Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

Multicolour Edition

[For B.Sc., B.Sc. (Hons.), and M.Sc. (Zoology, Botany
and Biosciences) Classes of All Indian Universities]

M.Sc., Ph.D., F.E.S.I., F.A.Z.
Department of Zoology, Meerut College, Meerut

M.Sc., Ph.D.
Department of Zoology, Meerut College, Meerut

AN ISO 9001 : 2000 COMPANY

(An ISO 9001 : 2000 Company)
Head Office : 7361, RAM NAGAR, NEW DELHI - 110 055
Phones : 23672080-81-82; Fax : 91-11-23677446
Shop at: schandgroup.com
E-mail: schand@vsnl.com
Branches :
z 1st Floor, Heritage, Near Gujarat Vidhyapeeth, Ashram Road, Ahmedabad-380 014.
Ph. 7541965, 7542369
z No. 6, Ahuja Chambers, 1st Cross, Kumara Krupa Road, Bangalore-560 001. Ph : 2268048, 2354008
z 152, Anna Salai, Chennai-600 002. Ph : 8460026
z S.C.O. 6, 7 & 8, Sector 9D, Chandigarh-160017, Ph-749376, 749377
z 1st Floor, Bhartia Tower, Badambadi, Cuttack-753 009, Ph-2332580; 2332581
z 1st Floor, 52-A, Rajpur Road, Dehradun-248 011. Ph : 2740889, 2740861
z Pan Bazar, Guwahati-781 001. Ph : 2522155
z Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad-500 195. Ph : 24651135, 4744815
z Mai Hiran Gate, Jalandhar - 144008 . Ph. 2401630
z 613-7, M.G. Road, Ernakulam, Kochi-682 035. Ph :381740
z 285/J, Bipin Bihari Ganguli Street, Kolkata-700 012. Ph : 22367459, 22373914
z Mahabeer Market, 25 Gwynne Road, Aminabad, Lucknow-226 018. Ph : 2226801, 2284815
z Blackie House, 103/5, Walchand Hirachand Marg , Opp. G.P.O., Mumbai-400 001.
Ph : 22690881, 22610885
z 3, Gandhi Sagar East, Nagpur-440 002. Ph : 2723901
z 104, Citicentre Ashok, Govind Mitra Road, Patna-800 004. Ph : 2671366, 2302100
Marketing Offices :
z 238-A, M.P. Nagar, Zone 1, Bhopal - 462 011
z A-14, Janta Store Shopping Complex, University Marg, Bapu Nagar, Jaipur - 302 015,
Phone : 0141-2709153

© 1974, P.S. Verma & V.K. Agarwal.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Publisher.

First Edition 1974

Subsequent Editions and Reprints 1975, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83 (Twice)
1985, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 2001, 2002, 2003
Reprint 2004
First Multicolour Edition 2004

ISBN : 81-219-2442-1

By Rajendra Ravindra Printers (Pvt.) Ltd., 7361, Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110 055
and published by S. Chand & Company Ltd., 7361, Ram Nagar, New Delhi-110 055.

T ology
ology Evolution Ecolo
he multicoloured edition of the textbook of Cell Biolo
gy,, Genetics, Molecular Bi-
gy, Evolution and Ecology is the outcome of sincere and combined efforts of the
authors and editors (namely Shishir Bhatnagar, Shubha Pradhan, Malini Kothiyal
and young but talented persons of DTP of S.Chand & Company Ltd. Their main motive
remained to provide relevant coloured photographs explaining various intricate biological
topics. Multicoloured figures and photographs of this edition would help our target read-
ers to understand and fully appreciate the very gist of the subject matter. Authors and
editors have remained quite choosy and vigilant regarding relevance and authenticity of
each and every illustration/picture finding its place in this textbook.
Authors earnestly hope that this multicoloured edition of the textbook of Cell Biology
Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology will enhance the curiosity of our
target readers to know more and more about the subject. It will arm them with latest
information for facing any type of exam quite adequately.
This book is meant for students of B.Sc., B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. of biological group.
Students appearing in entrance exams of C.P.M.T., I.F.S., P.C.S. and I.A.S., etc, may be
immensely benefited by this book.
Authors wish to express their thanks to Shri R.K. Gupta, the Managing Director,
Mr.. Navin Joshi, the General Manager of M/s S.Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi, for all their
efforts to make this endeavour a pleasant surprise to the readers.

he revised edition of Cell Biology
Biology, Genetics
Genetics, Molecular Biology
Biology, Evolution and Ecology comprises 84
chapters. The 21 new chapters, which have been added in this edition, are distributed in the five parts/
sections of this textbook which are as follows :
1. Cell biology. Techniques in cell biology; Growth.
2. Genetics. Multiple genes (Quantitative genetics); Change in chromosome structure; Change in
chromosome number; Human genetics; Transposable genetic elements (Jumping genes).
3. Molecular biology. Replication of DNA; Genetic engineering; Immunology; Genetic recombination
and gene transfer (Bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction).
4. Evolution. Direct evidences of evolution (Fossils); Examples of natural selection; Population
genetics and evolution; Adaptive radiation; Barriers.
5. Ecology. Ecology in India; Ecological succession; Wild-life management; Biogeography; Adaptation.
Present edition of this book has been thoroughly revised, updated and enlarged. About 400 entirely
new figures and data-packed tables have been added in this edition. All old chapters have been almost
rewritten in the light of current researches. However, the old format of the book has been retained in order
to familiarise the readers with the basic concepts. Revision questions (and problems) have been given at the
end of each chapter to test the learning capacity of the readers. Answers to the problems have also been given
at places where required.
In the revision of the book, the simplicity and clarity of the language has been maintained. Text of the
book is accompanied with simple and self-explanatory diagrams. Every effort has been made to ensure that
readers may get a balanced idea of the subject matter which may enlighten them regarding classical and
modern concepts of the subject.
It is hoped that this textbook will serve the purpose of students of B.Sc., B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc. (Zoology,
Botany and Biosciences) of various Indian Universities. This book can be used as a reference book by those
students who are preparing for various competitive examinations/tests such as CPMT, CBSE (All India
Medical Entrance Test), IFS, PCS, IAS and others.
Authors wish to express their thanks to Shri Ravindra Kumar Gupta and Shri T.N. Goel of
M/s. S. Chand and Company Ltd., for their keen interest in the publication of this book.
Authors will feel highly obliged if suggestions for the improvement of the book are brought to their
notice, so that future edition of the book may become more useful.

