Thermodynamics
Teaching
Thermodynamics
Edited by
Jeffery D. Lewins
Fellow of Magdalene College
and Cambridge University
Cambridge, England
Teaching thermodynamics.
v
vi PREFACE
Nomenclature
Teaching Methods
Exergy Analysis
CONCLUSION
Jeffery D. Lewins
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
xli
CONTENTS
Short papers:
xv
xvi CONTENTS
Short papers:
Short papers:
Short paper:
Thermodynamic Nomenclature
J. D. Lewins 431
Short papers:
BIBLIOGRAPHY 499
TEACHING OBJECTIVES
W. A. Woods
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Queen Mary College
University of London
C. A. Bailey
Department of Engineering Science
University of Oxford
The paper outlines the origins and aims of the oneday
I. Mech. E. Symposium held in London on 4th December, 1979.
The meeting had two main objectives; first, the provision of
a forum for the exchange of views on the subject and,
secondly, to provide some form of documentation to help
those planning and revising syllabuses for use in the 1980s.
It is envisaged that this will provide an introduction to
the present meeting.
INTRODUCTION
3
4 W. A. WOODS AND C. A. BAILEY
1. Fundamentals.
2. Integration of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
3. Relative Importance of Fundamentals and Practical
Applications.
4. The Value of Laboratories and Computers.
5. Possible New Subject Matter.
SESSION THREE;
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FUNDAMENTALS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
CONCLUDING REMARKS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I
Written contributions
Dr. R. I. Crane
Mr. R. A. Johns
Dr. T. J. Kotas
Dr. J. Patterson
Mr. S. S. Wilson
WHY HAS THERHODYNAMICS BECOME A "DIFFICULT" SUBJECT
B. R. Wakeford
Department of Mechanical Engineering
HeriotWatt University
INTRODUCTION
21
22 B. R. WAKEFORD
During the 1950s the subject name was changed from "Heat
Engines" to "Applied Thermodynamics" and the teaching method
changed; the "Keenan" (1) approach was generally adopted as
the basis. On being introduced to the new method, on his
return to the academic world after a number of years in
industry, the author thought it superb. It had the advantage
of getting quickly into the mainstream of the subject allowing
24 B. R. WAKEFORD
THE SYSTEM
CALORIMETRY
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
C. Gurney
Brooklyn
Habertonford
Devon, U.K.
1. INTRODUCTION
31
32 C.GURNEY
eH e dC
Lc. = c + LC =1 ; ___
6 = 1 (1.1)
1 1 S 1 x dC
x
and that p v ~ c are independent internal elements or coor
dinates, measuraSle by the instruments of mechanics or
chemistry. Masses are written as M with suitable suffixes.
M
Kin = fM kin dM f ~ ~.~ dM (2.1)
o o
r r
internal energy function. The behaviour of two interacting
bodies a B ln an isolating envelope, can be described by
(2.6)
Introduction
( dS)aS = dS a dS S= [JVds dV
dt dt + dt dt v
10.+ [JV ds dV JS
dt v
~° (3.1 )
o 0
r d: r
energy of the system relative to an inertial frame is
k= I: ~ I: dV =
q
V
'V
dV
(3.3)
e = IV
'V
~ dV = IV (rxq)
V 'V'V
dV
V
= IV (3.4)
o 0 0
M. =
J Jv (k.cJ s e dV IV e+1
+ Ll k. c )  =
JX x V
Ll
dV
k.c.
1 1 V
o 0
r r
Thus we shall obtain identical results by considering
stationary values of
dW 1 d
dq.
= 
v dq.
(e + ,S.P, + y.9)
tV tV
=0 (3.8)
tV '"
1 1
where the derivatives of s and c with respect to q are
zero. Thus referring to (3.2, 3.3, 3.4), we find,
( 3.10)
( 3.ll)
(au/av) s.,c
.c = p;(au/av) =  p (3.14)
sc
x x
T
and hence knowing u(p v ~ c ) we can find s(p v ~ c ), or
in practice we can tabulate Xs at increments of the v~riables.
The discovery of s and of other functions is treated further
in Gurney (4) (5).
a' 1
=
v
= 
Tv
(3.16)
1 aT
= (3.18)
TV as
(3.20)
(4.5)
J
[( L'lMds ) a + (L'lMds) S adiathermal ~ 0 (4.8)
Substituting in (4.,) gives
TEACHING THERMODYNAMICS TO FIRST YEAR ENGINEERS 43
[dS =
dqin + ds +JU ; ldS = dg;n '+ ds +J 8 (4 .n)
T
(4.14)
[ dS = de
S + d.S ; d.S
l l
>" oJU (4.15)
5. CLOSURE
The Hong Kong course continued with the treatment of
exergy, and of heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps.
Treatment of internal combustion engines was in terms of
ideal gas reactions, including evaluation of affinities. The
final topic was heat transfer. The treatment outlined elim
inates some topics of current textbooks, including the
Zeroth Law, Carath~odory treatment of the Second Law, and air
standard cycles.
REFERENCES
J.R. Himsworth
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, U.M.I.S.T.
