity/experience design lacks a balance and structure. It also
lacks continuity or sequence.

Activity 21
1. Name features of activity/experience design.
2. What are the advantages of this design?


Curriculum Implementation is the systematic process of ensureing that the new curriculum
reach the intended consumers; learners and teachers, parent and society without delay or
deviation. It also involves making the new curriculum and the accompanying materials and
resources generally available to all schools and colleges within the jurisdiction of the
curriculum development project.

Implementation is the making real which has been planned. It is the time of truth. It means
the open use of a programme throughout an entire school system. In most schools or
educational institutions, implementation is managed by the curriculum staff in the central
office with staff at other levels throughout the system is centrally controlled. In centralized
education system, a programme may either become compulsory for all schools of a certain
type, or be among a lit of authorized alternative programme from which each school chooses
the most suitable for is needs.

In both cases, implementation entails certain changes within the system.

 First teacher-training programmes must be adjusted to the requirements of the new
programme. This implies modification in both pre-service and in-service training

Occasionally, teachers themselves are in need of further instruction in the content area of the
new programme. New teaching methods, strategies, or class management practices may also
contribute the focus of a retraining course. Almost always teachers should be trained to
monitor the programme to identify flaw defects and to diagnose learning difficulties.

A second implementation problem is that of obtaining the support and cooperation of the
supervisory staff. Without their cooperation one can handly expect successful
implementation of the programme (Lewry 1977)

A third problem is in making the appropriate changes in the national examination system, if it
exists. If programmes are changed but national examinations remain unaltered, teachers may
not have the motivation for the focus on their educational work. At this stage of
development, the formation evaluators role is to examine the efficiency of changes and
adjustments made. This may be made through observation of the teacher-training
programme, through analytical examination of both teacher programmes and the judgments
and opinions of educational experts.

It must be emphasized that implementation is a process that the project staff and educational
authorities always look forward to with a lot of eagerness. Sometimes the participants are so
eager that they are attempted to get to the before the pre-requisition processes such as try out
have been completed. This temptation should be resisted at all costs.

It cannot be over-emphasized that implementation of new curriculum should only be

attempted by the institution in which the right conditions prevail. There will be the school
and colleges for which satisfactory arrangements can be made for in servicing of teachers and
learning materials, and equipment for which the necessary physical facilities and be

This means that implementation can hardly take place uniformly across the country or
geographical areas concerned. Some schools will be ready which other will not. The fact
problem which the project staff and educational authorities find bitter to accelpt. The anxious
about uniform success, they are uncomfortable about the thought that different administrative
and other arragments such as those concected with student assessment procedure will have to
be made for dirrerentgroup of institutions.

Not all schools and colleges will have the necessary pre-requisiste in the same extent and at
the same time. Therefore, the best that can be done is to group the schools according to their
degree of readiness and implement the curriculum accordingly hoping that the schools
involved will be many so that the whole school system can be covered quickly.

Oluoch (1982) cited some nine sub-process in the implementation of a new curriculum that
may be identified in preparation. These are:

 Persuading a variety of people to accept the new curriculum.

 Keeping the general public informaed
 Educating the teachers
 Educating the teacher –educators
 Provision of necessary facilities supply of materials and equipment
 Actual presentation of the new curriculum
 Institution of appropriate student assessment procedures
 Providing continuous support for the teachers
 Perhaps we should include budgeting for this process Bishop (1976) noted some
reasons for discrepancy between the intent of curriculum project and what actually
happens in the classroom between the theory and practice, between desire and actual
achievement, between plan and execution. One of these reasons is resistance to
change springing from tradition.

Bishop (1967) has also noted that there is practically complete agreement in theory on the view
that great changes are inevitable, but in practice, every position innovation encounters the most
vigorous opposition. Education is a realm kingdom of tradition, and resistance to change springs

up in the most varied quarters, ranging from the teachers themselves, the administrators, the
parents, the pupils to political professional confessional religious and cultural circles. Several
contries note that socio-psychological resistance to reform is the major problems, perhaps more
stubborn, than financial problem itself.


 Setting up the major steps in the implementation system (outline of the process).
 Reviewing of existing system and noting the existing networks and places where new
network and required.
 Allocating budget for various actions of implantation
 Ensuring that a management plan for this sub stage of curriculum development is created
by personnel in charge.
 Developing means of synchronizing all the support system requisite for successful
piloting and final implementation.
 Preparation of the curriculum for teachers – staff training for all staff who will receive the
field – tested curriculum including special training for those who will pilot before
 Identify all staff required for the technical implementation of the field tested programme.
 Bishop (1979) pauses some basic question regarding the staff to be involved in piloting
and implantation?
 What are the new roles and responsibilities that the staff will have to assume in both the
piloting and the final implementation?
The level of expertise a staff possesses will influence the answers to these

At the juncture, the question is not what expertise staff require but where the staff currently with
regard to required expertise come from.

 Agents of curriculum implementation

Agents are support resources in order to implement curriculum as required. They include;

Teacher’s advisory Centres(TACS)

New teaching, new teaching strategies and other changes hav been introduced in the
education system. Newly employed teachers may quite often use the Teachers advisory
centre for obtaining information on how to handle their teaching assignments. Particularly
the untrained teachers in Kenyan education of system have benefits from the services of
teachers advisory centre old, teachers; also use of centres to update themselves.

Another role of teachers advisory centres is the dissemination of teaching materials already
developed by the Kenya institute of Education. Teachers may meet at the centre to discuss
how the materials supplied by K.I.E could be beneficially utilized by schools. Sometimes,
materials supplied by the Kenya institute of Educations curriculum development panel may
appear irrelevant to the local needs of the learners in particular areas. Teachers use the
centres to discuss and make some recommendations to the curriculum panels on how
implement could be made. This role may be viewed as a feedback to curriculum developers
at the Kenya institute of Education. The feedback information from the teachers centres may
become a basis for modifying t he newly introduced curriculum in schools.

In well established teachers Advisory centres , teachers have organized local curriculum
development panels. Teachers of English, Mathematics, Geography or science may form
local subject panels. Local subject lpanels may be to organize teachers to work as a team to
develop materiasl to support what teachers use in classrooms. The materials developed are
kept in thecentre for other teachers who may want to use them. A lot of material developed in
the teachers advisory centre have been very useful to the Kenya institute of education
curriculum panels in developing primary school educationcurriculm social studies for
instance is a crucial curriculm which cannot be generalized by the National curriculum.

Supportive personnel and services

Our further concept we need to consider in the implementation of a curriculum is that of

educational supervison. This is a very important element in the implementation process. This

part of the process is provided by inspectors and filed supervisors. Once one looks at the task
the supervisor can perform the relation to curriculum implementation and the improvement
of quality at local level on realizes how limited the direct influence on teachers. Field officers
and assistance in demonstration of a particular approach to the classroom teacher is very
vital. Their feed back of the running quality of the project will assist the review of the

These supervisors can arrange for workshops for teachers to help them discuss issues
emerging from the project and also provide suggestions for production of localized materials
for teachers, use in teaching. Use in teachingHowever, their indirect influence on teachrs as
coodinators of support system for teacher in the field can be very great indeed some of the
roles supervisors would address themselves to are:

 Identification of problem areas in the materials;

 Suggestions as to the necessary modification
 Advice on the program me of work to be done in the schools.
 Assistance with display at the Teachers Advisory Centres where these exist and
encouragement of display in schools.
 Encouragement of regular visits to the centres by teachers and guidance and help to
teachers with regard to source of in format and other materials.

Activity 22
1. Are teachers inspectors and administrators the only individual needed to implement a

Voluntary Agencies and Curriculum Implementers

In the Africa context, the curriculum for basic education can no longer be conceived as the
sole responsibility of professional educators. This is particularly true in the implementation
stage. Voluntary agencies such as the church, women’s organizations, women’s associations ,
boy scouts, girl guides and entertainment groups of every curriculum, particularly in the
affective domain. Cultural activities which are initiated by the school may be extended and
refined in the community around the school. The integrated primary school staff should be
afforded every opportunity to each voluntary agency to contribute positively to advancement
of their local community socially, economically culturally, and intellectually.

Parents as curriculum implementors

It has been assumed for two long that the unschooled (African) parents have no role to play
in curriculum implementation. On the contrary, the role is crucial in the continuing processor
of value orientation and attitude formation. Being the natural and immediate “ reference
group” for their children, the parent influence in cultural value is often unchallenged. It is in
the home that the children learn effectively such important social and cultural values as
personal relationships, hospitality, generosity, comparison, personal hygiene, etiquette, love
thriftiness etc.

The current search for cultural identify should emphasize respect for education received
through instructional materials. One of the final products of each curriculum project is the
production of several types of instructional materials. If the teacher develops his owne
curriculum, materials he is likely to utilize products easily available in his environment for
the preparation of the lerning materials. If the curriculum is developed by the central various
types will be assembled in alpackage or kit for easy dissemination. What does curriculum kit
contain? The most simple form of instruction materials produced by the curriculum team is a
teacher’s guid, composed of suggestions and instructions for the teacher on what to do in the
classroom. This is very important item because it is necessary to inform the teacher of the
programmes goals so that they can make use of the programme adequately. Generally, the
programme kit will also contain individual study materials in the form of textbooks,
worksheets and supplementary materials, such as demonstration charts, slides, and
equipment; which are also included. Finally a programme may also have components which
are deposited in regional centres to be borrowed by schools for classroom use.

The community

Curriculum implementation is most effectively implementation when the community

understands and supports its when facilities are avalaible for desirable school organization
and learning actiview. There is also need for appropriate materials and supportive personnel
to assist teachers. Tow key factors are necessary to the implementation of the curriculum.

Financial support and other physical facilities

Community theorical support for change.

The financial aspect of curriculum implementation is dealt with aa priority of the community.
The community’s support creates a healthy climate of understanding and encouragement
prevailing in the community. Most important here are the attitudes held by parents because
such attitudes towards the programmes are easily transmittecd to the child for whom the
changes are intended.

School community communication needs to go beyond mere information which indluces the
maintenance of countious dialogue that enalbles the community to understand the rationale,
behind such a change to understand the edeucational problems and procedures involed, and
in may instance to provide direct assistance for curriculum implementation in the form of
resource persons, school volunteers, and any other personal forms of contributions to the
effort of the school.

