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Article Summary Summarized Annotation: Added Info:

Article 1: Civil Code of the
Art. 2: Laws shall take effect 15 - Civil code took effect on August 30, 1950 Covered Under this Rule:
days following the completion - EO 200 was issued by President Aquino on June 1987 which - Presidential decrees and
of their publication provided that pursuant to the ruling in Tañada v. Tuvera executive orders by the
publication need not be made in the Official Gazette, president in exercise of
considering its erratic release and limited readership. his legislative powers.
- Newspapers for general circulation could better perform the - Administrative rules and
function of communicating the laws to the people—more regulations if their
available, wider circulation, comes out regularly. purpose is to enforce or
- If a statute does not provide for its effectivity, it will only take implement existing law
effect 15days after the completion of its publication. (No one pursuant to a valid
shall be charged under the statute until the completion of the delegation.
publication.) - City charter must be
- Statutes may provide for another number of days for publication. published even if it is only
The statement “unless otherwise provided” refers only to the 15 applicable to a portion of
days (which can be changed to a different number) and not the national territory
requirement of publication. —Publication is indispensable. * Interpretative regulation and
those internal in nature need not
be published.
Art. 3: Ignorance of the law - It is the presumption that every person knows the law.
excuses no one - Ignorance cannot be put up as a defense because it can always
be used causing disorder in society
- This is the reason why publication is an essential element, so
that no one can excuse himself or herself for not knowing.
Art. 4: Laws shall not be - Statutes are to be construed as having prospective or future
retroactive unless provided operation only it is not meant to be applicable to the past unless
it is expressly provided for or is clearly and necessarily implied
from the law.
Cases when the law may be given retroactive effect:
1. The law expressly provides
2. When the law is curative or remedial – meant to cure defects in
order to enforce existing obligations. To enable people to carry
into effect what they intended in the obligation but could not due
to some statute. Not meant to impair obligation or affect vested
3. When the law is procedural – when it deals with procedure it
applies to all actions, which have accrued, or pending and future
Ex. When the legislature provides that all bills should under go 4
readings instead of 3. This affects all bills that have been created and
even those already undergoing readings.
4. When the law is penal in character and is favorable to the
Art. 5: Acts committed against MANDATORY PROVISIONS OF LAWS: If one fails to commit certain
mandatory and prohibitory laws acts that are mandatory in the law, it renders the proceeding or acts to
shall be void. which it relates as illegal or void.
Ex. The law provides “ The action to revoke the donation under this
article must be brought within 5 years from the time the decree of legal
separation has become final.” (Article 64, Family Code)

PROHIBITORY LAWS: Those that one is not supposed to do. Couched

in negative terms.
Ex. The law provides that “ No legal separation may be decreed unless
the court has taken steps towards reconciliation.” (Article 59, Family
Art. 6: Waiver of Rights - Rights may be waived unless it is contrary to law, public policy, Examples of what cannot be
morals or good customs, or prejudicial to a third person with a waived:
right recognized by law. 1. Waiver against the right
- The right must exist at the time of the waiver. to purchase land.
Requisites: 2. Waive an action against
1. The person knows that a right exists future fraud
2. Has adequate knowledge upon which to make an intelligent 3. Waive right to receive
decision less than the
3. Knowledge of the facts related to the right to be waived compensation a worker is
4. Must be shown that the waiver is made knowingly and to receive under the law.
- Rights provided for in statutes can generally be waived unless the
object of the statute is to protect or promote public interest
Art. 7: Repealed Laws - Laws are repealed only by subsequent ones
- Between a law and the Constitution, the latter prevails
- Administrative or executive acts are valid only when they are not
contrary to laws or the Constitution
REPEAL: legislative act of abolishing a previous statute through a new
- Where a portion of a statute is rendered unconstitutional and
part is valid the arts may be separated if they can stand
independently of one another.

Art. 8: Judicial decisions form - Judicial decisions, applying and interpreting laws and the Constitution,
case laws assume the same authority as laws.
Art. 9: Responsibility of the - Judges must not evade performance of their responsibility because of
courts an apparent non-existence or vagueness of a law governing a particular
legal dispute.
Art. 10: It is presumed that the - The court must first apply the law, only when there is ambiguity
lawmaking body intended right in its application should there be any kind of interpretation.
and justice to prevail - The interpretation should be in line with the intent of the
legislature or the end sought to be attained.
Art. 11: Customs CUSTOM: a rule of conduct formed by repetition of acts, uniformly
Art. 12: Customs must be observed as a social rule, which is legally binding and has obligatory
proved accdg. to the rules of force.
evidence. JURIDICAL CUSTOM: Can be a supplement/addition to a statutory law
unlike a social custom, which cannot do so.
Art. 13: Years, days, months Years: 365 days each
Months: 30 days – if designated by their name, they shall be computed
by the number of days that they respectively have
Hour: 24 hours
Nights: Sunset to sunrise
- In computing a period first day exclude last day included
Art. 14: Penal laws - All citizens or foreigners who sojourner are subject to all penal Exception:
laws and laws meant for public security and safety. Foreigners who are immune from
- suit and thus cannot be charged
(diplomatic agents)
Art. 15: Nationality rule - Regardless of where a citizen of the Philippines might be he or Thus a Filipino cannot get a
she will still be governed by Philippine laws when it comes to divorce even if he or she goes
family rights, duties, or to his or her legal status and legal abroad, since divorce is not
capacity, recognized in the Philippines
Art. 16: Real & Personal - Real and Personal Property are subject to the law of the country
Property where it is found. However, when it comes to the order, amount,
and intrinsic validity of the succession it shall be regulated by
the law of the person whose succession is being considered
regardless of where the property is to be found.
Art. 17: Forms and Solemnities Extrinsic validity: the laws shall govern the forms of contracts and wills
of contracts/will, acts done where they are made. Thus a will made in the U.S. must follow the laws
before consular officials, regarding the forms of wills in the U.S.
prohibitive laws Acts before Diplomatic and Consular Officials: Any act or contract
made in a foreign country made before the diplomatic and consular
officials must also conform to Philippine laws. This is because in the
premises of a diplomatic office the foreign country waives its jurisdiction
so the Philippine laws govern in the premises of the Philippine
Diplomatic Office in foreign countries.
Prohibitive Laws: Prohibitive laws concerning property, persons, their
acts and those meant for public order, public policy, or good customs will
continue to be in effect even if the person is in a different country with
different laws.
Ex. A Filipino gets married to 2 women in another country where bigamy
is legal, the second marriage is void since bigamy is not permitted in the

Art. 18: Deficiency in the Code - When there are deficiencies in the Code of Commerce and
of Commerce and special laws Special Laws the civil code will govern such deficiency.
Ex. In the Code of Commerce there is no stated prescription date for a
certain act, thus the provisions on prescription in the civil code will
- However one must check the kind of transaction at hand and
whether the civil code provision is applicable
Ex. In a previous case, the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act there is a one
year prescription for making a claim for loss or damage and the plaintiff
believed that he could extend the prescriptive period by giving a written
demand pursuant to Art. 1155 of the civil code, especially since the civil
code is meant to be supplementary according to Art. 18. However the
Supreme Court ruled that it was not applicable because when it comes
to matters of goods in transport it is desirable that it be resolved at once
taking into consideration the nature of the goods.
Art. 19: Abuse of right doctrine - Meant to be a law of justice and fairness especially in instances *The three articles are
wherein there is no specific law to prevent acts of abuse to another. related to each other and
- It is a rule of conduct that is meant to create a harmonious and orderly under these articles an act,
relation ship between people which causes injury to
Art. 20: willfully or negligently - Speaks of the general sanction for all other provisions of law, which do another, may be made the
causes damage to another not especially provide their own sanction. basis for an award for
- Designed to fill in the countless gaps in the statues, which leave many damages.
victims without recourse.
Art. 21: Contrary to good Elements:
customs, morals, or public 1. There is an act which is legal
policy 2. But which is contrary to morals, good customs, public order, public
3. And it is done with intent to injure
- Presupposes material or other loss which one may suffer as a result of
another person’s act
Art. 22: One who comes into UNJUST ENRICHMENT: one should not unduly profit on something which he
the possession of another is does not own
obliged to make restitution - Thus if one is benefited at the expense of another, he must pay or indemnify
the other for what he has gained.
Art. 23: Even if the act was not
due to ones fault or negligent
he is still liable for indemnity if
he was benefited.
Art. 24: Protecting the rights of It is the courts duty to render justice and give protection on account of those
the disadvantage who are disadvantage due to moral dependence, ignorance, indigence
(poverty), mental weakness, tender age or other handicap.
Art. 25: Extravagance during The courts at the instance of the government or any private charitable institution
acute public want or can order one to stop extreme spending during times of emergency.
emergency Ex. There is a gasoline scarcity and a rich man buys tons and tons of gasoline
to power his private amusement park. –the court may order him to seize such at
the instance of the government or charitable institution to prevent such in times
of emergency.
Art. 26: Respect privacy of - Meant to enforce the right of one to his privacy in one’s own home, religious
others. Respect for human freedom, prevent moral suffering, vexation, humiliation,
Art. 27: Public servant refuses - One may file an action for damages against the officer who does not perform *If the officer is no day off,
or neglects to do his duty his official duty without just cause. then one cannot file an
without just cause - A public officer who commits a tort or other wrongful act is still liable to the action against him.
Art. 28: Unfair competition - Necessary to promote a system of free enterprise and a fair chance for others
to engage in business and earn a living.
Art. 29: Civil action when guilt - If in a criminal case, the accused is not proven guilty beyond reasonable doubt
is not proved beyond a civil action may be made and the degree of proof necessary is only a
reasonable doubt preponderance of evidence which means that more evidence is adduced to
prove the guilt of the accused compared to that to defend him.
Art. 30: Civil obligation arising - A civil obligation arising from a criminal offense only needs a preponderance
from a criminal offense of evidence as the quantum of proof,
Art. 31: Civil obligation not - Usually a criminal proceeding, if commenced, must be terminated
arising from the felony before a civil proceeding can begin. If a civil proceeding has begun and
later on a criminal proceeding is filed, the civil proceeding is put on hold
until the criminal proceeding has finished.
- However when the civil obligation is separate from the crime
committed it may proceed independently of the criminal proceeding.
- Certain injuries do not arise from the commission of a crime.
Ex. A bus driver crashes the bus because he is drunk. The civil action here is
based from the breach of the contractual obligation of all common carriers to
take extra diligence in driving his passengers. The criminal action here is based
on the driver’s criminal negligence. The first is governed by the civil code and
the second is from the Revised Penal Code.
Art. 32: Civil action for - Necessary to have an absolute separate and independent civil action for the
violation of constitutional violation of civil liberties for the effective maintenance of democracy.
Art. 33: Civil action for - Principle is to allow the citizen to enforce his rights regardless of State action *Criminal negligence
violation of private rights so that citizens will not depend upon the government for the vindication of their (reckless imprudence) is not
own private rights. included in this article, thus
- Includes fraud, defamation, physical injuries and are understood in their an independent action for
ordinary sense. such cannot be made
independently from the
criminal prosecution.
Art. 34: Members of the Police - When there is danger to life or property, such peace officer shall be
Force primarily liable for damages, and the city or municipality shall be
subsidiarily responsible.
- An independent civil action can be instituted wherein a preponderance
of evidence is all that is required.
Art 35: Reservation of civil - When a person claiming to be injured by a criminal offense, charges another
action but the judges fails to find any crime to have been committed or if the
prosecuting attorney refuses/fails to institute criminal proceedings
Art. 36: Prejudicial Questions - The general rule is that the criminal case takes precedence; an
exception would be if there exist prejudicial questions, which should be
resolved before the criminal case.
PREJUDICIAL QUESTION: That which must precede the criminal action that
which requires a decision before a final judgment is rendered in the principal
action where the said question is closely connected. The resolution of the
Prejudicial question will determine if the criminal action may proceed.
Ex. A and B got married. B then married C. A filed a case for bigamy against B.
B also filed a civil case against C (the second spouse) contending that she was
intimidated into marrying C. The civil case to determine whether there was
intimidation or not must necessary be resolved before the bigamy case. If B
was indeed intimidated in marrying C, there is no bigamy.
Art. 37: Juridical Capacity and JURIDICAL CAPACITY: fitness to be the subject of legal relations, inherent in
Capacity to Act. every person and is lost only through death.
- Acquired when one is conceived (rights of the unborn child)
CAPACITY TO ACT: power to do acts with legal effect, may be acquired of lost
- Acquired when one reaches the age of majority, lost in cases like civil
interdiction .
Art. 38: Restrictions on the Restrictions on the capacity to act: Minority, insanity or imbecility, state of being * Both men and women are
capacity to act a deaf-mute, prodigality, and civil interdiction are mere restrictions on the qualified from all acts of civil
capacity to act. – Do not exempt the person from certain obligations. life when they reach the age
Art. 39: Modification or limit Modify/limit capacity to act: age, insanity, imbecility, the state of being a deaf- of majority (18 years old)
capacity to act mute, penalty, prodigality, family relations, alienage, absence, insolvency, and
Art. 40: Commencement of - Birth determines personality but the conceived child shall be considered -For purposes of inheritance
Civil personality born for all purposes that are favorable to it. Provided that the and succession, a child
conceived child is later born with the conditions in Art. 41. conceived at the time of
Art. 41: conditions to - The fetus is considered born if it is alive from the time it was completely death of the decedent can s

An accessory penalty for the commission of an offense, which deprives the offender during the time of his sentence the rights of parental authority, or
guardianship, right to manage his property and the right to dispose of such property by any act.
determine when the child is delivered from the mother’s womb. BUT if the fetus was alive in the
considered conceived. womb for less than 7 months it is not deemed born if it dies within 24
hours it is delivered form the womb.
Art. 42: Civil personality - Death puts an end to civil personality
extinguished at death - Dead person continues to have personality only through contract, will,
or as determined by law. – Creditors can still claim from the estate of
the deceased any obligation due to them.
- No human body shall be buried unless the proper death certificate has
been presented and recorded however during an epidemic bodies may
be buried provided that the death certificate be secured within 5 days
after the burial.
Art. 43: Doubt between the - Applies to persons who are called to succeed each other like mother
death of two or more persons and child. (Necessary to determine the amount of inheritance one is to
receive, transmission of rights, etc.)
- If there is no proof as to who died first, they are presumed to have died
at the same time and thus no transmission of rights from one to the
- Proof of death cannot be established from mere inference or
presumptions. It must be established by clear positive evidence.
Art. 44: Who are juridical JURIDICAL PERSON: Being of legal existence susceptible of rights and
persons obligations.
1. State: organized corporate society under a government with the legal
Art. 45: What governs juridical competence to exact obedience of its commands. It can enter into
persons treaties and contracts.
- The state cannot be sued without its consent (implied or expressed)
Art. 46: Rights and obligations 2. Political subdivisions: municipal corporations that consist of
of juridical persons provinces, cities and municipalities. They can be sued because it is
granted by their charters but they are generally not liable for torts
committed in the discharge of their governmental functions.
3. Corporation: An artificial being created by operation of law and has the
powers and attributes granted to it by the law, which created it.
4. Partnership: 2 or more persons bind themselves to make contributions
to a common fund with the intention of dividing the profits among
*Corporations, partnerships, and associations for private interest and purpose
may be granted a separate and distinct personality from the shareholders or
members (this is known as the veil of corporate fiction). However, this veil may
be pierced, thus making the shareholders and members liable, when the fiction
is used to defeat public convenience, justify wrong, protect fraud, defend crime,
perpetrate deception, etc.
*State and political subdivisions, other corporations, institutions, and entities for
public interest or purpose are governed by the laws creating them.
*Private corporations are regulated by laws of general application on the subject
*Partnerships are governed by the provisions of this Code concerning
*Juridical persons may acquire and possess property of all kinds and incur
obligations in conformity with the laws and regulations of their organization.
Art. 47: Dissolution of - Upon the dissolution of such entities mentioned above, their properties
corporations and other assets should be disposed of in pursuance of law or the
charter creating it.
- If there is nothing in the law, it shall be applied for a similar purpose for
the benefit of the region/province/city it is in.
Art. 48: Who are Citizens of the Philippines: Jus Sanguinis: Refers to
citizens of the 1. Those who are citizens at the time of the adoption of the Philippine citizenship by blood. This is the
Philippines Constitution. concept followed in the
2. Those born in the Philippines, before the adoption of the said constitution, Philippines.
Art. 49: Naturalization with foreign parents who have been elected to public office in the Jus Soli: Refers to citizenship
and reacquisition of Philippines. on the basis of the place of birth
loss citizenship 3. Those whose Fathers are Filipino
4. Those whose mothers are Filipino and elect Philippine Citizenship when Acquisition of Citizenship: for
Art. 50: Domicile of they reach the age of majority. a foreigner to be able to become
natural persons 5. Those who are naturalized a Philippine citizen, a proper
DOMICILE: Fixed permanent resident, a place wherein, although one may be petition shall be filed in the
absent from, one still has the intention of returning and remaining for an unlimited proper court.
time. There is only one domicile.
- A minor follows the domicile of his parents Ground for Reacquisition of
Change in Domicile: Citizenship:
1. An actual removal or an actual change or domicile 1.By naturalization
2. A bona fide intention of abandoning the former domicile and establishing a 2.Repatriation of deserters of the
new one. Army, Navy or Air Corps.
3. Act, which correspond with the purpose (physical presence in the area, (Woman who has lost her
move family in area, register as a voter in the area, etc.) citizenship by reason of marriage
RESIDENCE: Indicates a place of abode whether permanent or temporary, not to an alien may be repatriated
necessarily the domicile. There may be more than one residence. after the termination of her
Art. 51: Domicile of - When the law creates or recognizes a juridical person but doesn’t fix the domicile marital status)
juridical person it shall be understood to be the place where it has legal representation 3.By direct act of congress
THE FAMILY CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES: Took effect on August 3, 1988 signed by President Corazon Aquino (Executive Order 209)
Article Summary of Annotation Additional
Art. 1: Marriage is a special contract of permanent Nature of Marriage: *Marriage as a special
union between a man and a woman entered into in -Marriage is one of the “basic civil rights of man.” The contract cannot be restricted
accordance with the law for the establishment of freedom to marry has been recognized as a vital by discriminatory policies of
conjugal and family life. personal right towards the pursuit of man’s happiness. private individuals or
It is the foundation of the family and an inviolable -Still considered as a special civil contract regulated by corporations.
social institution whose nature, consequences, and law due to the high state interest in protecting and
incidents are governed by law and not subject to safeguarding the family. MAIL-ORDER BRIDE:
stipulation, except that marriage settlements may fix -A contract to marry, unlike other contracts, cannot be considered as a criminal
the property relations during the marriage within the modified or changed. Once it is executed a relation is offense because marriage is
limits provided by the code. formed between the parties that cannot be altered. The vested with public interest.
law steps in to hold or bind the parties together. (Connected with the Anti-
-A subsequent marriage between the rapist and raped Trafficking Act)
victim extinguishes the criminal action or penalty of the Acts punished:
rapist. In case of marital rape 1. Carry on such a business
2. To advertise the promotion
Marriage Status: Marriage creates a social status, of such acts.
which the state is interested in protecting. It is a case 3. Solicit or attract or any
where a double status is created, involves and affects Filipino woman to become a
two persons. member in a club that
matches women for marriage
Marriage in International Law: men and women of full to foreign nationals for a fee.
age without any limitation due to race, nationality or 4. Use the postal service to
religion have the right to marry and found a family. promote the prohibited acts.
1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and VALIDITY OF MARRIAGE:
Cultural Rights governed by the law effective
3. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. at the time of the celebration
of the marriage.