Manchester
45
46 J. R. HIMSWORTH
J. W. Rose
47
48 J. W. ROSE
REFERENCES
Rosalind Armson
The Open University
Milton Keynes
51
52 R. ARMSON
R. W. Szymanski
Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics
Middlesex Poltechnic
London
53
54 R. W. SZYMANSKI
R. I. Crane
57
58 DISCUSSION
dS = dQ/T + d~/T
D. R. H. Jones
Department of Engineering
University of Cambridge
INTRODUCTION
FirstYp.ar
Classes of
67
68 D. R. H. JONES
Classes
CREEP
v.T constant
a
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of creep ln a uniform specimen
of material subject to a tensile stress cr at constant tempera
ture. Since creep involves the transfer of atoms from the
sides of the specimen to the specimen ends there is no change
of volume associated with the process.
(1)
from our friends in thermodynamics. We can then calculate
the amount ~~ by which the free energy of an atom decreases
as it goes from the sides to the ends of the specimen. (We
point out, beforehand, that ~ is the average free energy,
GIN). Thus
o
dG = Vdp  SdT,
MATERIALS THERMODYNAMICS FOR ENGINEERS 71
~].l = no,
where n is the atomic volume and cr is the stress under which
the material is creeping.
How does an atom know that it should move from the sides
to the ends? We can present this problem in two ways  a
continuum approach or a statistical one. Students are already
familiar with a continuum approach to the movement of elec
trons through conductors in an electrical potential gradient
as Ohm's Law, J = 0 E , or
e ee
J
e
= 0
e
(dV Idx).
e
(4)
This is merely a special case of the general equation
J Be( no/d) .
(8)
This result agrees with experimental results for diffu
sion creep which show the creep rate to be linear in Band 0
and inversely dependent on the square of the specimen size
(or the grain size in a polycrystalline sample). Home and
dry, and a nice little application of thermodynamics!
72 D. R. H. JONES
(10)
MATERIALS THERMODYNAMICS FOR ENGINEERS 73
distance, x
(12)
This equation, derived statistically, is identical with the
continuum result, equation (5), with
The reward for the student who has worked through these
equations is to see that kinetic theory gives exactly the
same exponential temperature dependence that one gets from
experimental measurements of diffusion coefficients. Indeed,
thermal activation shows up directly in all sorts of situa
tions: Araldite glue sets much faster in a warm place; cement
goes off horrifyingly quickly on a hot day; wooden window
frames rot faster on the sunfacing side; and one can even
estimate the energy barriers crossed in breeding bacteria
from the cold storage lives given on the back of a Marks and
Spencer frozen flan!
J ~D(dc/dx).
J = Bc(d~/dx). (16)
~ = ~o + kT ln c
n
net
= ~6 2(n n )exp~v*/kT.
A B
(20)
or
(22)
(23)
SOLIDIFICATION
(dG/dT) =  S. (24)
P
HIT"IITM TI
T..
o T..
absolute temp&ralure, T
or
D~H(TM) (TMT)
v = (2'7)
r RT2
o M
for the speed of the solidliquid interface.
no
driving force
no
thermal energy
C. R. Stone
Engineering and Hanagement Systems
Brunel University
Uxbridge, Middlesex
SYNOPSIS
81
82 C.R.STONE
INTRODUCTION
rT
THERMODYNAMICS IN A BROAD BASED COURSE
flJlfU~"I I
U =university I = industry
Fig. 1. Structure of SEP.
YEAR 1
l YEAR 1I
ARTEFACT STUDY
I YEAR 21
I I
AVAILABILITY & ENTROPY CqEATION POWER DISTRIBUTION
DUE TO IRREVERSIBILITY
3 PHASE SYSTEMS
STEAM TURB I NES MoTORS & GENERATORS
GAS TURB I NES ELECTROHEAT
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
LABORATORY WORK
lYEAR 3 J
I ~ECHAN I CAL TECHNOLOGY I I
IT HERMODYNAMI cs I IFLUID ~1ECHANlcsl
I L
NONREACTI NG MI XTURES NAVI ERSTOKES EQUATION
YEAR 4
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
91
92 P. W. FOSS AND D. R. CROFT
Laboratory Sheets
1. Your eoune IlSellSe (PAIr TIMII) I lIS I BRD I '1'I!C I otIII!J.1 lSe (PART TlIII) lSe (lULL TlIII)
2. t.ar of you'!' COU". I11tnt!JUJUJ
DAR 3 _1
3. W.. tU ."Peri_ t (a) Jel."...t to coune
(1)) AdditiOIlal to lac tun _tedal 94, 6 100, 0
(c) IDtere.tiDI to CO", out 110 76, 24 65, 35
4.
(d) IDfomath.
W. . a bborator)' .haat prondedt
JI S NO
88, 12
82, 18
43, 56
96, 4
5. W.. the bborator)' .he.t helpfuit IiUl AJ.TIALLY 110 35, 59, 6 9, 74, 17
6. Did you laa... &D7thiDl f ..... tU a"P.ri_tt
(a) About tU tUoredeal ..peete 76, 14 67, 33
(1)) About tU !)arclvon IEIIJ 65,35 61, 39
7. lllsuac:a ASSISTAIIT
~ UC'rUIU. AIID '1'I!CBIIICIAII AIID 'DICIIII'lC1A1l
8.