Preparation of parents and the community is therefore seen as an important element even at
the planning stage. Also during the needs assessment stage, parents and the community or
what may bereferred to as the lay person will have been involed extensively in assessing their
needs as far as the school curriculum is concerned.

What ever needs are identified and written in the form of objectives for the new curriculum,
should be discussed with lay people if for nothing else to keep them in touch with what is
happening. This exercise is what Kenya Institue of Education refers to as familirization.

The main objectives of this exercise is:

 To explain how the new curriculum sets out to achieve in relation to national
development goals.

 To explain how the new curriculum provides greater individual benefits than its
 To describe changes in organization and structure of the new educational system.
 At specific levels, to explain why pupils course offerings, sya in secondary schools
differ for various group of students.
 To gain the co-operation of parents and the public.

Undertaking the familiarization exercise is often necessary to use all means possible to reach
as many peoples as possible. This may be done through weekly radio programmes explaining
the new curriculum in the simplest terms possible and outlining its new objectives where
showing visual examples of the new curriculum in use. Documentary films should be
produced for use with mobile cinemas. The local new papers in as many languages as
possible, should be utilized to provide information on the new curriculum in some cases
personal contact may be necessary.

Activity 23
1. Why do you think that the community which provides and operates the school in which
you are teaching needs to be aware of the curriculum being taught in the school? Choose
a few parents and discuss with them on how they can help in the implementation of a new
program sucha the 8-4-4- in Kenya.

In this lecture we shall also discuss the origin of professional teachers. Finally we shall examine
some of the important qualities which are expected of a good teacher. These qualities are not
exhaustive, you can think of your own experience as a teacher, and what the public may accept
as good and bad qualities of certain teachers in our schools.


After studying this lecture you should be able to:

1. Define the term teacher and teaching.

2. Explain the origin of the terms the teacher, teaching
and professional teachers
3. Identify some important qualities of a good teacher.

 Defining teaching

The terms teachers and teaching have been with us for a very long time. We have used them to
refer to specialized activities in our societies. Generally, all societies, including or skills to
others. Teacher then strictly refers to the person who is involved in the process of providing
information, knowledge or skills to other people etc.
Activity 24
Who is a teacher?
Anybody who can facilitate learning or directly provide knowledge or required skills is a teacher.
For instance, a carpenter teaching his own son how to use a hammer and a saw is a teacher, a
house mother who instructs her daughter how to prepare a fish-dish or ugalior cleaning the
house, is a teacher, a herbalist who trains his son on the use of certain herbs found in the forest
and how to identify those that contain medicinal value is a teacher. Our ancestors used informal
teaching to pass over skills and knowledge that were essential to our society. Many of the roles
of informal teaching have been taken over by schools. The modern professional teachers are
found in schools and other related institutions.

• Professional Teachers
Let us briefly examine how professional teachers came about. First, lets answer the

Activity 25

Who is a professional teacher?

Professionals are the trained people in the art of teaching. They are paid a salary or wage for the
service they render to their customers. Terms of employment for these professional teachers may
vary from place to place. In Kenya we may categorize professional teachers by place of
employment. There are teachers employed by private or non-governmental agencies with
different terms of service. The majority ofTeacher Service Commission (TSC) which is a
government agency.

Greek sophists are believed to be the earliest known teachers. They consisted of a group of well-
leamed teachers who moved from one place to another teaching. They usually charged a fee for
the services rendered to people. Sophists were prominent in the art of public speakingor rhetoric.
They were able to put doubt or confession in the minds or the youth. The youth were able to
develop a high degree of thinking or reasoning. Asa result, they were able to challenge dogma,
word which did not possess meaning and any form of opinion which did not seem to be
knowledgeable. During the time of Socrates, the Greeks began to discourage charging of fees for
teaching. They thought that this would degrade or lower the value of education.. This is why
Socrates himself moved from one market to another teaching without being paid fees for his
The meaning of "teacher" became so pronounced at the time of the Romans conquered Greece
and introduced a kind of hierarchy. The Romans introduced two groups of professional teachers.
The first one was, the "Literator" i.e. a teacher in primary school and the second one was "Ludi

professional teachers in this country are employed by the

Magista or Rhetor" i.e. teachers who taught in the Roman Grammar Schools.
This period actually marks the beginning when people could see and appreciate the role of
teachers in a society. They began to advocate for teachers salary based on then-services. Plato
was among, the earliest advocates of salary for teachers. He drew up a plan of education for the
ruling class, the philosophers, kings or guardians of the state. He felt that teachers had a big role
in society, which gave them the honor they deserved. It interesting to note that during this time,
Plato felt that the highest officer in the state should be the Minister of Education and that
anybody who should hold that office must be office years of age. Married and with his own

During the middle ages, schools began to be diversified. This state of affairs is teaching to
become complicated. As a result, the system of pre-service training introduced and became
compulsory for anybody inspiring to become ateacher.

Activity 26
What qualities do we expect of Professional Teachers?

All of us always think that colleges and universities should produce teachers who adequately
trained to handle every aspect of school curriculum. Unfortunately, this is not what colleges and
universities do. They merely lay the foundation upon which the young teacher in the field can
build. After three to five years, the young teacher will haacquired experience. Experience
necessary for carrying out curriculum activities can only be acquired in schools where one is
posted to teach.

On the other hand, experience alone may not be sufficient for a good teacher. So educators wrote
that, the amount of experience we have had is of less importance than ' our ability to profit by it.
The best teachers are those who have the humility and capacity to learn by success and failure.
Humility, the educators argue, is the capacity to acc the criticisms of others and to criticize
ourselves without feeling too sorry for ourselves. The points selected and discussed below are
only guidelines of what is thought or felt j teachers should do or be. You can think of many other
qualities that will be relevant your society. Our society is complex; therefore, their views and
values on qualified teachers should posses, will vary.
First and foremost, ail societies expect a teacher to be a person of good moral conducts The
teacher must be someone who is prepared to respect truth under all circumstances Most
important, a teacher must have love for people and children in particular. Children and people in
common are the immediate clients of a teacher in school. Teachers looked upon in society as
people with high integrity and morals whose personal lives examples for others to- emulate.
Youths will be most comfortable in the hands of teacher with good character than a bad person.
We have heard and read of cases of teachers’ interdiction, suspension and even dismissal
because of bad behavior in schools*
Secondly, a good teacher will remain a student throughout the period of his teach career. This is
the only way a teacher will become an educated person. Good t fails as soon as we cease to
renew our knowledge through learning. Age and experience do not alone promote good teaching.
The content we learn at school and in college s as the starting points for learning. We must
remember that knowledge is dynamic, increasing daily with new-discovery and expansion in
areas of study. As a teacher, are expected to know far more than

the pupils you teach in class. As teachers, we forced to improve our methods of teaching in order
to cope with the new technology. The students you teach are; inquisitive: They acquire new
information through all ft of media It is therefore, necessary for you to know the pupils you teach
as well as subject content This can be achieved by the teacher accepting to continue i throughout
his life time.
Thirdly, a good teacher must be adaptable. The education you have received should help you to
tackle new types of experiences within your teaching environment. We must develop personal
initiatives and abilities to handle new situations as they come to us in schools. For instance, our
curriculum is changing form time to time with new subjects being introduced. For example;
Social Education and Ethics syllabus, in the 8-4-4 curriculum. Various types of this syllabus will
need personal initiative, common sense and ability. We must be willing to confront and face new
issues and problems as they come.
Fourthly, courage combined with adaptability is important for a good teacher. You may be faced
with harsh conditions when posted to a new school. Ma be, the school has not enough buildings
or they may be of poor standards, not enough equipment, text books etc. What do you do? Run
away and abandon your students? Many people have faced similar situations in the past. Bear in
mind that, our society is not economically equal.

In summary we have been able in this lecture to:

Explain the origin of the terms teacher, teaching and professional teachers. They usually charged
a fee for their services.
The renn professional teachers became more pronounced during the period of the Roman
conquest of Greece. The Romans introduced two categories of teachers. The first category of
professional teachers was cheLudiMagista or Rhetor teachers who taught in the Roman Grammar

Identify some important qualities of good teacher. We put the qualities of a good teacher into
tour main categories: moral conduct be a student throughout his life, thirdly, adaptable to
varying circumstances of the teaching for courage combined with adaptability.

7.1 Pre-Service Teacher Education

Goals of primary teacher education as contained in various government documents are as
> To develop the basic theoretical and practical knowledge about the teaching professions
so that the teachers' altitude and ability can be turned towards professional commitment and
competence. > To develop in the teacher the ability to communicate effectively.
> Bearing in mind the child as the centre for education, teacher education should prepare
teachers who can:-

(i) Provide suitable learning opportunities

(ii) Develop the child's communication skills
(iii) Develop individual child's potential abilities to their maximum efforts through a
variety of creative learning experience
(iv) Develop a child's sense of citizenship and national attitude
(v) Develop the child's ability in critical and imaginative thinking, problem solving
and self-expression
(vi) Develop positive attitudes to the moral and religious values of the community
> To create a national consciousness for educational excellence in every teacher.
> To provide opportunities to develop special interests and skills and to promote initiative in the
> To develop in the teacher the ability to adapt to change and new situations.
> To develop an awareness and appreciation of innovation in the field of education and an
ability to utilize them

> To develop an awareness of the principles and use these in their dealings with children and
their community
> To promote national unity, national development and social equality
> To foster in the teacher an appreciation and respect for our rich and varied cultural heritage.

Primary Teacher Education Curriculum

Teacher education curriculum has undergone a lot of transformation. A brief history may help us
to follow this transformation prior to 1974, Primary Teachers Colleges in Kenya enjoyed some
form of autonomy to suit their conditions. The syllabuses were implemented in respectful
colleges subject to approval by the Ministry of Education. They also prepared their own
examinations and assessment devices to be used locally. The role of the KIJE and the
Inspectorate was to moderate such examinations and provide panels of examiners to assist
assessing students during teaching practices. After 1976, the role of KI.E seemed to be
minimized. The Ministry of Education and its Examination Section in Mitihani House took over
and amalgamated all the responsibilities carried out by the colleges themselves and; KXE.
Professional studies examinations were now thrown to a public examining body: Explicitly,
For teachers in all the colleges in the country were centralized. These steps were harsh. What
was the impact of these measures to the process among the teachers was killed by the strength of
examinations. Training of teachers became more of an academic exercise where the best
achievers in the final examinations were rewarded with grades and certificates. Secondly a strong
element of competition developed among the colleges. Thus students were forced to master facts
from subjects taught and reproduced them after two years in one examination. This is typical of
what an American educationist; Paul Freire calls "the bankingconcept". Teachers teach and
students receive the information. National teachers’ examination was good. On the other hand,
someone who had completed primary level of education could easily be awarded a P2 teachers
certificate if he passed in the National Teachers Exanimation at the end of two years training.