Chapters Pages
1. Introduction 3–15
Definition of cell biology ; history of cell biology ; unit of
measurement of cell; cell biology and other biological
sciences ; revision questions.
2. Techniques in Cell Biology 16–31
Microscopy – light microscopy, methods of sample prepa-
ration for light microscopy, electron microscopy, methods
of sample preparation for transmission electron micros-
copy; X-ray diffraction analysis ; cell fractionation ; auto-
radiography ; cell culture ; chromatography ; electrophore-
sis ; dialysis; revision questions.
3. Cell 32–68
Viruses ; cells of cellular organisms ; prokaryotic cells —
bacteria, examples of prokaryotic cells– mycoplasma or
PPLO, Escherichia coli, cyanobacteria or blue-green al-
gae; eukaryotic cells – cell shape, cell size, cell volume,
cell number, structure, cell wall and plasma membrane,
cytoplasm, nucleus; revision questions.
4. Cytoplasmic Matrix
(Chemical Organization of the Cell) 69–111
Physical nature of cytosol (or cytoplasmic matrix) ; chemi-
cal organization of cytosol ; types of compounds of cyto-
sol; inorganic compounds – water ; organic compounds –
carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, enzymes, prosthetic
groups and coenzymes, isoenzymes, vitamins, hormones,
nucleic acids ; properties of cytoplasmic matrix ; revision
5. Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall 112–153
Isolation and analysis ; chemical composition — lipids,
proteins, carbohydrates; structure of plasma membrane —
evolution of fluid mosaic model of membrane, experimen-
tal evidence in support of fluid mosaic model of plasma
membrane, role of lipid molecules in maintaining fluid
property of membrane, membrane asymmetry, constraints
on the motility of membrane molecules ; origin of plasma
membrane, functions of plasma membrane — passive trans-
port, active transport, bulk transport ; differentiation of cell
surface — invaginations, microvilli, basement membrane,
tight junctions (zonula occludens), gap junctions (nexus) ;
cell coat ; cell wall — chemical composition, structure,
ultrastructure, functions, origin and growth; revision ques-
6. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 154–165
Occurrence ; ER and endomembrane system ; morphology;
ultrastructure ; types of endoplasmic reticulum — smooth
endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, an-
nulate lamellae ; isolation and chemical composition; en-
zymes of the ER membranes ; origin of endoplasmic reticu-
lum ; functions of endoplasmic reticulum ; revision ques-
7. Golgi Apparatus 166–174
Historical ; occurrence ; distribution ; morphology ; isola-
tion and chemical composition ; origin; functions ; revision
8. Lysosomes 175–183
Historical ; occurrence ; structure ; isolation and chemical
composition — lysosomal enzymes, lysosomal membrane;
kind of lysosomes (polymorphism in lysosomes) — pri-
mary lysosomes, heterophagosomes, autophagosomes, re-
sidual bodies ; origin ; functions of lysosomes ; lysosomes
and disease ; lysosomes in plants — vacuoles, spherosomes,
aleurone grain ; revision questions.
9. Microbodies : Peroxisomes and
Glyoxysomes 184–190
Historical ; microbodies : structure and types ; peroxisomes
— functions of peroxisomes, biogenesis of peroxisomes ;
glyoxysomes — functions ; revision questions.
10. Mitochondria 191–219
Historical ; distribution or localization ; orientation, mor-
phology ; isolation ; chemical composition; mitochondria
and chloroplasts as transducing systems ; functions —
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ; oxidation of carbohydrates–
glycolysis, oxidative decarboxylation, Krebs cycle, respira-
tory chain and oxidative phosphorylation ; β-oxidation of
fatty acids ; oxidation of proteins, other functions of mito-
chondria ; biogenesis of mitochondria – mitochondria as
semiautonomous organelles, prokaryotic origin or symbiont
hypothesis ; revision questions.
11. Plastids (Chloroplasts, Photosynthesis and Vacuoles) 220–242
Historical ; types of plastids ; chloroplasts — distribution,
morphology, isolation and chemical composition, ultra-
structure ; functions of the chloroplast : photosynthesis ;