2 3
9. Did .oabo"" aplaiD
(a) '!h&cttedeal ..pe.tat 94, 6 78, 22
(1)) _ a n aDd operatiout ~1iJ 76, 24 74, 26
(c) What to 100It for iu ra.ultal
.:luoiODO)1 9., 6 52, 48
(d) Safal:J Alpaetot IBE~ 23, 77 17, 83 ~
10. Did you .... d _utius faciliti.ot IiilIiil 6, 94 4,96
56,44
~
1l. Did you he"" ecce•• to _utlal faciUtieot IiiiI £iW 65,35 ."
12. Could the a_ri.nt he"" be... o
(a) II<>re lat.re.tlalt 65, 35 91, 9 C/l
(1)) IIora nleVlllltt 1BE1I1 35,65 52,48 C/l
13. I f ns, ....... t _ this could ha"" baeD doDO' s•• tezt »
z
c
14. What que8tiODO would you ha"" _ted tU _ _ r. to, if diUemt fftla IIiue!T lIil ratu... : C
::D
Computation
(b) Groups too large, too little time allocated, just result
collecting.
TapeSlide Presentations
Video Presentations
Computer Involvement
o
Figure 2 Combined VideoMicrocomputer Presentation
102 P. W. FOSS AND D. R. CROFT
REFERENCES
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
103
104 M. R. HEIKAL AND T. A. COWELL
Controlled Assignments
Openended Assignments
Project
1st Year
2nd Year
3rd Year
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
13. Ernst, E. W., "A New Role for the Undergraduate Engineer
ing Laboratory", IEEE Transactions on Education, May 1983,
Vol.E26, No.2.
18. Crowe, D. A., and Durisin, M. J., "A Low Cost Micro
computer System for Process Dynamics and Control Simula
tion", ASEE Annual Conference Proc., 1982, pp.658662.
32. Carter, G., and Lee, L. S., "A Sample Survey of Depart
ments of Electrical Engineering to Ascertain the Aims,
Objectives and Methods of Assessing FirstYear Under
graduate Laboratory Work in Electronic and Electrical
Engineering", Int. J. Elect. Engng. Educ., 1981, Vol.18,
pp.1l3120.
33. Lee, L. S., and Carter, G., "A Sample Survey of Depart
ments of Electrical Engineering to Determine Recent
Significant Changes in Laboratory Work Pattern at First
Year Level", Int. J. Elect. Engng. Educ., 1973, Vol.10,
No.2, pp.131135.
APPENDIX
Measurement:
Al.l Measurement system (transducer, signal conditioning,
recording or displaying).
A2. Instrumentation:
Brief introduction to electrical measurements of mechani
cal parameters, meters and oscilloscopes, recorders,
introduction to automatic data acquisition.
A3. Errors:
Random and systematic errors (brief description of
statistical techniques of data processing), propagation
of errors, dealing with errors.
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
LECTURE
POSTTEST
~TUTORIAL
VpROBLEMS
TAPE/SLIDE PLUS READING GUIDE
POSTTEST
VpROBLEMS
LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION
I VSHORT REPORT
FORMAL REPORT
CONSOLIDA TlON ORAL PRESENTATIOt
TUTORIAL
VESSAY
PROBLEMS
MODEL SOLUTIONS
OCCASIONAL LECTURE

MIDSESSIONAL EXAM
ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE
FINAL EXAM
5. To work as a group.
DEVELOPMENTS
EFFECTS OF DEVELOPtffiNTS
Learning Styles
THE FUTURE
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1
SUMMARY OF SELECTED QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 1977 TO 1984
Year of entry
83 82 81 80 79 78 77
TAPE/SLIDES
LA80RATORY DEMONSTRATIONS
COURSEWORK
COURSE ORGANISATION
28 I enjoy thermodynamics. 97
18 The thermodynamics course is very well organised. 97 77 85 87 80 37 41
48 There should be at least one week between the
tape/slide and the tutorial. 48
Attitude questionnaires
Number distributed 47 61 49 61 58 44 62
Nuaber returned 30 30 36 48 36 38 23
Percent returned 64 49 73 79 62 86 37
* The numbers refer to the sequence of items as they appear in the revised
questionnaire. Only iteas addressed in the text have been included in this
appendix.
VIDEODISC: A NEW DEVELOP}illNT IN VISUAL AIDS
T. R. Haynes
University of Cambridge
INTRODUCTION
131
132 T. R. HAYNES
The laser beam scans this spiral of pits from the middle
of the disc. A single picture frame is kept still by the
light source scanning over that one spiral track for an in
definite time. If you want the picture to go backwards push a
reverse still frame button and the laser beam goes backwards
onto the next frame and a still picture is achieved. When the
disc is going either forwards or backwards there is no
interruption to the picture i.e. there is no objectionable
"noise" at all on the screen, in either fast or slow motion.
RANDOM ACCESS
AUTHORING
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
C. S. Sharma
Department of Mathematics
Birkbeck College
University of London
INTRODUCTION
143
144 C. S. SHARMA
dQ = RdV
T V
that if d; was a perfect differential d~ was also one and
as T~ was not a perfect differential dQ could not be.