 Organization of teacher education curriculum

Activity 27
How was Teacher Education curriculum organized in the period discussed?

The initial curriculum in primary teacher education is organized around 14 subject areas. This
organization has not changed much in the present period. The following organization is used:
Professional Studies: the syllabus is divided into four major section areas:
(i) Foundations of Education
(ii) Curriculum Studies
(iii) Educational Administration
(iv) Educational Psychology.
It was compulsory for a student to pass a written examination in all these areas in addition to
practical teaching. Failure in Practical Teaching meant that one had failed the entire course, even
if performance in thirteen other areas was excellent this rule was later changed in order to

give a student a second chance to be re-assessed up to two times re-assessment in the Teaching
Practice which takes place after the final results have been announced.
> The Languages: either English of Kiswahili has to be passed in order to be awarded a
> The Science: this includes general Science and Agriculture. Again a student is expected to
pass in anyone of them for the purpose of certification.
> The Social Science: this area comprises of History, Geography and Christian Religious
Education as well as Islamic Religious Education. Only students who are Muslims take
Islamic Religious Education
> The Creative Arts Area: miss area has the largest combination of subjects. It includes Arts
and Crafts, Music, Health Education and Physical Education, Domestic Science. A pass in
this area is also necessary for the purpose of certification.
> Mathematics remains separate and independent area of study by all students. It is a
compulsory requirement for certification.

7.2 In service Teacher Education

> In-service education is not a new term in our educational system. The term has been used in
many ways to refer to almost the same things in education. In this lecture we shall attempt to
discuss what the term in-service education entails, its purposes and reasons why teachers choose
to be involved in some forms of in-service education programmes commonly organized and
known to teachers will be examined.

By the end of this lecture, you should be able to:
Distinguish between various types of in-service Education.
Give reasons why in-service education is an important
competent of teacher education.
Discuss various aspects of in-service education programmes
undertaken by Kenya Government
Analyze the specificroles of teachers in curriculum

What is In-Service Education?

A lot of confusion exists in the minds of many educators and the teaching profession in general,
when the term in-service education is defined. There are two stages of teacher education are in
practice at the present time. First, is what we often refer to as pre-semce education and takes
place in residence in a college or University before a teacher is appointed to his first post or
employed and registered by the Teachers Service Commission? Second is the in-service
education and may be taken any time while the teacher is already trained and qualified who are
also professionally employed- It may also be arranged for untrained teachers who have been
recruited by T.S.C and registered to teach in public schools. The present growth of in-service
education practice in the teaching profession is historical. First, is the fact that knowledge
continues to expand in the present world at a much greater rate than before. Days when a teacher
could be contented with a bank of knowledge which hewould find adequate to sustain him
throughout his teaching career have ended. Whatever knowledge a teacher acquires during his
initial training may not still be satisfactory in ten or fifteen years later. New knowledge keeps
coming up through research and technology. A teacher faces great challenges now than what
was experienced before. It must be admitted in this lecture that in-service education is an
essential element and condition for all members of the public employed to teach in schools. This
condition should apply to both the pre-service or trained and the untrained teachers. There are at

present more than 30,000 untrained teachers employed to teach in schools in Kenya.

Activity 28

What are the main purposes of in-service education

All kinds of in service education undertaken by teachers reveal various purposes, education
administrators who organize and provide chances for in-service education are well aware if the
purposes discussed here. The teachers who choose to enroll in various in- service education
courses are also made aware of the purposes. Some of the purposes of In-service education
maybe found to overlap.

Acquisition of New knowledge

For many years educational administrators in this country thought that only primary school
teachers needed in service education because they were not well academically prepared.
Graduate teachers and others involved in teaching secondary schools and college level were
regarded specialists. This view has changed in recent years with new development taking place
in education We can see this change in view of the following evidence

i) Programmes of one term or one year duration have been organized by overseas agencies
for experienced serving; teachers to attend advanced courses abroad for the teaching of
Science, Mathematics and English e.t.c. Many teachers have benefited from the scheme.
ii) Locally organized in-service programmes of one month or longer have been organized
by the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Kenya Institute of Education and the
public universities which train teachers. Graduate teachers attend courses of this nature
insubjects of their specialization. For instance the Social Science Project, Science and
Mathematics. Geography, Kiswahili, etc.
iii) In-service Education programmes for trained teachers of normal children have been
organized in various colleges. Trained teachers of normal children can obtain
specialization and qualifications as teachers of handicapped children after attending an in
service course at High ridge Teachers' College. For instance, P1 teachers of normal
children are recruited for in-service education course for the handicapped
iv) Teachers of Art, Music, Drama and P.E etc can obtain more knowledge and techniques
through organized in-service education programmes. The introduction of 8- 4 -4 system
of education in 1985 prompted the ministry of Education Science and Technology /to
organize P.E and other subjects m secondary schools. Similar in-service courses were
also organized for other subjects taught in secondary schools.

Familiarization with Curriculum Development

Changes in curriculum are dynamic, particularly with the increase in knowledge in demand and
supply by society or relevancy in curriculum content. To familiarize teachers with curriculum
development changes, seminars, workshops, und conferences are organized at the district or
national level. In many cases some of the work in curriculum development changes are
channeled through circulars, demonstrations and government documents from the inspectorate to
the schools. Heads of schools are expected to make such information available to teachers. In
well organized schools, seminars or meetings organized for members of staff discuss new
changes in curriculum.

Training of examiners and markets for public examinations falls under this category. It is done
by the Kenya National Examinations Council.

 Familiarization with Principles or Organization and Management

Many teachers are appointed to head schools without prior training in organization and
management Appointments lo head schools are usually made on the basis of a teacher's academic
qualifications and some appointments to headships. A lot of work that is necessary for school
organization and educational management cannot be done during the pre-service training. It's
after working in the schools for sometime that a teacher gains insights and familiarity with the
basic principles of organization and management. Some teachers become fortunate when they
work in schools where head-teachers may be assigned roles of departmental heads, deputy head-
teachers or guidance and counselors. To function properly and project educational services, some
form of instruction in organization and management is essential.

In some countries such as United States of America, a special qualification is required of all
people who aspire to become head-teachers or principals.

The Ministry of Education Science and Technology in Kenya, often organizes seminars,
workshops and meetings to familiarize head-teachers with essential principles of educational
management. Such courses have become popular 10 teachers who got appointed to headship with
a limited knowledge in educational management.

Activity 29

Why do teachers participate in in-service education?

Teachers participate in in-service education for various reasons, in some countries like the
United Slates of American teachers can be assured of immediate direct benefits like salary
increase, when they complete participation in in-service education course successfully. In
Kenya, this happens but in a different forms. Let us examine some of the reasons which make
teachers to participate in in-service education programmes in Kenya.

Promotion Status

Many teachers in this county have been promoted from one grade lo another after undergoing an
in-service education programme. For instance, pre- service teachers who were initially trained as
P1 have participated in a one year in-service education course to prepare them lobe qualified to
handle the handicapped. After completing the programme they are awarded an S1 teachers

Graduates without professional teaming in education are recruited by T.S.C to teach in secondary
schools. They are basically employed as untrained graduate teachers. The Ministry of Education
requires that after teaching for a short duration, such untrained graduates should go for a one-
year diploma course in education in a university.

After completing the course successfully, their status is changed from untrained to qualified
graduates. In addition to change of status, they also get the normal salary scaleand increments
given to other qualified graduate teachers.

More than 30,000 teachers are employed to teach in primary schools in Kenya. The ministry of
education has been conducting in-service education programmes by correspondence to train the
untrained teachers. After three years the untrained teachers, who complete the courses
successfully are awarded certificates to indicate grade levels. For instance P1, P2 and P3
certificates are awarded. The certificates awarded correspond to salary scales from other teachers
in the profession. Promotions and changes of status are major reasons why most untrained
primary school teachers attend in-service courses, "the Second reason would be to secure
permanent and pensionable employment status enjoyed by other qualified teachers employed by
T.S.C. after gaming knowledge in methods of teaching in the primary schools.

Improved Job Performance

Many teachers select to attend shorter courses for one or two weeks for almost the same purpose.
They want to increase, extend or expand their knowledge. This is quite true of teachers who
trained more than ten years ago and are still teaching. Changes in the teaching profession are
common. Most teachers want to improve their performance to cope with new changes in
education. To this group of teachers, promotions or salary are not reasons for participation. For
instance, new subjects such as social Education and Ethics, Business Education etc. have been
introduced in primary school syllabus.

Teachers without initial training of these subjects must participate in short in-service education
courses to become qualified to teach them. Teachers’ advisory centers are most appropriate
venues for organizing short in-service education courses for the improvement, increase and
expansion of knowledge. This role is well played in districts with well organized centers.

Increased Salary

Additional salary is not an incentive for participation in all types of in-service education courses.
Salary in Kenya goes along with certificates and degrees obtained. Any in-service education
programme may not be organized for the purposes of awarding extra or higher certificates or
diplomas. Exceptions to this are the following programmes.

a) One year course for P1 teachers to be qualified as SI teachers for handicapped.

Promotion from PI in SI teachers provides an essential salary increase

b) One year full time course for untrained graduate teachers. After successfully completing
the course at a university they are awarded Diplomas in Education or (P.G.D.E) with
salary increase or some adjustment.


Let us start this lecture by defining the term evaluation. We shall then discuss reasons why
evaluation is undertaken. Phases of curriculum evaluation will be examined briefly since they are
covered in details in another lecture. You are advised to go through this lecture noting carefully
all areas which will enable you to follow and grasp a detailed discussion on evaluation.


At the end of the lecture you should be able to;

 Define the word evaluation

 Describe the purpose of evaluation
 Distinguish the differences between measurement, testing, assessment and evaluation.

