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IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS


1. Important formulae used in simplification: 2. If P is the principal kept at Compound Interest (C.I.)
(1) (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab @ r% p.a., amount after n years
(2) (a – b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab n
(3) (a + b)2 = (a – b)2 + 4ab  r 
= P 1  
(4) a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b)  100 
(5) a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2)
(6) a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2) 3. Amount = Principal + Interest
2 2 1 2 2
(7) a  b  [(a  b)  (a – b) ] 4. Let P = Original Population, P = Population after
2
n years, r% = rate of anual growth
2. Rules of counting numbers r 
n

1. Sum of f irst n natural numbers P'  P  1  
 100 
n  n  1
=
2 5. Difference between CI and SI for 2 and 3 years
respectively:
2. Sum of first n odd natural numbers (CI)2 – (SI)2 = Pa2 for two years
= n2 (CI)3 – (SI)3 = Pa2 (a + 3) for three years
r
3. Sum of first n even natural numbers where, a =
= n(n + 1) 100

4. Sum of the squares of first n natural 6. A principal amounts to X times in T years at S.I. It
will become Y times in:

ENIGMA
n(n  1)(2n  1)
numbers =  Y – 1
6 Years   T
 X – 1
5. Sum of the cubes of first n
2 7. A principal amounts to X times in T years at C.I. It
 n(n  1)  will become Y times in:
natural numbers =  
 2  Years = T × n
where n is given by Xn = Y
PERCENTAGES
PROFIT AND LOSS
1. Two successive percentage changes of a% and
Profit
b% is an effective change of 1. Profit % =  100
CP
 ab 
 a+b+ 100  %.  P 
  2. SP = CP + P% of CP = CP  1  
 100 
2. If A is r% more/less than B,
3. Discount = Marked Price – Selling Price
100 r
B is % less/more than A.
100  r Discount
4. Discount % =  100
Marked Price
INTEREST
5. The selling price of two articles is same.
1. P = Principal, A = Amount, I = Interest, n = no. of
If one is sold at X% profit and the other at loss of
years, r% = rate of interest
Pr n X2
The Simple Interest (S.I.) = X%, then there is always a loss of %
100 100

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RATIO & PROPORTION x1  x2  x3  ......  xn


2. Arithmetic Mean =
1. It a : b : : c : d, then ad = bc n

2. If a < b and x is a positive quantity, then 3. Geometric Mean = n x1  x2  x3  ......  x n


a ax a a–x
 and 
b bx b b– x 4. Harmonic Mean =
n
3. If a > b and x is a positive quantity, then
 1 1 1 1 
a ax a a–x     ......  
 and   x1 x 2 x 3 xn 
b bx b b– x

5. Let Ko be the initial concentration of a solution and


a c K is the final concentration after n dilutions.
4. If  then:
b d V is the original volume and x is the volume of the
solution replaced each time, then
ab cd
(a)  – Componendo Law n
b d Vx
K  Ko  
a–b c–d  V 
(b)  – Dividendo Law
b d
ab c d TIME, SPEED AND DISTANCE
(c)  – Componendo &
a–b c–d
Dividendo Law 5 18
1. 1 km/hr = m/s and 1m/s = km/hr
18 5

ENIGMA
ac a
(d) 
bd b
Total Distance Travelled
2. Average Speed =
a c e Total Time Taken
5. If   = K, then:
b d f
3. When the distance is constant, the average speed
ace is the harmonic mean of the two speeds
(a) K
b d f
2S1S2
Savg 
pa  qc  re S1  S2
(b) = K
pb  qd  rf
(p, q and r are not all zero) 4. When the time is constant, the average speed is
the arithmetic mean of the two speeds.
ALLIGATION, MIXTURES AND MEAN S1  S2
Savg 
1. Alligation is a method of calculating weighted 2
averages. The ratio of the weights of the two
items mixed will be inversely proportional to the 5. D – Speed of the boat downstream
difference of each of these two items from the U – Speed of the boat upstream
average attribute of the resultant mixture. B – Speed of the boat in still water
R – Speed of the stream
x1 x2 D = B + R and
w1  x 2 – x  U = B – R.
x  Further, by adding and subt racti ng these
w 2  x – x1  equations we get,
x2 – x : x – x1
w1 : w2 DU D–U
B= and R =
2 2