Unfortunately this argument does not really work: for iso
thermal processes, T is surely a constant and a perfect
differential multiplied or divided by a nonzero constant ~s
also supposed to be a perfect differential. The integral of
dV was V, of dx was x and of df was f, but integral of dQ was
not Q. The author was uneasy, unhappy and unsure. The author
did notice that some books did not use dQ but oQ or q instead.
The trouble with oQ is that in usual old fashioned notation
dx = lim ox and in general ox is much larger than dx, but
ox+O
this surely did not apply to oQ. Writini q instead of dQ
confused the issue even further because
.'
~ then became q
T
fT
and at that stage the author was not familiar with an integral
without a d of something or other after it.
THERMODYNAMICS FOR THOSE WHO THINK WITH FINGERS 145
Since then, the author has learnt much, become wiser and
accepted the fact that there are many  far too many 
unanswered ~uestions, that there are many different levels of
understanding and that no one, absolutely no one, knows enough
about anything to be able to answer every legitimate ~uestion
that can be asked about that particular thing. On the other
hand, scientists take pride in describing themselves as
'logical' and 'rational' and the situation about dQ seemed to
be so irrational, to the author at any rate, that it needed
an answer. This gave him motivation to learn about both
infinitesimals and differentials. He has pursued these matters
to the point where he has found answers which, though not
absolute, satisfy him. With hindsight he can say that none
of his teachers or the books mentioned above. could have given
a meaningful definition of the concept 'infinitesimal' with
the prere~uisities they could take for granted. The concept
'perfect differential' on the other hand could have been
explained in a way which could have satisfied this author at
least.
INFINITESIMALS
logic. ~1ost people who make this assertion have no idea what
this demonstration involves. This author did actually super
vise a Ph.D. thesis on nonstandard analysis and after learn
ing a great deal about semantics, formal languages, ultra
filters, superstructures and such like, he does finally accept
and understand infinitesimals: they do exist in a highly
technical formalism of logic, though the author does not
believe, contrary to what many authors say, that most people
have a good intuition about infinitesimals. They, in the
opinion of the author, are best avoided. However, defining
differentials without infinitesimals makes it necessary to
bring in the fancy formalism described in the introduction.
PERFECT DIFFERENTIALS
or
(4)
af
If we take f = P, (aT)p =0 because P is constant and f is P
and we get (3). Thus a correct procedure for getting the
correct result also uses fewer new concepts.
THERMODYNAMICS FOR THOSE WHO THINK WITH FINGERS 149
2 2 a 2f + a 2f(d )2 + l! d2x
d f = aax f(
2 dx)
2
+ 2 axaydxdy ay2 y ax
af 2
+ ay d y
(6)
The theory of differential forms asserts that one of the
definitive properties of the operator d is that d 2 = 0 which
implies d 2 f = O. The author has not been able to find a
modern theory of Pfaffians which will reconcile this contra
diction.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
D. H. Bacon
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Plymouth Polytechnic
SYNOPSIS
153
154 D. H. BACON
ENGINEERING THERHODYNAMICS
The processes in the working substance o~ a ~our stroke
compression ignition engine can be modelled by incrementing
the crank angle and calculating the pressure and temperature
a~er each increment ~rom a knowledge o~ the pressure and
temperature be~ore the increment and the energy trans~er during
the increment. The processes can be considered in two ~orms;
va~ve open and valve closed. The simplest solution ~or the
single student to consider is an adiabatic process with air as
the working substance ~or the valve closed period. The results
o~ the program can be compared with those given by the
reversible adiabatic relationship. For a group, the program
can be extended to allow ~or heat trans~er, delay and energy
release during combustion and ~low o~ working substance during
the open valve period. The results may be compared to an
indicator diagram obtained on a real engine.
WORK TRANSFER
The single student can conduct a laboratory trial on a
spark ignition engine and process the results by computer
program including, i~ possible, a graphics routine to plot a
powerspeed characteristic with speci~ic ~uel consumption as
contour. The group approach is to develop a program to ~it
the engine to a vehicle which has to meet a given design
speci~ication ~or acceleration, economy and 'driveability'.
This will involve choice o~ gears, estimating or measuring
inertia values, etc. to deal with the acceleration dynamics
and then optimising the variables to meet the speci~ication.