Marital rape is now considered a crime wherein the legal husband is the offender and the wife is the victim. Prior to this marital rape was not considered a crime
because it was considered the right of the husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife whenever he pleased.
Constitutional Protection: The State recognizes the
sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen it.
The state also recognizes marriage as an inviolable
social institution and the foundation of the family and
shall be protected by the state.
* The constitutional provisions on marriage however do
NOT mean that legislature cannot enact a law allowing
absolute divorce. Marriage is subject to the control of
the legislature but it must not contravene mandates of

Property Relations: Only property relations may be fixed

and arranged in a marriage settlement prior to the
marriage ceremony. However it must still follow the
mandatory provisions of the Family Code.
Art 2: No marriage shall be valid unless these LEGAL CAPACITY: Marrying age is 18 years old and Sex change: has not been
essential requisites are present: above, thus if one of the contracting parties is below 18 shown that sex reassignment
1. Legal capacity of the contracting parties who years of age, the marriage is void. surgery would allow one to
must be a male and female. - They cannot be related to each other as produce human beings.
2. Consent freely given in the presence of the provided by Art. 37 and Art. 38 (incestuous
solemnizing officer marriages and those against public policy). Thoughts to ponder: Marriage
- There should be no previous valid subsisting should not to be enjoyed only
marriage; otherwise the subsequent marriage by heterosexual couples. The
will be bigamous. right to marry, found a family,
DIFFERENT SEX: There should be a male and a identity, personality are all
female. Marriage is desirable due to the importance of rights of human beings.
procreation which is one of the reasons why same sex
marriages are prohibited (due to the impossibility of *Parties must be personally
reproduction) present, proxy marriages are
prohibited in the Philippines.
1. Must be freely given
2. Made in the presence of the solemnizing officer
- Absence of consent makes the marriage void.
However if there is consent but such was
obtained through force, fraud, undue influence,
etc then it is only voidable.
Art. 3: The formal requisites of marriage are: AUTHORITY OF THE SOLEMIZING OFFICER: *Presumption leans towards
1. Authority of the solemnizing officer - Those enumerated in Article 7, he must have the legality of the marriage
2. A valid marriage license except in the cases the authority. Thus a priest who has not thus the authority of the
provided for in Chapter 2 of this title renewed his license to marry does not have the officer is presumed absence
3. A marriage ceremony which takes place with authority and cannot be considered for the showing any proof to the
the appearance of the contracting parties marriage. contrary.
before the solemnizing officer and their - The Local Government Code (Jan. 1, 1992)
personal declaration that they take each other provides that a mayor of a city or municipality Merely Irregularities in
as husband and wife in the presence of not may now solemnize marriages. marriage license:
less than 2 witnesses of legal age. 1. Marriage license was
made in a different
Art. 4: The absence of any of the essential or formal Chapter 2 Title 1 of Family Code: exempt from place other than their
requisites shall render the marriage void ab initio, license residence.
except as stated in Article 35 (2) (when one of the 1. Article 27: Both parties are in articulo mortis 2. Name stated therein
contracting parties believed in good faith that the marriage will be valid even if the ailing party is different or
solemnizing officer had authority then the marriage is survives. misspelled
valid) 2. Article 28: Residence is in a remote place 3. Misrepresentation of
• In both cases the solemnizing officer must state age (but has to be
A defect in any of the essential requisites shall render in an affidavit that the marriage was performed emancipated—18
the marriage voidable as provided in Article 45. as such and that he took necessary steps to years and above)
ascertain the ages and that there were no legal 4. Non-disclosure of
An irregularity in the formal requisites shall not affect impediments to the marriage. prior marriage and
the validity of the marriage but the party or parties 3. Article 33: Marriages among Muslims or ethnic divorce
responsible for the irregularity shall be civilly, cultural communities, as long as performed in 5. Falsely stated that he
criminally and administratively liable. accordance with their customs, rites, practices. or she had not been
4. Article 34: Cohabitation by the couple for 5 previously married.
Art. 5: Any male or female of the age of eighteen years 6. Falsely swore that he
years or upwards not under any of the impediments * Muslims are governed by Code of Muslim personal or she is not under
mentioned in Articles 37 and 38 (incestuous marriages laws of the Philippines and not the Family code but the guardianship.
and those against public policy.) may contract other ethnic groups must comply with the other
marriage. requisites as they are governed by the Family code. * If the couple have a valid
5. Article 34: Cohabitation between man and marriage license but forgot to
Art. 6: No prescribed form or religious rite for the woman for at least 5 years with no legal bring it then marriage will be
solemnization of the marriage is required. It shall be impediment at time of marriage. valid (but if they don’t have
necessary, however, for the contracting parties to one and procured one after
appear personally before the solemnizing officer and VALID MARRIAGE LICENSE: the marriage ceremony the
declare in the presence of not less than two witnesses - Lasts for 120 days from the date of issue and effective marriage will be void)
of legal age that they take each other as husband and within any part of the Philippines only.
wife. This declaration shall be contained in the * Common law marriages,
marriage certificate which shall be signed by the MARRIAGE CEREMONY: which are non-ceremonial,
contracting parties and their witnesses and attested by - Family code only recognizes ceremonial marriages but are not recognized in the
the solemnizing officer. there is no prescribed form of marriage ceremony. Philippines.
- The minimum requirement is that the parties personally
In case of marriage in articulo mortis, when the party appear before the solemnizing officer and declare that
is at the point of death is unable to sign the marriage they take each other in the presence of at least 2
certificate, it shall be sufficient for one of the witnesses witness of legal age.
to the marriage to write the name of said party, which * Declaration does not have to be vocally expressed
fact shall be attested by the solemnizing officer. may be inferred by the words used, the manner the
ceremony was made, etc. If a wedding took place there
is a presumption that there was an exchange of vows.
* The absence of 2 witnesses of legal age is merely an
irregularity in the ceremony and does not affect the
validity of the marriage.
Art. 7: Marriage may be solemnized by: - There is a need to limit the persons who can * Stopovers during a flight or
1. Any incumbent member of the judiciary within solemnize marriages since marriage is an voyage are still considered
the court’s jurisdiction important institution the state wants to part of the journey.
2. Any priest, rabbi, imam, or minister of any safeguard and protect.
church or religious sect duly authorized by his - Because the state is interested in marriage, it *If the host country allows
church or religious sect and registered within becomes a party thereto by manifested in the marriages to be solemnized
the civil registrar general, acting within the consent required and granted to limited number by consuls then even if
limits of the written authority granted him by of officers. between a Filipino and non-
his church or religious sect and provided that JUDGES: they can only solemnize marriages within Filipino, the marriage will still
at least one of the contracting parties belongs their jurisdiction and they must be incumbent. be valid in accordance with
to the solemnizing officers church or religious Court of Tax Appeals, Sandiganbayan, Court of Art. 26, which recognizes
sect Appeals, Supreme Court: National jurisdiction international comity.
3. Any ship captain or airplane chief in cases • Absence of jurisdiction would mean the absence
mentioned in Article 31 of the authority of the solemnizing officer and
4. Any military commander of a unit to which a thus the marriage will be null and void. GOOD FAITH OF PARTIES:
chaplain is assigned, in the absence of the PRIEST/MINISTER OF A CHURCH OR RELIGIOUS if the person who solemnized
latter, during a military operation, likewise only SECT: he should be authorized by the church to do so, the marriage did not legally
in the cases mentioned in Article 32 or he must be registered with the civil registry, and at least have the authority to
5. Any consul-general, consul or vice consul in one of the contracting parties belongs to his or her solemnize a marriage, if both
the case provided in Article 10. church. or one of the contracting
SHIP CAPTIAN/PILOT: one of the parties must be at the parties believed that such a
point of death, the marriage must be between the person did have the authority
passengers or crewmembers, and the ship or plane the marriage will be valid.
must be at sea or in flight. Ex. A priest did not renew his
• An assistant pilot has no authority to solemnize license to marry therefore
marriages even if the main pilot dies. does not have the authority to
MILITARY COMMANDER: He or she should be a marry. If one of the
military commander of a unit, he or she must be a contracting parties knew of
commissioned officer (his rank should start from second this but the other did not the
lieutenant), a chaplain should have been assigned to the marriage is still valid.
unit and such chaplain is absent, the contracting parties
must also be in articulo mortis either members of the HOWEVER, they must be one
military operation or civilians, must be within military of the people who can be
zone (there should be widespread military activity not authorized if they are not the
merely practice). marriage will be void
CONSUL-GENERAL, CONSUL, OR VICE CONSUL: (ignorance of the law excuses
they can only solemnize marriages abroad when both no one)
the contracting parties are Filipino. Ex. A couple goes to a janitor
* They also perform the duties of a local civil registrar to get married. Even if both
(like issuing the license etc.) parties are in good faith in
* No matter where they are the solemnities and thinking that a janitor can
requirements mandated by Philippine Law shall be solemnize a marriage they
observed. should know who by law are
MAYOR: Pursuant to the Local Government Code, the authorized to.
mayor of a city or municipality can now solemnize
* When the mayor cannot perform his duties, the acting
mayor has the authority to solemnize marriages.
Art. 8: The marriage shall be solemnized publicly in - Not mandatory but directory in nature.
the chambers of the judge or in open court in the - Its non-compliance will not make the marriage
church, chapel or temple, or in the office of the consul- void but will only cause civil, criminal, or
general, consul or vice-consul, as the case may be, administrative liability.
and not elsewhere, except in the cases of marriages Exceptions to venue stated:
contracted at the point of death or in remote places in 1. When the marriage is in articulo mortis
accordance with Article 29 of this Code, or where both 2. When the marriage is in a remote place
of the parties request the solemnizing officer in writing (transportation etc. is difficult to come by)
in which case the marriage may be solemnized at a 3. When requested by both parties in writing.
house or place designated by them in a sworn
statement to that effect.
Art. 9: A marriage license shall be issued by the local - The marriage license should be procured from the civil
civil registrar of the city or municipality where either registrar of the city or municipality where either of them
contracting party habitually resides, except in resides. However if they obtain it from another place it is
marriages where no license is required in accordance merely an irregularity and does not affect the validity of
with Chapter 2 of this Title. the marriage.
Art. 10: Marriages between Filipino citizens abroad - The consular officials absorb the duties of the
may be solemnized by a consul-general, consul or local civil registrar and the solemnizing officer
vice consul of the Republic of the Philippines. when Filipinos wish to be married abroad.
The issuance of the marriage license and the duties of - The ceremony and requirements should be in
the local civil registrar and of the solemnizing officer accordance with Philippine law.
with regard to the celebration of marriage shall be
performed by said consular official.
Art. 11: Where a marriage license is required, each of - Stating all relevant facts needed in order to
the contracting parties shall file separately a sworn determine legal capacity to marry and the
application for such license with the proper local civil eligibility of the parties.
registrar which shall specify the following: - Main purpose is to discourage deception, and
1. Full name of the contracting parties relieve from doubt the status of parties who live
2. Place of birth together.
3. Age and date of birth - Provides evidence of the status and legitimacy
4. Civil Status of offspring.
5. If previously married, how, when and where MARRIAGE APPLICATION: the civil registrar has to
the previous marriage was dissolved or process and issue a marriage license. Even if the civil
annulled registrar knows of a legal impediment he cannot
6. Present residence and citizenship discontinue unless stopped by the court. (This is to
7. Degree of relationship of the contracting prevent bribery and abuse by the civil registrar)
8. Full name, residence and citizenship of the
9. Full name, residence and citizenship of the
10. Full name, residence and citizenship of the
guardian or person having charge, in case the
contracting parties has neither father nor
mother and is under the age of twenty one
The applicants, their parents or guardians shall not be
required to exhibit their residence certificate in any
formality in connection with the securing of the
marriage license.
Art. 12: The local civil registrar, upon receiving such application, shall require the presentation of the original birth - Emancipation is obtained at
certificates or, in default thereof, the baptismal certificates of the contracting parties or copies of such documents 18; marriage no longer
duly attested by the persons having custody of the originals. These certificates or certified copies of the emancipates a child because
documents by this Article need not be sworn to and shall be exempt from the documentary stamp tax. The they must be 18 years of age
signature and official title of the person issuing the certificate shall be sufficient proof of its authenticity. to marry.

If either of the contracting parties is unable to produce his birth or baptismal certificate or a certified copy of either - Contracting parties 18 years
because of the destruction or loss of the original or if it is shown by an affidavit of such party or of any other old and above but BELOW 21
person that such birth or baptismal certificate has not yet been received though the same has been required of years of age must obtain the
the person having custody thereof at least fifteen days prior to the date of the application, such party may furnish consent of their father,
in lieu thereof his current residence certificate or an instrument drawn up and sworn to before the local civil mother, surviving parent, or
registrar concerned or any public official authorized to administer oaths. Such instrument shall contain the sworn guardian in the order
declaration of two witnesses of lawful age, setting forth the full name, residence and citizenship of such mentioned. (Non-compliance
contracting party and of his or her parents, if known, and the place and date of birth of such party. The nearest of makes the marriage
kin of the contracting parties shall be preferred as witnesses, or, in their default, persons of good reputation in the annullable)
province or the locality.

The presentation of birth or baptismal certificate shall not be required if the parents of the contracting parties
appear personally before the local civil registrar concerned and swear to the correctness of the lawful age of said
parties, as stated in the application, or when the local civil registrar shall, by merely looking at the applicants upon
their personally appearing before him, be convinced that either or both of them have the required age.

Art. 13. In case either of the contracting parties has been previously married, the applicant shall be required to
furnish, instead of the birth or baptismal certificate required in the last preceding article, the death certificate of the
deceased spouse or the judicial decree of the absolute divorce, or the judicial decree of annulment or declaration
of nullity of his or her previous marriage.

In case the death certificate cannot be secured, the party shall make an affidavit setting forth this circumstance
and his or her actual civil status and the name and date of death of the deceased spouse.

Art. 14. In case either or both of the contracting parties, not having been emancipated by a previous marriage,
are between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one, they shall, in addition to the requirements of the preceding
articles, exhibit to the local civil registrar, the consent to their marriage of their father, mother, surviving parent or
guardian, or persons having legal charge of them, in the order mentioned. Such consent shall be manifested in
writing by the interested party, who personally appears before the proper local civil registrar, or in the form of an
affidavit made in the presence of two witnesses and attested before any official authorized by law to administer
oaths. The personal manifestation shall be recorded in both applications for marriage license, and the affidavit, if
one is executed instead, shall be attached to said applications.

Art. 15: Any contracting party between the age of twenty-one and twenty-five shall be obliged to ask their parents - Absence of parental advice
or guardian for advice upon the intended marriage. If they do not obtain such advice, or if it be unfavorable, the does not affect the marriage.
marriage license shall not be issued till after three months following the completion of the publication of the - Only delays the issuance of
application therefore. A sworn statement by the contracting parties to the effect that such advice has been sought, the marriage license for 3
together with the written advice given, if any, shall be attached to the application for marriage license. Should the months but after 3 months the
parents or guardian refuse to give any advice, this fact shall be stated in the sworn statement. license must be issued.

Art. 16. In the cases where parental consent or parental advice is needed, the party or parties concerned shall, in
addition to the requirements of the preceding articles, attach a certificate issued by a priest, imam or minister
authorized to solemnize marriage under Article 7 of this Code or a marriage counselor duly accredited by the
proper government agency to the effect that the contracting parties have undergone marriage counseling. Failure
to attach said certificates of marriage counseling shall suspend the issuance of the marriage license for a period
of three months from the completion of the publication of the application. Issuance of the marriage license within
the prohibited period shall subject the issuing officer to administrative sanctions but shall not affect the validity of
the marriage.

Should only one of the contracting parties need parental consent or parental advice, the other party must be
present at the counseling referred to in the preceding paragraph
Art. 17: The local civil registrar shall prepare a notice, - It is the duty of the civil registrar to post a notice -
which shall contain the full names and residences of informing the public of the impending marriage. The
the applicants for a marriage license and other data purpose of which is so that persons having knowledge
given in the applications. The notice shall be posted for of any impediment to the marriage can inform the local
ten consecutive days on a bulletin board outside the civil registrar.
office of the local civil registrar located in a conspicuous - It is to be posted for 10 consecutive days on a bulletin
place within the building and accessible to the general board outside the office
public. This notice shall request all persons having - The civil registrar shall be issued after the period of
knowledge of any impediment to the marriage to advise publication.
the local civil registrar thereof. The marriage license
shall be issued after the completion of the period of
Art. 18: In case of any impediment known to the local - If an impediment is made known to the civil registrar EXCEPTIONS:
civil registrar or brought to his attention, he shall note he shall merely note it down but he must nonetheless 1. The courts direct civil
down the particulars thereof and his findings thereon in issue the license. This is because the impediments registry to refuse
the application for marriage license, but shall may not be valid at all. giving out the license
nonetheless issue said license after the completion of 2. When the required
the period of publication, unless ordered otherwise by a - The purpose of which is to prevent graft and certificate of legal
competent court at his own instance or that of any corruption on the part of the civil registry. capacity of foreigners
interest party. No filing fee shall be charged for the is not given (Art. 21)
petition nor a corresponding bond required for the - If the marriage license was issued despite court
issuances of the order. intervention, the marriage will still be valid but the
parties responsible may be criminally or
Art. 19. The local civil registrar shall require the administratively liable.
payment of the fees prescribed by law or regulations
before the issuance of the marriage license. No other
sum shall be collected in the nature of a fee or tax of
any kind for the issuance of said license. It shall,
however, be issued free of charge to indigent parties,
that is those who have no visible means of income or
whose income is insufficient for their subsistence a fact
established by their affidavit, or by their oath before the
local civil registrar.
Art. 20: The license shall be valid in any part of the - The marriage license is only valid within the
Philippines for a period of one hundred twenty days Philippines and not abroad.
from the date of issue, and shall be deemed - It is good for 120 days from the date of issue.
automatically canceled at the expiration of the said
period if the contracting parties have not made use of it.
The expiry date shall be stamped in bold characters on
the face of every license issued
Art. 21: When either or both of the contracting parties - A certificate of legal capacity is meant to show * The civil registry cannot
are citizens of a foreign country, it shall be necessary that a foreigner is capacitated to marry in his or issue a license without the
for them before a marriage license can be obtained, to her country. The Philippines adheres to the certificate of legal capacity
submit a certificate of legal capacity to contract national law of the contracting parties with however if the civil registry
marriage, issued by their respective diplomatic or respect to their legal capacity to contract does issue the marriage will
consular officials. marriage. still be valid.

Stateless persons or refugees from other countries Ex. In the US 16 years old is the age when one can
shall, in lieu of the certificate of legal capacity herein contract marriage. A 16-year-old US citizen may
required, submit an affidavit stating the circumstances contract marriage in the Philippines provided that he
showing such capacity to contract marriage. gives a certificate from his embassy stating that 16
years old is the legal age to marry.
- If both are citizens of a foreign country and they are
married in their embassy there is no need to follow the
requirement of marriage in the Philippines, only those
of their country.
-If one is a foreigner and one is a Filipino even if they
marry in the consul of the foreigner the certificate of
legal capacity and a marriage license is still necessary.
Art. 22. The marriage certificate, in which the parties shall declare that they take each other as husband and wife, *Presumption is always in the
shall also state: validity of marriage.
1. The full name, sex and age of each contracting party
2. Their citizenship, religion and habitual residence Proofs of marriage:
3. The date and precise time of the celebration of the marriage 1. Marriage contract or
4. That the proper marriage license has been issued according to law, except in marriage provided for in Chapter certificate
2 of this Title 2. Photocopies of the
5. That either or both of the contracting parties have secured the parental consent in appropriate cases certificate or contract
6. That either or both of the contracting parties have complied with the legal requirement regarding parental from the local civil
advice in appropriate cases and registry
7. That the parties have entered into marriage settlement, if any, attaching a copy thereof. 3. Family bible
4. Baptismal, birth
Art. 23. It shall be the duty of the person solemnizing the marriage to furnish either of the contracting parties the certificates of kids
original of the marriage certificate referred to in Article 6 and to send the duplicate and triplicate copies of the 5. Judicial decisions
certificate not later than fifteen days after the marriage, to the local civil registrar of the place where the marriage 6. Testimonies of
was solemnized. Proper receipts shall be issued by the local civil registrar to the solemnizing officer transmitting parties, witness,
copies of the marriage certificate. The solemnizing officer shall retain in his file the quadruplicate copy of the solemnizing officers
marriage certificate, the copy of the marriage certificate, the original of the marriage license and, in proper cases, 7. Cohabitation and
the affidavit of the contracting party regarding the solemnization of the marriage in place other than those conduct
mentioned in Article 8. 8. Statement in a will
* A certificate of marriage
made years after the marriage
is inadmissible as evidence.
Art. 24: It shall be the duty of the local civil registrar to - The local civil registrar is the government official
prepare the documents required by this Title, and to charged with the preparation and the keeping of all the
administer oaths to all interested parties without any official documents.
charge in both cases. The documents and affidavits
filed in connection with applications for marriage
licenses shall be exempt from documentary stamp tax.