chloroplast as semiautonomous organelle ; biogenesis of
chloroplast ; amyloplasts ; chromoplasts ; vacuoles ; revi-
sion questions.
12. Nucleus 243–256
Historical ; nucleo-cytoplasmic relationship – Hammerling’s
experiment ; isolation techniques ; ultrastructure — nuclear
envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin fibres ; revision ques-
13. Chromosomes 257–279
Historical; chromosome number ; morphology — karyo-
type and idiogram ; material of the chromosome— euchro-
matin, heterochromatin; isolation methods ; chemical com-
position — DNA, the C-value paradox, histones, non-
histones ; ultrastructure — single-stranded and multistranded
hypotheses, folded-fibre model and nucleosome concept,
nucleosome and solenoid model of chromatin, solenoid
models ; functions ; giant chromosomes – polytene chro-
mosomes (salivary gland chromosomes), lampbrush chro-
mosomes ; revision questions.
14. Ribosomes 280–292
Historical ; occurrence and distribution ; method of isola-
tion ; types of ribosomes— 70S ribosomes, 80S ribosomes ;
number of ribosomes ; structure of ribosomes, chemical
composition — ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins ; ul-
trastructure– Stoffler and Wittmann’s model, Lake’s model,
three-dimensional model of 80S ribosome, dissociation and
reconstitution of ribosomes, comparison of 70S and 80S
ribosomes ; biogenesis of ribosomes – biogenesis of 70S
ribosomes, biogenesis of 80S ribosomes ; revision ques-
15. Cytoskeleton : Microtubules, Microfilaments
and Intermediate Filaments 293–303
Microtubules — structure, chemical composition, assembly
and disassembly of microtubules, functions; microfilaments
— distribution, chemical composition; intermediate fila-
ments – types of intermediate filaments, general structure
of IFs, assembly of IFs, IFs during mitosis, functions of
IFs; comparison of microtubules, intermediate filaments
and microfilaments; revision questions.
16. Centrioles and Basal Bodies 304–308
Occurrence ; structure ; chemical composition ; origin of
centrioles and basal bodies ; functions, revision questions.
17. Cilia and Flagella 309–317
Sterocilia and kinocilia ; distribution of the cilia and fla-
gella ; structure of the cilia and flagella ; isolation and
chemical composition of cilia and flagella ; ultrastructure of
the cilia and flagella; physiology of ciliary movement —

sliding filament hypothesis, immotile cilia syndrome
(Kartagenre’s syndrome); origin of cilia ; derivatives of
cilia ; revision questions.
18. Cell Growth and Cell Division
(Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis) 318–341
Cell cycle and mitosis —general events of interphase,
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis,
physiology of cell cycle and mitosis, significance of mito-
sis; meiosis and reproductive cycle, kinds of meiosis, pro-
cess of meiosis, heterotypic division or first meiotic divi-
sion, homotypic or second meiotic division; significance of
meiosis ; comparison of mitosis and meiosis; revision
19. Reproduction 342–346
Asexual reproduction; sexual reproduction ; revision ques-
20. Gametogenesis 347–354
Spermatogenesis— formation of spermatids, spermiogen-
esis; oogenesis—multiplication phase, growth phase, matu-
ration phase, structure of mature egg; revision questions.
21. Fertilization 355–359
External and internal fertilization; fertilizin and antifertilizin;
process of fertilization–activation of the egg ; amphimixis;
post-fertilization changes in the egg ; kinds of fertilization ;
significance of fertilization ; revision questions.
22. Parthenogenesis 360–364
Natural parthenogenesis—complete parthenogenesis, incom-
plete parthenogenesis ; artificial parthenogenesis, signifi-
cance of parthenogenesis ; revision questions.
23. Growth 365–370
Levels of growth ; limited and unlimited growth ; cell
growth : kinetics of cell growth, mechanisms involved in
cell growth— RNA synthesis and cell growth, nucleolus
and cell growth, protein synthesis and cell growth; revision

1. Introduction 3–11
Historical : vapour and fluid theories, preformation theo-
ries, particulate theories; scope of genetics; importance of
genetics; branches of genetics; revision questions.
2. Genetical Terminology 12–21
Symbols of genetics; revision questions.
3. Mendel and His Work 22–44
Rediscovery of Mendel's work, Mendel's selection of the
experimental plant ; Mendel's material and crossing tech-
nique; phenomenon of dominance; certain examples of
phenomenon of dominance, phenomenon of dominance in
plants, application of phenomenon of dominance in ani-
mals, mechanism of dominance, variation in dominance
relation— incomplete dominance, codominance ; law of
segregation : mechanism of segregation, certain other ex-
amples of law of segregation ; law of independent assort-
ment.: Mendel's dihybrid cross, mechanism of independent
assortment, a case of reverse genetics in Mendel's wrinkled
character, dihybrid cross in Drosophila ; back cross and
test cross, examples of monohybrid back and test cross,
examples of dihybrid test cross; multihybrid cross ; devia-
tion from Mendel's dihybrid phenotypic ratio : 3 : 6 : 3 : 1
: 2 : 1 ratio, 1 : 2 : 1 : 2 : 4 : 2 : 1 : 2 : 1 ratio, 3 : 1 : 6
: 2 ratio, 1 : 2 : 1 : 3 : 4 : 2 ratio, 4 : 2 : 2 : 1 ratio; revision
questions and problems.
4. Genetic Interaction and Lethal Genes 45–62
Types of genetic interaction ; non-epistatic inter-allelic
genetic interactions ; kinds of epistatic interaction: domi-
nant epistasis (12 : 3 : 1), recessive epistasis (9 : 3 : 4),
duplicate genes with cumulative effect (9 : 6 : 1), duplicate
recessive genes (or complimentary genes; 9 : 7), duplicate
dominant genes (15 : 1), dominant and recessive interac-
tions (13 : 3); atavism or reversion; lethal genes; pen-
etrance; expressivity; pleiotropism; revision questions and
problems; answers to problems.
5. Quantitative Genetics
(Inheritance of Multiple Genes) 63–71
Multiple factor hypothesis ; historical; characters of mul-
tiple genes; examples of quantitative inheritance: kernel
colour in wheat, skin colour in man, eye colour in man;
transgressive variation; modifiers or modifying genes; sig-
nificance of quantitative genetics; revision questions and
problems; answers to problems.