HEAT TRANSFER
The single student considers a simple heat trans~er pro
cess in which water ~lows through tubes held at constant
temperature. The length o~ tube required ~or various combina
tions o~ diameter and numbers o~ tubes used can be determined
~or a given heat ~lux. The pressure drop in each combination
THE USE OF SMALL COMPUTERS FOR TEACHING 155
REFERENCE
D. J. Buckingham
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
157
158 D. J. BUCKINGHAM.
KEYSTONE LECTURES
SMALLGROUP TUTORIALS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
D. W. Pilkington
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Manchester Polytechnic
INTRODDCTION
GENERAL OUTLINE
161
162 D. W. PILKINGTON
STAGE ONE
STAGE TWO
CONCLUSIONS
165
166 DISCUSSION
n(x)
or
p
O~~===~=4X
o
Fig. 1. Validation of exp(o~*/kT) approximation
T. H. Frost
INTRODUCTION
173
174 T. H. FROST
_     Flash Chamb r
..i"
1111 "rllllllliiT
11
10 20
Fig. 1 HYMATIC MINI COOLER (70% Immersion)
REAL GAS EFFECT AND GAS LIQUEFACTION 175
500
• 0 STUDENT A
• V STUDENT B
o
•
400 • TOTAL TIME TO
COLLECT 0'2cc' 5
300
•
TlME SECS
200
•
100 START OF LIQUEFACTION
•
SUPPLY PRESSURE  P3 BAR. 9
90 100 110
59
~ CONTROL
FOR
VOLUME
MINICOOLER
~ql
THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT
o o
.D
.D
290
270
250 410
390
230
370
350
330
310
150
290
130
270
110
250
90
SPECIFIC ENTROPY kJ / kg I(
100 bar this comes out to about 5%. The observed effect of
both supply pressure and immersion on the performance of the
plant can now be explained to the students. In particular,
the inability of the plant to work at all below a certain
pressure and immersion can be attributed to (a) the thermal
inertia of the pipework of the minicooler and (b) the
inevitably small but finite heat leakage into the system
through the vacuum flask from the atmosphere (q)~. Two further
topics may then be introduced;(a) the concept of an exergetic
efficiency, Equation AI.3;(b) the problems of liquefying a
permanent gas whose inversion temperature is much lower than
ambient temperature, i.e. hydrogen and helium.
CONCLUSIONS
NOTATION
Subscripts
ln Inversion
inO Inversion (temperature) at low pressures
a.b. Constants in equation of state of a Van der Waal's gas.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I
(A!.2)
b. h6  h3 to be a maximum
(AI.3)
APPENDIX II
h4 = hs (AII.l)
Using Maxwell's 4th relation (~) =  (AII.2)
ap T
aT v
u.
.n = ()
ap = c
(1  ST) (AII.3)
p
(p +~) (v  b) = RT (AII.5)
v2
182 T. H. FROST
ST = __ =l~_b=_..!..../v.:....__:__,
(AII.6)
1  2a (1  ~)~
RTv v
Putting ST. = 1 into AII.6 gives
1n
2a b 2
T. =  (1  ) (AIL 7)
1n Rb v
(AILIO)
W. K. Kennedy
Faculty of Technology
The Open University
Milton Keynes
INTRODUCTION
183
184 W. K. KENNEDY
CONCLUSIONS
T. Hinton
University of Surrey
Guildford, England
B. R. Wake ford
HeriotWatt University
Edinburgh, England
INTRODUCTION
185
186 T. HINTON AND B. R. WAKEFORD
Author: J. D. Lewins
Program: Thermoquiz
Microcomputer: BBC with colour monitor
Author: J. J. Quirk
Program: Van der Waals Condensing Fluid
Micrcomputer: BBC with colour monitor
The van der Walls gas model with constant specific heat
at constant volume can be combined with Maxwell's lever rule
to predict the condensation 'catastrophe' and thus model a
twophase as well as onephase fluid.
Author: S. H. Darwoodi
Program: Stefan's Problem
Microcomputer: BBC with colour monitor
Author: B. Davies
Program: Computer Aided Gas Cycles
Microcomputer: BBC with colour monitor
The user can quickly modify his design and see the
effect on efficiency.
Author: J. P. Packer
Program: Composition and Thermodynamic Properties of
the Combustion Products of a Hydrocarbon
Air Reaction
Microcomputer: 48K Spectrum with colour monitor
The program is of particular use when considering the
topics of chemical equilibrium and singlezone and multi
zone models of combustion in reciprocating I.C. engines.
Author: R. I. Crane
Program: Simulation of Phenomena in Convergent
Divergent Nozzles
Microcomputer: BBC
Author: J. M. Jervis
Topic: The Use of Microcomputers in Thermodynamic
Laboratories
Microcomputer: Apple II and Sage IV
Author: D. H. Bacon
Topic: Use of Computers ln Problem Solving
Microcomputer: 48K Spectrum
Author: H. K. Zienkiewicz
Program: Statistical View of Entropy
Microcomputer: BBC Model B, 48K Spectrum with colour monitor
Micrometer Mantissa
(how to use a micrometer, from the National Physical
Laboratory)
Amphioxus
(an excerpt from a teaching film showing swimming and burrow
ing of Amphioxus),
Histologic Slides
CAL CATALOGUE
A list of CAL programs in the area of thermodynamics
that have been produced by various authors, but who were not
present at this workshop, is included for completeness.
These materials have not been reviewed and therefore no
comment is made as to their availability or suitability.
They have not been written specifically for use on microcom
puters but for use on a terminal linked to a multiuser
computer.
CONCLUSIONS
Demonstration by D. J. Buckingham;
"Resource Based Learning in Thermodynamics"
Demonstration by T. H. Frost
"Real Gas Effects and Gas Liquifaction".
PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS
Chairman  N. Hay
Secretary N. Zienkiewicz
TEACHING THERMODYNAMICS TO FIRSTYEAR STUDENTS BY THE
SINGLEAXIOM APPROACH
R. W. Haywood
University of Cambridge
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
205
206 R. W. HAYWOOD
FIXED BOUNDING
SURFACE
CONSTRAINED
SYSTEM
WORK INTERACTION
System Y in state Y1
System X
Z,
~, j..