Art. 25. The local civil registrar concerned shall enter

all applications for marriage licenses filed with him in a
registry book strictly in the order in which the same are
received. He shall record in said book the names of the
applicants, the date on which the marriage license was
issued, and such other data as may be necessary
Art. 26. All marriages solemnized outside the - Art. 26 refers to formal requisites only, however EXCEPTIONS to international
Philippines, in accordance with the laws in force in the the marriage must still be solemnized. comity:
country where they were solemnized, and valid there - Marriages that are solemnized abroad and are -Either or both contracting
as such, shall also be valid in this country, except those recognized as valid there will also be parties are Filipinos and
prohibited under Articles 35 (1), (4), (5) and (6), 36, 37 recognized as valid here (international comity) below 18 years of age
and 38. (17a) Ex. If in Vietnam a doctor is authorized to solemnize a -Polygamous and bigamous
marriage and a Filipino couple gets married in Vietnam marriages recognized abroad
Where a marriage between a Filipino citizen and a by a doctor such marriage will be considered valid in will not be valid here.
foreigner is validly celebrated and a divorce is the Philippines. -Marriage abroad where there
thereafter validly obtained abroad by the alien spouse is mistake of identity of the
capacitating him or her to remarry, the Filipino spouse PROOF OF FOREIGN MARRIAGE: necessary to other contracting party is not
shall have capacity to remarry under Philippine law. prove the foreign law and then prove the celebration of recognized here.
marriage. If the law of the other state is not pleaded nor -Marriage by a Filipino to one
proved the laws of the Philippines will be presumed to who is psychologically
be similar to that of foreign laws. incapacitated is not valid here
-Marriages that are
REMEMBER THE LAWS: incestuous are not valid here
ART. 15: laws relating to family rights and duties, or to even if celebrated abroad and
the status, conditions and legal capacity of persons are valid there. (Art. 37)
binding upon citizens of the Philippines even living -Marriages against public
abroad. policy are not valid here either
(Art. 38)
ART. 17: prohibitive laws concerning persons, their -Common law marriages are
acts or property and those which have for their object not recognized here, the
public order, public policy and good customs shall not marriage must still be
be rendered ineffective by laws or judgments solemnized and not
promulgated, or by determinations or conventions contracted.
agreed upon in a foreign country -Same sex marriages
between Filipinos are not
ABSOLUTE DIVORCE: valid even if done abroad.
Absolute divorce is not recognized in the Philippines;
even if the couple was married abroad the divorce will * If a Filipino contracts a
not be recognized here if one of them is a Filipino. The foreign marriage which is null
divorce may be recognized in the foreign country and void under the laws of the
where it was obtained but not in the Philippines. But state where it has been
the divorce of a foreign citizen abroad is recognized in solemnized then such
the Philippines as the Philippines recognizes legal marriage will likewise be null
capacity of a foreign person. and void in the Philippines.
*If a Filipino changes citizenship then he can get a
divorce and if he reacquires his Filipino citizenship *If a marriage celebrated
after that the divorce will still hold. abroad is invalid in that
- If a Filipina marries a foreigner and the country but considered valid
foreigner obtains a divorce, the Filipina can in the Philippines, the
marry. marriage will still be invalid.
- If the Filipina obtains a divorce although not The law where the marriage
recognized in the Philippines, it will be has been solemnized shall
recognized against the foreigner and thus the apply.
foreigner will not have legal standing to sue for
adultery or claim for property after the divorce.
Art. 27: In case either or both of the contracting parties - Solemnizing officers and the mayor are
are at the point of death, the marriage may be empowered to solemnize marriages even
solemnized without necessity of a marriage license and without a marriage license if either or both of
shall remain valid even if the ailing party subsequently the contracting parties are at the point of death.
survives. - Even if the ailing party survives after the
marriage, the marriage will still be valid.
Art. 28. If the residence of either party is so located - This envisions a situation wherein the residence of
that there is no means of transportation to enable such either party is so located that there is no means of
party to appear personally before the local civil transportation to enable such party to appear
registrar, the marriage may be solemnized without personally before the local civil registrar, the marriage
necessity of a marriage license. may be solemnize without a marriage license.
Art. 29: In the cases provided for in the two preceding - The solemnizing officers here are those
articles, the solemnizing officer shall state in an affidavit authorized to solemnize under Article 7 and the
executed before the local civil registrar or any other mayor provided that they solemnize the
person legally authorized to administer oaths that the marriage within their jurisdiction and within the
marriage was performed in articulo mortis or that the authority given to them.
residence of either party, specifying the barrio or
barangay, is so located that there is no means of
transportation to enable such party to appear
personally before the local civil registrar and that the
officer took the necessary steps to ascertain the ages
and relationship of the contracting parties and the
absence of legal impediment to the marriage.
Art. 30: The original of the affidavit required in the last
preceding article, together with the legible copy of the
marriage contract, shall be sent by the person
solemnizing the marriage to the local civil registrar of
the municipality where it was performed within the
period of thirty days after the performance of the
Art. 31: A marriage in articulo mortis between - A pilot or ship captain may solemnize only * If something happens to the
passengers or crew members may also be solemnized marriages at the point of death while the plane main or principal pilot the
by a ship captain or by an airplane pilot not only while is in flight or the ship is at sea even during second in command cannot
the ship is at sea or the plane is in flight, but also during stopovers (it is still considered part of the solemnize marriages. (They
stopovers at ports of call. flight/voyage). are not authorized to by law)
- They can only solemnize marriages between
their passengers and crew members
Art. 32: A military commander of a unit, who is a - The military commander must be a
commissioned officer, shall likewise have authority to commissioned officer (his/her rank should start
solemnize marriages in articulo mortis between from 2 lieutenant, ensign and above)
persons within the zone of military operation, whether - He should be a commander of a unit.
members of the armed forces or civilians. - There should be a chaplain assigned to the
- The marriage should be at the point of death
and in the absence of the chaplain assigned
- The marriage must be solemnized within the
zone of military operations.
- The contracting parties may either be member
of the armed forces or civilians.
Art. 33: Marriages among Muslims or among members - Marriages between parties that belong to
of the ethnic cultural communities may be performed ethnic groups, pagans or Muslims are exempt
validly without the necessity of marriage license, only from procuring a marriage license. The
provided they are solemnized in accordance with their marriage must still be solemnized in
customs, rites or practices. accordance with their customs, rites and
- Muslims are governed by the Code of Muslim
Personal Laws of the Philippines thus they are
not governed by the Family Code unlike other
ethnic groups who do not have separate laws.
Art. 34: No license shall be necessary for the marriage - Persons cohabiting for at least 5 years living *The solemnizing officer shall
of a man and a woman who have lived together as together as husband and wife are exempt from also state under oath that he
husband and wife for at least five years and without any obtaining a marriage license. ascertained the qualifications
legal impediment to marry each other. The contracting - At the time of marriage, they should be without of the parties and that he
parties shall state the foregoing facts in an affidavit any legal impediment to marry each other. found no legal impediment.
before any person authorized by law to administer Thus during the 5 year period, it is not The fact that the officer to
oaths. The solemnizing officer shall also state under necessary that there is no legal impediment it investigate shall not invalidate
oath that he ascertained the qualifications of the is only necessary at the time of marriage that the marriage.
contracting parties are found no legal impediment to there is none.
the marriage. - The parties shall state the fact of their
cohabitation and the absence of any legal
impediment to marry in an affidavit under oath.

Matters that don’t affect the validity of the marriage:

Article 18: if the civil registry gives the license despite the courts ordering an injunction to order the civil registry not to give the marriage license.

Article 21: if the civil registry gives the license despite absence of certificate of legal capacity of foreigners.

Article 34: When the solemnizing officer failed to investigate whether or not there was an impediment to the marriage in marriages after 5 years of
MARRIAGES VOID AB INITIO: Not valid from its inception. No rights can flow from it and can never be ratified. (Judicial declaration of nullity).
Art. 35: The following marriages shall be void from the Article 2, 3, 4: when all the essential and formal requisites of a marriage are absent
beginning: - Only marriages declared by the legislature, as void should be treated as such.
(1) Those contracted by any party below eighteen There can be no other void marriage except those provided by law.
years of age even with the consent of parents or
guardians; Void Marriage Voidable
(2) Those solemnized by any person not legally Can’t be a source of rights Can be source of rights
authorized to perform marriages unless such Can’t be ratified Ratified by prescription or
marriages were contracted with either or both parties cohabitation
believing in good faith that the solemnizing officer had
the legal authority to do so; Can be attacked collaterally. Can only be attacked directly
(3) Those solemnized without license, except those Can be questioned after death Only assailed during lifetime
covered the preceding Chapter; of parties of parties
(4) Those bigamous or polygamous marriages not Action for nullity has no Action prescribes
failing under Article 41; prescription
(5) Those contracted through mistake of one - Estoppel or acquiescence does not apply to remedy the infirmity of a void
contracting party as to the identity of the other; and marriage. Thus if one of the parties stated under oath that they were 25 when
(6) Those subsequent marriages that are void under they were actually 16 the marriage is void despite the oath.
Article 53. - Good faith and bad faith generally is immaterial in void marriages except: when
either of the parties believed in good faith that the solemnizing officer had the
authority to solemnize the marriage when in fact he had none. Second, in case
the spouse disappears for 4 years or 2 years in proper cases the present spouse
may marry again if there is a judicial declaration of presumptive death and at the
time of the celebration of marriage either spouse is in good faith that the absent
spouse is still absent.
Ex. W is married to H and W disappears for 4 years and is judicially declared
presumptively dead. H later on is to marry W2. W2 however sees W the day
before the wedding but does not tell H. As long as H is in good faith and does not
know of the presence of W the marriage will still be valid.
- Generally evidence other than a judicial declaration of nullity can be presented
except (direct attack needed) for purposes of remarriage, validity of marriage is
essential to the determination of the case, and when a donor desires to revoke a
donation propter nuptias.
BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE: not capacitated to marry even if with parental consent.
History: 14 male, 12 female: minimum age for effective procreation
16 male, 14 female: Maturity and responsibility were taken into consideration.
Gender Roles: ability of men to provide and ability of women to care for the
18 for both: No significant difference in terms of maturity of male and female.
Science shows below 18 leads to unsafe pregnancies.
Exception: If EITHER or both of the contracting parties believed in good faith that he had
such authority. The good faith of the party is what is referred to not the solemnizing
- Unless it was ignorance of the law then the marriage will be void. The person must be
one of the people in Article 7 thus if a couple is married by a janitor, them believing that a
janitor can celebrate a marriage, the marriage will be void.
Exception: Marriage was done abroad and such officer is valid in that country
BIGAMOUS OR POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGE: law prohibits married men or women from
contracting a subsequent marriage when their consort is still alive.
- That mentioned in Article 41 regarding appearance of a spouse after a
declaration of presumptive death.
- Those provided for under the Muslim code.
- When the first marriage was actually void with a judicial declaration of nullity.
Without judicial declaration of nullity then 2 marriage will be void under Article
MISTAKE IN IDENTITY: An instance of fraud, which is a ground for the nullity of the
marriage. Here the contracting party absolutely did not intend to marry the other, as the
same is not the person he or she actually knew before the marriage.
Does not include: mistake in name, character of person, attributes, age, social standing,
religion, pedigree, pecuniary means, temperaments, acquirements, condition in life,
previous habit.
VOID UNDER ARTICLE 53: Marriages that have annulled or declared null and void must
undertake the liquidation, partition and distribution of their properties, delivery of
presumptive legitimes, etc. to be able to remarry.
Art. 36: A marriage contracted by any party who, at Psychological incapacity to comply with the essential P.I. Insanity
the time of the celebration, was psychologically marital obligation of marriage at the time of marriage, Cannot be Can be
incapacitated to comply with the essential marital even if it becomes manifest after the solemnization of cured cured
obligations of marriage, shall likewise be void even if the marriage. No consent Consent can
such incapacity becomes manifest only after its - Not defined and thus left on a court-to-court present be given
solemnization. basis. A person may actually be efficient in since he during lucid
doing other things such as his profession but does not interval
with regards to his married life it can be know the
different. true meaning
- Not just stubborn refusal but attributed to of marriage
psychological causes (not necessarily insane)
- Lacking in the exercise of the judgment not PROOF to show P.I.:
lack of judgment 1. Observe of duties
- True inability to commit oneself to the (living together, etc.)
essentials of marriage – psychosexual 2. Procreation
disorders or other personality disorders 3. Obligation of parents
- Inability to commit to the essentials of marriage to children.
– procreation, education of offspring, 4. Senseless and
community of life and love protracted refusal to
have intercourse
Must be characterized by: 5. Unreasonable
1. Gravity- grave or serious attachment to ones
2. Juridical antecedence – rooted in history of the other family or barkada
party and may manifest after the marriage. 6. Transvestism
3. Incurability 7. Indulgence of private
Jurisprudential Guidelines (CA v. Molina): 8. Alcohol/substance
1. Burden of proof to show the nullity of marriage abuse
belongs to the plaintiff. 9. Extreme immaturity
2. Root cause must be medically or clinically
identified, alleged in the complaint, sufficiently
proven by experts, clearly explained by the
decision, must be psychological not physical.
3. Proven to be existing at the time of the
celebration of the marriage
4. Must be incurable (may be absolute or relative
to the given spouse)
5. Must be grave
6. Essential marriage obligations are those
embraced in articles 68 to 71 and Articles 220,
221, 225 with regards to parents and children.
7. Interpretations in National Appellate
Matrimonial tribunal of Catholic Church though
not binding are persuasive
Art. 37: Marriages between the following are Reasons to Condemn Incestuous Marriages: * The relationship being
incestuous and void from the beginning, whether 1. Abhorrent to nature legitimate or illegitimate is
relationship between the parties be legitimate or 2. Brings about confusion of rights and duties immaterial
illegitimate: 3. Deficient and degenerate offspring
(1) Between ascendants and descendants of any 4. Control sex rivalries within families
degree; and 5. To guide one towards the creation of new

Article 68: husband and wife are obliged to live together, observe mutual love, respect, and fidelity, and render mutual help and support. Article 69: Husband and wife shall fix the
domicile and in case of disagreement the court shall decide. Article 70: spouses are jointly responsible for the support of the family and the expenses for such support and other
conjugal obligations shall be paid from community property, income or fruits of separate property, or separate property. Article 71: management of household shall be right and duty of
both spouses.
(2) Between brothers and sisters, whether of the full or nuclear family
half blood. 6. Brings about confusion with status
Art. 38: The following marriages shall be void from the - Simulates blood relations although legal fiction (bond created by law, against
beginning for reasons of public policy public policy)
(1) Between collateral blood relatives whether COLLATERAL BLOOD RELATIVES: may cause the same reasons as Art. 37 but to a
legitimate or illegitimate, up to the fourth civil lesser degree.
(2) Between step-parents and step-children; provide that marriages between collateral blood relatives by the half-blood are prohibited.
(3) Between parents-in-law and children-in-law; Case Law: In Re: Simms Estate
(4) Between the adopting parent and the adopted - Because of specification in brothers and sisters and no specification with uncles
child; and nieces, marriage between uncles and nieces are not prohibited
(5) Between the surviving spouse of the adopting - Unlike ruling in Audley where it deemed it was unnecessary
parent and the adopted child; - Marriage between uncles and nieces who are half-blood is valid due to the
(6) Between the surviving spouse of the adopted child presumption in favor of marriage.
and the adopter; RELATIONSHIP BY AFFINITY (made through marriage): The only marriages by affinity
(7) Between an adopted child and a legitimate child of prohibited in the Family Code are marriages between stepparents and stepchildren and
the adopter; parents-in-law and children-in-law. (May destroy the peacefulness in family relations)
(8) Between adopted children of the same adopter; • Stepbrother and stepsister can marry each other since not included in
(9) Between parties where one, with the intention to the prohibition.
marry the other, killed that other person's spouse, or *In the event that the marriage is annulled or nullified or in the event that the marriage is
his or her own spouse. terminated by death affinity is terminated and thus those that were prohibited due to
affinity can now marry each other. Unless there are living issues (children) in whom the
blood of the parties continue to commingle.
Who they cannot marry:
Adopter Adopted
The adopted The adopter
The surviving spouse of the adopted The surviving spouse of adopter
(Envisions that the marriage was (Envisions that the marriage was
terminated due to death. But if the terminated due to death. But if the
marriage was terminated after the finality marriage was terminated after the finality
of a nullity or annulment decree then they of a nullity or annulment decree then they
can get married) can get married)
Legitimate children of adopter
Other adopted children of the adopter
Who can they marry:
Adopter Adopted
Children of adopted Parents of adopter
Natural parent Illegitimate child of the adopter
Other relatives Other relatives
Spouse of adopted if alive and not Spouse of adopter if alive and not married
married to adopted to adopter

INTENTIONAL KILLING OF SPOUSE: The guilty party must be animated by an intention

to marry the other person, if not then not considered against public policy.
Ex. A wanted to marry B. B was married to C. A kills C because C stole from A. Then A
later on marries B. Such a marriage is valid.
*No criminal conviction is necessary mere preponderance of evidence is required to
prove the killing.

Art. 39: The action or defense for the declaration of - Time to file an action for declaration of nullity of
absolute nullity of a marriage shall not prescribe a marriage or to invoke such nullity as a
defense does not prescribe.
- Either party in a void marriage can file a nullity
case even though such party is the wrongdoer.
Only husband and wife can file a court case
declaring the marriage void. But it can still be
collaterally attacked by any interested party in
any proceeding where the determination of the
validity of marriage is necessary to give rise to
certain rights.
Art. 40: The absolute nullity of a previous marriage - A judicial declaration of marriage is the only * The subsequent marriage is
may be invoked for purposes of remarriage on the acceptable proof so that a party can contract a not considered bigamous since
basis solely of a final judgment declaring such subsequent valid marriage. Without it the the first marriage is not valid.
previous marriage void. subsequent marriage will be considered void. In a bigamous marriage the
- In connection with it, Articles 52 and 53 which first subsisting marriage is
In relation to: has to do with the liquidation, partition and valid.
Art. 52: The judgment of annulment or of absolute distribution of the properties without which the Bigamy envisions 2 valid
nullity of the marriage, the partition and distribution of marriage will likewise be void. marriages. If the first or the
the properties of the spouses and the delivery of the second marriage is void then
children's presumptive legitimes shall be recorded in BIGAMY: Committed by any person who shall contract there can be no bigamy.
the appropriate civil registry and registries of property; a second or subsequent marriage before the former
otherwise, the same shall not affect third persons. marriage has been legally dissolved or before the
Art. 53: Either of the former spouses may marry again absent spouse has been declared presumptively dead
after compliance with the requirements of the by judgment.
immediately preceding Article; otherwise, the - Marriage becomes void not because of bigamy but
subsequent marriage shall be null and void. because of certain impositions in law that must be
done before contacting a second marriage.

*Without article 40 one cannot perform Article 52.

Art. 41: A marriage contracted by any person during - A declaration of presumptive death is needed Exception: Prior spouse has
subsistence of a previous marriage shall be null and for the absentee in order to contact a new been absent for 4 consecutive
void, unless before the celebration of the subsequent marriage. years and there is a well
marriage, the prior spouse had been absent for four Article 42: The subsequent marriage made will founded belief (must exercise
consecutive years and the spouse present has a well- become void with the recording of the affidavit of due diligence to ascertain
founded belief that the absent spouse was already reappearance of the subsequent spouse. Such notice whereabouts or if she is dead
dead. In case of disappearance where there is danger will be filed in the civil registry of the residence of the or alive) that absent spouse is
of death under the circumstances set forth in the parties in subsequent marriage, and give them due dead (2 years will suffice if
provisions of Article 391 of the Civil Code, an absence notice- ONLY CASE WHERE MARRIAGE IS there was danger of death)
of only two years shall be sufficient. TERMINATED EXTRAJUDICIALLY. Any interested
For the purpose of contracting the subsequent party can file for the affidavit of reappearance.
marriage under the preceding paragraph the spouse Exception to 42: if the affidavit is fraudulent then it is
present must institute a summary proceeding as ineffectual.
provided in this Code for the declaration of
presumptive death of the absentee, without prejudice
to the effect of reappearance of the absent spouse.
Art. 43: The termination of the subsequent marriage - Applies to Article 40, Article 41 and voidable *Donation made between
referred to in the preceding Article shall produce the marriages. persons who are guilty of
following effects STATUS OF CHILDREN: Children conceived during adultery or concubinage at the
(1) The children of the subsequent marriage the subsequent marriage contemplated in Art. 41 are time of the donation is void.
conceived prior to its termination shall be considered legitimate even if one of the contracting parties is in
legitimate; bad faith.
(2) The absolute community of property or the EFFECT OF TERMINATION ON THE PROPERTY
conjugal partnership, as the case may be, shall be REGIME: The property regime shall be dissolved and
dissolved and liquidated, but if either spouse liquidated. After the payment of all debts, the spouses
contracted said marriage in bad faith, his or her share shall divide the net profits of the property equally or in
of the net profits of the community property or conjugal accordance with the stipulated sharing. If a spouse
partnership property shall be forfeited in favor of the acted in bad faith, the guilty spouse shall not get his
common children or, if there are none, the children of share in the net profits (his/her share will be forfeited in
the guilty spouse by a previous marriage or in default favor of the common children, if none the children of
of children, the innocent spouse; the guilty spouse by a previous marriage, if none to the
(3) Donations by reason of marriage shall remain innocent spouse.)
valid, except that if the donee contracted the marriage DONATIONS BY REASON OF MARRIAGE: If both
in bad faith, such donations made to said donee are parties are in good faith, the donation shall be valid. If
revoked by operation of law; the donee acted in bad faith in contracting the
(4) The innocent spouse may revoke the marriage, the donation by reason of marriage is
designation of the other spouse who acted in bad faith terminated by operation of law. If both are in bad faith
as beneficiary in any insurance policy, even if such neither can recover what they have given.
designation be stipulated as irrevocable; and DESIGNATION AS BENEFICIARY IN INSURANCE
(5) The spouse who contracted the subsequent POLICY: The innocent spouse has the choice of
marriage in bad faith shall be disqualified to inherit revoking the beneficiary in an insurance policy even if
from the innocent spouse by testate and intestate the policy is irrevocable. (Should inform the insurance
succession. company)
spouse who acted in bad faith shall be disqualified to
inherit from the innocent spouse. If both spouses are in
bad faith according to Article 44 the marriage is void
and the parties cannot inherit.
Art. 44: If both spouses of the subsequent marriage - The marriage shall be considered void only if
acted in bad faith, said marriage shall be void ab initio both spouses in the subsequent marriage are
and all donations by reason of marriage and in bad faith.
testamentary dispositions made by one in favor of the - The good faith of the spouse must be present
other are revoked by operation of law. up to the time of the celebration of the
subsequent marriage.

VOIDABLE MARRIAGES: valid up to the point when they are annulled. These are the only grounds, which can be considered for annulment
Article Annotation Exception/ Filing:
Article 45: Must exist at the time of - The parents of the child can annul the Party to file suit: Parent or guardian before the
marriage marriage at any time prior to the time the child child reaches 21 and the party who did not
1. That the party in whose behalf it is sought to reaches the age of 21. obtain consent within 5 years after reaching
have the marriage annulled was eighteen 21.
years of age or over but below twenty-one, and Ratification: Through cohabitation after
the marriage was solemnized without the reaching the age of 21 years old.
consent of the parents, guardian or person
having substitute parental authority over the
party, in that order, unless after attaining the
age of twenty-one, such party freely cohabited
with the other and both lived together as
husband and wife
2. That either party was of unsound mind, - Must be clear that illness is serious that * If the spouse knew that the spouse was
unless such party after coming to reason, cannot understand marriage contract at the insane prior to the celebration of the marriage
freely cohabited with the other as husband and time of the marriage. she cannot annul the marriage.
Ratification: Through cohabitation by the Party to file suit: Sane spouse without
person with the unsound mind after he has knowledge before the death of either party,
come to reason relative or guardian of insane at any time
*Once ratified the marriage will be valid and no before the death of either party, and insane
longer annullable even if the insanity comes spouse before the death of either party.