6. Inbreeding, Outbreeding and Hybrid
Vigour 72–83
Inbreeding: method of inbreeding, genetic effect of in-
breeding, inbreeding depression, practical applications of
inbreeding; outbreeding and hybrid vigour: cross breeding
and mule production, manifestation of heterosis—some
examples of heterosis in plants, genetic basis of heterosis,
application of heterosis; evolutionary significance of in-
breeding and outbreeding; revision questions and problems;
answers to problems.
7. Linkage 84–92
Historical : Sutton-Boveri chromosome theory of heredity,
Sutton's view on linkage, Bateson and Punnet's coupling
and repulsion hypothesis, Morgan's views on linkage, chro-
mosome theory of linkage; kinds of linkage : complete
linkage, incomplete linkage; linkage groups; significance of
linkage; revision questions and problems; answers to prob-
8. Crossing Over 93–105
Types of crossing over : somatic or mitotic crossing over,
germinal or meiotic crossing over; mechanism of meiotic
crossing over : synapsis, duplication of chromosomes, cross-
ing over by breakage and union, terminalisation ; kinds of
crossing over; theories about the mechanism of crossing
over; tetrad analysis; cytological detection of crossing over;
significance of crossing over; revision questions and prob-
lems; answers to problems.
9. Genetic and Cytological Mapping of
Chromosomes 106–114
Construction of a linkage map or genetic mapping :
determination of linkage groups, determination of map
distance, determination of gene order, interference and
coincidence, linkage maps of different organisms; chromo-
some, physical or cytological mapping : cytological map-
ping of chromosomes of Drosophila, differences between
genetic and chromosome maps; uses of genetic maps;
revision questions and problems; answers to problems.
10. Multiple Alleles 115–126
Characters of multiple alleles; symbolism for multiple alle-
les; examples : the C gene in rabbit, A, B, AB and O blood
groups in humans, the H antigen and Bombay phenotype,
Rh factor, eye colour in Drosophila, self-sterility alleles;
revision questions and problems; answers to problems.
11. Fine Structure of Gene 127–133
Gene concept : test of allelism — bar locus in Drosophila,
lozenge locus, apricot eye colour in Drosophila, cistron,
recon and muton, complex gene loci; revision questions
and problems; answers to problems.
12. Sex-linked Inheritance 134–150
Inheritance of X-linked (sex-linked) genes : characteristics
of sex-linked inheritance, examples of inheritance of X-
linked recessive genes; inheritance of Y-linked genes; in-
heritance of X-Y linked genes; sex-linked lethals; sex
influenced genes; sex limited genes; non-disjunction; pri-
mary non-disjunction, secondary non-disjunction; revision
questions and problems; answers to problems.
13. Determination of Sex and
Sex Differentiation 151–169
Genetically controlled sex determining mechanisms : sex
chromosomal mechanisms (heterogamesis); types of sex
chromosomal mechanism of sex determination : heteroga-
metic males, heterogametic females, genic balance mecha-
nism, sex determination in man, male haploidy or
haplodiploidy mechanism, single gene control of sex;
metabolically controlled sex determining mechanism ; hor-
monally controlled sex determining mechanism ; environ-
mentally controlled sex determining mechanism; sex deter-
mination in plants, sex differentiation : dosage compensa-
tion of genes, hormonal or genital sex, somatic sex, socio-
psychological sex; revision questions and problems; an-
swers to problems.
14. Chromosomal Mutation-I 170–184
(Cytogenetics : Changes in Structure of Chromosome)
Structural changes in chromosomes : types of structural
changes in chromosomes — deletion (or deficiency), dupli-
cation, inversion, translocation, variation in chromosome
morphology; revision questions and problems; answers to
15. Chromosomal Mutation-II 185–200
(Cytogenetics : Changes in Chromosome Number)
Euploidy: monoploidy, polyploidy — autopolyploids, al-
lopolyploids, synthesized allopolyploids; aneuploidy : mono-
somy, nullisomy, trisomy, double trisomy, tetrasomy; revi-
sion questions and problems; answers to problems.
16. Gene Mutation 201–216
Historical background; occurrence ; kinds of mutations ;
classification of mutation according to type of cell, classi-
fication of mutation according to the size and quality —
point mutation, multiple mutations or gross mutations, clas-
sification of mutation according to the origin — spontane-
ous mutations, induced mutations — radiations, tempera-
ture as mutagen, chemical mutagens, classification of mu-
tation according to the direction, classification of mutation
according to magnitude of phenotypic effect, classification
of mutation according to consequent change in amino acid
sequence; mutation rate ; method of detection of sex-linked
mutation; practical application of mutations ; significance
of mutation; revision questions and problems; answers to
17. Cytoplasmic or Extra-Nuclear Inheritance 217–230
Evidences for cytoplasmic factors; extra-nuclear inherit-
ance in eukaryotes : maternal inheritance, extra-nuclear
inheritance by cellular organelles — chloroplast inheritance
in variegated four o’clock plant, maternal inheritance by
iojap gene of corn, extra-nuclear inheritance by mitochon-
dria, extra-nuclear inheritance by endosymbionts: sigma
virus in Drosophila, spirochaetes and maternal sex ratio in
Drosophila, kappa particles, mm particles, milk factor in
mice, uniparental inheritance in Chlamydomonas reinhardi;
revision questions and problems; answers to problems.
18. Human Genetics 231–245
Pedigree analysis; amniocentesis; twins : identical or
monozygotic twins, fraternal or dizygotic twins; human
traits; disorders due to mutant genes : PTC tasters, brachy-
dactyly, Huntington’s chorea, tongue rolling, inborn errors
of metabolism — phenylketonuria (PKU), alkaptonuria,
albinism, sickle-cell anaemia; human cytogenetics : band-
ing techniques; sex determination; sex linkage; chromo-
somal aberrations; revision questions.
19. Eugenics, Euphenics and Genetic
Engineering 246–253
Eugenics and euthenics; history; need of eugenics; eugenics
and human betterment : positive eugenics, negative eugen-
ics; euphenics, genetic engineering and gene therapy; revi-
sion questions.
20. Transposable Genetic Elements 254–260
(Jumping or Mobile Genes)
Mode of discovery of transposable elements; characteristics
of transposable elements; types of transposable elements :
insertion sequences (IS) or simple transposons, transposons
(Tn) or complex transposons; examples of transposons: Tn
3 transposon of E.coli, bacteriophage Mu, yeast Ty ele-
ments ; revision questions.