A"
Stable State Y3
(al (bl
ENERGY
E2  El  ~2 (1)
or dE  d~ (la)
where W~2 is the work output (or the negative of the work
input) that would result from taking the system by any
available adiabatic process from Stable State 1 to Stable
State 2. The unit of work being the newton metre, namely the
joule, so therefore is also the unit of energy.
Constrained Systems
/_~
x y
QUANTITY OF HEAT
f (dQ  dW) = O.
210 R. W. HAYWOOD
Then we have:
SS = Stable State
AS = Allowed State
r
states simply that it is impossible to construct a Cyclic
PMM 2.
!r;l System Y
 Constrained System
In an Initial
System X _ Stable State
SS, to AS2
Cyclic PMM2
(Hypothetical CHPP }+~_Wn.t =a
with no aM)
( Haywood, 1980)
. I
WORK INTERACTION LSE WORK INTERACTION
T
t
Corollary 1
I
I
I
I Corollary 3
FIRST 'LAW' I SECOND 'LAW'
I Noncyclic Statement) I I Noncyclic Statement)
I
Adiabatic Work I Noncyclic PMM2
t tI
dE= dW· I
I
I
~I
I
t
Corollary 2
STATE 'PRINCIPLE'
I
I
HEAT IN!ERACTION
dQ =dE he.' only
I
I
I .
FIRST 'LAW' Temperature D,fference SECOND 'LAW'
(Cyclic Statement) I (Cyclic Statement)
I
¢ldQdW) = 0 I Cyclic PMM 2
t
I I
I I
•
Figure 7. Development of SingleAxiom Approach
•
(Keenan, 1941)
T
TEMPErTURE
HEAT
.. t ..
f
FIRST LAW
t
SECOND LAW
(Cyclic Statement) (Cyclic Statement)
~(dQdW) = 0 Cyclic PMM 2
I I
I
•
I
I I
t
Figure 8. Sequence of Presentation ln the
Conventional Approach
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
P. H. Brazier
Mechanical Engineering Department
Imperial College
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
The derivation of the First and Second Laws from the Law
of Stable E~uilibrium would seem to offer therefore, a
considerable advance in the teaching and understanding of
Classical Thermodynamics. This derivation was first presented
by Hatsopoulos and Keenan (1). Recently Haywood (2) presented
the work in a far more understandable manner.
217
218 P. H. BRAZIER
DEFINITIONS
A rigid insulated
vessel containing
a fluid and a
pendulum.
THERMODYNAMICS LAWS FROM LAW OF STABLE EQUILIBRIUM 219
A rigid insulated
hot vessel containing hot
f
cold
 warm and cold bodies which
communicate thermally.
A rigid insulated
vessel containing an
cold agitated fluid.
warm
,) cr
unstable stable
Figure 1. Examples of stable states
state Zl state Z2
system Z
I X2
II U
Xl I
If I
Yl I 1
Y2 1
t
.1 () I.
I X21I
U
unstable Yll......
Xli
~
I possible
Y2 \
lo I
I :y
stable XII
I
10

. X
21
1
I
not possible
system Z system Z
1n in stable
unstable state
state
ENERGY
(1 )
or
(2 )
THERMODYNAMICS LAWS FROM LAW OF STABLE EQUILIBRIUM 223
process A
I
o
I
LO
Figure 7. Equienergy states from a common state
224 P. H. BRAZIER
HEAT INTERACTIONS
Xl X2
 
YI Y2
not possible
dQ = dE
or
(8)
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
R. H. B. Exell
Asian Institute of Technology
Bangkok
SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
229
230 R. H. B. EXELL
Observations show
SOME APPLICATIONS
DISCUSSION
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
(A.l) A A.
~
(A.2) If A ~ B, then B ~ A.
(A.3) If A ~ B and B ~ C, then A ~ C.
(A. 4) For any two states A and B, exactly one of
the following relations holds: A < B, A ~ B,
B < A.
(A. 5) I f A < Band B < C, then A < C.
J. D. Lewins
University of Cambridge
INTRODUCTION
PHYSICAL BASIS
237
238 J. D. LEWINS
n =
~
Q;n~
yw
Qout
CD
Fig. 1. Carnot engine.
W = Qin  Qout
Carnot's theory for the reversible engine, l.e. a device that
can be operated backwards to restore the heat to the hotter
reservoir and all at the cost of the same work as produced in
THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATUREDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 239
or
(4 )
(6)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics provides that if two reser
CHOICE OF SCALES
(8)
and that this is satisfied by a product form
242 J. Dr LEWINS
(10)
That is, the two functions of 61 are proportional, the same
within a parameter depending on 63 or 62 respectively. Then
(12)
and hence
THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATUREDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 243
(14)
(20)
f'(6d62) a~ f'(62/63)
(21)
f(61/ 62) = 61 6 3 f(62/ 6 3)
CHOICE OF SCALE
T = R.nR (24 )
HISTORICAL NOTE
REFERENCES
J. D. Lewins
University of Cambridge
INTRODUCTION
249
250 J. D. LEWINS
ASSUMPTIONS
VIGOUR
INVARIANTS
M=r.M. u = r. u.
i 1 i 1
ACCESSIBLE STATES
Then from state 1 some states 1', 1" etc., say, may be
reached by a reversible and adiathermal process. Clearly the
set of such accessible states, which includes 1 itself in vie,
of the reversible nature of the process, has something in
common, some common property. We call this common property
their accessibility. Anticipating at least an ordinal scale,
we would assign a number to this concept as first step in
metrication. Such a number is called the entropy, symbol S,
of a set of accessible states of a given system.