3. That the consent of either party was *No other misrepresentations will be Exception to 46(2): If the woman was
obtained by fraud, unless such party acceptable to constitute fraud to annul a unchaste and the man knew of her unchaste
afterwards, with full knowledge of the facts marriage. character.
constituting the fraud, freely cohabited with the PREVIOUS CONVICTION: No need for Exception to 46(2): If woman did not inform
other as husband and wife investigation on the part of the party but there the man but pregnancy was apparent.
must be a final judgment.
Article 46: Fraud: existing at time of marriage CONCEALMENT OF PREGNANCY: Party to file suit: Injured party within 5 years
1. Non-disclosure of previous conviction Concealment must be done in bad faith. Thus, after the discovery of fraud
by final judgment of a crime involving if the woman truly believed she was not
moral turpitude. pregnant when she was the marriage cannot
2. Concealment of the wife of the fact be annulled.
that she was pregnant at the time of - Misrepresentation that she was
marriage by another man. pregnant to induce the man to marry
3. Concealment of STD regardless of its her when she was in fact not pregnant
nature existing at the time of the is not considered for annulment.
marriage. CONCEALMENT OF STD: Nature or gravity is
4. Concealment of drug addiction, irrelevant; the fact that it was concealed was
habitual alcoholism, or homosexuality enough.
or lesbianism existing at the time of CONCEALMENT OF ADDICTIONS: No exact
the marriage. meaning but has been defined as persistent
habit of becoming intoxicated, irresistible habit.
*Does not need to get drunk all the time, the
habit of becoming periodically drunk and being
unable to resist when the opportunity arises.
PREFERENCE: considers the effect on the
injured spouse in performing his/her marital
duties. Mental fitness, health, etc. Does not
nurture a natural and wholesome family,

Ratification: Cohabitation after the innocent

spouse has full knowledge of the facts
constituting the fraud
4. That the consent of either party was - Violence here may be physical or moral. Party to file the suit: Injured party within 5
obtained by force, intimidation or undue - Intimidation is when there is a reasonable years from the time the force, intimidation or
influence, unless the same having disappeared and well-rounded fear of an imminent and undue influence disappeared or ceased.
or ceased, such party thereafter freely grave evil upon his person or property.
cohabited with the other as husband and wife;
Ratification: Cohabitation after the cause of the
vitiated consent ceases.
5. That either party was physically incapable of - Permanent inability on the part of one of the Exception: Sterility is not considered
consummating the marriage with the other, spouses to perform the complete act of sexual impotency because he can still engage in
and such incapacity continues and appears to intercourse (must be incurable). sexual coition. Organs for conception not
be incurable - Can originate from a psychological problem, necessary because there is still passion.
which affects the physical.
- Must exist at the time of the marriage. Party to file the suit: Within 5 years after the
- May be caused both by husband and wife. marriage ceremony

NO RATIFICATION by cohabitation
Rule of triennial cohabitation: presumption of
impotence arises when wife remains a virgin
after 3 years from the time of marriage.

6. That either party was afflicted with a No ratification by cohabitation

sexually-transmissible disease found to be
serious and appears to be incurable
Art. 48: In all cases of annulment or - The state will ensure the prevention of
declaration of absolute nullity of marriage, the collusion between the parties (who
Court shall order the prosecuting attorney or may make up a ground to annul the
fiscal assigned to it to appear on behalf of the marriage) and to ensure that the
State to take steps to prevent collusion evidence is not fabricated
between the parties and to take care that - No judgment shall be based on a
evidence is not fabricated or suppressed confession and a stipulation of facts
In the cases referred to in the preceding only.
paragraph, no judgment shall be based upon a
stipulation of facts or confession of judgment
Art. 49: During the pendency of the action and - While trial is on going the support of * In nullity cases, if the marriage is deemed to
in the absence of adequate provisions in a the spouses and custody of the be void then the one who got support should
written agreement between the spouses, the children shall be governed by return it with legal interest to the person who
Court shall provide for the support of the whatever agreement the parties have furnished support since such person was not
spouses and the custody and support of their made. If none then they shall be entitled to the support there being no marriage.
common children. The Court shall give supported from the absolute
paramount consideration to the moral and community of property or conjugal
material welfare of said children and their partnership of gains.
choice of the parent with whom they wish to - The court may however make the
remain as provided to in Title IX. It shall also necessary adjustments in case the
provide for appropriate visitation rights of the agreement is inadequate.
other parent.
Art. 50: The effects provided for by Article 43: effects of termination of subsequent *The judgment and decree of nullity or
paragraphs (2), (3), (4) and (5) of Article 43 marriage (liquidation, disposition, donation, annulment will become final upon the
and by Article 44 shall also apply in the proper insurance, inheritance) expiration of 15 days from the receipt of the
cases to marriages which are declared ab initio Article 44: Both spouses of the subsequent parties of the decision. (Thus any marriage
or annulled by final judgment under Articles 40 marriage are in bad faith the marriage shall be prior to the 15 days may be considered
and 45. void bigamous since the marriage is still subsisting
The final judgment in such cases shall provide Article 40: Final judgment declaring a marriage at that time.)
for the liquidation, partition and distribution of was void for a subsequent marriage.
the properties of the spouses, the custody and
support of the common children, and the - In all other cases of a void marriage the
delivery of third presumptive legitimes, unless property regime will be governed by Art. 147
such matters had been adjudicated in previous (wages and salaries owned by them in equal
judicial proceedings. shares property governed by co-ownership)
Art. 148 (properties acquired through joint
All creditors of the spouses as well as of the contributions only and divided in proportion to
absolute community or the conjugal their contributions)
partnership shall be notified of the proceedings
for liquidation.
In the partition, the conjugal dwelling and the
lot on which it is situated, shall be adjudicated
in accordance with the provisions of Articles
102 and 129.
Art. 51: In said partition, the value of the Presumptive Legitime: Part of the property of * The children or the guardian may seek the
presumptive legitimes of all common children, the testator, which cannot be disposed of enforcement for the delivery of the
computed as of the date of the final judgment because the law has reserved it for certain presumptive legitime.
of the trial court, shall be delivered in cash, compulsory heirs. The decree of annulment or
property or sound securities, unless the nullity of marriage provides for the delivery of
parties, by mutual agreement judicially the presumptive legitimes this is in order to
approved, had already provided for such protect the legitime of the children from
matters. subsequent marriage.
Ex. If A husband of B dies, their child C will
The children or their guardian or the trustee of inherit a legitime from A’s properties. In this
their property may ask for the enforcement of case there is no death thus the legitime is
the judgment. presumed (what A’s properties would be if he
died at this time) and that is what is given to C.
The delivery of the presumptive legitimes • In the event that the either or both
herein prescribed shall in no way prejudice the parents die later on the presumptive
ultimate successional rights of the children legitime given is considered an
accruing upon the death of either of both of the advance on their legitime and are just
parents; but the value of the properties already given the remaining balance due them.
received under the decree of annulment or • In void marriages other than that
absolute nullity shall be considered as provided for in Art. 40, the presumptive
advances on their legitime. legitime is not delivered.
Art. 54: Children conceived or born before the - Generally, children conceived and born * If the child is conceived prior to the marriage
judgment of annulment or absolute nullity of outside a valid marriage or inside a void and the marriage is terminated under Art. 36 or
the marriage under Article 36 has become final marriage are illegitimate except those coming 53 child will be illegitimate (the subsequent
and executory shall be considered legitimate. from a marriage void due to psychological void marriage even under these articles will not
Children conceived or born of the subsequent incapacity and those due to lack of judicial legitimate them)
marriage under Article 53 shall likewise be decree of nullity or liquidation or dissolution of
legitimate. property.

LEGAL SEPARATION: Does not affect the marital status of the couple, merely a separation of bed and board. (Exclusive list)
Violence Against Women and Children (VAWC RA 9262): includes spouse, girlfriends, and even one-night stands (level of intimacy). Men can file
on behalf of children. Many articles of VAWC encompass legal separation and if this is so the required cooling off period is no longer necessary.
Included as part of VAWC such as corruption (#3) included as violence, even psychological violence (bigamy, sexual infidelity).
- The children included in VAWC are those under the care of the women even those of the respondent’s child from a previous marriage.
Article 55: Happens after marriage ceremony Physical violence here is measured not by the * Does not include a ground for legal
1. Repeated physical violence or grossly severity but by the frequency. However if it is separation when the respondent-spouse
abusive conduct directed against the not repeated or is not physical violence it may inflicts violence on his/her own child from a
petitioner, a common child, or a child of the be considered as grossly abusive conduct. previous marriage but may cause to suspend
petitioner or terminate parental authority.
Grossly abusive conduct need not be repeated Art. 231 (1): Parental authority can be
but more of a serious act: rely on suspended when the parent treats the child
proportionality and abusive conduct to what with excessive harshness or cruelty
was committed.
- Continued indifference or aversion to
spouse and persistent neglect of
duties incident to marital relation, etc.
- Use of offensive and abusive language
with intent and fixed purpose of
causing unhappiness.
- Other acts of corruption, which do not
fall under prostitution.
2. Physical violence or moral pressure to - There should be unity in the family and thus *Enforce human rights through acceptance of
compel the petitioner to change religious or the couple should learn to live with each the other’s right
political affiliation other’s political ideas.
3. Attempt of respondent to corrupt or induce - The children here may or may not be * Other forms of corruption can fall under grave
the petitioner, a common child, or a child of the emancipated. abuse of conduct
petitioner, to engage in prostitution, or - The corrupt act here refers to prostitution
connivance in such corruption or inducement only, a mere attempt is enough the respondent
need not be successful at the corruption or
- There is no cause of action when the child
involved is that of the respondent from another
4. Final judgment sentencing the respondent to - The crime need not be against the other
imprisonment of more than six years, even if spouse. It can be against anyone.
pardoned - The fact that the crime had been pardoned
doesn’t matter as long as there is a final
5. Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism of the - The extent and nature of such is the same,
respondent as those in annulment cases but such grounds
may exist even after the marriage ceremony
unlike annulment.
6. Lesbianism or homosexuality of respondent - Considered as a form of cruelty or mental
- Must engage in homosexual acts
7. Respondent contracts a subsequent - Illegally contracting a marriage despite full *Whether the marriage was done in the
bigamous marriage knowledge that the first marriage still validly Philippines or abroad is immaterial.
exists or without obtaining a judicial declaration
of presumptive death.

8. Sexual infidelity or perversion - Other acts of sexual infidelity short of Exception: If the wife condones sexual
concubinage and adultery are enough as long perversion with her husband then it cannot be
as they constitute a clear betrayal of trust. a ground for legal separation.
- Sexual perversion can be done to ones own
9. Attempt by the respondent against the life of - Must come from an evil design or unlawful Exception: when it is for self-defense (or
the petitioner cause some other justifiable reason)
- No need for any criminal conviction, Exception: Spouse caught the other in
preponderance of evidence is enough. (If there flagrante delicto
is a criminal conviction, the other spouse can
be disinherited even if there is no legal
separation case filed)
10. Abandonment of petitioner by respondent Willfully left the dwelling without intention of *If there is an unjustifiable for leaving then it is
without justifiable cause for more than one returning. not considered abandonment.
year. *There must be a wrongful intent to desert,
For purposes of this Article, the term "child" continued for the statutory period.
shall include a child by nature or by adoption
Article 56: Denial of legal separation if they fall on the following grounds
1. Where the aggrieved party has condoned the offense or - May be expressed or implied forgiveness Exception: if after the
act complained of - Not looking for an erring wife after she commits condonation the guilty spouse
an offense does not mean forgiveness. repeats the offense then can
still file for legal separation.
2. Where the aggrieved party has consented to the Either spouse agreed or did not object to the
commission of the offense or act complained of offense BEFORE it was committed.
3. Where there is connivance between the parties in the - Where the spouses agree that one spouse will
commission of the offense or act constituting the ground for commit the offense to give grounds for legal
legal separation separation.
- Where one of the parties employed a 3 party to
induce the other spouse to commit the offense to
give grounds.
- Corrupt consenting
4. Where both parties have given ground for legal - When two persons acted in bad faith, they should
separation be considered as having acted in good faith.
5. Where there is collusion between the parties to obtain - In collusion the couple makes it appear that there
decree of legal separation is a ground for legal separation but actually there is
- Corrupt agreement
- The act need not actually happen
6. Where the action is barred by prescription - An action for legal separation must be filed within Art. 57: An action for legal
5 years from the occurrence of the cause. separation shall be filed within
- From the time the act occurred not the discovery five years from the time of the
of the cause of action. occurrence of the cause
Art. 58: An action for legal separation shall in no case be - The defendant is required to answer the petition *Failure to observe the 6-
tried before six months shall have elapsed since the filing of 15 days from the date of the receipt of the month cooling off period is a
the petition complaint. However whether or not the defendant ground to set aside a decision
files an answer or not there should be no hearing granting legal separation.
on the merits by the court until after a 6-month
cooling-off period is terminated. *Other incidents may be
heard during the 6-month
period such as support and
Art. 59: No legal separation may be decreed unless the - The court must try to salvage the marriage by * However even if there is no
Court has taken steps toward the reconciliation of the taking steps towards reconciliation. trial the couple may choose
spouses and is fully satisfied, despite such efforts, that not to live together. They
reconciliation is highly improbable. cannot be forced to live
Art. 60: No decree of legal separation shall be based upon - If the defending party fails to answer he or * If the case is vehemently
a stipulation of facts or a confession of judgment. she cannot be defaulted and the court shall opposed and contested and it
In any case, the Court shall order the prosecuting attorney order the prosecuting attorney to is clear that the litigation is a
or fiscal assigned to it to take steps to prevent collusion investigate whether there is collusion or no-holds barred contest and
between the parties and to take care that the evidence is not between the parties. not collusion the non-
not fabricated or suppressed. - Even if the party answers the fiscal is still intervention of the prosecuting
mandated to make sure there is no attorney is not fatal to the
collusion and that the evidence is genuine. validity of the proceedings.
Art. 61: After the filing of the petition for legal separation, - In the absence of a written agreement * Death of the plaintiff before
the spouses shall be entitled to live separately from each between the spouses, the court shall the final decree in an action
other designate who shall administer the for legal separation
The court, in the absence of a written agreement between properties (it can be a third person). terminates the case.
the spouses, shall designate either of them or a third
person to administer the absolute community or conjugal
partnership property. The administrator appointed by the
court shall have the same powers and duties as those of a
guardian under the Rules of Court.
Art. 62: During the pendency of the action for legal Art. 49: During the pendency of the action and in
separation, the provisions of Article 49 shall likewise apply the absence of a written agreement, the court will
to the support of the spouses and the custody and support provide for the support and custody.
of the common children.
Art. 63: The decree of legal separation shall have the - Though the spouses are entitled to live separately * No children below 7 years
following effects: the marriage bond shall not be severed. They are old shall be separated from
1. The spouses shall be entitled to live separately from still married to each other. the mother unless the court
each other, but the marriage bonds shall not be severed; - The property shall be liquidated, the offending finds compelling reasons to
2. The absolute community or the conjugal partnership spouse shall have no share or right to the profits order otherwise (Tender
shall be dissolved and liquidated but the offending spouse earned and shall be forfeited in favor of the Years Doctrine)
shall have no right to any share of the net profits earned by common children if none the children of the guilty
the absolute community or the conjugal partnership, which spouse if none then to the innocent spouse.
shall be forfeited in accordance with the provisions of - The innocent spouse shall generally have custody
Article 43(2); of the children however the major consideration is
3. The custody of the minor children shall be awarded to always the paramount interest of the children.
the innocent spouse, subject to the provisions of Article 213 - The offending spouse shall be disqualified from
of this Code; and inheriting form the innocent spouse by intestate
4. The offending spouse shall be disqualified from inheriting succession furthermore provisions in favor of the
from the innocent spouse by intestate succession. offending spouse made in the will of the innocent
Moreover, provisions in favor of the offending spouse made spouse shall be revoked by operation of law.
in the will of the innocent spouse shall be revoked by
operation of law.
Art. 64: After the finality of the decree of legal separation, - The law gives the option to innocent party
the innocent spouse may revoke the donations made by whether to revoke or not the donation of
him or by her in favor of the offending spouse, as well as the guilty party in an insurance.
the designation of the latter as beneficiary in any insurance - The revocation must be made within 5
policy, even if such designation be stipulated as years from the time the decree of legal
irrevocable. The revocation of the donations shall be separation has become final.
recorded in the registries of property in the places where * The revocation of or change in the designation of
the properties are located. Alienations, liens and insurance beneficiary shall take effect after written
encumbrances registered in good faith before the recording notification to the insurer not the insured since it
of the complaint for revocation in the registries of property makes more sense however the law states
shall be respected. The revocation of or change in the notification should be given to the insured thus that
designation of the insurance beneficiary shall take effect should be followed.
upon written notification thereof to the insured
The action to revoke the donation under this Article must be
brought within five years from the time the decree of legal
separation become final.
Art. 65: If the spouses should reconcile, a corresponding - If the case is still pending then it shall be * The creditors should be
joint manifestation under oath duly signed by them shall be terminated, if the decree has been issued informed of the changes with
filed with the court in the same proceeding for legal then it shall be set aside. regard to the property etc.
separation. - Separation of properties will still subsist,
but the parties can enter into an agreement
to revive the prior property regime.
Art. 66: The reconciliation referred to in the preceding - Generally the law provides that one can
Articles shall have the following consequences: only fix the property regime before the
1. The legal separation proceedings, if still pending, shall marriage celebration but the rules now set
thereby be terminated at whatever stage; and forth that the adoption of another property
2. The final decree of legal separation shall be set aside, regime can be made aside from that which
but the separation of property and any forfeiture of the they had previously existing during their
share of the guilty spouse already effected shall subsist, marriage.
unless the spouses agree to revive their former property EFFECT OF REVIVAL:
regime. 1. If creditors are notified they should file
The court's order containing the foregoing shall be recorded opposition on properties if they have debts
in the proper civil registries. that should be paid by either spouse.
Art. 67: The agreement to revive the former property 2. If creditors are notified but they don’t file
regime referred to in the preceding Article shall be they cannot get from the properties that will
executed under oath and shall specify: be placed in co-ownership in the revival.
1. The properties to be contributed anew to the restored 3. If creditors are not notified then they can
regime collect from properties co-owned.
2. Those to be retained as separated properties of each 4. If creditors are not notified but there are
spouse; and separate properties they can’t get from co-
3. The names of all their known creditors, their addresses owned properties.
and the amounts owing to each.
The agreement of revival and the motion for its approval
shall be filed with the court in the same proceeding for legal
separation, with copies of both furnished to the creditors
named therein. After due hearing, the court shall, in its
order, take measure to protect the interest of creditors and
such order shall be recorded in the proper registries of
The recording of the ordering in the registries of property
shall not prejudice any creditor not listed or not notified,
unless the debtor-spouse has sufficient separate properties
to satisfy the creditor's claim.