1. Introduction 3–8
Historical background ; material and methods in molecular
biology ; basic requirements to be met by genetic material ;
revision questions.
2. Identification of the Genetic Materials 9–15
Direct evidences for DNA as the genetic material — the
transformation experiments, identification of the “trans-
forming” principle or substance, the blender experiment,
bacterial conjugation ; indirect evidences for DNA as the
genetic material ; evidences for RNA as the genetic mate-
rial of some viruses; revision questions and problems ;
answers to problems.
3. Chemical Nature of Genetic Materials
(i.e., DNA and RNA) 16–26
Historical ; deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA — molar ratios
of nitrogen bases in DNA molecule, the equivalence rule,
physical, molecular or geometrical organization of DNA,
considerations of Watson and Crick in the construction of
double helical structure of DNA molecule, Watson and
Crick’s model of DNA, ploymorphism of DNA helix (or
alternative forms of DNA double helices), Z-DNA (or left-
handed DNA) ; ribonucleic acid (RNA) — molecular struc-
ture of RNA, replication of genetic RNA ; revision ques-
tions and problems ; answers to problems.
4. Replication of DNA 27–43
Watson and Crick’s model for DNA replication — experi-
mental evidence for semiconservative DNA replication in
E.coli, Meselson and Stahl’s experiment, visualization of
replication in E. coli, evidences for semiconservative repli-
cation of chromosomes (or DNA) in eukaryotes,
semidiscontinuous replication, unidirectional and bidirec-
tional DNA replication, enzymes of DNA metabolism,
roles of RNA primers in DNA replication, replicons, pro-
teins involved in opening of DNA helix, replisomes and
primosomes ; mechanism of DNA replication in prokary-
otes; DNA replication in eukaryotes, model’s of DNA
replication ; revision questions and problems ; answers to
5. Non-genetic Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) and
Transcription 44–65
Chemical composition of non-genetic ribonucleic acid
(RNA); comparison between DNA replication and tran-
scription ; mechanism of prokaryotic transcription — enzy-
matic synthesis of RNA, the RNA polymerase enzyme,
binding of RNA polymerase to promoter, initiation, elonga-
tion and termination, classes of RNA molecules and pro-
cessing; mechanism of eukaryotic transcription — pro-
moter, enhancer and silencers, initiation of eukaryotic tran-
scription, elongation of RNA chain in eukaryotes, termina-
tion of eukaryotic transcription, chromatin structure and
transcription ; types of non-genetic RNA and processing —
ribosomal RNA (rRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), trans-
fer RNA (tRNA) ; revision questions and problems ;
answers to problems.
6. Genetic Code 66–76
Basis of cryptoanalysis ; codon assignment (cracking the
code or deciphering the code)— theoretical approach, the
in vitro codon assignment, the in vivo codon assignment ;
characteristics of genetic code ; wobble hypothesis ; revi-
sion questions and problems ; answers to problems.
7. Protein Synthesis 77–90
Central dogma and central dogma reverse ; minimum
necessary materials ; mechanism of protein synthesis —
aminoacylation of tRNA (formation of aminoacyl –tRNA),
stages of polypeptide synthesis in prokaryotes, polysomes
and coupled transcription — translation, stages of polypep-
tide synthesis in eukaryotes, modification of released pro-
tein ; antibiotics and protein synthesis; revision questions
and problems ; answers to problems.
8. Regulation of Gene Action 91–109
Regulation of gene action in prokaryotes — transcriptional
control mechanisms: negative control, inducible operons
(inducible systems), repressible system, positive control,
effects of glucose on lac operon (catabolic repression),
translational control, post-translation control (feedback in-
hibition or end product inhibition) ; regulation of gene
action in eukaryotes — regulation of gene action at the
level of genome, regulation of gene action at the level of
transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, translational
control, post-translational modification of proteins to make
them active ones ; hormonal control of gene expression ;
revision questions and problems ; answers to problems.
9. Genetic Engineering
(Isolation, Sequencing, Synthesis of Gene and DNA
Fingerprinting) 110–125
Tools of genetic engineering ; certain general techniques of
genetic engineering — isolation and use of restriction
enzymes, Southern blotting technique, northern blotting
technique, western blotting technique, vectors, transforma-
tion and molecular cloning, isolation of genes — isolation
of ribosomal RNA genes in Xenopus ; sequencing of
gene— Maxam and Gilbert’s chemical degradation method,
Sanger’s dideoxynucleotide synthetic method, direct DNA
sequencing using PCR ; synthesis of gene —organochemical
synthesis of polynucleotides (or chemical synthesis of tRNA
genes), synthesis of gene from mRNA (or enzymatic syn-
thesis of gene) ; application of genetic engineering — DNA
fingerprinting : the ultimate identification test ; revision
questions and problems, answers to problems.
10. Immunology 126–144
Cellular basis of immunity ; molecular structure of immu-
noglobulins or antibodies, antibody diversity (genetic basis
of antibody diversity) ; B lymphocytes and the immune
response — precipitation of soluble antigens, agglutination,
complement fixation, clonal selection theory, allelic exclu-
sion, immunologic memory, autoimmune disease; major
histocompatibility complexes — class I MHC antigen, class
II MHC antigen ; T lymphocytes and the immune response,
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) ; revision
11. Genetic Recombination and Gene Transfer
(Bacterial Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction,
Episomes and Plasmids) 145–156
Conjugation : examples of conjugation, F element and F →