Evaluation in the content of education is a process used in obtain information from testing, from
direct observation of behavior, from essays and from other devices to assess a students overall
progress towards some predetermined goals or subjects. It includes both a qualitative and
quantitative description and involves a value judgment of overall student behavior for decision

Evaluation and measurement are not the same, although evaluation involves measurement, if we
assess a student’s knowledge and understanding in a subject by means of an objective or essay
type test, thin is measurement. If a teacher puts a value on the student's work, talents, attitudes
and other characteristics of behavior that is evaluation. Evaluation should in part involve testing
that is non-subjective on the part of the teacher; otherwise it is likely to be unreliable.

Assessment is used interchangeably with evaluation. Testing is the process of using an

instrument or test to measure achievement Measurement and testing are thus ways of gathering
evaluation and assessment data.

Activity 30

Distinguish between evaluation .measurement and testing.

Why do we have to evaluate?

8.1 Purposes of Curriculum Evaluation

Evaluation has many purposes; it can be used in the following ways.

(i) Evaluation as a basis for school marks or grades by teachers

Educational systems require that teachers occasionally submit marks or grades on .students.
These marks or grades can be arrived at through formal examinations, regular tests, assignments,
laboratories reports, observational information or combination of these.

(ii) Evaluation as a Means of Informing Parents

Parents of school children have a right to know how their children are progressing in school.
Students’ evaluation is the most important way of providing them with this information.

(iii)Evaluation for promotion to higher class

Student evaluation is sometimes used to determine whether a student has made enough progress
to be promoted to a higher class or form in the school.

(iv) Evaluation for Student Motivation

Success in tests and examinations as well .is spurts and other school activities can give great
encouragement to students. Similarly, failure to do well can make students work harder or strive
to do better. Teachers should try to give their students feedback on the evaluation of all aspects
of their learning and behavior so that both who do well and those who do not will he motivated
to improve on their performance.

(v) Evaluation for Guidance and Counseling Purposes

All students need to be advised to help them solve then own personal problems, whether
academic or emotional. The two types of problems are indeed often connected.

Successful students tend to enjoy school more than those who are not successful. It is generally
those who appear to be failures as indicated by the evaluation of the teaching staff, who need the
most attention and it is to them that the class teacher must direct herself.

(vi) Evaluation to Access the Effectiveness of the Teaching Strategy

If a teacher does not in some way assess the students’ improved knowledge, understanding and
higher cognitive skills as well as their attitudes and psychomotor abilities will not be able to

evaluate the success or otherwise of the teaching strategy she has employed. A higher failure rate
in a course is more often due to poor teaching than to the lack of intelligence of the students.

(vii) Evaluation for Employment Purposes

Not all students who pass, through post-primary schools will proceed to University or other
Institutions of higher learning. Some students may decide to join a company or business.
Employers normally require information on potential employees with reference to academic
ability, attitude to work, moral character personality and so on. It is therefore necessary for the
teachers to evaluate nearly all aspects of the student’s performance while they attend the school.

 Curriculum Evaluation

The primary purpose of curriculum evaluation is of course to determine whether the curriculum
goals and objectives are being carried out. These goals and objectives are to be evaluated in the
first place to determine if they are the right kind of objective. It also determines whether the
curriculum is functioning while in operation and using the best materials and the best

Curriculum evaluation also determines whether the products of our schools are successful in
higher education and in jobs, whether they can function in daily life and contribute to our
society. Curriculum evaluation also determines whether educational program is cost effective,
that is to say whether the people are getting the most of their money.

Activity 31

Are there any phases of evaluation?

8.2 Phases of Evaluation

There are three phases of evaluation which every teacher needs to know

 Pre-assessment
 Formative Evaluation
 Summative valuation
These terms are technical words to differentiate evaluation that takes place before instruction
(pre-assessment), during instruction (formative) and after instruction (summative). Pre-
assessment evaluation is provided before instruction that takes place before instruction to
determine the starting point on instructional program It identifies need prerequisite skills and
causes of learning difficulties and to place students in learning groups. Formative evaluation
consists of those techniques of a formal and informal nature, including testing, that are used
during the period of instruction. Progress tests given in the classroom are a good illustration of
formative evaluation.

Through formative evaluation teachers may diagnose student difficulties and take remedial
action to help them overcome their difficulties before they are confronted with the terminal
(summative) evaluation enables teachers to monitor their instruction so that they a may keep it
on course. It is also used to provide assessment of curriculum quality. It is conducted during the
curriculum development process for the additional purpose of providing information that can be
used to form better finished product. Thus formative evaluation takes place at a number of
intermediate points during curriculum development process.

Summative evaluation is the assessment that takes place at the end of a course or unit. A final
examination (post-test) means used for the summative evaluation of instruction. It major purpose
is to find out whether the students have mastered the preceding instruction. A good teacher
utilizes results of summative evaluation lo revise his or her program and methodology for
subsequent groups.

8.3 Role of Evaluation in Curriculum

Evaluation entails not a single study but also a series of sub-studies, performed at the various
stages of curriculum development process. The main aim of curriculum evaluation is to collect
descriptive information about an educational programme, which is then used to modify and
improve the program; to compare the program to other programs, and to make judgments to the
worth of the program of project.

Evaluation generally answers the questions regarding: selection, adoption, adoption, support
change, innovation and worth of an education program. Formative evaluation helps die
curriculum team at the planning stage to formulate a new educational policy, to discover new
needs, to formulate new goals, to clarify in their definition of goals, select appropriate goals form
competing goals, determine complementary goals, number of new disciplines to be taught
provide empirical evidence on the view of teachers, parents, learners, employers, professional on
what requires change or towards the envisaged change.

At the project materials development stage, evaluation helps to translate broad educational goals
into curriculum objectives for various subjects, redefine general objectives into operational
objectives, determine appropriate syllabus and textbooks structure and content, ensure relevance
in content scope, sequence, continuity, integration and balance, identify art is that require in-
service for teachers and determine appropriate evaluation procedures and process.

At the project field trial (try-out) stage evaluation helps to determine.

 Adequacy of the materials.

 Needed revisions, cost of production, quantity.
 Nature needed.
 Teaching-learning strategies used.
 Evaluation procedures - instrument required.

Evaluation at the school implementation stage check on arrival of teaching-learning resources in

schools and their use by teachers and students

 Whether teachers have been adequately prepared.

 Reaction of teachers, parents and other stakeholders on the new program.
 Whether procedures used meet the standard criteria designated by the curriculum
 What is actually being learned-the operational curriculum.
 What requires change?
 Acceptance of the new program by the beneficiaries.

National examinations cater for comparison of schools, districts, pupils, leaders. Grading
selection, placement, certification, school academic records. Evaluation of examinations
procedures ensures higher standards of education, detects areas of difficulty; determiners new
methods of teaching and evaluation; problems teachers and learners have in interpreting course

Activity 32

Assess the role of evaluation at each stage of curriculum development and implementation

Why do educational programs fail?

8.4 Principles of Instructional Evaluation

Instructional Evaluation should he used on the following criteria by which worth is determined.

 Consistency with Objectives

Evaluation should be used to measure what is indicated in curriculum objectives of a course

programme R. Tyler (1950) observer that educational objectives are the criteria by which
materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedure are developed and tests and
examinations are prepared. Evaluation tells us how successful we have been in this effort. The
criteria for evaluation and the result so obtained should be underscored and accepted by all those
concerned. There is need to develop in pupils the ability to learn further.

 Validity and reliability

Evaluation instruments are valid if they measure what they arc supposed to measure. A test in
CRE for example, should not be expected to elicit scientific knowledge but religious educational
concept. A valid test shall relate to objectives of the specific course and appropriate tor the level

Reliability refers to the consistency with which an evaluation instrument measures giving the
same score of results two different examiners are able to arrive the same score on the test
candidates who have gone through the same learning process. A test item that has several
answers yet the test constructor required only one correct answer cannot be said to be reliable. A
reliable test will also try to elicit the same abilities, skills from the same sample of students.

 Continuity
Curriculum evaluation should be an on-going process in order to provide effective feedback,
which will lead to course improvement, it should moreover relate to previous, present and future
learning experiences and follow proper sequencing of the course, from easy to complex items.
The evaluation system begins with curriculum decision, which results in the identification of the
first goals. It continues throughout the planning process into implementation activities, and
cycles back to the planning process.

Instructional evaluation should be a continuous process so that the teacher can adequately and
effectively assess each student needs in order to select appropriate resources, develop appropriate
learning strategies, judge each student merit, and provide effective feedback and motivation So
each student plan group methods, appropriate activities along specified learning objectives.

Through continuous assessment the teacher consistently and systematically provides the
educational experience most suited to the educational needs, interests, readiness and ability of
each student.

 Balance

Balance means that the curriculum developers have weighed the relative importance they have
given to each student need and development tasks. Considerations should be given to all student
needs. Evaluation should assess all skills weighted against the time allocated to each. Balance
also ensures that the various cognitive skills are equally or reasonably weighted. If the test items
dwell on higher or lower cognitive skills only, such a test will lack balance. Hence, there should
be a balance in the following cognitive levels of skills: knowledge, comprehensive, application,
analysts, synthesis and evaluation. There should be also balance theory and practical skills. All
subjects have theoretical and practical aspects.

 Comprehensiveness

Education aims at tile development of the whole person. Hence, all the objectives of the
curriculum programme should be evaluated, namely: the cognitive, effective, psychomotor,
spiritual and social relating domains. Evaluation instruments should be designed to yield
accurate information concerning personal, social adjustment, physical growth, spiritual growth,

habits of work, interests and attitudes; special aptitudes, growth in creative ability, home and
community backgrounds must also be available if the school is to do the best job possible in
fostering the wholesome growth of learners and preparing them for effective citizenship in a
democratic multi-part, multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi-religious society such as obtains in
Kenya. Education should prepare the individual lo face the vicissitudes of life with constancy,
persistency, insistence and courage.

Individuals play different roles al different educational experience and stages of life; Pre-
primary, primary, secondary, university; childhood, adolescence, adult middle age, retirement
age and old age. Each stage requires definite knowledge, skills, values and are subject to
evaluation by society. It is not the mere acquisition of knowledge that matters but how it utilized
Modem evaluation attempt to obtain as complete a picture ay possible of the individual. The
evaluation procedure is comprehensive if they utilize a variety of means and techniques in
collection evaluation data.