Art. 68: The husband and wife are obliged to Reason: So couples wont abandon each other * Remedy if other spouse is not living with you:
live together, observe mutual love, respect and based on their whims and caprices seek relief from court so that you do not have
fidelity, and render mutual help and support. - Procreation is also an essential marital to give him support.
obligation. • A husband can be liable for raping his
- A court cannot compel the spouses to wife however the subsequent
live together, observe mutual love, forgiveness by the wife to the offended
respect and fidelity. party shall extinguish the criminal
RAPE: action.
1. Committed by a man against a woman who BEFORE: Matrimonial exemption from rape
shall have carnal knowledge of her through 1. Man and woman become 1 so man
force, intimidation or threat; when she is cannot rape himself
deprived of reason or consciousness, 2. Marriage contract means wife
machinations or grave abuse of authority. consents to all and any sexual
2. Even if none of the circumstances are intercourse with husband.
present if woman is below 12 or demented. REBUT:
3. Any person who inserts any foreign object 1. Woman has certain rights and
into genital or anal orifice (rape can be liberties, which separate her from the
committed against a man) man.
4. Any person who inserts penis into oral or 2. Absolute consent is not sound since
anal orifice. marriage itself is revocable.
Art. 69: The husband and wife shall fix the - The domicile of natural persons is the
family domicile. In case of disagreement, the place of their habitual residence,
court shall decide. where parties intend to have their
The court may exempt one spouse from living permanent residence.
with the other if the latter should live abroad or - In case of disagreement between the
there are other valid and compelling reasons husband and the wife the court shall
for the exemption. However, such exemption decide.
shall not apply if the same is not compatible - The spouse not living in the domicile
with the solidarity of the family. must prove the intent of husband is for
solidarity of family.
Art. 70: The spouses are jointly responsible for EXPENSES FOR SUPPORT AND OTHER
the support of the family. The expenses for CONJUGAL OBLIGATIONS:
such support and other conjugal obligations 1. From the community property
shall be paid from the community property and, 2. In absence thereof income of fruits of
in the absence thereof, from the income or the separate properties
fruits of their separate properties. In case of 3. If insufficient or absent from the
insufficiency or absence of said income or separate properties themselves.
fruits, such obligations shall be satisfied from
the separate properties.
Art. 71: The management of the household - Shall be the right and duty of both
shall be the right and the duty of both spouses. spouses regardless of what the
The expenses for such management shall be property regime is.
paid in accordance with the provisions of - In the event that one of the spouses
Article 70. neglects his or her duties or commits
acts that endanger or dishonor the
Art. 72: When one of the spouses neglects his family the aggrieved party may apply
or her duties to the conjugal union or commits to the court for relief.
acts which tend to bring danger, dishonor or FORMS OF RELIEF:
injury to the other or to the family, the 1. Legal separation
aggrieved party may apply to the court for 2. Psychological incapacity
relief. 3. Petition for receivership judicial,
separation of property to become sole
administrator of property.
Art. 73: Either spouse may exercise any - Based on presumption, despite Exceptions: For the separate properties to be
legitimate profession, occupation, business or objection (before or after) it will still go liable the other spouse must have no
activity without the consent of the other. The to family. knowledge of the immoral activity and
latter may object only on valid, serious, and - VAWC: If husband prevents you from therefore could not give an objection even if
moral grounds. doing a right then punishable by law. benefit accrues to the family.
In case of disagreement, the court shall decide - The objection must be all valid,
whether or not: serious, and on moral grounds at the Exception liability against separate property: If
1. The objection is proper; and same time. the creditor did not know of the immoral activity
2. Benefit has occurred to the family prior to -If it is an isolated activity—contract— or thought it was to be used for a legitimate
the objection or thereafter. If the benefit without consent of other spouse, the business, creditor can collect from conjugal
accrued prior to the objection, the resulting conjugal spouse can’t be liable properties.
obligation shall be enforced against the GENERAL RULE:
separate property of the spouse who has not 1. Obligations incurred before or after the
obtained consent. marriage but redounding to the benefit
The foregoing provisions shall not prejudice of the family shall be charged to the
the rights of creditors who acted in good faith. conjugal properties
2. Spouse’s job redounds to the benefit
of the family thus obligations can be
satisfied from the conjugal property.
3. If the benefit accrued prior to the
objection, the resulting obligation shall
be enforced against the separate
property of the spouse who has not
obtained consent.

Art. 74: The property relationship between Marriage Settlements: must be in writing EFFECT OF NO MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT:
husband and wife shall be governed in the signed by the parties, and made prior to the 1. If the mortgage was registered then
following order: celebration of the marriage if it is not in writing the new spouse’s property will also be
1. By marriage settlements executed before it shall be unenforceable. liable.
the marriage; - If there is no marriage settlement 2. If the mortgage was not registered the
2. By the provisions of this Code; and agreed upon or if the same is void, new spouse will not be liable but the
3. By the local custom. then the absolute community of mortgage will be impaired and the
property will prevail. debtor spouse will loose the right to
EFFECT OF MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT: make use of the period.
1. Property in marriage settlement is • Must give new securities so as
registered did not redound to family, not to loose the period.
creditor can’t get from co-owned
2. If marriage settlement is not * If the marriage settlement does not
registered, can get from co-owned particularize any valid property regime such
3. If redounded to benefit of family can provision is void and thus the absolute
get from co-owned even if not community of property shall prevail.
*Marriage settlement must be fair, they must
exercise good faith in contracting the marriage
settlement. However if the agreement is not
fair as long as the disadvantaged spouse
shows that he/she understood it then the
marriage settlement shall be maintained.
LOCAL CUSTOMS: rule of conduct formed by
repetition of acts uniformly observed as a
social rule, legally binding and obligatory.
Art. 75: The future spouses may, in the - If a marriage settlement is absent or property
marriage settlements, agree upon the regime regime agreed upon is void, Absolute
of absolute community, conjugal partnership of community of property will govern.
gains, complete separation of property, or any
other regime. In the absence of a marriage
settlement, or when the regime agreed upon is
void, the system of absolute community of
property as established in this Code shall
Article 76: Modifications in marriage Art. 77: The marriage settlements and any Exception under Article 66 and 67: Revival
settlement must be made before the modification thereof shall be in writing, signed or adoption of new property regime when
celebration of the marriage. by the parties and executed before the those legally separated have reconciled.
celebration of the marriage. They shall not Exception under Article 128: in case of
prejudice third persons unless they are abandonment of a spouse other spouse can
registered in the local civil registry where the petition for receivership or administration of
marriage contract is recorded as well as in the properties or judicial decree of separation of
proper registries of properties. properties
(Oral marriage settlement is VOID) Exception under Article 135: Further
grounds for judicial separation of property
Exception under Article 136: voluntary and
verified petition in court of both spouses to
modify regime into separate community of
property regime.
Art. 78: A minor who according to law may - Now a minor or a person below 18 years old
contract marriage may also execute his or her cannot contract to a marriage. An 18-year-old
marriage settlements, but they shall be valid person deciding to get married can execute a
only if the persons designated in Article 14 to marriage settlement without obtaining consent.
give consent to the marriage are made parties
to the agreement, subject to the provisions of
Title IX of this Code.
Art. 79: For the validity of any marriage - It is mandatory that a person with civil
settlement executed by a person upon whom a interdiction must have a guardian appointed by
sentence of civil interdiction has been the court to be involved in making the marriage
pronounced or who is subject to any other settlement
disability, it shall be indispensable for the CIVIL INTERDICTION: deprives the offender
guardian appointed by a competent court to be during the sentence, rights in marriage,
made a party thereto. parental rights, and administration of property.
Art. 80: In the absence of a contrary Extrinsic validity: The form of the contract has
stipulation in a marriage settlement, the to follow whatever is the law in the country for
property relations of the spouses shall be changes to be made (change title etc.)
governed by Philippine laws, regardless of the
place of the celebration of the marriage and
their residence
This rule shall not apply:
1. Where both spouses are aliens;
2. With respect to the extrinsic validity of
contracts affecting property not situated in the
Philippines and executed in the country where
the property is located; and
3.With respect to the extrinsic validity of
contracts entered into in the Philippines but
affecting property situated in a foreign country
whose laws require different formalities for its
extrinsic validity.
Art. 81: Everything stipulated in the - The reason for the marriage settlement is the * Donations in marriage settlements are
settlements or contracts referred to in the marriage itself thus if it does not take place the revoked by operation of law.
preceding articles in consideration of a future marriage settlement shall not be valid.
marriage, including donations between the - The provisions in a marriage settlement are
prospective spouses made therein, shall be separable thus if there are provisions which
rendered void if the marriage does not take are invalid then only the invalid provisions will
place. However, stipulations that do not be ineffectual while the rest will be enforced.
depend upon the celebration of the marriages
shall be valid.
ARTICLE 76 Those not written, signed and made before the
Article 76 Those that stipulate that neither local custom
nor absolute community of property will govern
without stipulating any other kind of property
Article 80 Those made by a person upon who a sentence Exception: unless a guardian appointed made
of civil interdiction is given by a competent court is made party thereto
Article 81 Those stipulated in marriage settlement or Exception: stipulations that don’t depend on
contracts made in consideration of marriage the celebration of the marriage shall remain
(donations) will be void if marriage does not valid.
take place
Effects on creditors
Marriage settlements - Only needs to be registered in order to bind third Exception to third party rule: If indebtedness
parties. If registered, third parties cannot go after benefited to the family then can go after community
conjugal property of property.
No marriage settlements: If there is no marriage settlement: Exception to impairment of property: if debtor
Absolute community of 1. If property is registered then spouse is bound by immediately gives new property equally satisfactory
property. mortgage or get consent of X to the security or collateral
2. If property is not registered then property is already established, then he does not loose period
impaired and the debtor looses period of loan. of loan.
Art. 82: Donations by reason of marriage are DONATIONS PROPTER NUPTIAS: Procedure--Movable:
those, which are made before its celebration, in 1. Donations are to be made prior to the celebration of 1. Accepted personally or
consideration of the same, and in favor of one or marriage representative
both of the future spouses. 2. Must be made in favor of 1 or both of the spouses. 2. Made in lifetime of donor and
Can be made by a third party in the settlement. donee
Art. 83: These donations are governed by the Donation between spouses: 3. Can be orally given as long as
rules on ordinary donations established in Title 1. A valid marriage settlement must stipulate with simultaneous delivery or
III of Book III of the Civil Code, insofar as they another regime than Absolute Community of document representing right of
are not modified by the following articles. Property (ACP) donated (if above 5000 then must
2. Donation cannot be more than 1/5 of the be in writing)
Art. 84: If the future spouses agree upon a present property of the donee spouse.
regime other than the absolute community of 3. Must be accepted and comply with other. Procedure--Immovable:
property, they cannot donate to each other in Exception: 1/5 rule will not apply if donation is in a 1.must be in public document
their marriage settlements more than one-fifth of separate deed, provided he has enough to support 2. Acceptance made in that
their present property. Any excess shall be himself and those relying on him. document or separate
considered void. 3. Must be made in lifetime of
Donations of future property shall be governed DONATIONS EXCLUDED:
by the provisions on testamentary succession 1. Made in favor of the
and the formalities of wills. spouses after the
celebration of the marriage
2. Executed in favor of the
future spouses but not in
consideration of marriage
3. Granted to persons other
than the spouses even
though they may be
founded on the marriage.
Article 85: Donations by reason of marriage of ENCUMBRANCE: Anything that impairs the use or
property subject to encumbrances shall be valid. transfer of property (burdened)
In case of foreclosure of the encumbrance and - If the object of the donation is encumbered it is still
the property is sold for less than the total valid but the donee’s rights are still subject to the
amount of the obligation secured, the donee encumbrance.
shall not be liable for the deficiency. If the IN CASE OF ENCUMBRANCE OF PROPERTY:
property is sold for more than the total amount 1. Donee wont be liable for insufficiency of property to
of said obligation, the donee shall be entitled to creditor. The donor will still be liable for that.
the excess. 2. Donee can keep excess if property more than
satisfies the debt.
3. Donee cannot ask for reimbursement from donor if
mortgage is foreclosed.
- But wont be liable for deficiency, and gets the excess if
sold for more than amount.
Art. 86: A donation by reason of marriage may 1. Marriage is not celebrated or is void ab initio Exception: If the donation is in the
be revoked by the donor in the following cases: (including art. 52-53) marriage settlement it will be
1. If the marriage is not celebrated or judicially Prescription: revoked by operation of law.
declared void ab initio except donations made in - Marriage is void: 5 years from Judicial Exception: If the marriage is void
the marriage settlements, which shall be Declaration of Nullity (if doesn’t want to give it due to Article 40, or Article 44, then
governed by Article 81; back, prescribe after 8 years for movable, 30 automatically revoked
2. When the marriage takes place without the years for immovable)
consent of the parents or guardian, as required - Marriage not celebrated: 5 years from when it
by law; was not celebrated
3. When the marriage is annulled, and the 2. Marriage takes place without consent of parents
donee acted in bad faith; Prescription:
4. Upon legal separation, the donee being the - 5 years from the time he had knowledge that consent
guilty spouse; was not obtained, after the marriage.
5. If it is with a resolutory condition and the 3. Upon legal separation when donee is the guilty Exception: if the ground for legal
condition is complied with; spouse separation is infidelity in the form of
6. When the donee has committed an act of Prescription: adultery or concubinage it will be
ingratitude as specified by the provisions of the - 5 years from finality of decree. automatically void.
Civil Code on donations in general. 4. When there is a resolutory cause and the Exception: between husband and
condition has been complied with wife prescription does not run.
5 years from the happening of the resolutory condition.
6. Acts of ingratitude:
- Donee commits an offense against the person or
property of the donor, his wife, or children
- Donee imputes to the donor any criminal offense
involving moral turpitude unless it is against the donee
- Donee unduly refuses to support donor when he is
legally or morally bound to give support.
- 1 year from the time the donor had knowledge of the
fact of ingratitude
Art. 87: Every donation or grant of gratuitous - What constitutes a moderate gift depends on Void Donations: (considered
advantage, direct or indirect, between the the financial capacity of the donor. indirect donations to the spouse)
spouses during the marriage shall be void, - Under the last sentence of Art. 87it must be 1. To a stepchild who has no
except moderate gifts which the spouses may shown that the donation was made at a time compulsory or legal heirs
give each other on the occasion of any family when they were still living together as husband 2. To a common child who has
rejoicing. The prohibition shall also apply to and wife without the benefit of marriage. no compulsory or legal heirs
persons living together as husband and wife - Validity of donation or transfer cannot be 3. To the parents of the other
without a valid marriage. challenged by anyone unless those that will be spouse
affected by the donation. 4. To the other spouse’s
RESERVA TRONCAL: the ascendant who inherits from adopted child
his descendant any property which the later may have 5. To common adopted child
acquired by gratuitous title from another ascendant or who has no other
sibling is obliged to reserve such property for the benefit compulsory and or legal
of relatives within the 3 degree and who belong to the heirs.
same line.
Ex. H is married to W and has a son S. H has a brother
B. H dies and donates to S his property. After which, S
dies without any heirs and thus the property goes to W.
If W dies the property does not go to her heir but to B so
that the property stays in the same line of the original
owner (once owed by H) and is within the third degree of

Property Regime What included What excluded Notes Charges Liquidation process
Absolute All properties Art. 89: No waiver of rights, Article 94: Termination:
community of owned before and Article 92: shares and effects of the 1. Support (spouses, Art. 97: Either
property after. 1.provided in marriage absolute community of common & legitimate spouse may dispose
Art. 88: The settlement property during the children) by will of his or her
absolute Art. 91: Unless 2. Personal and exclusive marriage can be made - Even beyond age of interest in the
community of otherwise provided use of either spouse except in case of judicial majority community property.
property between in this Chapter or in (except jewelry) separation of property. 2. Debts & obligations
spouses shall the marriage - However if exclusive made by both, Art. 98: Neither
commence at the settlements, the property is used to When the waiver takes administrator, or with spouse may donate
precise moment community property purchase something else place upon a judicial consent of other spouse any community
that the marriage is shall consist of all such property becomes separation of property, or (even if did not redound) property without the
celebrated. Any the property owned part of ACP after the marriage has been 3. D & O without consent consent of the other.
stipulation, express by the spouses at 1.Property acquired by dissolved or annulled, the but redounded. However, either
or implied, for the the time of the gratuitous title including same shall appear in a 4. Expenses for spouse may, without
commencement of celebration of the the fruits and income public instrument and shall community property the consent of the
the community marriage or UNLESS the guarantor be recorded as provided in (taxes, liens, charges) other, make
regime at any other acquired thereafter. expressly said they will Article 77. The creditors of 5. Taxes & expenses for moderate donations
time shall be void form part of ACP the spouse who made such preservation during from the community
- Must be a valid donation waiver may petition the marriage of separate property for charity or
(Default regime if Art. 93: Property (cant be donation made court to rescind the waiver property used by family on occasions of
nothing stipulated – acquired during the by one spouse to to the extent of the amount 6. Expenses for self- family rejoicing or
exception: marriage is another) sufficient to cover the improvement or family distress
subsequent presumed to 2.Property acquired by amount of their credits. profession. Article 99:
marriage after belong to the either spouse who has * No waiver of rights, 7. Antenuptial debts 1. Death
death will community, unless legitimate descendants interests, shares, and redounding to family - Same proceeding
automatically be it is proved that it is and the fruits of that effects without judicial 8. Donation made by both as settlement of
CSP if there was one of those property separation or dissolution or spouses for children to estate.
no proper excluded *Winnings from gambling annulment of marriage – pursue vocation or self- Spouse shall
liquidation of the therefrom. (losses borne by looser) shall appear in a public improvement liquidate property if
properties of the instrument (creditors may 9. For illegitimate children, no judicial settlement
previous marriage) rescind waiver up to extent fines for crimes/quasi proceeding within 1
Art. 90: The of the debt) delict in case of year. After 1 year
provisions on co- insufficiency. (Advances) cannot make
ownership shall Art. 96: The administration 10. Expenses for litigation encumbrance on
apply to the and enjoyment of the * Solidary liability does not property.
absolute community property shall include ante-nuptial debts 2. Legal separation
community of belong to both spouses not redounding, support of 4. Annulled or void
property between jointly. In case of illegitimate, liabilities thru (governed by art. 147
the spouses in all disagreement, the crime/delict. & 148 except if void
matters not husband's decision shall under Article 40)
provided for in this prevail, subject to recourse Art. 95: Whatever may be 5. Judicial separation
Chapter. to the court by the wife for lost during the marriage in of property
proper remedy, which must any game of chance, 6. Reappearance of a
be availed of within five betting, sweepstakes, or spouse presumed
years from the date of the any other kind of dead.
contract implementing such gambling, whether Procedure:
decision. permitted or prohibited by Article 102:
In the event that one law, shall be borne by the 1. Inventory
spouse is incapacitated or loser and shall not be (separate and
otherwise unable to charged to the community community)
participate in the but any winnings 2. D&O of ACP shall
administration of the therefrom shall form part be paid out, in case
common properties, the of the community property. of insufficiency
other spouse may assume solidarily liable with
sole powers of separate property.
administration. These 3. Exclusive prop
powers do not include delivered.
disposition or encumbrance 4. Net remainder of
without authority of the ACP divided equally
court or the written consent unless different
of the other spouse. In the proportion in
absence of such authority settlement or waiver.
or consent, the disposition 5. Delivery of
or encumbrance shall be presumptive
void. However, the legitimates
transaction shall be 6. Conjugal dwelling
construed as a continuing with spouse with
offer on the part of the most children
consenting spouse and the
third person, and may be
perfected as a binding
contract upon the
acceptance by the other
spouse or authorization by
the court before the offer is
withdrawn by either or both
* Spouses administer and
enjoy property jointly.
Husband decision prevails
subject to recourse of wife
within 5 years from date of
contract implementing
decision. BUT if wife ratifies
contract express or implied
cant annul anymore.
- If disposition is made
without knowledge or
consent of other person no
ACP SEPARATION IN FACT: - Abandonment is different from separation in fact.
Art. 100: The separation in fact between Abandonment has to do with total abdication of all marital
husband and wife shall not affect the regime of and parental authority.
absolute community except that: - If the spouse left with a valid cause he or she can still
be supported from the ACP.
1.The spouse who leaves the conjugal home or - The ACP can still be liable for obligations incurred by
refuses to live therein, without just cause, shall the separating spouse that may redound to the benefit of
not have the right to be supported; the family.
2.When the consent of one spouse to any - Even the guilty spouse can compel the sale of property,
transaction of the other is required by law, which will redound to the benefit of the family.
judicial authorization shall be obtained in a - Only the present spouse is given standing by the law to
summary proceeding; file a petition to encumber or administer the property of
3. In the absence of sufficient community the other spouse.
property, the separate property of both spouses
shall be solidarily liable for the support of the
family. The spouse present shall, upon proper
petition in a summary proceeding, be given
judicial authority to administer or encumber any
specific separate property of the other spouse
and use the fruits or proceeds thereof to satisfy
the latter's share.
ACP Art. 101: If a spouse without just cause ABANDONMENT: Implies a departure by one spouse
abandons the other or fails to comply with his or with the avowed intent never to return, followed by
her obligations to the family, the aggrieved prolonged absence without just cause.
spouse may petition the court for receivership, - Should not only be physical but also financial and moral
for judicial separation of property or for authority desertion.
to be the sole administrator of the absolute
community, subject to such precautionary
conditions as the court may impose.

The obligations to the family mentioned in the

preceding paragraph refer to marital, parental or
property relations.