F– transfer, formation of Hfr cells and Hfr → F– transfer,

mapping the bacterial chromosomes; transformation ; trans-
duction and recombination of viruses, recombination in
viruses ; episomes and plasmids : episomes, plasmids—
fertility (F) factor, R plasmid, col factor, replication and
recombination in plasmids, uses of plasmids in genetic
engineering and biotechnology ; revision questions.

1. Introduction 3–7
Fact of evolution; evolution compared with ancient history;
a preview of evolution; certain misconceptions of evolu-
tionary biology; significance of evolutionary biology; revi-
sion questions.
2. Development of the Idea of Organic Evolution 8–17
Period of obscurity; period of ancient Greeks and Romans;
pre-Darwinian period; Darwinian period; post-Darwinian
period : the romantic period, the agnostic period, the mod-
ern synthesis period; present state of evolution idea; revi-
sion questions.
3. Direct Evidences of Evolution : Fossils 18–33
Palaeontological evidences : branches of palaeontology;
fossils : how fossils are formed ? conditions of fossiliza-
tion, formation of rocks, determination of age of rocks and
fossils, nature of fossils, types of fossils, significance of
fossils; the geological time table, conclusions drawn from
fossil record, imperfection of fossil record; revision ques-
4. Indirect Evidences of Evolution 34–49
Evidences from classification (taxonomy); evidences from
comparative anatomy: connecting link, homology, analogy
(homoplasy), vestigial organs; evidences from comparative
embryology : genetic basis of recapitulation; evidences
from comparative physiology and biochemistry : proto-
plasm chemistry, chromosome chemistry, enzyme similari-
ties, hormonal similarities, comparative serology, amino
acid sequence analyses, excretory product analyses,
phosphagens; evidences from comparative cytology; evi-
dences from genetics; evidences from biogeographical rela-
tions : continental islands; revision questions.
5. Theories of Organic Evolution
(Lamarckism, Darwinism, Modern Synthetic Theory,
Germplasm Theory and Mutation Theory) 50–68
Theory of inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckism):
examples of Lamarckism, critical analysis of Lamarck’s
propositions, neo-Lamarckism; theory of natural selection
(Darwinism), facts that influenced Darwin’s thoughts, pan-
genesis hypothesis, Darwin-Wallace theory of natural se-
lection, critical analysis of Darwinism, neo-Darwinism,
maturation of neo-Darwinism into modern synthesis; mod-
ern synthetic theory; Weismann’s germ plasm theory; mu-
tation theory : characteristics of mutation theory, types of
mutation, advantages of mutation theory, objections to
mutation theory; revision questions.

6. Selection in Action 69–78
(Examples and Types of Natural Selection)
Melanism in moths or industrial melanism, Australian rab-
bits, resistance of insects to pesticides, antibiotic resistance
in bacteria, infectious diseases in humans, sickle cell
anaemia, heavy metal resistance in plants; types of selec-
tion: directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive
or diversifying selection, sexual selection, group and kin
selection; revision questions.
7. Population Genetics and Evolution 79–92
Mendelian population; gene pool and gene frequency : two
models of gene pool structure— classical hypothesis, bal-
ance hypothesis; chance mating or panmixis; Hardy-
Weinberg law : genetic equilibrium; application of Hardy-
Weinberg law in calculating gene frequencies in a popula-
tion; factors influencing allele frequency or deviations
from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium : selection — evolution,
natural selection, directional selection, artificial selection,
significance of heterozygote, genetic load (concealed vari-
ability) and price of evolution, mutation, meiotic drive and
migration pressure, random genetic drift, founder principle;
genetic polymorphism; population genetics and evolution :
speciation; revision questions.
8. Evolution above Species Level
(Adaptation, Adaptive Radiation, Microevolution,
Macroevolution, Megaevolution, Punctuated Equilibria
and Related Phenomena) 93–112
Adaptive radiation : examples of adaptive radiation;
Simpson’s adaptive grid and macro-evolution; Mivart’s
dilemma and preadaptation; microevolution, macroevolu-
tion, megaevolution and hypothesis of punctuated equilib-
ria : microevolution, macroevolution — evolution of horses,
general principles of macroevolution, megaevolution—he
process involved in macroevolution and megaevolution,
doctrine of punctuated equilibria, whether human evolution
is graduated or punctuated ? ; Simpson’s hopeful monster;
orthogenesis and orthoselection; revision questions.
9. Isolation 113–123
Types of isolation : isolation by time, isolation by distance
(spatial isolation), geographical isolation; reproductive iso-
lation; types of isolating mechanisms; premating or
prezygotic isolating mechanisms : habitat isolation (eco-
logical isolation), seasonal isolation (temporal isolation),
ethological or behavioural isolation (sexual selection), me-
chanical isolation; postmating or postzygotic isolating
mechanisms : gametic mortality, zygotic mortality, hybrid
inviability, developmental hybrid sterility, segregational
hybrid sterility, F2 breakdown; the coaction of isolating
mechanisms; the genetics of isolating mechanisms; role of