 Cooperation

An evaluation system is depended upon the adequacy of the planning which resulted in the
selected or creation of curriculum programs activities, procedures, resources and other elements
to be evaluated. Evaluation systems are also dependent upon the utility and integrity of the
specific data to be gathered, displayed an interpreted (practical skills, work at primary, secondary
and university exams) what criteria should be met to ensure validity and reliability?

An adequate evaluations system at least two levels of cooperation, the first concerns the integrity
of the relationships established among the planning, implementations and evaluation phase of
program building. Evaluation should be inbuilt in the planning and preparation states of
curriculum development. The second concerns the comprehensive involvement of ail parties,
which have legitimate input or from the programs activities or its evaluation systems.

The determination of what constitutes success or failure requires the cooperative involvement of
those who implement and are affected by the program and those who evaluate. There should be
cooperation among the KIE curriculum developers, the Kenya National Examinations Council
and the classroom teachers. There should be also cooperation among the psychologists,
sociologist, philosopher, religious leaders, professors, trade unionists, curriculum developers,
employers and teachers and all other stakeholders.

Evaluation instruments should be functional, practical understood and acceptable by all teachers
involved. There should be a closer relationship between the examination and the objectives
which school education hopes to achieve, therefore, between the style of the

What is the difference between evaluation and measurement?

8.5 Measurement and evaluation

Confusion usually arises in the use of the terms measurement, testing and evaluation. Let us
define each one of these terms.

(a) Measurement and Testing

i) Measurement is the means of determining the degree of achievement of a
particular objective or competency.
ii) Testing on the other hand, is the use of instruments for measuring

Measurement and testing are ways and tools of collecting information for evaluation and
assessment. These are not only ways of gathering evaluation data. There are others that we shall
deal with in the following lectures.

(b) Evaluation is the process of giving value, judgment based on the information
gathered through measurement and testing for decision making.
(c) Measurement and evaluation are not he same thing in curriculum development

Whatever judgment we make regarding the degree to which learners have achieved curriculum
objectives will be valid if they are based on empirical data. We can obtain empirical evidence
through measurement.

We use measurement to quantity representations of the degree to which a learner reflects certain
traits or behavior. Data obtained through measurement is basically descriptive in nature. It is
expressed numerical terms. Elements of value connotations are avoided as much as possible by

 Purpose for Evaluation

Evaluation has a lot of purposes for both schools and public. Some of thosepurposes are
identified as follows:

Evaluation as a Basis of Student Records by Teachers

Many educational authorities require that teachers submit marks or grade for their students, at the
end of the term or year. The grades or makes are kepi as records of students performancemarks
or grades are arrived at through formal examinations, lost, regular assignments, oral or written
reports or observations.

Promotion to Higher Grades

Schools are examination and test results to determine whether students have made enough
progress to be promoted to the next class or form in the school. In many cases a student whose
progress is low, is advised to repeat the same class for a year before he can move on-to the next
one. The class teacher in consultation with the head-teacher will talk to the parent of the affected
student and convince him to see the advantages of the child to repeat. Fear of failing in the final
selection examination is cited as a big reason in many schools

Selection and Certification Purpose

Not all students who pass through the primary school systems move automatically to secondary
schools or form one. National examinations are used in Kenya to select those who have passed
with enough points to go to form one. The National examinations are similarly used to select
students to join form five and University- Examinations results are also as a criterion for
certification. Thus students who pass national examinations at various levels are entitled to being
issued with certificates. For instance, the (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) and
'Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E).

Employment Purposes

Students who complete primary and post-primary school education are provided with certificates
which enable employers to make a choice. Some students may want to join a company or
training for a profession in pubic or private sectors. All employers usually require information on
perspective trainees or employees. Such information may include academic attainment in
specific subjects, attitude towards work, moral behavior, personality another relate d data .to
many cases, a student's certificate or school leaving1 testimonial will be important for training
and employment purposes.

Student Motivation

Good performance by students on tests and examinations has been proved by educators to be a
motivation to them. Failure to do-well in examinations may also crease a sense ofcompetition
with students. They will work hard to improve performance in futureexaminations.

Ithas been, suggested that teacher feedback will assist students to work harder.

Guidance and Counseling purposes

Students in all schools need to know their progress in academic performances. The only way
they can judge themselves and be able to solve their personal problems is by seeing their
performance on class tests or examinations. Successful students tend to enjoy school much more
then those who do not perform well. Those who seem to be failures need greater attention by the
teachers. The teacher must direct attention to such demanding cases in a class.

Assessment of the effectiveness of teaching strategies

Many students fail examinations due to poor teaching methods. Teachers who do not assess
students’ acquisition of knowledge, skills andunderstanding in a course may not be bale to judge
the effectiveness of the approaches in teaching. Assessment of student will therefore assist the
teacher to modify the teaching strategy where necessary.

Purposes of informing parents or guardians

Parents want know how their children are performing in class. It is their right to know the
progress children. Terminal records of students’ performance are the most of informing parents
about the performance of their children in school. Some parents may use such records to advice
their children or recommend to their teachers what steps should be taken to improve the child's

Activity 33
What is curriculum evaluation?

Why should parents/guardians be informed?

Difference between Instructional and Curriculum evaluation

Instructional and curriculum evaluation are not the same. Instructional process may be very
effective whereas the curriculum may be out of order. Instructional evaluation may reveal that
the students are achieving the instructional objectives well. If we do not evaluate and rely
through curriculum evaluation that we shall know if we are following items well but they may
not be universally acceptable as being correct. The earth is flat, illness is caused by the evil eyes
and bad spirits, all developing human beings are corrupt and all children can be doctors and

The main purpose that curriculum evaluation is undertaken is to determine whether curriculum
goals and objectives are being carried out correctly. The following are other questions we may
need to provide answers for through curriculum evaluation:

 We want lo know whether the goals and objectives are the right ones.
 We should be interested to know if the curriculum is functioning while in operation
 We want to know whether the material wears using is the right one.
 We also want to know how our products, (graduates) can function in daily life after
school, and whether they are contributing to the development of our society.
 We want to know whether the programme we have launched raw deal for our

Activity 34

How do we obtain data for evaluating a curriculum?

8.6 Gathering Evaluation Data
Sources of data for curriculum evaluation are numerous. For the purposes of our study we shall
divide into two categories.

 Teacher-made-tests and examinations.

 Other informal devices.

(a) Teacher-Made-Tests and Examinations

Established procedures for collecting data for curriculum evaluation are mostly to do with
instructional evaluation. In Kenya, teacher-made-test provides the only information that may be
used for determining student progress in school. Tests are predominantly used in school for
evaluation because:

a) They are expected to be objective.

b) They are economically viable for use.
c) They are easy to administer.
d) They provide a norm against which individual achievement can be judged.

Tests have their limitations too, e.g.

 Tests do not tests all objectives

 Non-cognitive abilities are hardly tested.
 Teacher-made-tests tend to ignore individual learners differences.

However, tests and examinations do provide data for curriculum evaluation that serves a useful
function in judging the quality of the whole curriculum.

Informal evaluation devices serve as an important source of evaluation data. Some of the devices
used also come under the instructional evaluation. They may include:

 All students' records in school.

 Classroom observation by teachers.
 Students’ projects.

 Essays and classroom exercises and other assignments.

The curriculum document itself will be acceptable to serve as a source of curriculum evaluation.
Curriculum documents consist of all the elements indicated below which should be useful for
providing information for evaluation:-

 Statement of purposes
 Curriculum content
 Learning activities
 Evaluation procedures indicate.

Teachers form an inherent source of data for curriculum evaluation. Information needed for
curriculum evaluation should be obtained from the teachers who are involved in the
implementation of the curriculum in schools. Information from teachers can be obtained by
means of:

i) Interview
ii) Questionnaires
iii) Oral or written devices.

Teachers’ perception of curriculum content, instructional materials, learning activities, relevance

and student performance in general yield valuable information about what goes on in our

Students are an important source of curriculum evaluation data. Many curriculum developers
forget the fact that students can provide very useful information on the curriculum. Students will
provide information freely when they know what it will not be used to determine individual
grades. The information obtained from students should be compared with that from teachers.

Materials used for instructions would serve a useful purpose as a source of evaluation data.

These materials include:

 Text books for teaching and references.

 Films, slides, periodicals etc.

Some books for instance, may serve no useful purpose as class texts; others may be out-dated
while others may provide undesirable information to the students. They may not assist the
teacher in attaining objectives.

Follow-up studies of graduates will yield good information on how effective the objectives in the
curriculum were achieved. Studies of graduates have been organized and carried out to determine
what the youths who complete primary education in this country do. These studies have revealed
that a lot of youths who graduate from primary schools cannot be absorbed in employment
among the graduates. Crime among youths and lack of relevant skills would be relevant for
making decisions on what changes should be taken by curriculum developers.

Society would be mother-important source of evaluation data. How do we get curriculum

evaluation data from society whose population consists of people with diverse social and cultural
backgrounds? Information about what1 goes on in schools could be solicited through various

i) Letters to prominent members of our society will give us what we expect.

ii) Parents visit's schools and other local personnel who may express concern in the welfare
of schools would be acceptable.

Activity 35

Examine the process of Curriculum Evaluation in Kenya.

In Kenya the task of evaluating the curriculum in schools is carried out into phases:-

 Formative Evaluation Phase

 Summative Evaluation Phase

In all the two phases different personnel are involved. Let as examine the role of each personnel
in curriculum evaluation. The ministry of education science and technology has the following
branches of personnel who undertake the evaluation tasks in Kenya.

a) The Inspectorate
i) Subject inspectors at the headquarters are responsible for every subject that is
included in the curriculum and taught in our schools. There is a team of subject
specialists who inspect and provide information on the effectiveness or weakness of
subject-content; methodology and material used for instruction.
ii) Subject Inspectors at the headquarters co-ordinate activities pertaining to particular
subjects for all schools, i.e. secondary, colleges and primary schools.
iii) Subject-inspectors at the headquarters are assisted by provincial and district schools
(b) Curriculum Development K.I.E
i) The section of research and evaluation is responsible for curriculum evaluation at
both formative and summative phases. The work of evaluating curriculum is done by
curriculum development experts under the auspices of the section of research and
evaluation. Whatever evaluation is undertaken by this group is used to supplement
what is done by the inspectorate.
ii) KIE has a panel which reviews books for schools. Recommendation of the books
reviewed is transmitted to the Ministry of Education Science and Technology. The
approved books are either bought by the schools Equipment Scheme or sent to
schools or head-teachers may be provided with the list of books to enable them to
purchase them. The panel may also recommend some books to be withdrawn from
Circulation and use by schools if they may find them to be undesirable. You have
seen in your schools lists and circulars from the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology showing new books recommended as teachers references, pupils class
text etc. the circulars may also inform the teachers if the new books will be set books
for literature of fasihiya Kiswahili, etc.