A spouse is deemed to have abandoned the

other when he or she has left the conjugal
dwelling without intention of returning. The
spouse who has left the conjugal dwelling for a
period of three months or has failed within the
same period to give any information as to his or
her whereabouts shall be prima facie presumed
to have no intention of returning to the conjugal
Conjugal Article 106: Article 109: Art. 107: The rules Article 121: Termination:
Partnership of - Proceeds, products, 1. Brought into the provided in Articles 88 and 1.support of spouse Article 126:
Gains: fruits and income marriage as his or her 89 shall also apply to common and legitimate 1.Death
Art. 105: In case from their separate own conjugal partnership of children 2.Legal Separation
the future spouses properties 2. Acquired by gains. 2.D&O by admin, both or 3. Annulled or
agree in the - Those acquired by gratuitous title either spouse with consent declared void.
marriage their efforts or chance - By way of Art. 108: The conjugal of other. 4.Judicial Separation
settlements that the - Income and fruits by succession partnership shall be 3.D&O without consent of
regime of conjugal gratuitous title (diff - Honorarium (given in governed by the rules on other but redounding. Article 127 and 128:
partnership gains from ACP) appreciation for the contract of partnership 4.expenses for conjugal prop -Provisions on
shall govern their - Annuity: retirement services rendered) in all that is not in conflict (taxes, liens) separation in fact and
property relations on an annuity 3. Acquired by right of with what is expressly 5.taxes and expenses for abandonment has the
during marriage, (received as a matter redemption, barter, determined in this Chapter preservation of separate same application as
the provisions in of right) exchange or by the spouses in their property (no need for use) in ACP article 100
this Chapter shall -Pension: service - Even if money used marriage settlements. 6.expenses for spouse for and 101.
be of previously rendered to redeem is conjugal profession or self- Procedure:
supplementary for which full and (reimbursement) Prohibition on waiver. improvement. Article 129:
application. adequate 4. Bought with *Properties brought into 7.Antenuptial debts 1.Inventory of
compensation was exclusive money of the marriage by the redounding to family. separate and
The provisions of not received at the either spouse. contracting parties belong 8.donation of both for conjugal prop
this Chapter shall time. *Onerous donations to each of them children for profession or 2.Payment of
also apply to Article 117: *Designated share in exclusively. self-improvement. advances
conjugal 1. Acquired by donation - Either spouse can 9.expenses of litigation 3.Reimbursement to
partnerships of onerous title using *Gratuity (amount transfer admin of prop to between spouses the spouses.
gains already common funds. given by jobs for other spouse thru public Not to be paid by cpg: 4.D&O paid out by
established 2. Obtained by labor previous work) instrument. Article 122: CPG, insufficiency
between spouses or industry or work Art. 118: Property bought -Payment of personal debts solidarily liable.
before the 3. Fruits, natural, Art. 110: The spouses on installments paid partly contracted by the husband 5.exclusive prop
effectivity of this industrial, or civil due retain the ownership, from exclusive funds of or wife before or during the delivered
Code, without received during possession, either or both spouses and marriage unless they 6.loss or deterioration
prejudice to vested marriage from administration and partly from conjugal funds redounded to the benefit of of movables paid
rights already common prop enjoyment of their belongs to the buyer or the family. from CPG
acquired in - Net fruits of exclusive properties. buyers if full ownership However, fines and 7.Net remainder to be
accordance with exclusive property was vested before the indemnities imposed support divided (unless MS
the Civil Code or BUT personal Either spouse may, marriage and to the of illegitimate children can or waiver)
other laws, as damages are not during the marriage, conjugal partnership if be paid by the assets 8.Delivery of
provided in Article conjugal. transfer the such ownership was AFTER the payment of presumptive legitimes
256. 4. Share in hidden administration of his or vested during the obligations provided in Art. 9.Conjugal dwelling
treasure her exclusive property marriage. In either case, 121. But at the time of
Presumption is that 5. Fishing and to the other by means any amount advanced by liquidation the spouse who Article 130: in case of
all property hunting of a public instrument, the partnership or by either used such funds will be death the liquidation
acquired during 6. Excess livestock which shall be or both spouses shall be charged. proceeding will be in
marriage even if in (those brought in to recorded in the reimbursed by the owner If charges are paid, and no the same proceeding
the name of one the marriage by one registry of property of or owners upon liquidation property or insufficient, as the settlement of
spouse is conjugal will reimbursed the place the property of the partnership. CPG pays: the estate of the
unless otherwise 7. Acquired by is located. -Fines, debts before the deceased. (Same
provided. chance Property bought before marriage application as in ACP
but title registered after -Support of illegitimate article 103)
marriage: still considered *Subject to reimbursement
exclusive property even if (ACP no need to pay out all Art. 133: From the
spouse is made co-owner charges first) common mass of
in title (considered a trust) property support shall
Separate property plus Article 120 be given to the
conjugal funds to buy a 1.If improvement made by surviving spouse and
new property: new cp is more than value of the to the children during
property will be considered property, entire property will the liquidation of the
conjugal. be conjugal –reimburse inventoried property
Property bought on spouse. and until what
installment partly from 2. If amount is not more than belongs to them is
exclusive and partly it will still be separate delivered; but from
from conjugal: when title property subject to this shall be deducted
was vested will govern, reimbursement to CPG. that amount received
then reimburse (Art. 119) (Ownership will vest upon for support which
Principal payments and reimbursement) exceeds the fruits or
interest paid to a spouse rents pertaining to
during marriage: principal Art. 123: Whatever may be them.
amt is exclusive while lost during the marriage in
interest is conjugal. any game of chance or in
betting, sweepstakes, or any
other kind of gambling
whether permitted or
prohibited by law, shall be
borne by the loser and shall
not be charged to the
conjugal partnership but any
winnings therefrom shall
form part of the conjugal
partnership property.
CPG Art. 110: The spouses retain the ownership, - Each spouse is to retain ownership,
possession, administration and enjoyment of administration, possession and enjoyment of
their exclusive properties. their exclusive properties.
- Administration includes entering into contracts,
engaging in litigation, and collection of fruits,
Either spouse may, during the marriage, profits and income arising from separate
transfer the administration of his or her property.
exclusive property to the other by means of a - The owner spouse can transfer administration of
public instrument, which shall be recorded in the the property not only to the other spouse but also
registry of property of the place the property is to any third person without the consent of the
located. other spouse.
CPG Art. 111: A spouse of age may mortgage, - Art. 111 is no longer necessary, as the age of
encumber, alienate or otherwise dispose of his marriage is also the age of emancipation.
or her exclusive property, without the consent of - If the owner-spouse alienates his property the
the other spouse, and appear alone in court to administration by the other spouse over such
litigate with regard to the same. property will cease and the proceeds will go to
the owner.
Art. 112: The alienation of any exclusive - The owner-spouse cannot revoke a judicially
property of a spouse administered by the other approved administration by the other spouse of
automatically terminates the administration over his property by alienating it. Thus to alienate the
such property and the proceeds of the alienation property he must get the consent of the
shall be turned over to the owner-spouse. administrator-spouse or court approval.
CPG Art. 113: Property donated or left by will to the - The donor may donate whatever he wishes to
spouses, jointly and with designation of whomever he wants. Thus he may donate a
determinate shares, shall pertain to the donee- piece of property to both spouses jointly or may
spouses as his or her own exclusive property, specify how much of the property should go to
and in the absence of designation, share and the husband and how much should go to the
share alike, without prejudice to the right of wife.
accretion when proper. ACCRETION: addition of property to another property
General rule: in a joint donation one cannot accept
Art. 114: If the donations are onerous, the independently of his co-donee unless it is stipulated or
amount of the charges shall be borne by the unless it is between husband and wife.
exclusive property of the donee spouse, Ex. D donates land to H and W who are married. D
whenever they have been advanced by the donates 1/3 to W and 2/3 to H. If W does not accept the
conjugal partnership of gains. donation it will be considered added on to the share of
the husband. However if it is a specific designation such
Art. 115: Retirement benefits, pensions, as H will get a car and W will get a horse, accretion will
annuities, gratuities, usufructs and similar not apply.
benefits shall be governed by the rules on - In the case of wills for accretion to take effect, the
gratuitous or onerous acquisitions as may be nature of the inheritance must be pro indivisio (not
proper in each case. divided, the terms ½ or in equal shares does not make it
CPG Art. 124: The administration and enjoyment of - Any alienation made by either spouse without the
the conjugal partnership shall belong to both consent of the other is invalid.
spouses jointly. In case of disagreement, the - In case the husband disposes of property over
husband's decision shall prevail, subject to the objection of the wife, the wife may file a case
recourse to the court by the wife for proper to annul the entire contract or part of it.
remedy, which must be availed of within five
years from the date of the contract
implementing such decision.
In the event that one spouse is incapacitated or
otherwise unable to participate in the
administration of the conjugal properties, the
other spouse may assume sole powers of
administration. These powers do not include
disposition or encumbrance without authority of
the court or the written consent of the other
spouse. In the absence of such authority or
consent, the disposition or encumbrance shall
be void. However, the transaction shall be
construed as a continuing offer on the part of
the consenting spouse and the third person, and
may be perfected as a binding contract upon the
acceptance by the other spouse or authorization
by the court before the offer is withdrawn by
either or both offerors. (165a)

Art. 125: Neither spouse may donate any

conjugal partnership property without the
consent of the other. However, either spouse
may, without the consent of the other, make
moderate donations from the conjugal
partnership property for charity or on occasions
of family rejoicing or family distress.
Separation of - They own everything separately but still liable Article 136: Voluntary Separation Revival:
property for family expenses in proportion to their income -Spouses may agree on the separation of their properties Article 141:
Art. 134: In the or in default thereof in proportion to separate with court approval, no reason needed. (But if reason is 1.termination of civil
absence of an prop. But liability to their creditor is still solidary. stated and it is against public policy the court will reject it) interdiction
express declaration -Division of property must be equal unless there is a 2.Absentee
in the marriage Article 135: Sufficient cause for judicial different proportion agreed in MS or waiver. reappears
settlements, the separation of property: -Takes effect after judicial order of decree (not signing of 3.court satisfied that
separation of 1. Civil interdiction agreement) administration will not
property between 2. Absentee spouse -Creditors will be listed in petition and notified) be again abused
spouses during the -2 years from last news about absentee, or 5 -In process, delivery of presumptive legitimes is not 4.Resumption of
marriage shall not years if an administrator has been left. necessary. common life with
take place except 3. Loss of parental authority decreed by other spouse
by judicial order. court (termination or deprivation not *Art. 142: Admin of exclusive prop of either spouse may 5.parental authority
Such judicial mere suspension) be transferred by court to other spouse or if not qualified restored
separation of -Over legitimate or illegitimate child whether of to another person when: 6.reconciliation of
property may either previous or present marriage 1.spouse becomes the guardian those separated in
be voluntary or for 4. Abandonment or failure to comply with 2.the other is judicially declared an absentee fact
sufficient cause. his or her obligations 3.civil interdiction 7.For those who
5. Abused power of administration 4.fugitive from justice, hiding as an accused voluntarily separated
(Can be stipulated 6. Separation in fact for at least 1 yr Art 143: If the couple wants a regime of separation of property, agree to
in MS which shall property they have to enter into a valid marriage revive former
govern and FC will Art. 137: Once the separation of property has settlement prior to the marriage stipulating such regime. property regime (but
only be been decreed, the absolute community or the after that can’t
supplementary in conjugal partnership of gains shall be liquidated Art. 145: Administration is left with each spouse with separate property
nature, in the in conformity with this Code. regard to his/her own property without the need for the anymore)
absence therein it During the pendency of the proceedings for consent of the other. Earnings of each shall also belong - Art. 67 revival:
cannot take place separation of property, the absolute community to each spouse. Agreement under
during the marriage or the conjugal partnership shall pay for the oath will state:
except by judicial support of the spouses and their children. Art. 146: Both spouses shall bear the family expenses in 1.properties to be
order) Art. 138: After dissolution of the absolute proportion to their income or their separate property. contributed
-May refer to community or of the conjugal partnership, the Liability of spouses to creditors to family expenses are 2.those to be retained
present or future provisions on complete separation of property solidary (they are both liable to the creditor for the whole as separate
property or both shall apply. amount if the creditor seeks it from one of them. Such 3.names of known
-May be partial or Art. 144: Separation of property may refer to spouse is entitled to reimbursement from the other creditors
total present or future property or both. It may be spouse).
-Those not agreed total or partial. In the latter case, the property * Even if there is an agreement on proportion of sharing
as separate will be not agreed upon as separate shall pertain to the etc, it wont affect the creditors.
ACP absolute community.
Marriage without Art. 147: When a man and a woman who are Requisites:
unions (governs capacitated to marry each other, live exclusively 1.Capacitated to marry each other
void marriages) with each other as husband and wife without the -Not capacitated: incestuous, against public policy, under
benefit of marriage or under a void marriage, 18, bigamous marriage
their wages and salaries shall be owned by 2.live exclusively with each other as husband and wife
them in equal shares and the property acquired 3.Without benefit of marriage or under a void marriage.
by both of them through their work or industry *Includes marriages of psychological incapacity,
shall be governed by the rules on co-ownership. reappearance of wife, non-liquidation of property,
absence of formal requisites.
In the absence of proof to the contrary, Structure:
properties acquired while they lived together 1. Salaries and wages shall be owned by equal
shall be presumed to have been obtained by shares
their joint efforts, work or industry, and shall be 2. Property acquired with exclusive funds is owned
owned by them in equal shares. For purposes of by them exclusively
this Article, a party who did not participate in the 3. Property acquired through work or industry
acquisition by the other party of any property governed by co-ownership
shall be deemed to have contributed jointly in 4. Property acquired while they live together will be
the acquisition thereof if the former's efforts owned by them in equal shares. (Contribution
consisted in the care and maintenance of the can be in the form of care and maintenance of
family and of the household. family, household)
5. Fruits of separate property not part of co-
Neither party can encumber or dispose by acts ownership
inter vivos of his or her share in the property 6. Conjugal home will be owned equally.
acquired during cohabitation and owned in -Can’t encumber or dispose of his/her share without
common, without the consent of the other, until consent of the other or after cohabitation.
after the termination of their cohabitation. -Can alienate in favor of the other his or her share BUT
can’t waive any interest in co-ownership
When only one of the parties to a void marriage -Void marriage: net share of bad faith is forfeited to:
is in good faith, the share of the party in bad 1. Common children
faith in the co-ownership shall be forfeited in 2. Waiver of common children, descendants
favor of their common children. In case of 3. Absence of descendants, innocent party
default of or waiver by any or all of the common Void marriages included:
children or their descendants, each vacant Art. 36: psychological incapacity
share shall belong to the respective surviving Art. 44: bad faith of both spouses in a subsequent
descendants. In the absence of descendants, marriage
such share shall belong to the innocent party. In Art. 53: non-liquidation, dissolution, distribution of prop.
all cases, the forfeiture shall take place upon Those where there is absence of consent, authority of
termination of the cohabitation. solemnizer, license, marriage ceremony.
Marriage without Art. 148: In cases of cohabitation not falling Requisites:
unions (governs under the preceding Article, only the properties - Cohabitation not falling under article 147.
void marriages) acquired by both of the parties through their Structure:
actual joint contribution of money, property, or - Parties are co-owners of property acquired
industry shall be owned by them in common in during cohabitation only upon proof that each of
proportion to their respective contributions. In them made an actual contribution.
the absence of proof to the contrary, their 1. Salaries and wages are separately owned; if
contributions and corresponding shares are either is married the salaries go to that marriage.
presumed to be equal. The same rule and 2. Property acquired by the money of one, belongs
presumption shall apply to joint deposits of to that person exclusively
money and evidences of credit. 3. Only properties acquired by both of them through
If one of the parties is validly married to another, joint contribution will be owned by them in
his or her share in the co-ownership shall common in proportion to what they gave (money,
accrue to the absolute community or conjugal property, or industry – but cant be mere care and
partnership existing in such valid marriage. If maintenance of family/household). (Presumption
the party who acted in bad faith is not validly is that shares over property owned is equal
married to another, his or her shall be forfeited shares but can be rebutted through proof
in the manner provided in the last paragraph of showing otherwise.)
the preceding Article. 4. If one of the parties is validly married, that
The foregoing rules on forfeiture shall likewise person’s share in the co-ownership will accrue to
apply even if both parties are in bad faith the marriage.
Bad faith: net share of bad faith is forfeited to:
1. Common children
2. Waiver of common children, descendants
3. Absence of descendants, innocent party
- If both are in bad faith they shall be considered as in
good faith and their shares shall go to them.
Exception to insolvency: if redounded to the benefit of the family then the property can be assigned for payment of insolvency
- Administration is joint by both spouses, husbands decision will prevail subject to recourse by the wife within 5 years from the contract
implementing the decision. Contract will be a continuing offer upon acceptance by other spouse or court order.


Art. 149: The family, being the foundation of the nation, - Paramount importance is given to the family as
is a basic social institution which public policy cherishes provided in the 1987 constitution.
and protects. Consequently, family relations are - Family relations are governed by law and no
governed by law and no custom, practice or agreement custom or practice destructive of the family will be
destructive of the family shall be recognized or given recognized.
Art. 150: Family relations include those: - Any person not included in the enumeration cannot Exception to earnest
1. Between husband and wife; be considered as within the term “family relations.” efforts:
2. Between parents and children; - Before a suit can be filed by people belonging to - Earnest effort is not
3. Among brothers and sisters, whether of the full or the same family as provided in Art. 150, earnest required if included in
half-blood. efforts must be made to settle the case amicably. the suit between family
*Earnest efforts meant for civil actions only. members is a stranger
Art. 151: No suit between members of the same family not of the same family.
shall prosper unless it should appear from the verified The following are excused from criminal liability (only civil - Does not apply to
complaint or petition that earnest efforts toward a liability incurred) for theft, swindling or malicious mischief: cases, which may not be
compromise have been made, but that the same have 1. Spouses, ascendants, and descendents or compromised.
failed. If it is shown that no such efforts were in fact relatives by affinity in the same line. - Does not apply to
made, the same case must be dismissed. 2. The widowed spouse with respect to the property settlement of estate
This rules shall not apply to cases which may not be the of the deceased BEFORE someone else guardianship, custody of
subject of compromise under the Civil Code possesses it. children, and habeas
3. Brothers and sisters and brothers-in-law and corpus
sisters-in-law if they are living together.
• Exemption is not applicable to strangers
participating therein.
Prescription does not run between husband and wife,
parents and children during the latter’s minority or insanity,
and between guardian and ward during the guardianship.
Art. 152: The family home, constituted jointly by the - Home is deemed constituted from the time it is * Exemption from
husband and the wife or by an unmarried head of a actually resided upon and occupied by the family. execution is not absolute
family, is the dwelling house where they and their family No need for judicial or extrajudicial requirement, as it is subject to certain
reside, and the land on which it is situated. deemed constituted by operation of law. limitation such as
- There must be the element of permanence (thus a indebtedness in certain
Art. 153: The family home is deemed constituted on a boat on water cannot be considered a family home) instances (to be
house and lot from the time it is occupied as a family - Must be constituted by both husband and wife discussed in the next
residence. From the time of its constitution and so long jointly, the unmarried head of the family, or the articles)
as any of its beneficiaries actually resides therein, the occupancy of beneficiaries in a home can be
family home continues to be such and is exempt from constituted as a family home.
execution, forced sale or attachment except as - The family home is exempt from execution, forced
hereinafter provided and to the extent of the value sale or attachment as provided by law
allowed by law.
Art. 154: The beneficiaries of a family home are: - The actual occupancy of the beneficiaries in a
1. The husband and wife, or an unmarried person who is home may constitute the same as a family home
the head of a family; and as long as they have the consent of the husband or
2. Their parents, ascendants, descendants, brothers and wife who own the house and lot even if the owners
sisters, whether the relationship be legitimate or do not reside in them.
illegitimate, who are living in the family home and who
depend upon the head of the family for legal support
Art. 155: The family home shall be exempt from - The whole value of the family home may be used
execution, forced sale or attachment except: to pay obligations under Art. 155.
1. For nonpayment of taxes;
2. For debts incurred prior to the constitution of the
family home;
3. For debts secured by mortgages on the premises
before or after such constitution; and
4. For debts due to laborers, mechanics, architects,
builders, material men and others who have rendered
service or furnished material for the construction of the
Art. 156: The family home must be part of the properties - The family home must be constituted at a place
of the absolute community or the conjugal partnership, where there is a fixed and permanent connection
or of the exclusive properties of either spouse with the with the persons constituting it.
latter's consent. It may also be constituted by an Not considered:
unmarried head of a family on his or her own property. 1. Boat or vessel
Nevertheless, property that is the subject of a 2. Apartment or house being rented
conditional sale on installments where ownership is 3. House on another’s property
reserved by the vendor only to guarantee payment of Considered: Property where ownership is reserved to
the purchase price may be constituted as a family home. the one making the family home.
Art. 157: The actual value of the family home shall not - Those above the amount stipulated (300,000 in
exceed, at the time of its constitution, the amount of the urban, 200,000 in rural) will not be exempt from
three hundred thousand pesos in urban areas, and two execution, forced sale or attachment.
hundred thousand pesos in rural areas, or such amounts - Prior to the family code constitution of a family
as may hereafter be fixed by law. home was not automatic there was a need to file
for such. If prior to the family code there are certain
In any event, if the value of the currency changes after houses falling under the value of a family home at
the adoption of this Code, the value most favorable for the time of the constitution of the family code (Aug.
the constitution of a family home shall be the basis of 3, 1988) provided for the family home is deemed
evaluation. automatically constituted.

For purposes of this Article, urban areas are deemed to

include chartered cities and municipalities whose annual
income at least equals that legally required for chartered
cities. All others are deemed to be rural areas.
Art. 158: The family home may be sold, alienated, Written consent needed for the disposition of the family
donated, assigned or encumbered by the owner or home:
owners thereof with the written consent of the person 1. Persons constituting the family home
constituting the same, the latter's spouse, and a majority 2. Latter’s spouse
of the beneficiaries of legal age. In case of conflict, the 3. Majority of beneficiaries of legal age
court shall decide
Art. 159: The family home shall continue despite the - Security of the family is the concern of the law thus
death of one or both spouses or of the unmarried head they provide for a 10 year period despite the death
of the family for a period of ten years or for as long as of the person who constituted the family home.
there is a minor beneficiary, and the heirs cannot Furthermore the heirs cannot partition the same
partition the same unless the court finds compelling unless the court finds compelling reasons
reasons therefor. This rule shall apply regardless of therefore.
whoever owns the property or constituted the family
Art. 160: When a creditor whose claims is not among - Bidders cannot bid below the amount of 300,000
those mentioned in Article 155 obtains a judgment in his - If the house is sold, 300,000 is given to the owner
favor, and he has reasonable grounds to believe that the of the house and the balance to the creditor to
family home is actually worth more than the maximum satisfy his debt. This happens even if the debt is
amount fixed in Article 157, he may apply to the court not fully satisfied. (Idea is to give 300,000 so that
which rendered the judgment for an order directing the the debtor can buy a house) This however does
sale of the property under execution. The court shall so not apply when if the creditor is one of those
order if it finds that the actual value of the family home mentioned in Article 155 (the debt must be satisfied
exceeds the maximum amount allowed by law as of the even if nothing is left with the owner).
time of its constitution. If the increased actual value
exceeds the maximum allowed in Article 157 and results
from subsequent voluntary improvements introduced by
the person or persons constituting the family home, by
the owner or owners of the property, or by any of the
beneficiaries, the same rule and procedure shall apply.