isolating mechanisms; origin of isolation; revision ques-
10. Speciation 124–136
Species, race and deme; nature of speciation; potential
modes of speciation; instantaneous speciation : instanta-
neous speciation through ordinary mutation, instantaneous
speciation through macrogenesis, instantaneous speciation
through chromosomal aberrations, instantaneous speciation
through polyploidy; gradual speciation : geographic or
allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation—definition of
sympatric speciation, reasons for postulating sympatric
speciation, biological and host races, means of sympatric
speciation, hypothesis of sympatric speciation — homogamy,
conditioning, preadaptation and niche selection, sympatric
speciation by disruptive selection, differences between allo-
patric (geographic) and sympatric speciation; quantum spe-
ciation; differences between speciation in animals and in
plants; revision questions.
11. Barriers 137–140
Topographic barriers, climatic or ecological barriers, veg-
etative barriers, large bodies of water as barriers, lack of
salinity of sea water as barrier, biological barriers; revision
12. Origin of Life 141–162
Historical and theories : special creation theory, Hindu
concept of origin of life, theories of spontaneous generation
or abiogenesis, the decline and fall of the theory of spon-
taneous generation, hypothesis of panspermia, theory of
chemical evolution and spontaneous origin of life at mo-
lecular level, experimental support of Oparin’s hypothesis
— Miller’s experiment, protenoid microspheres, Cairns-
Smith’s model, RNA first model, why RNA and not DNA
was the first living molecules; process of origin of life :
structure of cosmos, primitive earth, prebiotic synthesis,
evolution of progenote— origin and evolution of RNA
world, origin and evolution of ribonucleoprotein (RNP)
world, origin of plasma membrane, DNA world, origin of
progenote, retrograde evolution, adaptive radiation in
progenote, evolution of eukaryotes : endosymbiotic hypoth-
esis, invagination of surface membrane hypothesis; mo-
lecular evolution : the evolution of proteins, examples of
protein evolution — insulin, haemoglobin, cytochrome c,
neutral theory of protein evolution; revision questions.

1. Introduction 3–13
Definition of ecology ; historical background of ecology ;
branches of ecology; relationship of ecology with other
disciplines ; ecological tools and techniques; significance
of ecology for man ; revision questions.
2. Ecology in India 14-19
Growth of plant ecology ; growth of animal ecology ;
growth of desert ecology; growth of oceanography and
limnology ; growth of pollution biology ; revision ques-
3. Environment 20–48
Atmosphere (air) : various zones of atmosphere, air, physi-
ologic-ecologic inter-relationship of gases and animals, air
as medium for living organisms ; hydrosphere (water) :
physical properties of water, chemical properties of water,
effect of factor of aquatic environment on aquatic organ-
isms, water and ecological adaptations, snow as habitat ;
lithosphere (soil) ; soil, soil formation or pedogenesis—
process of soil formation, weathering of soil forming rocks,
mineralization and humification, formation of organo-min-
eral complexes, soil profile, climate and soil types, mor-
phology of soil, physical properties of soil, chemical prop-
erties of soil, soil as habitats for animals, soil fauna and soil
flora, revision questions.
4. Abiotic Environmental Factors 49–76
Types of abiotic environmental factors ; essential elements
and limiting factors, Liebig – Blackmann law of limiting
factors ; threshold and rate ; Shelford’s law of tolerance ;
light and radiations : light receptors of animals, light
variations in different environment, effect of light on the
plants, effect of light on animals; temperature : nature of
temperature, heat budget, temperature fluctuations in differ-
ent environments, range of temperature tolerance, poikilo-
therms and homeotherms, effect of temperature on plants
and animals, thermal adaptations of plants and animals ;
precipitation (rainfall) ; humidity of air; fire: types of fire,
effect of fire, adaptations to fire, wind factor ; physi-
ographic factors : latitudes and altitudes, height of moun-
tain chains, direction of mountains and valleys, steepness of
slope ; revision questions.
5. Biotic Environmental Factors 77–93
Interspecific interactions : positive interactions— mutual-
ism, commensalism, protocooperation, negative interactions
— exploitation, amensalism, competition; revision ques-
6. Population (Population ecology) 94–108
Population characteristics : population size and density,
patterns of population dispersion, age structure, natality,
mortality, biotic potential ; population dynamics; growth
rate of population ; population dispersion : emigration,
immigration, migration ; regulation of population size :
population cycles ; population ecology and evolution ;
revision questions.
7. Biotic Communities
(Community ecology : Communities, niche and
bioindicators) 109–126
Characteristics of a community; classification of the com-
munities ; composition of community: size, number of
species, dominants, ecological amplitude ; horizontal strati-
fication, vertical stratification ; characters used in commu-
nity structure : quantitative structure of plant communities
— frequency, density, abundance, cover and basal area,
qualitative characteristics of plant communities — physiog-
nomy, phenology, stratification, abundance, sociability, vi-
tality, life form (growth form), synthetic characters —
presence and constance, fidelity, dominance, importance
value index and polygraph construction ; habitat and niche
: spatial or habital niche, trophic niche, multifactor or
hypervolume niche; community metabolism ; community
stability, ecotone and edge effect ; factor compensation and
ecotypes ; ecological indicators ; revision questions.
8. Ecological Succession 127–136
Causes of succession; trends of succession (functional
changes); basic types of succession; general process of
succession : nudation, invasion, competition and coaction,
reaction, stabilization (climax); some examples of succes-
sion : hydrosere, succession in xeric habitat; concept of
climax : monoclimax theory, polyclimax theory, climax
pattern hypothesis, information theory, certain recent mod-
els of succession, resource-ratio hypothesis of succession;
community evolution; revision questions.
9. Ecosystem : Structure and Function 137–153
Kinds of ecosystem; structure of ecosystem: abiotic or non-
living components, biotic or living components— autotrophic
component, heterotrophic component; example of ecosys-
tem; function of an ecosystem — productivity of ecosys-
tem, food chains in ecosystems; grazing food chain, detritus
food chain; ecological pyramids: types of ecological pyra-
mids; energy flow in ecosystems: concept of energy, unit of
energy, ecological energetics, laws governing energy trans-
formation, concept of free energy, enthalpy and entropy,
Lindeman’s trophic– dynamic concept, maintenance cost of
secondary producers, assimilated energy and respiration
energy, ecological efficiency; revision questions.
10. Biogeochemical Cycles 154–166
Types of biogeochemical cycles : water cycle, gaseous
cycles — the oxygen cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen
cycle, sedimentary cycles — sulphur cycle, phosphorus
cycle, biogeochemical cycle of micronutrients; revision
11. Aquatic Ecosystems : Freshwater
Communities 167–180
Aquatic ecosystems; subdivisions of aquatic ecosystems;
freshwater ecosystems: physico-chemical nature of fresh-
water : pressure, density and buoyancy, temperature, light,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, other gases, pH or hydrogen ion
concentration; lentic ecosystems : lakes and ponds, physico-
chemical properties of lakes and ponds, biotic communities
of lakes and ponds, distribution of oxygen and dissolved
nutrients in lakes; lotic ecosystems : characteristics of lotic
environment, rapidly flowing water, slowly flowing water,
revision questions.
12. Aquatic Ecosystems : Estuaries and
Marine Communities 181–194
Estuarine ecology : types of estuaries, physico-chemical
aspects of estuaries, biotic communities of estuaries, sub-
systems of estuaries; marine ecosystems : physico-chemical
aspects of marine environment — light, temperature, pres-
sure, zonation of marine environment, stratification of ma-
rine environment, salinity, currents and tides; marine com-
munities : biotic communities of oceanic region, biotic
communities of continental shelf, coral reef as a specialized
oceanic ecosystem, biotic communities of coral reef; revi-
sion questions.
13. Terrestrial Ecosystems 195–208
Physico-chemical nature of terrestrial ecosystems and their
comparison with aquatic ecosystems; classification of ter-
restrial eco-systems : biogeographic realms or regions,
biomes : tundra biome, high altitude or the alpine biome,
forest biomes, tropical savanna biomes, grassland biomes,
desert biomes, wetland biomes; revision questions.
14. Pollution
(Environmental Pollutants and Toxicology) 209–237
Origin of pollution ; pollutants : the creators of pollution :
types of pollutants; air pollution : air quality, methods of
detection and measurement of air pollution, sources of air
pollution — air pollution by natural means, air pollution by
human activities, types of air pollutants, ecology of air
pollution — gaseous pollutants, particulate pollutants, ef-
fect of air pollution on weather, climate and atmospheric
processes — green house effect, peeling of ozone umbrella
by CFMs, control of air pollution; water pollution : kinds
and sources of water pollutants, ecology of water pollution
— sewage pollution, industrial pollution, thermal pollution,
silt pollution, water pollution by agrochemicals, marine
pollution, control of water pollution; land pollutants and