TIME'S ARROW
I1S)Q :: 0 ~ 0
and
oQA
oS;  1 (isothermal)
6w
~
6aft0 :
~I
._..J
(4)
le~uilibrium
Combining these two differentials gives
dQ = dQ (6)
dS)rev A dS)rev B
260 J. D. LEWINS
T  dQ)rev A'
A  dS '
TB = ddSQ)rev B (8)
T dQ
T =  d(,"!
o 'o)rev
S  So = J dQ/T)rev
o
and its units are therefore joules/kelvin (J/K or often kJ/K).
Since T is now positive, the desired convention for an increase
in entropy has been achieved. Only the difference on entropies
between two states is fundamental so that an international
convention for the zero of entropy is less necessary. With
water, for example, it is customary to make the liquid state
have zero entropy at the Triple Point. On other occasions,
it is supposed that all substances have the same (zero)
entropy at or approaching absolute zero (Third Law).
dBA dQA
dS = dQ = 1 isothermal, reversible
B B)rev
(b) For exchanges at different temperatures, the ratio
choice dQldS)rev = T ensures that the entropy changes
remain constant
o reversible
(c) We may now add any reference value making So = ~AQ + SBQ
so that the entropy overall as well as changes ln entropy
are extensive.
f dQ)rev
f(T)
But now consider the sum of component generalized entropies
in relation to the elements of dB:
( ii) e = f( T) = TIT
o
where T is a constant, 1.e. the arbitrary fiducial value.
Thus on£y the linear form of temperature scale provides the
corresponding entropy with the property of being extensive
in nature.
CONSTRUCTING TEMPERATURE AND ENTROPY SCALES 263
NOMENCLATURE
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
REFERENCES
S. P. S. Andrew
IN'lRODUCTION
267
268 s. P. S. ANDREW
This example shows how an early intrusion of the concept
of energy into mechanics can readily wreck the good work done
by Newton three centuries ago in ejecting energy in favour
of what we now call momentum from such calculations. How
many stUdents of mechanics are over concerned with energy
from an unfortunate presentation of its importance?
Though the God may not have feet of clay, his would be
followers often have  particularly when they attempt to
blindly follow his teachings being illinformed on the nature
of physical reality.
THERMODYNAMICS AS ENGINEERING SCIENCE
Alan Cottrell
Jesus College
Cambridge
271
272 A.COTTRELL
S + I = constant.
H. V. Rao
277
278 H. V. RAO
a InZ = A + 1 E (1)
an.1 B i
The Lagrangian multiplier (liB) which is introduced in the
maximisation process of Z, is established as a function of
temperature only, by considering the thermal equilibrium of a
composite system. This result is independent of the type of
particles of the system and whether these follow MB, BE or
FD statistics. Hence, without loss of generality, by con
sidering the case of monoatomic gas, the absolute temperature
of any system is defined as:
T = BJK (2)
= IE.
1
dn.
1
( 3)
= In.
1
dE.
1
(4)
Entropy of a system is defined by
S = k InZ
Y. R. Mayhew
SYNOPSIS
pv = A8 G (1)
(2)
279
280 Y. R. MAYHEW
dQ = dh  V dp
rev
and hence
dO
"rev 1
0="0 (4)
G G
_a_[..!... af(0G)
ap 0G aS G
1 = _ [ a(vI0 G)
aS G
] (5)
° G p
then dQ lOG is a perfect differential. Now LHS must be zero
becauserthe term in brackets is function only of 0 G• For RHS
= [aCAIP)j
a0
= 0 (6)
G p
T =
 0G
Y. R. Mayhew
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Bristol
283
284 Y. R. MAYHEW
285
286 DISCUSSION
ideal
gas
region
~~~~~~'\ equal
\ PG I spaced
~________..::\......../ isotherms
s
Fig. 1 The 'ideal' and 'perfect' gas regions.
Secretary  K. W. Ramsden.
NEW CONCEPTS IN THERMODYNAMICS FOR BETTER
B. Linnhoff
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology
INTRODUCTION
PRIMARY
FRACTlOIU,TOR
PYROLYSIS
GASOLINE
ttl
r
Z
Z
J:
o"T1
Fig. 1. Simplified diagram of an integrated chemical process "T1
(By courtesy of Stone and Webster).
NEW CONCEPTS FOR BETTER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN 301
approx. 7 x 10 23
OL.L_.....L.._...L...~
11 = 0.24/0.3 = 0.8 •
2nd Law
2400
1800
i
~
Cl
1200
Ie
II>
600
R H E.
r"P:' .
Entropy increases according to
AS =m
Tl
(4 )
where (!LM)l 2 is. the logarithmic mean of Tl, T2, and obtain
by comb~n~ng'eQuat~ons (3) and (4)
(6)
~s % ~H [(TAM) J 1 •
1,2
~s = f( ~H, X). (8 )
Steam Refrigerant
Scheme 1 Scheme 2
Save 10 Units Save 10 Units
of Energy of Energy
(Second Low WeIghted) (Second Low Weighted)
Process
Loss
Loss
Figure 7. The provision of refrigerant involves more losses
than the provision of steam.