(c) Role of the Kenya National Examinations Council

Instructional evaluation will reveal to us a lot of what goes on in various classrooms and what
actually happens in different schools. End of year examinations (National Examinations.) have
been used for many years as a yardstick to measure the achievement of curriculum objectives.
The role of the Kenya National Examination Council is to facilitate the setting, moderating,
marking and grading of all national examinations for various levels of education in this country.
In particular, the council is in charge of primary schools, secondary schools, Teachers colleges,
Technical Training Institutions and other relevant public examinations taken in the country.


Issues and changes in curriculum are many, in recent years we have a seen wide range of
innovations emerge in education. The efforts of the innovations for the innovations are designed
to improve the quality of schooling for ail Kenyan children. The most recent effort has been the
introduction of the 8.4.4 system of education with vocational education as its core. Other
changes which have occurred in education since early sixties through seventies are the
establishment of the Jomo Kenyatta foundation for the publication of educational books and
other related teaching materials: the establishment of Kenya School Equipment Scheme (KSES)
for the acquisition and distribution of school equipment to schools under the jurisdiction of the
ministry of Education, the scheme supplies mainly books and other instructional materials to tiie
primary schools throughout the country.

However, many attempts to develop the systems designed to meet the needs of the children; in
Kenya have appeared and again disappeared through out the history of education in the country.
Although we have not yet developed die means to implement genuinely effective education
programmes designed, to meet the needs of individual children, the government has increasingly
a wide range of options and directions to be followed.

This lecture is devoted to a discussion of such options and changes. Some changes have been
with us for long while others are quite recent in our educational practices.


After studying this lecture, you should be able to:

(1) Identify curriculum changes before independence

(2) Identify specific curriculum changes in subject areas after independence
(3) Name some of the curriculum projects that have been initiated in Kenya alter
(4) Name curriculum projects initiated before independence

This study of curriculum changes in Kenya goes back to the year 1890 when Africans rules
themselves. The curriculum that was offered to the youth was meant to prepare him for his
responsibilities as an adult in his home, his village and his tribe. Instructions were given by the
fathers and through organized systems of elders or villagers.

The curriculum that was taught to the child included:

Craftsmanship through apprenticeship system, initiation of rites, religion, hunting, farming

including the raising of cattle, community responsibility, number work, dance and music.

The elders as part of the instructors made sure that the youth were introduced to the legends
surrounding previous exploit of their tribe, to the mysteries of their religion and practical aspects
of running. Along this process of teaching Seaming aspects, there were-varieties of formal arid
and non formal observances in addition to the experience of dailyliving which had a profound
effect on the youth's place in the society in which politics economics and social relationships
were invariably interwoven.

The period (1891-1911) of the curriculum development in Kenya was heavily assisted by few
Christian missions and indirect government help given in the form of grants in aid. The primary
goal of missionary education was to make converts and train catechists. But it soon established
as basic elements in the curriculum the following:

Practical skills, carpentry, gardening (to maintain mission stations) and literacy (reading and

These skills were taught specifically to children so that they could acquire skills to use and also
learn how to relate themselves properly to their immediate and extended families, ancestors, their
peers and their gods.

The period (1911) marked the beginning of the establishment of the department of education
with a Director. In 1924 there were four outstanding events, which contributed largely to the
process of Kenyan education. These events were as follows:

The visit of the Phelps stroke commission ate adaptation of the Education Ordinance of 1924, the
appointment of the colonial office advisory committee and the appointment of Local Advisory
Committee on African Education.

The general policy of the Educational Department as adapted in 1911 and based upon the
excellent work of the great Afro-American known as Mr. Booker T. Washington in a book
entitled "Working with hands" not only remained unchanged in principles, butwas confirmed
and strengthened, first by the agriculture policy of the late Sir Robert Corydon and secondly by
the principles advocated by Dr. Jones and the Phelps Stokes Commission, namely Adaptation

to Environment in Education, and the distinction between the education of the masses and the
education of the leaders.

By 1952 the principles governing the curriculum were based as far as possible on the Mentality,
Customs and. Institutions of the Africans. New knowledge or skill was taught in contact with the
indigenous knowledge or skill. The curriculum was developed m view of the needs of the
village. The life of the school provided opportunity for the exercise of the quality of character
which the colonial office wished to impart and encourage and therefore the curriculum was to
utilize every opportunity of education arising in the life of the school.

Since independence up to the present there has been a rapid expansion of education in Kenya.
First there was the integration of the pre-1963 African Asian and European syllabuses into one.
Then there was the New Primary Approach which was initiated in the mid-fifties by the special
centre. The chief developments were seen in classroom practice and in the material used for the
teaching of English, Kiswahili, Mathematics and Science by Curriculum Research and
Development Centreformed through amalgamation of the Mathematics and Science Centre with
the special centre. By 1968 Kenya .Institute of Education (K.I.E) absorbed the C.R.D.C and its
on-going projects. Thebiggest in scale of these were the Safari English Services which were used
in standard IV, V and VI in high proportion.

9.2 Curriculum Innovations in Kenya
 New Primary Approach (NPA)

The New Primary Approach was an innovation in the teaching of English in Primary Schools.
The programme was initiated as a result of poor performance among the Asian and African
children in Kenya. Plans were made to start the programme in Asian Schools first. Four years
after the centre was opened, the Oxford University Press launched the PEAK SERIES
publications, a group of books in English designed to meet the needs of Asian children in East
Africa who begin their primary education in English without prior knowledge of the language.
The Ford Foundation provided printing equipment, tape-recorders, and additional staff.

By 1963, the New Primary Approach had picked up very much. Teacher Training Colleges
introduced the NEW SERIES English Medium. The objective of this special centre was to
educate through the medium of English but not to teach English. By this time (1963) the newly
independent Kenya commended on the programme by saying that, the government has been
actively attacking the problem of standards of primary education from the area of teaching
methods and the curriculum. It went on to say that one of the most promising ventures in the
history of education in Kenya has been the development of the New Primary Approach in the
primary schools. The essence of the programme is that the old concept of the child passively
receiving instruction from the teacher should be replaced by a system in which the pupil
develops through active and full participation in the education process.

There was a slow down on the program by 1970 because of lack of uniformity in the quality of
the NPA program. Supervision was inadequate; classroom and teaching facilities were very poor.
The government decided not to open more NPA classes.

The New Primary Approach influenced the teaching of vernacular languages and the General
Methods of K.I.E produced TKK series of vernacular readers which were very useful pamphlets
on the approach to reading, and a variety of other materials designed on N.P.A lines.

 Science Education Programme for Africa (SEPA)

The Science Education Programme for Africa was an unusual project since its inception in1971,
when the African Primary Science Programme (APSP) handed over its responsibilities to it. The
aim of SEPA was not only the production of curriculum materials, but also it attempted to build
into teachers at all levels of educational system the ability to make effective decisions about

The project influenced the teaching of primary science in Kenya through the

(i) Promotion effective ways of learning science by utilizing the child's environment.
(ii) Developing and introducing new and relevant science curricula materials into African
(iii) Establishing institutions in Africa concerned mainly with the furtherance of the renewal
of science curricula.
(iv) Encouraging Kenyans to write more science materials.

 Kenyans Primary M athematics project (KPMP)

The Kenya Primary Mathematics project encountered a number of problems similar to those
encountered by the school Mathematics Study Group (SMSG) and the School Mathematics of
East Africa (SMSG)

Some of the problems that this project encountered were:

(i) Negligence of making mathematics practical.

(ii) Isolation of mathematics from the physical and social sciences by putting too much
emphasis on such topics as set theory, symbolic logic abstract, algebra, matrices and
Bolean Algebra.
(iii) Lack of sufficient tools of evaluation because Kenya found that the Entebbe project
(SMEA) which was similar to the SMSG failed to meet the needs of the country.
(iv) Lack of sufficient or proper trials.
(v) Teachers were not given chances of developing materials.
(vi) In general this project filed to achieve its objectives.
The only major significant success that this project made was production of plenty of
mathematics materials through workshops. Also commercial publishers entered into the business
of producing many books on new mathematics.

The reading below takes us into the historical development of the KPMP and the criticisms the
project received during its implementation.

This reading comes from an occasional paper written by Professor George Eshiwani. He
discusses the origin of the project and gives some of the criticisms that were given to the project.

 Kenya Primary Mathematics (KPM)

In 1964 a decision was taken to begin a long term project to develop a new series of
mathematics in Kenya Primary Schools, it was intended to use the Entebbe Mathematics series
for one year in each standard, beginning with standard 1 in 1965, and then each year to replace
this book with an experimental Kenya text which would to a definite Kenya series. Twenty-five
experimental schools in Nairobi and Kisumu Districts were chosen. In-service programmes for
the teachers in these schools were conducted and the Teacher Training Colleges were visited on
regular basis to acquaint tutors with the new developments. The project proceeded more or less
as planned until 1968 but in 1969 shortage of staff of the mathematics section of the Kenya
Institute of Education, which had been entrusted with the production of new materials, resulted
in the experimental editions of the books being dropped.

In 1970 the decisions were taken to extend the new series, and then named as Kenya Primary
Mathematics, to all schools in Kenya in January 1971. Curriculum work that had to be
undertaken by the Kenya Institute of Education to meet this new situation was gigantic. The
KPM textbooks had to be written hurriedly and passed on to schools.

As in the case of the SMEA programme, the content in the KPM consisted of more than 60% of
the topics from the traditional mathematics (e.g. Highway Series). There were few “new” topics
such as sets, bases, probability, and statistics, transformation, geometry and clock arithmetic. The
major difference between the KPM texts and the traditional text was in the presentation of the
subject matter.