land pollution: minimizing land pollution; radioactive pollu-
tion, noise pollution, health hazards of noise pollution,
reducing noise pollution; revision questions.
15. Ecology and Human Welfare
(Natural Resource Ecology : Natural Resources,
Conservation and Management) 238–259
Classification of natural resources; conservation of natural
resources; minerals and their conservation : terrestrial min-
eral resources, marine mineral resources, conservation of
terrestrial mineral resources, ecological aspects of mining;
energy and its conservation : commercial sources of en-
ergy— fuels, electric energy production, non-commercial
sources of energy — fire wood, petroplants, biogas, non-
conventional renewable sources of energy — dendrothermal
energy, solar energy, wind energy, ocean or tidal energy,
geothermal energy; food, agriculture and aquaculture :
shifting cultivation, sedentary cultivation, new sources of
food; waste management (recycling of resources and vermi-
technology) : vermitechnology; forest resources : forest
cover, deforestation (destruction of forests), afforestation
— conservation or protective forestry, commercial or ex-
ploitative forestry; range management (grassland manage-
ment); wild-life management; water resource and its man-
agement; land use planning and management; soil erosion
and soil conservation : types of soil erosion, soil conserva-
tion; revision questions.
16. Wild Life Management 260–271
Wild life of India : deer, antelopes and other herbivores, big
cats and other carnivores, birds, crocodiles and other rep-
tiles, frog; concept of threatened species; reasons for deple-
tion of wild life; necessity for wild life conservation, modes
of wild life conservation : protection by law, protected
species of Indian wild life, establishment of sanctuaries and
national parks, other conservation measures; revision ques-
17. Biogeography
(Distribution of Animals and Plants) 272–283
Descriptive phytogeography: major plant communities
(biomes) of the world, phytogeographical regions of world—
arctic zone, north temperate zone, tropical zone, south
temperate zone; phytogeography of India — vegetation of
India, forest vegetation – moist tropical forests, dry tropical
forests, montane (mountainous) subtropical forests, mon-
tane temperate forests, alpine forests; floristic (botanical)
regions (provinces) of India; patterns of distribution of
biota : distribution, endemism, centre of origin; descriptive
zoogeography; zoogeographical regions — palaearctic re-
gion, nearctic region, neotropical region, Ethiopian region,
oriental region, Australian region; revision questions.

18. Adaptations
(Aquatic Adaptations, Volant Adaptations and Desert
Adaptations) 284–294
Aquatic adaptations : primary aquatic adaptations, second-
ary aquatic adaptations; volant adaptations; desert adapta-
tions; revision questions.

Indices 1–30