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6. W hen the distance cov ered by a boat in 6. If N is not a perfect square,


downstream is same as the distance covered by No. of ways of writing N as a product of two factors
the boat upstream then
1
= {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) ....}
2
Time taken downstream Upstream speed

Time taken upstream Downstream speed 7. If N is a perfect square,
No. of ways in which N can be expressed as a
7. If ‘H’ is the hours and ‘M’ is the minutes then the prodcut of two different factors
angle between the hour hand and minute hand is 1
= {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) .... – 1 } ways
11 2
  30H – M
2 and as a product of two factors
1
= {(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) .... + 1 } ways
2
NUMBER SYSTEM
8. Sum of the factors of
1. 1 is not a prime number
 ap 1 – 1  bq1 – 1  cr 1 – 1
If two numbers a and b are given, and their LCM N=     ....
2.  a – 1   b – 1   c – 1 
and HCF are L and H respectively, then L × H = a
× b.
9. Totient function is given by

LCM of numerators  1  1  1 
(N)  N  1   1   1   ...

ENIGMA
3. (a) LCM of fractions 
HCF of denominators  a  b  c 
Here (N) is the number of numbers less than and

HCF of numerators prime to N. If P is some other natural number which


(b) HCF of fractions 
LCM of denominators is prime to N, then the remainder when P(N) is
divided by N is 1.
Note: Fractions should be in the lowest form.

10. Sum of numbers less than and co-prime to a


4. The least number leaving remainder ‘r’ in
each case when div ided by ‘x’, ‘y’ and N
number N  (N) 
‘z’ = (LCM of x, y, z) + r 2

The series of such numbers will be 11. Number of ways of writing a number N as a product
(LCM of x, y, z) × n + r of two co-prime numbers = 2n–1

5. In general, for any composite number C, which where, n is the number of prime factors of a number
can be expressed as C = am × bn × cp× …, where
a, b, c, … are all prime factors and m, n, p are 12. Product of all the factors of
positive integers, then:
 Number of factors 
 2 
Number of factors is equal to N  N 

(m + 1) (n + 1)(p + 1) …
 (p 1).(q1).(r 1).... 
 2 
 N 

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LINEAR EQUATION IN TWO VARIABLE 4. In ax2 + bx + c, if a > 0

For the two simultaneous equations,


ax + by = c Y
px + qy = r
where a, b, c, p, q and r are constants

a b c a b c a b X
= = =    x 
p q r p q r p q
The same Inconsistent Two y
equation/ Equations/ intersecting
Just one line/ lines/
Two parallel Unique
Infinite Solutions lines/
Solution The minimum value of ax2 + bx + c will be
No Solutions
4ac – b2
y
4a
BINOMIAL THEOREM
–b   
at, x  
1. (x+y)n = K0xn + K1xn–1.y1+K2xn–2.y2 + ...+Knx0.yn 2a 2
where K 0 , K 1 , K 2 , ... K n are constants where, , are the roots of the equation
(called coefficients of binomial expansion)
5. In ax2 + bx + c, if a < 0
2. Sum of exponents of x and y in any term = n

ENIGMA
3. Any term is given by
Y
Tr 1  Kr xnr .yr  (r  1)th Term y

4. Kr = binomial coefficient of (r + 1)th term


x X
n n!  
 Cr 
r!  n  r  !