Criticism of New Mathematics Programme

In many countries, the new mathematics has provided a field day for cartoonists, monologists
and polemists. Some of the criticisms have been insightful while others have been penetrating. It
is worth mentioning that several people in Kenya have written in the past about the shortcomings
of the new mathematics. Several years ago the following criticisms on the new mathematics in
Kenya have been identified.

The new mathematics syllabus and the textbooks being used are far too difficult for the average
child in this country and the content is extremely demanding to both the student and the teacher.
The texts are best suited to the top students, especially those who will continue in mathematics
beyond the high school. Little attention has been devoted to the average and below average
student. The fact that primary and secondary education is terminal for the majority of our school
population dictates that school curriculum should be tailored to this group and not to the
academic extroverts.

The applications of mathematics were largely ignored. Mathematics should derive from the
application to the real world or it will lose its vitality, one of the shortcomings of the new
mathematics curriculum in Kenya is that it was left largely in hands of expatriate staff who could
not translate their good intentions into reality for the Kenya child.

Rigour, precision and symbolism were overdone in both SARA and in the KRM textbooks and
sometimes become an end in themselves. Two effects of this were:

(i) A decline in interest on the part of students whose concern are more practical.
(ii) A peculiar form of notational mockery among some students, teachers and examiners ( if
you cannot use the symbol you do not know basic mathematics).

The conceptual emphasis was so great that teachers would incorporate appropriate computational
skills in their instruction. The teachers did not do this and hence the public outcry about
incompetence of the school children in performing simple computational operations.

Both the primary and secondary school syllabus were overloaded. Most teachers complained that
there was so much work to be done that they had no time to try out new techniques in their

The language use in the SMRA and in the KPM textbooks is generally difficult for most pupils.
This has often led to inadequate understanding of the subject matter. Lack of curriculum
diffusion between those who develop curriculum at K.I.E.and teachers. The curriculum
developers failed to communicate to classroom teachers what they were trying to accomplish.
There were insignificant in-service training programs for teachers who were supposed to teach
new mathematics. As a result, many of the mathematics festers were no better than their students.
Of course the new texts were well taught by good teachers but in the hands of poor teachers it
was a complete disaster. There was no evaluation of the new mathematics both at primary and
secondary level. This long term effect of changing from one type of curriculum to another was
therefore not evaluated.

 The Gachathi Report of 1976 spelled out in details the objective of education. This
commission was assigned the task of investigating the quality of education in Kenya.
Primary education has been accused by members of the community that it lacked quality,
content and relevance and therefore it was not catering sufficiently for the majority of our
children for whom primary education is terminal.

In an effort to fulfill this responsibility, the government decided to introduce far reaching
changes in Kenya's Primary Education Programme (PEP) which took into called primary and
relevance. The development of PEP started in 1997 and in progress was the piloting of materials
for standard one to five. Piloting of other classes followed this until they were all covered. The
development of PEP was based on the premise that:

(i) There is need to improve the quality, content and relevance of primary education so that
it centers more effectively for the majority of children for whom primaryeducation is
(ii) Primary education should be made available to all primary school age children.

(iii)Primary education should be broadly based and lead to the development ofcompetencies
in a variety of practical skills.
(iv) Primary education should concentrate on the needs of the majority who terminatetheir
education at the primary school level while bearing in mind the needs of those who will
continue to the secondary ant tertiary cycles.

The programme consisted of three phases:

(i) Designing of a primary and primary teacher education curriculum programme and
production of curriculum materials.
(ii) Implementation of the primary and primary teacher education programme into all
thePrimary schools and primary teachers colleges.
(iii)Summative evaluation of the programme.

 The Mackay's Report of 1981 which was presidential working party on the second
university recommended among other things the major changes to 8-4-4 system of

The essential elements of the new system are in the area of structure which has 8 years of
primary, 4 years of secondary and 4 years minimum university education. In the area of
curriculum, content is oriented towards technical education and not examination centered.

The preparation of the curriculum tor the 8 years primary cycle was patterned on similar lines to
the primary education project popularly known as PEP which was by then being developed by
the Kenya institute of Education.

The most significant aspects of PEP with the 8 years of primary education are:

(i) Focus on the entire primary education.

(ii) Relationalization of primary education
(iii)Reorganization of subjects into broad curriculum areas with common objectives
(iv) Introduction of new subjects to meet identified needs not presently adequately catered

The curriculum is organized on two broad cycles:

Lower primary cycle (Std. 1-3)

Upper primary (Std. 4-8)

Lower primary (Std. 1-3)

The main emphasis at this level is the development of numeracy and literacy language

(i) Mother tongue (including Kiswahili where it is used as a mother tongue). Mother tongue
is also used as the medium of instruction.
(ii) English


Science (integrating agriculture, home science and general science).

Social Studies (integrating geography, history, civics and social education).

Religious Education

(i) Christian Religious Education

(ii) Islamic Religious Education

Creative Arts:

(i) Art and Craft

(ii) Music
(iii)Physical education

Upper Primary (Std. 4-8)

The main emphasis at this level is the development of practical skills to prepare children

for the world of work. The subjects to be followed are:


(I) Kiswahili
(II) English - also used as the medium of instruction



Home Science

Social Studies (incorporating Geography, history, civics and social education).

Religious Education

(I) Christian Religious Education.

(II) Islamic Religious Education.

Practical skills education

(I) Agriculture.
(II) Art Education.
(III) Craft Education.
(IV) Business Education.


Physical Education

In an attempt to relate primary school education to development of life oriented skills, a new
cluster of subjects known as practical skills was introduced in primary education; this was
adapted after extensive consultation and discussion in preference to occupational skills education
that had been used earlier. The latter is considered to be presumptuous and gives the impression
that at the end of primary education the pupils will have prepared for ajob or occupation the most
that can be expected to be achieved within the primary cycle is the building of a solid education
foundation with some practical skills on which the pupils can build after leaving school.

(a) Standard 8 Curriculum

According to the primary education (PEP) project plan for Std. 8 piloted in 1986 and was to be
available to all schools until 1989 as the earliest. Therefore, to facilitate the implementation of
the 8.4.4 program in 1985, an interim curriculum program for Std. 8 replaced by PEP materials
until it was completely phased out.

The interim curriculum was based on existing curriculum areas, that is, the subjects as they
appeared on the current primary timetable and not as proposed by PEP. However, not unduly
penalized as they waited for the completion of the development of PEP materials. Care was taken
to ensure that the transition from std. 7 to 8 in the interim period was smooth.

A new examination was developed and used in 1985. The details of the examination were
worked out alongside the development of the interim curriculum. A new examination was also
developed through PEP.

b) Secondary Education Cycle.

The presentation of the secondary education cycle was made by the Director of Higher
Education, who made the following:

That secondary education should take off from the cut off from the point of primary education
and hence down to standard VIII.

(i) That current from own work should not be pushed down to standard VIII.
(ii) Stds. VII and VIII will need to be diversified.
(iii)The development of an elaborate secondary education curriculum is to take into account
the basic preparation offered in the primary education cycle, hence it has to await the
completion of the development of the 8-year primary educationcurriculum.
(iv) The secondary education curriculum is to be based on the terminal level of theprimary
education cycle.
(v) There was a need for continued close cooperation and liaison between theMinistries of
Basic and Higher Education in the implementation of the 8-4-4education .system.

Thatthere was a need for agreement with the University on the terminal level of secondary
education particularly on what aspects of the current KACE academic work should be retained in
secondary education and what aspects should move to the university.

There was a need to examine the various issues relating to the secondary terminal i1
examination, and certification, as well as the nature, level and duration of the various post-
secondary training programs.

 Four year University Education Cycle

The vice-chancellor of the University of Nairobi made the following presentation on the

University Education Cycle. He made the following comments:

He reported that the senate in its discussion last year on the 8-4-4 education had raised several
points regarding,

(i) The level at which secondary school leavers will be selected for University entry.
(ii) What would be covered in the extra university year.

He noted that university education in East Africa is currently based on 'A' level
academicpreparation and that recommended change to 4 year secondary education is

The working party on the Second University did not go into details of the changes in University
Education. It recommended that it should be more practical in its approach.Graduates were to be
practical oriented and aware of general development issues andstrategies. It was also
recommended that the B.Ed. programme at Kenyatta Universityshould be reviewed to make it
richer in content.

He noted that while University Education must continue at the present level of competence, there
were mundane implications of lengthening the duration of UniversityEducation.


In this lecture we have been able to discuss curriculum changes that have taken place in Kenya
educational development. Specifically we have slated that changes in curriculum in Kenya go
way back to pre-colonial and colonial era. In 1963, the New Primary Approach was very popular
as an innovation in schools. NPA did not last long in the system due to a number of factors.

Science Education programme for Africa, the Kenya Primary mathematics project, and
othersimilar projects were introduced after independence.

An important change that has occurred in the history of our educational development in Kenya
has been the introduction of the 8:4:4 cycle system of education.

Activities 36

Discuss some; curriculum changes in Kenya between 1960 and 1966

Read more on N.P A and give your views on why die project failed.

Examine the criticisms against the Kenya primary mathematics. Why was the programme
criticized so strongly?

Which are the areas in the 8:4:4 syllabus that you consider to the new and which ones are not?

Give reasons for your reactions.

9.2 Forces Affecting Curriculum Innovation in Kenya

People who develop curriculum are faced with a lot of issues to wrestle with. Some of these
affect curriculum changes. In this lecture we shall refer to these issues as forces which affected
curriculum changes in Kenya.

Some specific forces have been selected for our discussion in this lecture. There are many others
which could not be discussed in the small space for this lecture. We shall particularly discuss the
drive for power, in a force, the appeal for the shillings, growth in knowledge and peoples need in


After studying this lecture you should be able to:

1. Describe some factors which affect curriculum changes.

2. Explain how growth in knowledge has influenced curriculum decisions.
3. Examine various needs of the society, which must be considered in curriculum planning

Curriculum development is a difficult and complex task. There are many problems and no ready
solutions. In many curriculum cases one would find in our schools appear to stress the teaching
of subject matter (knowledge) and forgetting to remember that the child's needs ate paramount.
There is too much of class instruction going on in our schools and too little of education of the
hands. The question of how far is our curriculum in tune with our social change, needs and future
aspirations has been asked again and again. No solution has been given to this question. For
those involved in the construction of the school curriculum, they tend to adapt foreign ideas and
use them in teaching. Some of the ideas become completely impracticable and are abandoned
before they mature.