~
~
397
298
r€Jt~"'2.SkJ
' / / /Arttl!n(/ /
(f) Sunnnary
2400
1000
~
l
 1200 'Inevitable'
~
<:>
>C
III
600
Cooling
Water
RECYCLE
r
FEED PRODUCT
6 Capitol Items
for Heat Transfer
approx. 1.6 x 10 25
Heot transfer d Q
f(laslble
AftlZl' dQ. templZrature
difference to be
re·establlshed 00
grounds of heat
capacIty flowrates
A
550
460
~
.....
Eo.
350
(e) (b)
H
Figure 13. Setting the energy target:
(a) T, Hgraphs for individual process streams;
(b) Grand Composite T, Hgraph for overall process.
318 B. LlNNHOFF
E.
m1n
= N.m1n + L.
m1n
 1. (12'
E.
m1n =Nl.
4 Capitol It~ms
for Heat Transfer
A  A.
IDln
= a = B  B .
m1n'
where A 1S the heat input to a system,
B 1S the heat output from a system, and
a is the heat flow across the pinch.
HEAT SOURCE
Heat Out
Amin
1""\(
(
l ,
\SINK { ~
\ )~
~iB min
(a)
PRACTICAL ASPECTS
o energy: 6 + 60 %savings,
o capi tal: expense + 25 % savings,
o return on investment: improved by factors of up to 4,
o often energy could be saved aZongside capital,
o sometimes process flexibility was improved,
o design time was saved,
o concepts are valid for design of new processes and for
modification of existing processes,
o concepts are applicable over a wide range of technology.
The pinch. The pinch was known before (see following) but
its implications, i.e. the distinction between the process
sink and source and equation (15), were not. Consider these
concepts in the context of Figure 1. The separation of sink
and source introduces a totally unsuspected division in a
process. The divided parts are 'overlain'. Streams, and
parts of streams, from everywhere in the process may belong
to either the sink or the source. Without knowing about the
concept of keeping sink and source separate the designer will
make 'convenient' matches and the chances of obtaining an
optimal network must be minimal.
326 B. LlNNHOFF
Steam (530 K )
Cooling Water
(300K ... 310 K)
6CX)K 500K
C)  100
600K
0
6CX)K
350K
350K I 350K
b b b
(al L(A.REA)  3.67 (b) L(AREA) 2.00
DISCUSSION
X = W + Y. (16)
iI~~ :~'.:.~
: Hogh Pressurt I
: E..aporate & :
I Suprrheat ~
I I
I TURBINE I Work
I I Exported,W
I Low Pressure I
I
~ _____ \ ________ JI
Heat To Process
Or To Waste, Y
Figure 19. Simple model of a steam turbine.
330 B. LlNNHOFF
~_L~ ~X
~~l
_ Turbll'll'!W
(a) (~;
IB
"'
Y
~(Heot

In)A +X
~(~at In)AY+X
 .4.+W
jA X
(~J /
(C)
 ~_yurbll'll'!l
~~; y ~Heot In)~
'B+Y
Figure 20. Integrating a steam turbine and a process in terms
of heat recovery. (a) No integration.
(b) Integration above the pinch is very worth
while. Marginal fuel supply over standalone
process is equal to work generated, W.
(c) Integration below the pinch cannot confer any
improvement compared with no integration.
E(heat in) = (A  y) + X,
own. One could say, that, owing to the integration, heat has
been converted to shaft work at 100 %efficiency~ For those
trying to reconcile this statement with Carnot's teachings,
there has not been so much a conversion of heat but a reduc
tion in the wastage of heat.
.4.
Heat Load,Z
/
Uat T,
E~aporate
'f
B
eat Lood,Z
z
Ic£umnl
~ :!:(Hect In)" ~
(h)
(e)
:!:(Hect In)  ~
This Interfac~
[Rfi~s t~
Shape of ~
Grand Composit~
r= I',
Energy [ndustrl~S Manufacturing & Consuming
1' , r      
APPENDIX
CALCULATING THE ENTROPY GAIN IN A SIMPLE HEAT EXCHANGER BY
MEANS OF TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
H,."(X)() kJ H2 = 800kJ
~ ~
£0I :::::1@j1
1
@ I \\
Heot Loss
I@
and:
2
= (690kJ  500 kJ) (400 K + 550 K) = 0.400 kJ /K.
Q/T
o
= 0.034 kJ/K.
REFERENCES
THERMODYNAMICS SYLLABUS
B. M. Burnside
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
341
342 B. M. BURNSIDE
= (H  H )  T (8 8 ) + K.E. + P.E.
o 0 o
Here K.E. and P.E. are kinetic and potential energies at the
~low section and are reduced to zero in the equilibrium
(dead state) at (p , T). H is enthalpy.
o 0
A =
q
f (1  (T IT)}dq
0
(4)
(6)
.
where ~Su and ~S refer to the entropy changes of the uni
u
verse affected by the process.
~o = ~Go (formation)  Ef
ocp
~Go (formation)
B = (H  H )  T (S  S )
o 0 0
Aw Wu
+ A. )
Figure 1 oX1dant
RELEVANCE OF SECOND LAW ANALYSIS 349