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

1. General Form: The maximum value of ax2 + bx + c will be


ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a  0
Such an equation has two roots, usually denoted 4ac – b2
y=
by  and . 4a

–b + b2 – 4ac –b   
= at, x  
2a 2a 2
where, , are the roots of the equation
–b – b2 – 4ac
=
2a
6. If the roots of a quadratic equation are  and ,
the equation can be re-constructed as
b x2 – (sum of roots) × x + (product of roots) = 0
2. Sum of roots:  +  = 
a
c
3. Product of roots:  ×  =
a

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CUBIC & HIGHER DEGREE EQUATIONS 10. Factor Theorem:


An expression is said to be a factor of another
Consider the cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0. expression only when the remainder is 0 when the
latter is divided by the former.
The equation would have 3 roots (equal to the degree of (x – a) is a factor of f(x) if and only if f(a) = 0.
the equation). Some of them can be imaginary. If the roots
are denoted as ,  and , we have
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (AP)
b
1. ++  = –
a Let,
c a = The first term,
2.  +  +  = d = Common difference,
a
Tn = The nth term
d  = The last term,
3.  = –
a Sn = Sum of n terms,

4. The above can be extended for higher degree 1. The nth term is given by,
equations as well. For an ‘n’ degree equation, Sum Tn = a + (n – 1)d

co-efficient of xn–1 2. The sum of n terms is given by,


of roots = – n
co-efficient of x n
Sn = [2a + (n – 1)d]
2
5. Sum of roots taken two at a time or,
co-efficient of xn–2 a+
= Sn =  ×n
n  2 
co-efficient of x

6.

ENIGMA
Sum of roots taken three at a time

=–
co-efficient of xn–3
co-efficient of x n
3. T n = S n – Sn – 1

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION (GP)


7. And, sum of roots taken ‘r’ at a time
Let,
coefficient of xn–r a = The first term,
=(–1)r n r = The common ratio
coefficient of x
Tn = The nth term and
Sn = The sum of n terms we have the following
8. Product of roots
constant term 1. Tn = arn – 1
= (–1)n .
co - efficient of xn
(1– r n )
2. Sn = a , where r < 1
9. Remainder Theorem: (1– r)
To identify whether a given expression is a factor
of another expression, we can take help of
Remainder Theorem. a(rn – 1)
3. Sn = , where r > 1
(r – 1)
According to the remainder theorem, when any
expression f(x) is divided by (x – a), the remainder
is f(a). (a is any constant in this example). a
4. Sum of infinite number of terms =
1– r

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HARMONIC PROGRESSION (HP) 2. Angle – Bisector Theorem:

1. nth term of a HP is given by A


1
Tn 
a  (n  1)d

A/2
A/2
c b
2. Harmonic Mean (HM) of two numbers a and b
2ab
= B D C
ab a

3. For any set of n positive numbers, the following Angle bisector divides the opposite side in the ratio
relationship always holds true.
(AM, GM and HM have been defined earlier) BD AB
of sides containing the angle. So 
DC AC
AM  GM  HM
(GM)2 = (AM)·(HM) 3. Apollonius Theorem:
Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle and m is the
GEOMETRY length of the median to the side with length a. Then
1 2
Triangle b2  c 2  2m2  a
1. The area of a triangle can be determined in the 2
following ways:
1
(a) Area of a triangle =  b  h , where b is base
2
b c

ENIGMA
and h is height m
(b) Area of a triangle = s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c) ,
where a, b and c are the sides of the triangle a
abc
and s is the semi-perimeter i.e. s  Special case:
2
This formula of area is known as Heron’s If b = c (the triangle is isosceles), then we have
formula 1 2
2b2  2m2  a
1 2
(c) Area of triangle = ab sin  , where a and b are
2
the sides of the triangle and  is the included
 a2 
m2   b2 – 
angle i.e. angle between sides of length a  4 

and b.