There is need for changes which would occur gradually and not abruptly. In most cases the
syllabus is designed in such a way that knowledge is brought to the child who goes seeking for
knowledge. The teacher should initiate the child and arouse his curiosity which willlead the child
in seeking for knowledge. This process can be termed self-learning whichis true learning.
President Moi has repeatedly pointed out that discipline should be studied more than the content
of the subject.This is to say that in studying agriculture children should study the subject from
theagriculturist approach and so on. The exploration and inquiry approaches should be
given the priority. While studying a discipline .it should be studied in the manner in which it
affects our society.

Our classroom instruction does not provide sufficient freedom to the child. A flexibleclassroom
is needed where children go on discovering the world around them as theyseek that knowledge
that is unknown to them.

From the beginning ofKenya's independence in 1963 hostile influences have continued to plague
our school systems.

Groups and individuals ofvaried view-points have since then affected our schools. Today those
of us in curriculum work have recognized some hostile agents, and thus some force themselvesto
affect the curriculum intimately and consistently. These special and permanent forces, with their
temporary agents tend to cause curriculum change, though sometimes they hold it back. Because
the curriculum is where people are, the special, permanent forces bringing about the other
affecting curriculum changes are dearly human. Each force in its quality of humanness holds
potential for good and potential for end. Each lies deep inhuman motivation.

Four forces affecting curriculum in Kenya have become especially prominent. These are:

(i) The drive for power.

(ii) The appeal of the shilling.
(iii) The growth in knowledge with corresponding efforts at evaluation, acquisition of
(iv) The needs and concerns of people in schools within surrounding social and cultural
 The Drive to Power

During the sixties the people's drive for power over the curriculum revealed itself in theurge of
people to speak loudly, to alert other citizens to an alleged problem, to becomenationally
prominent.Sometimes the drive had a helpful end, often it seemed only a quest for power for
people’s sake. During the early sixties the attack on the curriculum was justified because the
colonial curriculum was not designed to the needs of the Kenya people. So improvement was
needed in providing education geared to meet the need of the learners and for national

There has been in the pastmilitancy by teachers’ organizations which have learned that when one
begins to talkabout teachers' welfare, he must soon discuss organization of schools and children's
curricula,both of which matters have previously been in the presence of Ministry of Education.

The militant behavior of youth, beginning at university and moving to the secondaryschools.
'Ihere has been also a push by scholars in the subject-fields or political positions who often at the
expense of professional educators and especially curriculum leaderscriticize what primary and
secondary schools are teaching.

Whileformal arrangements for decision making about the curriculum have not materially
changed, the people who have initiated and sanctioned curriculum ideas have often been those
who do not understand the concept of curriculum change.

 The Appeal for the Shilling

A second fundamental force which has affected curriculum change in Kenya has been the strong
appeal which money has for curriculum makers. People are always in need of funds to do what
they have wanted to do for children, curriculum personnel have found a bonanza in grants-in-aid,
which have frequently proved to be mixed blessings. The ministry of education has become a
seeker of special grants or loans to improve curriculum. When this money has been acquired, the
government through the ministry of education still has something to say about ways in which
funds are to be used for supporting and expanding the curriculum.

On the other hand foreign donors in recent years have frequently ear marked, designated, or
categorically control the precise nature of curriculum reform they want. This has been viewed by
the country receiving the aid as stifling creativeness and holding hack development in the third
world among which Kenya is one, as well causing excessive dependence on the developed

While grants or loans have emphasized, for example, particularized the teaching of new
mathematics, material developers have demanded financial profits through new educational ideas
and increase in child population. Because of the appeal of the shilling the producers of
educational materials have flooded the market with these materials which are conditioning
increasingly what children learn. Thus one can say that both the curriculum package sealers from
foreign countries and the sales promotion schemes of businessman here in Kenya are having
unprecedented impact on curriculum decision making.

 Growth of Knowledge

A third force persistently affecting curriculum change in growth in knowledge, which in the past
occurred slowly and quite steadily but now shows marked erratic burst of speed. The teacher is
no longer able to recover the book. Instead many books now cover the teacher. Nowadays
knowledge filters in all fields, so that Herbert Spencer's question of "what knowledge is of most
worth?" becomes more and more pertinent. Against a backdrop of educational objectives,
curriculum planners are forced to seek new answers to Spencer's question.


This lecture has explored various issues and changes that have taken place in Kenya before and
idler independence. Among throe issues and changes which look places before independence
was die Phelps stokes report which recommended separate education for Africans, Asians and
white children allowed to proceed to secondary schools.

The post-independence curriculum changes are discussed starting from the Ominde report (1964)
die Gachathi report (1976) and Mackey report of 1981. All these education commissions and
committees did recommend that the Kenyan education should be made more practical tor the
Kenyan child whose education is likely to end at primary school levels.

Curriculum change as they have wished in part they have been able to show interests in ideas
that can now be seen in the newly introduced 8-4-4 system of education. Experience has shown
that to organize human knowledge for teaching there is a need for academic scholars to team up
with curriculum specialist, behavioral scientists, and specialists, behavioral scientists and
specialists in research and evaluation of curriculum aspects.

With the increasing growth of knowledge, definite attitudes towards its growth have emerged.
While one of those attitudes have been concerned with how to sort out elements of knowledge
and place them with the curriculum, another attitude has been fear that even the former elements
are not being understood and learned.

 Needs of the People in School

A fourth force affecting curriculum change is the need and concerns of pupils, teachers, parents
and administration for children.

The real needs and concerns of people have part of their foundation in society and community.
Therefore, parents and other community members should be expected to contribute to in-school
education. This is not the case with our Kenyan community where most parents feel that the
school is an independent institution away from the society in which they live. The present
economic order in Kenya assisted by a new technology requires that pupils be introduced to new
sets of skills to deal with. The experience in the urban and the rural call for school curriculum to
face live social problems. Furthermore, the current crisis in unemployment and values among our
youth makes us seek better ways of educating in the effective domain.

A major concern of teaching and administrators is for pre-service and in-service development of
teaching skills which will help teachers do their best in classrooms. Because of not providing
butter training facilities to out teachers it has been difficult for these curriculum changes.

9.3 Some curriculum development tips

Role of curriculum agents, steps in curriculum process, translation of theory into practice,
recognizing and rewarding academic excellence, affecting methods to enhance learning, the need
for foundation of curriculum, classification of curriculum objectives, behaviorism in class-room
situation, teaching critical thinking, deciding and applying teaching methods, understanding
curriculum designs and sharing curriculum activities.


Mt Kenya University










a) Explicitly discuss the following elements of the school curriculum:
i. Educational objectives
ii. Learning experiences
iii. Content / subject matter
iv. Evaluation ( 2 marks each x 4= 8 marks)
b) Describe the following criterion/principles for the selection of content
i. Validity
ii. Significance
iii. Learnability (2 X3= 6 Marks)
c) Explain the importance of curriculum and education. (6 marks)
d) Identify three types of curriculum available in your school and describe them. (3marks)
e) Describe the curriculum development processes. (7 marks)

SECTION B (40 Marks)
a) What is a model? (2 marks)
b) Critically analyze the following models showing how they relate to education:
i. Tylerian Model (4 Marks)
ii. Taba`s model (3 Marks)
iii. Wheeler`s model (3 mks)
c) Define curriculum design and explain three types of curriculum design identifying their
advantages and disadvantages. (8 Marks)
3. Describe the following dimensions of school curriculum giving examples for each and showing how
they relate with elements of curriculum:
a) Formal dimension
b) Non formal dimension
c) Informal dimension (4 mks each x 3=12mks)
d) Explain what innovation is and identify one recent innovation in Kenya highlighting its
successes and failures. (8 Marks)
4. With appropriate illustrations describe the following curriculum documents as used in a classroom
a) Syllabus (5mks)
b) Schemes of work (5mks)
c) Lesson plan (5mks)
d) Text materials (5mks)

5. Critically evaluate the implementation of curriculum innovations in our education system today
citing the challenges faced by the implementers. Highlight the roles of the curriculum
implementers. (20 mks)


Bishop, G (1985) Curriculum Development. A Textbook for Students, London McMillan


Bloom, B. S. (1956).Taxonomy of Educational objectives.The Classification of Educational

Goals.Handbook 1. Cognitive Domain, New York: David Mackay Company.

D”Souza, H. (1987). Kenya Education in it’s African Context Vol. 2, Vantage Press.

Flaunders, N A. (1970).Analyzing Teaching Behaviour. Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Johnson, H. T. (1968). Foundation of Curriculum.

Kaba, B. D and Rayapen, L (1990). Relevant Education for Africa, Yaunde: APWPA Book,
Professors World Peace Academy.

Kerr, J. E (1968).Changing the curriculum, London: Unibooks, University of London Press Ltd.

Okech, J.G and Asiachi, J A. (1992). Curriculum Development for Schools, Nairobi: ERAP

Okech, J. G and Hawes, H. (1986). Reading in Curriculum Development in Primary Schools:

Vol 1 Series on Provision… thro’ British Council HED Section London. University of London
Institute of Education.

Olouch, G. P (1982). Essential of Curriculum Development, Nairobi: Elimu Publishers Ltd.

Ruju, B. M (1973).Education in Kenya. Problems and Perspectives in Educational Planning and

Administration, Unesco Project Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi and London:

Shiundu, J. S and Omulando, S. J (1992). Curriculum: Theory and Practice in Kenya, Nairobi.
Oxford University Press.

Taba, H. B (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice, New York: Harcourt Brace.

Tyler, R.W (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, Chicago: The University of
Chicago Press.

Wheeler, D. K (1967).The Curriculum Process. London: University of London Press.

Additional Readings

National Development Plans in Kenya

Journals of Education

Encyclopedia of Education

Magazines on Education

Theses on Education Research

Education Commission Reports in Kenya

Sessional Papers in Kenya

News papers

Research papers

Dictionaries of Education

Beecher Report 1949.

Ominde Report 1964.

Gachathi Report 1976.

Readings in CurriculumDevelopment in Primary schools in Kenya by Jack G. Okech and Prof.

Hugh Howes. 1986.

New Primary Approach.NPA by Sifuna D.

Mackay Report- 2nd Ed.(1981)

The 8:4:4 System of Education