At the execution sale, no bid below the value allowed for

a family home shall be considered. The proceeds shall
be applied first to the amount mentioned in Article 157,
and then to the liabilities under the judgment and the
costs. The excess, if any, shall be delivered to the
judgment debtor.
Art. 161: For purposes of availing of the benefits of a family home as provided for in this Chapter, a person may
constitute, or be the beneficiary of, only one family home.
Art. 162: The provisions in this Chapter shall also govern existing family residences insofar as said provisions are


Art. 163: The filiation of children may be by nature - Paternity and filiation refer to the relationship or tie, which
or by adoption. Natural filiation may be legitimate or exists between parents and their children.
Art. 164: Children conceived or born during the - Illegitimate children are those conceived and born
marriage of the parents are legitimate. outside a valid marriage or inside a void marriage.
Children conceived as a result of artificial ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION: wife is artificially
insemination of the wife with the sperm of the impregnated with the semen of her husband or with the
husband or that of a donor or both are likewise semen of a third person.
legitimate children of the husband and his wife, - Child of artificial insemination is considered
provided, that both of them authorized or ratified legitimate provided that both the husband and wife
such insemination in a written instrument executed authorize or ratify such insemination in a written
and signed by them before the birth of the child. The instrument and signed by them before the birth of
instrument shall be recorded in the civil registry the child and that it is recorded in the civil registry
together with the birth certificate of the child. together with the birth certificate of the child.
- If the requirements given are not followed and the
Art. 165: Children conceived and born outside a husband does not impugn the legitimacy of the
valid marriage are illegitimate, unless otherwise child on grounds provided by law within the
provided in this Code. prescriptive period the child will still be considered
Art. 166: Legitimacy of a child may be impugned Grounds to impugn legitimacy of the child: Art. 167: The child shall be
only on the following grounds: 1. Physically impossible for husband to have sexual considered legitimate
1. That it was physically impossible for the husband intercourse with wife within the first 120 days of the although the mother may
to have sexual intercourse with his wife within the 300 days immediately preceding the birth of child have declared against its
first 120 days of the 300 days which immediately due to: legitimacy or may have been
preceded the birth of the child because of: a. Physical incapacity sentenced as an adulteress.
(a) the physical incapacity of the husband to b. Living separately: must be living in such a
have sexual intercourse with his wife; way that sexual intercourse is impossible. *Even if wife impugns
(b) the fact that the husband and wife were (Mere remoteness is not sufficient) legitimacy, child is still
living separately in such a way that c. Serious illness legitimate, only husband and
sexual intercourse was not possible; or - When a child is born inside a marriage, sexual intercourse in proper cases the heirs can
(c) serious illness of the husband, which is presumed to have occurred between the husband and impugn the legitimacy.
absolutely prevented sexual intercourse; wife within the first 120 days of the 300-day period before Unless: she did not deliver
2.That it is proved that for biological or other the birth of the child. (Longest gestation period) the child herself, or did not
scientific reasons, the child could not have been that 2. Biological or scientific reasons the child could not come from her own womb.
of the husband, except in the instance provided in have been that of the husband (except for artificial
the second paragraph of Article 164; or insemination)—if for biological reasons offspring
3. That in case of children conceived through could not have been that of the husband like if the
artificial insemination, the written authorization or child was a different race from the father’s.
ratification of either parent was obtained through - Vasectomy is not enough proof because there are times
mistake, fraud, violence, intimidation, or undue when the sperm can re-channel itself and effect fertilization.
influence. 3. In case of artificial insemination the authorization or
ratification was obtained through mistake, fraud,
violence or intimidation or undue influence.
* In the event that any of the grounds are proven, the child
will not be considered legitimate or illegitimate but that
simply the husband and child are not related. In so far as
the mother is concerned the child will be considered
- Presumption is in favor of legitimacy.

Art. 168: If the marriage is terminated and the * Merely suppletory, if there is better proof then such
mother contracted another marriage within three should be accepted.
hundred days after such termination of the former - Sexual intercourse is presumed between spouses during
marriage, these rules shall govern in the absence of their marriage.
proof to the contrary: IN CASE OF 2 MARRIAGES:
1. A child born before one hundred eighty days after - If child is born within 180 days after the second
the solemnization of the subsequent marriage is marriage and within 300 days after the termination
considered to have been conceived during the of the first marriage the child shall be considered to
former marriage, provided it be born within three have been conceived of the first marriage unless
hundred days after the termination of the former other proof is given.
marriage; - If the child is born after 180 days after the second
2. A child born after one hundred eighty days marriage the child shall be considered to have
following the celebration of the subsequent marriage been conceived of the second marriage unless
is considered to have been conceived during such other proof is given.
marriage, even though it be born within the three *But either way the child is still legitimate.
hundred days after the termination of the former
Art. 169: The legitimacy or illegitimacy of a child - If there is no subsequent marriage after 300 days after the
born after three hundred days following the termination of the marriage there is no presumption and
termination of the marriage shall be proved by thus convincing proof is necessary.
whoever alleges such legitimacy or illegitimacy.
Art. 170: The action to impugn the legitimacy of the Prescription for impugning the legitimacy of the child *It is from the knowledge of
child shall be brought within one year from the 1. Within one year from the knowledge of the birth or the child’s birth not the
knowledge of the birth or its recording in the civil its recording if husband resides in city where birth knowledge that it is not his
register, if the husband or, in a proper case, any of took place or recorded. child.
his heirs, should reside in the city or municipality 2. Within 2 years, if the husband lives elsewhere in
where the birth took place or was recorded. the Philippines. *Even if the birth was
3. Within 3 years, if he lives abroad concealed, if it was
If the husband or, in his default, all of his heirs do 4. If the birth of the child has been concealed, registered and the father did
not reside at the place of birth as defined in the first prescription will begin from the discovery or not impugn the child’s
paragraph or where it was recorded, the period shall knowledge of birth of child or the fact of registration legitimacy during the period
be two years if they should reside in the Philippines; of the birth (whichever is earlier). provided then the child is
and three years if abroad. If the birth of the child has legitimate. (Cannot impugn
been concealed from or was unknown to the since registry is earlier)
husband or his heirs, the period shall be counted
from the discovery or knowledge of the birth of the
child or of the fact of registration of said birth,
whichever is earlier.
Art. 171: The heirs of the husband may impugn the - Legitimacy cannot be collaterally attacked or impugned.
filiation of the child within the period prescribed in Principally only the husband can file a direct action to
the preceding article only in the following cases: impugn the legitimacy of the child even if the child is not
1. If the husband should die before the expiration of his.
the period fixed for bringing his action; - The heirs are mere substitutes of the husband and cannot
2. If he should die after the filing of the complaint file the action if the husband himself failed to file such
without having desisted therefrom; or action despite knowledge of the illegitimacy within the
3. If the child was born after the death of the prescribed period.
Art. 172: The filiation of legitimate children is - The record of birth appearing in the civil registry should Proofs from rules of court or
established by any of the following: have the husband’s signature and such birth certificate special law:
1. The record of birth appearing in the civil register signed by the parents is adequate proof of paternity without 1. Baptismal certificate
or a final judgment; or need for further court action. 2. Judicial admission
2. An admission of legitimate filiation in a public - Admission in public or private handwritten document is a 3. Family bible
document or a private handwritten instrument and complete act of recognition without need for court action 4. Common reputation
signed by the parent concerned. • A mere instrument not in the handwriting of 5. Admission by silence
In the absence of the foregoing evidence, the the parent or not a public instrument will not 6. Testimony of witness
legitimate filiation shall be proved by: qualify.
1. The open and continuous possession of the - Open continuous possession means the father treats the
status of a legitimate child; or child as his own directly and not through others,
2. Any other means allowed by the Rules of Court spontaneously and without concealment
and special laws. • Must be spontaneous and uninterrupted
Art. 173: The action to claim legitimacy may be Action to claim legitimacy by the child Article 175: Illegitimate
brought by the child during his or her lifetime and May be brought by the child during his or her lifetime and child
shall be transmitted to the heirs should the child die may be transmitted to heirs if the child dies during minority -Same as legitimate children
during minority or in a state of insanity. In these or in a state of insanity or after it has already been except when proof is through
cases, the heirs shall have a period of five years instituted by the child and child dies. open and continuous
within which to institute the action. Heirs have five years to institute action relationship or other rules of
court in which case it may
only be brought during the
lifetime of the alleged parent.
Exception: if the child is born
in a valid marriage though
different man, he cannot claim
illegitimacy. The man in the
marriage must first impugn
the legitimacy of the child
Article 176: Rights of an illegitimate child Article 174: Legitimate children shall have the right:
1. Bear the surname of the mother 1. To bear the surnames of the father and the mother, in
• Even if paternity is certain, mother conformity with the provisions of the Civil Code on
surnames unless father admits that is Surnames;
his child and lives with them then 2. To receive support from their parents, their ascendants,
surname of father can be used. and in proper cases, their brothers and sisters, in
2. Be under the parental authority of the conformity with the provisions of this Code on Support; and
mother, entitled to support from her 3. To be entitled to the legitimate and other successional
• Even if paternity is certain, if father is rights granted to them by the Civil Code.
not living with them he cannot have
parental authority. - A legitimate child has his or her whole lifetime to file an
• If the father acknowledges the child and action to claim his or her legitimacy.
cohabits, he will be vested with parental
authority. Even if he leaves after that it
will not be considered a waiver of his
parental authority unless violated legal
grounds provided for termination of
parental auth. (he will also be
vicariously liable for damages caused
by the child)
3. Legitime will be ½ of the legitime of a
legitimate child
4. Can get support only up to the
grandparents, and no right of
representation (if parent dies cant inherit
straight from grandparents)
5. Illegitimate child has his or her lifetime to
file an action to claim illegitimacy if he/she
has proof under Art. 172 (claim for his
status in not transmissible to his heirs)
Art. 177: Only children conceived and born outside Legitimated Children (legitimate by operation of law) *Shall enjoy same rights as
of wedlock of parents who, at the time of the Requirements: legitimate children, shall
conception of the former, were not disqualified by 1. Children conceived and born outside wedlock retroact to their birth.
any impediment to marry each other may be 2. Of parents who had no legal impediments to marry *No need for the
legitimated. at that time the child was conceived and acknowledgment of the father
3. They get married later on. (The fact that it is a unlike the civil code.
Art. 178: Legitimation shall take place by a voidable marriage will not affect the legitimation, *Legitimation will not affect
subsequent valid marriage between parents. The but if it is a void marriage then illegitimate) property rights already
annulment of a voidable marriage shall not affect • IF the child dies before the celebration of the vested.
the legitimation. marriage, it will still benefit their descendants. *If there is a legal impediment
• Only by those who are prejudiced in their rights at the time of conception the
Art. 179: Legitimated children shall enjoy the same within 5 years from the time their cause of action remedy is adoption.
rights as legitimate children. (272a) accrues. (Refers basically to inheritance rights but if Exception: those born
the creditors are really prejudiced they must show through adulterous
Art. 180: The effects of legitimation shall retroact to how legitimation affected such—vested rights prior relationship and bigamous
the time of the child's birth. to legitimation then those rights will not be taken marriage cannot be
from them) legitimated.
• Right of action accrues only upon death of parents
when legitimes will vest
• Adopted children can be prejudiced with regards to
adopter parents or even natural parents.
Art. 181: The legitimation of children who died - In effect gives the children what they should have
before the celebration of the marriage shall benefit enjoyed during the lifetime of their father or mother.
their descendants.
Art. 182: Legitimation may be impugned only by - Contemplates inheritance or successional rights,
those who are prejudiced in their rights, within five creditors (commercial or property rights) are
years from the time their cause of action accrues. excluded unless it can be shown that the
legitimation affected their rights and they are really

Art. 194: Support comprises everything • Everything indispensable for sustenance, Art. 205: right to give or obtain
indispensable for sustenance, dwelling, clothing, dwelling, clothing, medical attendance, support shall not be levied upon
medical attendance, education and education, and transportation (in keeping with the on attachment or execution.
transportation, in keeping with the financial financial capacity of the family) - Cannot be made to satisfy any
capacity of the family. • Schooling or training shall be applicable even judgment against the recipient.
beyond the age of majority Except: the excess beyond
The education of the person entitled to be • Transportation includes going to and from school required for legal support in a will
supported referred to in the preceding paragraph and place of work or contractual support shall be
shall include his schooling or training for some • Can be given even beyond the age of majority subject to levy or execution.
profession, trade or vocation, even beyond the • Support is never final (no res judicata) can be (Contractual support is subject to
age of majority. Transportation shall include changed adjustment whenever modification
expenses in going to and from school, or to and is necessary)
from place of work.
Art. 195: Subject to the provisions of the 1. Spouses *Adopted children only up to
succeeding articles, the following are obliged to 2. Legitimate ascendant and descendants parents for support. Others aren’t
support each other to the whole extent set forth in 3. Parents and their legitimate children and their obliged to support. (If the adopter
the preceding article: illegitimate/legitimate grandchildren dies or abandons then the state
1. The spouses; 4. Parents and their illegitimate children and their takes over)
2. Legitimate ascendants and descendants; illegitimate/legitimate grandchildren *Mandatory and essential cannot
3. Parents and their legitimate children and the 5. Legitimate brothers and sisters whether whole or be transmitted to a 3 person nor
legitimate and illegitimate children of the latter; half blood can it be waived.
4. Parents and their illegitimate children and the 6. Brothers and sisters not legitimately related are (Prohibition against any
legitimate and illegitimate children of the latter; also obliged to support unless if he/she is of age compromise of the right to future
and and is due to claimants fault or negligence no support)
5. Legitimate brothers and sisters, whether of full support. *If relationship between one to be
or half-blood - A child inside a womb is already considered born thus supported and the one to support
entitled to all benefits that accrue to him/her provided that is in issue, status of the parties
the child is born after. should be established first.
Art. 196: Brothers and sisters not legitimately - They are no longer bound when the child is
related, whether of the full or half-blood, are above the age of majority or due to the
likewise bound to support each other to the full negligence.
extent set forth in Article 194, except only when
the need for support of the brother or sister,
being of age, is due to a cause imputable to the
claimant's fault or negligence.
Article 197: In case of legitimate ascendants; • Support for legitimate ascendants, descendants *IF the legitimate descendants are
descendants, whether legitimate or illegitimate; (legitimate or illegitimate), brothers and sisters the common children then ACP
and brothers and sisters, whether legitimately or (legitimate or illegitimately related) shall be taken and CPG shall be principally
illegitimately related, only the separate property from separate property charged.
of the person obliged to give support shall be • If no separate properties from ACP or CPG *Support can’t be taken from the
answerable provided that in case the obligor has (advancement). children’s property unless there
no separate property, the absolute community or • But if it is the illegitimate children, insufficiency is was no need or demand from
the conjugal partnership, if financially capable, enough to make ACP liable and insufficiency plus recipient. (If this happens can
shall advance the support, which shall be payment of charges to make CPG liable. forfeit bond made by guardian
deducted from the share of the spouse obliged • For spouses, generally from ACP or CPG absence parent over property-art. 225)
upon the liquidation of the absolute community or of then from fruits of ACP or CPG insufficiency or
of the conjugal partnership absence of from the separate properties
Art. 198: During the proceedings for legal • Support pending litigation generally obtain from *After declaration of nullity or
separation or for annulment of marriage, and for ACP or CPG annulment no more obligation to
declaration of nullity of marriage, the spouses • In case of support between husband and wife where support
and their children shall be supported from the validity of marriage is in issue, aggrieved cannot be *In legal separation support
properties of the absolute community or the given support pendent elite by the other spouse ceases unless guilty spouse is
conjugal partnership. After the final judgment (from his separate property) ordered to support innocent.
granting the petition, the obligation of mutual • Legal separation or annulment: spouses shall be *If wife is adulterous it can be a
support between the spouses ceases. However, supported by ACP or CPG. defense in an action for support
in case of legal separation, the court may order against separate property of the
that the guilty spouse shall give support to the spouse but wife can still get
innocent one, specifying the terms of such order. support from ACP or CPG.
Art. 199: Whenever two or more persons are • The list is in order of priority of who should
obliged to give support, the liability shall devolve support first. The others are not obliged to give
upon the following persons in the order herein support if those higher on the list are present.
1. The spouse; Art. 200:if the liability to support falls on 2 people it will
2. The descendants in the nearest degree; be divided between them in the proportion of their
3. The ascendants in the nearest degree; and resources.
4. The brothers and sisters. -But in case of urgency, the judge may order only one of
them to give and then just get reimbursed from the other
Art. 200: When the obligation to give support falls after.
upon two or more persons, the payment of the -When there are two or more people claiming for support
same shall be divided between them in and the one obliged to give doesn’t have enough, order
proportion to the resources of each. will be followed except when the one who needs support
However, in case of urgent need and by special is a spouse and a child in which case the child shall be
circumstances, the judge may order only one of preferred. (Wife is preferred when it is an illegitimate
them to furnish the support provisionally, without child)
prejudice to his right to claim from the other
obligors the share due from them.

When two or more recipients at the same time

claim support from one and the same person
legally obliged to give it, should the latter not
have sufficient means to satisfy all claims, the
order established in the preceding article shall be
followed, unless the concurrent obligees should
be the spouse and a child subject to parental
authority, in which case the child shall be
Art. 201: The amount of support, in the cases • Support can be increased or decreased
referred to in Articles 195 and 196, shall be in depending on the needs of the recipient and
proportion to the resources or means of the giver the resources of the person obliged to give it.
and to the necessities of the recipient. • Judgment for support does not become final

Art. 202: Support in the cases referred to in the Demanding support

preceding article shall be reduced or increased • Demandable from the time person who has the
proportionately, according to the reduction or right to receive it needs it (need for support is
increase of the necessities of the recipient and not presumed, must be established).
the resources or means of the person obliged to • No support given without judicial or
furnish the same. extrajudicial demand. (Made within the first 5
days of every month)
Art. 203: The obligation to give support shall be • Demand is essential shows manifestation of
demandable from the time the person who has a needs.
right to receive the same needs it for
maintenance, but it shall not be paid except from
the date of judicial or extra-judicial demand.
Support pendente lite may be claimed in
accordance with the Rules of Court.
Payment shall be made within the first five days
of each corresponding month or when the
recipient dies, his heirs shall not be obliged to
return what he has received in advance.
Art. 204: The person obliged to give support How to provide support
shall have the option to fulfill the obligation either • Can be by giving the money or allowance
by paying the allowance fixed, or by receiving • Or by allowing the person to stay in family
and maintaining in the family dwelling the person dwelling unless there is a legal or moral obstacle
who has a right to receive support. The latter (usually refers to illegitimate children who are
alternative cannot be availed of in case there is a generally not allowed to get from ACP or CPG)
moral or legal obstacle thereto.
Art. 205: The right to receive support under this • The right to receive support and the money or * However in case of contractual
Title as well as any money or property obtained property obtained as such support cannot be support or that given by will, the
as such support shall not be levied upon on made to satisfy any judgment against the excess amount beyond that
attachment or execution. recipient required for legal support can be
subject of execution.
Art. 206: When, without the knowledge of the Art. 206 Requisites: Quasi-contract: juridical relation
person obliged to give support, it is given by a • There is a need to be supported and without which arises from certain lawful,
stranger, the latter shall have a right to claim the knowledge of person obliged to give support voluntary and unilateral acts to
same from the former, unless it appears that he it is given by another, he can reimburse unless the end that no one shall be
gave it without intention of being reimbursed. he has no intention of being reimbursed. unjustly enriched or benefited at
• If person obliged to give support unjustly the expense of another (basis for
Art. 207. When the person obliged to support refuses a third person can give it with right of reimbursement of one who gives
another unjustly refuses or fails to give support reimbursement. support)
when urgently needed by the latter, any third Art. 207 Requisites:
person may furnish support to the needy 1. Urgent need to be supported on the part of the
individual, with right of reimbursement from the recipient
person obliged to give support. This Article shall 2. The person obliged to support unjustly refuses or
particularly apply when the father or mother of a fails to give support.
child under the age of majority unjustly refuses to 3. Third person furnishes the support to the needy
support or fails to give support to the child when individual
urgently needed. *If all are present 3 person shall have right to
Art. 208: In case of contractual support or that - This is different from legal support, which cannot
given by will, the excess in amount beyond that be levied upon; contractual support however is
required for legal support shall be subject to levy not mandated by law.
on attachment or execution - The excess in amount of legal support shall be
subject to levy on attachment or execution.