(d) Area of a triangle = r × s, where r is the 4. For acute triangle ABC


in-radius and s is the semi-perimeter AC2 = AB2 + BC2 – 2 × BC × BD

(e) Cosine rule: If a, b and c are the three sides A


of a triangle and if  is the included angle
between the sides of length a and b, then

a2  b2 – c 2
cos  
2ab
or c = a + b2 – 2 ab cos 
2 2
B D C
abc
(f) A  where R is circum-radius and A is
4R
area of the triangle
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5. For obtuse triangle ABC Circles


AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2 × BC × BD
1. If two chords, AB and CD intersect inside or outside
the circle at a point P,
A

A
B D
P A
D P B
C
C
Then, PA × PB = PC × PD
D B C

2. If AB is any chord of a circle which is extended to


6. The following are some properties of a triangle right P, and PT is a tangent drawn from P on to the circle,
angled at A, where AD  BC: then
PA × PB = PT2
(i) AD2 = BD × DC
(ii) AB2 = BD × BC
(iii) AC2 = CD × BC A B
P
A
T

Polygon
B D
ENIGMA C
3. Angle subtended by the chord at the center of a
circle i s twi ce of that subtended at the
circumference.

In a polygon of ‘n’ no. of sides,


Reflex AOB
O
n(n – 3)
1. Total number of diagonals = A B
2
360 P
2. Exterior angle of a regular polygon 
n Thus AOB = 2 × AXB

3. Interior angle of a regular convex polygon 4. An exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal
to the angle opposite to its adjacent interior angle.
360
= 180° –
n B
4. Sum of all the exterior angles of a regular convex A
polygon = 360°

5. Sum of interior angles of a n sided polygon


= (n – 2) × 180°
D C E

i.e. BCE  DAB

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5. This means that a parallelogram inscribed in a (b) When two circles touch internally
circle is always a rectangle/square. Only one common tangent is possible

6. Also, when a square or rectangle is inscribed in a (c) When two circles intersect.
circle, the diagonal of the square / rectangle is Two direct common tangents are possible.
equal to the diameter of the circle.
(d) When one circle is completely inside the other
7. Common Tangents for a pair of circles: without touching each other.
For the two circles with centres O1 and O2 and No common tangent is possible
radius r1 & r2
(e) When two circles are apart i.e. not touching
each other
P Q Two direct and two transverse tangents are
r1 r2 possible.
O1 O2
8. Alternate segment theorem:
R S Angle between any chord passing through the
tangent point and tangent is equal to the angle
subtended by the chord to any point on the other
C B side of circumference (alternate segment)

O1 O2 A
A D x C
PQ, RS are Direct common tangents & AB, CD
are Transverse common tangents.

ENIGMA
x
P B Q
Length of PQ or RS

= (distance between centres)2 – (r1 – r2 )2 9. Ptolmey’s theorem:


For a cyclic quadrilateral, the sum of products of
two pairs of opposite sides equals the product of
Length of AB or CD the diagonals

= (distance between centres)2 – (r1  r2 )2 D


A
(a) When two circles touch externally C
Distance between centres C1 C2 = r1 + r2 and
2 direct common tangents and one transverse B
common tangents are possible. AB × CD + BC × DA = AC × BD

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Mensuration
Two dimensional Figures

S.No. Name Figure Perimeter Area Nomenclature

a = Length
1. Rectangle b 2(a + b) ab
b = Breadth
a
a

2. Square a a 4a a2 a = Side

a
b is the base and
1 h is the altitude.
a c 1. b×h
3. Triangle h a + b + c = 2s 2 a, b, c are three
2. sides of 's is the
semiperimeter
b

Right angled d 1 d (hypotenuse)


4. h b+h+d bh
triangle 2 = b2 + h2
b
1 a = side
1. ah
Equilateral a a 2 h = Altitude
5. triangle h 3a
2. 3 a2 = 3 a.

ENIGMA
4 2
a

Isosceles d 1 2
6. right angled a 2a + d a
2 a = Each of equal
triangle sides.
a
a
a = Side
7. b b 2(a + b) ah b=
Parallelogram h
h=
a
a
d1 a=
a 1
8. Rhombus d2 a 4a d × d2
2 1
a
D C AC is one of its
h1 diagonals and h1, h2
h2 Sum of its 1
9. Quadrilateral (AC)(h1 + h2) are the altitudes on
four sides 2 AC from D, B
respectively.
A B
b a, b are parallel
sides and h is the
Sum of its 1 perpendicular
10. Trapezium h h(a + b)
four sides 2 distance between
parallel sides.
a

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S.No. Name Figure Perimeter Area Nomenclature


r = Radius of
the circle
r Circumference r 2
11. Circle = 2r  = 22or 3.416
7
(approx.)

1 r 2 r = Radius of
12. Semicircle r + 2r the circle
2
r r

Ring R 2(R + r) (R2 – r 2) R = Outer radius


13. (shaded region) r r = Inner radius

=
l+ 2r where
Sector of A 
14. r  ×r 2 r=
a circle  l= ×2r 360°
360°
B  C l=
Area of
 segment ACB r=
O ×2r
Segment of 360° (Minor segment)  =
15. a circle  r
  sin
+ 2rsin = r2 –

ENIGMA
A B 2 360° 2
C
l
Pathways l = Length
running across b = Breadth
16. the middle of w A = w(l + b – w) w = Width of
a rectangle the path
w b

w
17. Pathways l 2[l + b + 4w] A = 2w(l + b + 2w)
outside b
w

l
w
18. Pathways 2[l + b – 4w] A = 2w(l + b – 2w)
inside b
w

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Solids

S.No. Name Figure Lateral/curved Total surface Volume Nomenclature


surface area area
l = Length
1. Cuboid 2( l b+bh+ l h) lbh b = Breadth
h = Height

2. Cube 6a 2 a3 a = Edge

(Area of
3. Right prism base) ×
(Height)
r=
Right circular 2r(r + h) r 2 h
4. 2rh h=
cylinder

1 (Perimeter of 1
5. Right pyramid 2 3 (Area of
the base) × the base)
(Slant height) × Height
h = Height
Right circular r(l + r) 1r 2h r = Radius
6. rl 3
cone l = Slant height
2 2
= r +h

7. Sphere 4r 2 4 r 3
r = Radius
3

8.

ENIGMA
Hemisphere

9. Spherical shell
2r 2 3r 2

4(R 2 + r 2) 4
3
2 r 3
3
r = Radius

R = Outer radius
r = Inner radius

Trigonometry
Height PB
(i) sin   
1. Angle Measures: Hypotenuse AP
Angle are measured in many units viz. degree,
Base AB
minute, seconds, radians. We have (ii) cos   
1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds,  Hypotenuse AP
radians = 180°
Height PB
(iii) tan   
Trigonometrical Ratios: Base AB
1 Base AB
In a right angled triangle ABP, if  be the angle (iv) cot    
tan  Height PB
between AP and AB we define
P 1 Hypotenuse AP
(v) sec    
cos  Base AB
1 Hypotenuse AP
(vi) cosec    
 sin  Height PB
B A

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2. Important Formulae: 3. loga (Xk) = k loga X


sin 
(i) tan  
cos 
1
(ii) sin2   cos2   1 4. log X loga X
ak k
(iii) 1  tan2   sec 2 
(iv) 1  cot 2   cosec 2  1
5. loga k X  loga X
k
3. Trigonometric measures of certain angles:
6. log X  k loga X
a1/ k

Angle sin cos tan


7. loga 1 = 0 [As a0 = 1]
0° 0 1 0

1 3 1
30° 2
8. logx X = 1
2 3
1 1
45° 2 2
1 1
9. loga X = log a
x
3 1
60° 2
3
2
logb X
90° 1 0  10. loga X 
logb a

IInd quadrant
ENIGMA
Signs of trigonometric ratios

Ist quadrant
Here, only sin and Here all ratios
cosec are positive. (sin, cos, tan, sec,
cosec, cot) are positive.
11.

12.
a(loga X)  X

When base is not mentioned, it will be taken as 10.

MODERN MATHS

IIIrd quadrant IVth quadrant Permutations & Combinations


Here, only tan and Here, only cos and n n!
cot are positive. sec are positive. 1. Pr 
(n – r)!

n n!
You can remember above table as 2. Cr 
(n – r)! r !
School After
To College n
n Pr
3. Cr 
r!

LOGARITHM
n
4. Cr  n Cn–r
1. loga (XY) = loga X + logaY
5. nC + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ... + nCn = 2n
0
 X
2. loga   = loga X – loga Y 6. Number of ways of distributing ‘n’ identical things
Y
among ‘r’ persons such that each person may get
any no. of things = n + r – 1Cr – 1

Page 12 IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS


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7. If out of n things, p are exactly alike of one kind, q In general P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P (A  B)
exactly alike of second kind and r exactly alike of
If A, B are mutually exclusive then
third kind and the rest are different, then the
number of permutations of n things taken all at a P (A  B) = 0
If A, B are independent then
n!
time = P(A  B) = P(A)  P(B)
p!q!r!

6. Additional law of probability:


8. Total number of ways in which a selection can be
If E and F are two mutually exclusive events, then
made by taking some or all out of (p + q + r + ....)
the probability that either event E or event F will
items where p are of one type, q are of second
occur in a single trial is given by:
type and r are of another type and so on
P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F)
= {(p + 1) (q +1) (r + 1) ...} – 1
If the events are not mutually exclusive, then
P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E and F together).
9. The number of different relative arrangement for n
different things arranged on a circle = (n – 1)!
7. Multiplication law of probability:
If the events E and F are independent,
10. The number of ways in which (m + n) things can
then P(E and F) = P (E) × P (F)
be divided into two groups containing m and n
(m  n)! Coordinate Geometry
things respectively =
m! n!
Some fundamental formulae:
1. Distance between the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is
11. If the numbers of things are equal, say
(2m!) (x 2 – x1)2  (y 2 – y1 )2

ENIGMA
m = n, total ways of grouping =
2!(m! )2
2. The area of a triangle whose vertices are
(x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)
Probability
1
= [x1(y2 – y3) + x2(y3 – y1) + x3(y1 – y2)]
1. Probability of an event 2
Number of favourable outcomes
= 3. The point that divides the line joining two given
Number of all possible outcomes
points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the ratio m : n internally
and externally are
2. The probability of E not occuring, denoted by
 mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1 
P (not E), is given by P (not E) or P ( E )  , 
= 1 – P (E)  mn mn 
Note: It would be '+' in the case of internal division
3. Odds in favour and '–' in the case of external division.
Number of favourable cases
= 4. The coordinate of the mid-point of the line joining
Number of unfavourable cases the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)

4. Odds against  x1  x 2 y1  y 2 
=  , 
Number of unfavourable cases  2 2 
=
Number of favourable cases
5. The centroid of a triangle whose vertices are
(x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)
5. If two events are said to be mutually exclusive
then if one happens, the other cannot happen and  x1  x 2  x 3 y1  y 2  y 3 
vice versa. In other words, the events have no =  , 
 3 3 
simultaneous occurence.

IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS Page 13


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6. Slope of the line joining the points(x 1 , y 1 ) and 4. The point of intersection of any two lines of the
form y = ax + b and
y2 – y1
(x2, y2) is y = cx + d is same as the solution arrived at when
x2 – x1 these two equations are solved.
The slope is also indicated by m.
5. The length of perpendicular from a given, point
7. If the slopes of two lines be m1 and m2, then the (x1, y1) to a given line ax + by + c = 0 is
lines will be
(i) parallel if m1 = m2 ax1  by1  c
(ii) perpendicular if m1m2 = –1 p,
(a2  b2 )
Standard forms: where p is the length of perpendicular.
In particular, the length of perpendicular from origin
1. All straight lines can be written as (0,0) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is
y = mx + c,
where m is the slope of the straight line, c is the Y c
intercept or the Y coordinate of the point at which a  b2
2
the straight line cuts the Y-axis.
6. Distance between two parallel lines
2. The equation of a straight line passing through (x1, ax +by + c1 = 0
y1) and having a slope m is ax + by + c2 = 0
y – y1 = m(x –x1).
c 2  c1
3. The equation of a straight line passing through two is
points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is a2  b2

y2 – y1
y – y1  (x – x1 )

ENIGMA
x2 – x1

Page 14 IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS


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