Art. 209: Pursuant to the natural right and duty of - Natural affection between the parents and the
parents over the person and property of their offspring has always been recognized as an
unemancipated children, parental authority and inherent and natural right.
responsibility shall include the caring for and - Parental authority involves a mass of rights and
rearing them for civic consciousness and obligations.
efficiency and the development of their moral,
mental and physical character and well-being.
Art. 210: Parental authority and responsibility - Parental authority and responsibility may not be Except when provided by law
may not be renounced or transferred except in renounced or transferred except in the cases (Cases of adoption, guardianship
the cases authorized by law. authorized by law. Parental authority and and surrender to a children’s
responsibility cannot be renounced or transferred home or orphanage)
-When a parent gives authority to
another it merely temporary
custody not renunciation.
Art. 211: The father and the mother shall jointly • In case of disagreement the father’s decision
exercise parental authority over the persons of shall prevail unless there is a judicial order.
their common children. In case of disagreement, • Children should observe respect and are obliged
the father's decision shall prevail, unless there is to obey them as long as they are under their
a judicial order to the contrary. parental authority
Children shall always observe respect and • Applies to both legitimate and illegitimate
reverence towards their parents and are obliged Requisites for it to apply to illegitimate:
to obey them as long as the children are under 1. Paternity is known or the father is certain.
parental authority. 2. Illegitimate is living with the father and mother
who are cohabiting without the benefit of
(If one of the requisites are missing only mother has
parental authority)
*Father’s subsequent separation does not mean a
renunciation. Once parental authority is vested cannot be
Art. 212: In case of absence or death of either • If a spouse dies, the other spouse still has *New spouse does not get
parent, the parent present shall continue parental authority parental authority by the fact of
exercising parental authority. The remarriage of • Remarriage does not affect the parental authority marriage. New spouse must
the surviving parent shall not affect the parental of the parent. adopt the children to have
authority over the children, unless the court • Lesbianism not a ground to deprive of custody. parental authority.
appoints another person to be the guardian of the
person or property of the children.
Art. 213: In case of separation of the parents, • In case of separation the court shall designate a *This does not mean that the
parental authority shall be exercised by the parent to have parental authority (taking into other parent has no more PA.
parent designated by the Court. The Court shall consideration choice of those 7 and above) *Habeas corpus is proper remedy
take into account all relevant considerations, • No child below 7 shall be separated from mother to get custody of a child from the
especially the choice of the child over seven unless there is compelling reason not to do other parent or 3 persons.
years of age, unless the parent chosen is unfit. so. (Age is considered from when the decision is
made or when custody is given)
• Custody may also be given to 3 persons if the
situation so warrants.
Art. 214: In case of death, absence or • In case of death, absence or unsuitability of the
unsuitability of the parents, substitute parental parents substitute parental authority shall be
authority shall be exercised by the surviving exercised by the surviving grandparent.
grandparent. In case several survive, the one • In case several grandparents survive, the court
designated by the court, taking into account the will decide.
same consideration mentioned in the preceding
article, shall exercise the authority.
Art. 215: No descendant shall be compelled, in a • No descendant shall be compelled in a criminal *Not mandatory in nature so if the
criminal case, to testify against his parents and case to testify against his parents or child wants to he can do so
grandparents, except when such testimony is grandparents unless the crime is against the voluntarily.
indispensable in a crime against the descendant descendant or by one parent against the other.
or by one parent against the other. • Husband and wife during or after the marriage
cannot be examined without the consent of the
other (marital privilege). Except: in a civil case
by one against the other, in a criminal case by
one against the other or to the latter’s
descendant or ascendant.


Art. 216: In default of parents or a judicially 1 : parents exercise parental authority then a judicially *They will have the rights and
appointed guardian, the following person shall appointed guardian in default of such guardian: responsibilities of a parent
exercise substitute parental authority over the child 1. Surviving grandparent enumerated in art. 220 onwards.
in the order indicated: 2. Oldest brother or sister over 21 *Order is not mandatory:
1. The surviving grandparent, as provided in Art. 3. Child’s actual custodian over 21 paramount interest
214; * The list is merely a guideline, fitness, capabilities,
2. The oldest brother or sister, over twenty-one etc must still be considered.
years of age, unless unfit or disqualified; and
3. The child's actual custodian, over twenty-one
years of age, unless unfit or disqualified.
Whenever the appointment or a judicial guardian
over the property of the child becomes necessary,
the same order of preference shall be observed.
Art. 217: In case of foundlings, abandoned In case of no family members (foundling, abandoned,
neglected or abused children and other children neglected or abused children and other children similarly
similarly situated, parental authority shall be situated)
entrusted in summary judicial proceedings to heads - Parental authority shall be entrusted in
of children's homes, orphanages and similar summary judicial proceedings to heads of
institutions duly accredited by the proper children’s homes, orphanages, etc.
government agency. Transfer of parental authority:
1. Involuntary: by DSWS who files with court to
have custody over the child.
2. Voluntary: parent or child commits to the DSWS
(surrendered in writing by parents, if only 1 and
the other is dead or abandoned for at least 1
year 1 parent authorization is enough)
Art. 218: The school, its administrators and • School, administrators, teachers, individuals or Except: no liability by those with
teachers, or the individual, entity or institution entities engaged in child care shall have special special parental authority if it can
engaged in child are shall have special parental parental authority and responsibility over the be proven that such person
authority and responsibility over the minor child minor child while under their supervision, exercised the proper diligence in
while under their supervision, instruction or instruction, custody. (This authority applies to the circumstances. Parents
custody. authorized activities inside or outside the can’t use diligence as a
Authority and responsibility shall apply to all premises) defense (imputed liability flows
authorized activities whether inside or outside the • Those given special authority shall be principally from filial relation).
premises of the school, entity or institution. and solidariliy liable (civil liability) for damages *Can be an academic or non-
caused by the acts or omissions of the minor. academic school.
Art. 219: Those given the authority and (Must be teacher in charge etc).
responsibility under the preceding Article shall be • Parents or those who have substitute parental
principally and solidarily liable for damages caused authority shall be subsidiarily liable (if persons
by the acts or omissions of the unemancipated with special authority cannot cover the liability)
minor. The parents, judicial guardians or the • Under the civil code, article 2180, teachers etc
persons exercising substitute parental authority can still be held liable when children are not
over said minor shall be subsidiarily liable. anymore minors subject to the defense of
proper diligence.
The respective liabilities of those referred to in the
preceding paragraph shall not apply if it is proved
that they exercised the proper diligence required
under the particular circumstances.

All other cases not covered by this and the

preceding articles shall be governed by the
provisions of the Civil Code on quasi-delicts.
Art. 220: The parents and those exercising Rights and duties of parents: *Cases in the US would show
parental authority shall have with the respect to 1. Support, educate and instruct them, provide for that support can be withheld
their unemancipated children on wards the their upbringing in keeping with their means. from the child as a disciplinary
following rights and duties: 2. Love and affection, advice, counseling, sanction if the child refuses to
1. To keep them in their company, to support, companionship, and understanding obey the father. (But mere
educate and instruct them by right precept and 3. Moral and spiritual guidance disagreements or delinquent
good example, and to provide for their upbringing in 4. Physical and mental health behavior does not generally
keeping with their means; 5. Good and wholesome educational materials and terminate support). ROE V.
2. To give them love and affection, advice and prevent them from bad company DOE.
counsel, companionship and understanding; 6. Represent them in all matters affecting their
3. To provide them with moral and spiritual interest.
guidance, inculcate in them honesty, integrity, self- 7. Demand respect and obedience
discipline, self-reliance, industry and thrift, stimulate 8. Impose discipline
their interest in civic affairs, and inspire in them 9. Others imposed by law
compliance with the duties of citizenship; Disciplinary Actions: parents may inflict a reasonable
4. To furnish them with good and wholesome measure of corporal punishment.
educational materials, supervise their activities, (Read Child and Youth Welfare Code –Rights of the
recreation and association with others, protect child)
them from bad company, and prevent them from
acquiring habits detrimental to their health, studies
and morals;
5. To represent them in all matters affecting their
6. To demand from them respect and obedience;
7. To impose discipline on them as may be
required under the circumstances; and
8. To perform such other duties as are imposed by
law upon parents and guardians.
Art. 221: Parents and other persons exercising • Parents are primarily liable (civilly) for injuries Exception: if parents can show
parental authority shall be civilly liable for the and damages caused by the acts and omissions that they exercised the diligence
injuries and damages caused by the acts or of their unemancipated children living in their of a good father, then no liability.
omissions of their unemancipated children living in company and under their parental authority.
their company and under their parental authority
subject to the appropriate defenses provided by
Art. 222: The courts may appoint a guardian of the • Court may appoint a guardian for purposes of
child's property or a guardian ad litem when the the lawsuit when the best interest of the child
best interests of the child so requires. requires it.
GUARDIANSHIP: trust relation of the most sacred
Art. 223: The parents or, in their absence or • Person who has parental authority may seek the Art. 224: The measures referred
incapacity, the individual, entity or institution assistance of the court to discipline the child to in the preceding article may
exercising parental authority, may petition the and with a counsel shall undergo a summary include the commitment of the
proper court of the place where the child resides, hearing. child for not more than thirty
for an order providing for disciplinary measures • If the court finds that it is the petitioner at fault, days in entities or institutions
over the child. The child shall be entitled to the the court may suspend or deprive him of engaged in child care or in
assistance of counsel, either of his choice or parental authority. children's homes duly accredited
appointed by the court, and a summary hearing • During the commitment of the child the parent by the proper government
shall be conducted wherein the petitioner and the cannot interfere with the care of the child but agency.
child shall be heard. will provide support. The parent exercising parental
However, if in the same proceeding the court finds • The court may terminate the commitment of the authority shall not interfere with
the petitioner at fault, irrespective of the merits of child whenever just and proper. the care of the child whenever
the petition, or when the circumstances so warrant, committed but shall provide for
the court may also order the deprivation or his support. Upon proper petition
suspension of parental authority or adopt such or at its own instance, the court
other measures as it may deem just and proper. may terminate the commitment
of the child whenever just and
Art. 225. The father and the mother shall jointly • No need for a judicial court to appoint
exercise legal guardianship over the property of the parents as guardians. It is presumed that the
unemancipated common child without the necessity of parents act for the best interest of the child.
a court appointment. In case of disagreement, the Prohibition (cases where a parent cannot be the
father's decision shall prevail, unless there is a judicial administrator of the property):
order to the contrary. 1. When a parent is disinherited and his/her
child inherits from the child’s grandparents
Where the market value of the property or the annual his share of the compulsory inheritance, the
income of the child exceeds P50,000, the parent parent cannot administer such property. The
concerned shall be required to furnish a bond in such parent however can administer whatever is
amount as the court may determine, but not less than given to the child by way of voluntary will.
ten per centum (10%) of the value of the property or 2. When the parent is unfit to administer the
annual income, to guarantee the performance of the property and thus a guardian is needed.
obligations prescribed for general guardians. - Parent’s authority over the estate of the ward
as a legal-guardian would not extend to acts
A verified petition for approval of the bond shall be of encumbrance or disposition, as
filed in the proper court of the place where the child distinguished from acts of management or
resides, or, if the child resides in a foreign country, in administration.
the proper court of the place where the property or any 1. if the market value of total property or income of
part thereof is situated. child is more than P50k, the parent has to give a
bond not less than 10% of value of property to
The petition shall be docketed as a summary special guarantee performance of the obligations prescribed
proceeding in which all incidents and issues regarding for general guardians. (to be sure that guardians
the performance of the obligations referred to in the don’t abuse their authority and do what they are
second paragraph of this Article shall be heard and required to do)
resolved. 2. rules on guardianship apply supplementary to
parents, but if child is under substitute parental
The ordinary rules on guardianship shall be merely authority or guardian is a stranger then rules on
suppletory except when the child is under substitute guardianship apply.
parental authority, or the guardian is a stranger, or a *parent’s authority over the estate does not include
parent has remarried, in which case the ordinary rules alienation or encumbrance, or compromise or waiver
on guardianship shall apply. (void). – authority is needed from court.
Art. 226. The property of the unemancipated child • Child’s salary still for his/her exclusively used
earned or acquired with his work or industry or by for benefit of child but child also has
onerous or gratuitous title shall belong to the child in obligation to support ascendants thus salary
ownership and shall be devoted exclusively to the can be used.
latter's support and education, unless the title or • Parents cannot use property for personal
transfer provides otherwise. use.
The right of the parents over the fruits and income of -the child shall own exclusively whatever he earns
the child's property shall be limited primarily to the or by onerous or gratuitous title.
child's support and secondarily to the collective daily -the fruits of such can only be used by the parents for
needs of the family. the support of the child and secondarily for the
support of the family.
Art. 227: If the parents entrust the management or • Parents who engage their unemancipated
administration of any of their properties to an child to take care of their properties are to
unemancipated child, the net proceeds of such give their child a monthly allowance taken
property shall belong to the owner. The child shall be from the gross proceeds of the property for
given a reasonable monthly allowance in an amount the month. Such will not be charged to the
not less than that which the owner would have paid if child’s legitime.
the administrator were a stranger, unless the owner, • The net proceeds or the balance left after the
grants the entire proceeds to the child. In any case, payment of the allowance and expenses will
the proceeds thus give in whole or in part shall not be go to the parents
charged to the child's legitime.
Art. 228: Parental authority terminates permanently: • The court upon the death of the parents can *parental authority cannot be
1. Upon the death of the parents; appoint a guardian on petition of a relative, revived in these cases.
2. Upon the death of the child; or family friend, or DSWD.
3. Upon emancipation of the child. • These situations extinguishes parental
Art. 229: Unless subsequently revived by a final Grounds for termination: *for the reinstatement of parental
judgment, parental authority also terminates: 1. Adoption – all legal ties are severed an are authority judicial declaration is
1. Upon adoption of the child; vested on the adopter. needed for reinstatement of
2. Upon appointment of a general guardian; 2. appointment of guardian parental authority.
3. Upon judicial declaration of abandonment of the 3. abandonment of child (upon judicial
child in a case filed for the purpose; declaration in a case filed for the purpose)
4. Upon final judgment of a competent court divesting 4. final judgment from court depriving parental
the party concerned of parental authority; or authority
5. Upon judicial declaration of absence or incapacity of 5. judicial declaration of absence or incapacity
the person exercising parental authority. of person
Art. 230: Parental authority is suspended upon - parental authority is suspended upon conviction of *parental authority is
conviction of the parent or the person exercising the the parent of a crime that has civil interdiction (loss of automatically reinstated upon
same of a crime which carries with it the penalty of rights of parental authority, guardianship to person service of sentence or pardon.
civil interdiction. The authority is automatically and property of ward, marital authority, right to
reinstated upon service of the penalty or upon pardon manage his property and right to dispose of such.
or amnesty of the offender.
Art. 231: The court in an action filed for the purpose in Suspension of parental authority (can be from a *if the degree or seriousness so
a related case may also suspend parental authority if case related, offshoot of another case. Does not warrants parent may be deprived
the parent or the person exercising the same: have to be case filed for the purpose) of authority.
1.Treats the child with excessive harshness or cruelty 1. treats the child with excessive harshness or *Parental authority may be
2. Gives the child corrupting orders, counsel or cruelty revived in a case filed for its
example; 2. gives child corrupting orders, example or purpose or in the same
3. Compels the child to beg; or counsel proceeding if the court finds that
4. Subjects the child or allows him to be subjected to 3. Compels the child to beg the cause has ceased.
acts of lasciviousness. 4. Subjects or allows him to be subject to acts
The grounds enumerated above are deemed to of lasciviousness (not actual sexual act,
include cases, which have resulted from culpable force or intimidation with lewd design)
negligence of the parent or the person exercising * This may include cases where the parent was
parental authority. negligent or didn’t do anything about the situation.
If the degree of seriousness so warrants, or the
welfare of the child so demands, the court shall
deprive the guilty party of parental authority or adopt
such other measures as may be proper under the
The suspension or deprivation may be revoked and
the parental authority revived in a case filed for the
purpose or in the same proceeding if the court finds
that the cause therefor has ceased and will not be
Art. 232: If the person exercising parental authority • If the person exercising parental authority *parental authority cannot be
has subjected the child or allowed him to be subjected has subjected the child or allowed him to be revived for sexual abuse.
to sexual abuse, such person shall be permanently subjected (culpable negligence of a parent) *RPC: parental authority can be
deprived by the court of such authority. to sexual abuse parental authority will be deprived or suspended up to the
permanently deprived discretion of the courts.
Under RPC: any person entrusted with parental
authority of a child under 16 years of age to deliver,
gratuitously or in consideration of a price, such child
to vagrant or beggar, employs children in exhibitions
(circus, carnival, etc.)
Art. 233: The person exercising substitute parental Corporal punishment of those with special
authority shall have the same authority over the parental authority:
person of the child as the parents. - those exercising substitute parental authority
In no case shall the school administrator, teacher of will have all the same rights and authorities
individual engaged in child care exercising special over the child (can inflict corporal
parental authority inflict corporal punishment upon the punishment)
child. - those with special parental authority cannot
inflict corporal punishment on the child.
(schools can impose certain measures of
disciplinary action but cannot inflict any
physical punishment)

Criminal liability of parents:

1. conceals or abandons the child with intent to make him/her loose his civil status
2. abandons child depriving him of the love, care, and protection he needs
3. sells or abandons child for a valuable consideration
4. neglects the child by not giving him the education which the family can afford
5. fails or refuses without justifiable reason to enroll child
6. causes, abates, or permits truancy of the child. (absence without cause for more than 20 days, not necessarily consecutive)
7. exploits child by using him for begging, etc.
8. inflicts cruel and unusual punishment
9. encourages or causes child to lead an immoral or dissolute life
10. permits child to use or carry dangerous weapons
11. allows or requires child to drive without a license.

Art. 234: Emancipation takes place by the - Emancipation is attained upon reaching 18 years of
attainment of majority. Unless otherwise age. Marriage is no longer a ground for emancipation
provided, majority commences at the age of since now one can only contract a marriage when they
eighteen. marry.

Art. 236: Emancipation for any cases shall - Parental consent is more in keeping with Filipino culture *Illegitimate children: liability
terminate parental authority over the person and tradition. is with the mother; the father
and property of the child who shall then be - Once emancipated he/she can sue or be sued alone, is only relied upon for support.
qualified and responsible for all acts of civil of and is responsible and qualified for all acts of civil life
life, save the exceptions established by Parent’s liability:
existing laws in special cases. - The father and in case of death or incapacity the
Contracting marriage shall require parental mother are responsible for the damages caused by the
consent until the age of 21. children between 18 and 21 who live in their company.
Nothing in this code shall be construed to - Parents are also subsidiary liable for the acts or
derogate from the duty or responsibility of omission of their emancipated child living in their
parents and guardians for children and wards custody,
below twenty-one years of age mentioned in Guardian’s liability:
the second and third paragraphs of Article - Guardians are liable for damages if the person is under
2180 of the civil code. their authority and live in their company.

Summary proceedings:
- claims for damages by either spouse must be done in a separate action.
- Preliminary conference: done by judge with the parties w/o counsel. But if the court deems it necessary, they can be assisted by counsel
- Decisions become final and executory immediately (no more lapse of 15 days etc) however aggrieved party can still appeal to higher
courts on the basis of denial of due process.
Family courts:
- shall establish family courts in every province and city. If the city is the capital of the province then in the municipality with the highest
number of people.
Jurisdiction over:
1. criminal cases of those 9-18 years of age (but all cases concerning determination of age still with family courts)
2. petitions for guardianship, custody, habeas corpus
3. adoption and revocation thereof
4. annulment, nullity, relating to marital status, property relations, dissolution of CPG
5. support and acknowledgment
6. summary judicial proceedings
7. declaration of status of children, commitment of children, suspension termination or restoration of parental authority.
8. Constitution of family home
9. Cases against minors (dangerous drugs act)
10. Violations of 7610
11. Violations against VAWC (unless becomes criminal in which case offender will be subject to criminal proceedings)
*if any become an incident to a case pending in the regular courts it shall be decided there.

- same arrangement established for support (spouses, descendants then ascendants in the nearest degree, brothers and sisters above 21)
• Brothers and sisters or descendants –oldest are preferred, ascendants – paternal is preferred.
- In keeping with the social position of the deceased, and in accordance to the expressed wishes of the deceased, in the absence religious
beliefs, in case of doubt shall be decided upon by the person making the arrangements after consultation with the family.
- Human remains can’t be disposed or exhumed without the consent of the persons in arrangement.
- A person who allows disrespect to the dead will be liable to the family for moral and material damages.
- Mausoleum or a tomb is part of funeral expenses, which shall be chargeable to the property regime if the spouse is making arrangements.

Art. 364: Legitimate and legitimated children shall - Legitimate, legitimated children use surname of
principally use the surname of the father. their dad
Art. 365: An adopted child shall bear the surname - Adopted children are considered the legitimate
of the adopter. child of the adopter for all intents and purposes
and thus is entitled to all the rights and
obligations provided by law.
- Adopted children bear the name of their
Art. 366: A natural child acknowledged by both Art. 176: illegitimate children shall use the surname of
parents shall principally use the surname of the the mother and shall be under their parental control.
father. If recognized by only one of the parents, a - Art. 176 however does not apply if the father of
natural child shall employ the surname of the the illegitimate child is certain as when the said
recognizing parent. father categorically admits that the illegitimate
Art. 367: Natural children by legal fiction shall common child is his and at the same time such
principally employ the surname of the father. father lives with the illegitimate child and the

Art. 368: Illegitimate children referred to in Article - Illegitimate children shall principally use the Exception: father is certain or
287 shall bear the surname of the mother. name of the mother recognizes illegitimate child and
the father lives with the
illegitimate child and mother.
Then can use fathers surname
Art. 369: Children conceived before the decree - Children conceived before the decree annulling
annulling a voidable marriage shall principally use a voidable marriage shall use surname of father.
the surname of the father. - Decree of annulment is final 15 days after it is
made thus even if the child was born during that
15 day period the child will still be legitimate.
Art. 370: A married woman may use: Married woman may use:
1. Her maiden first name and surname and add 1. Her own name
her husband's surname, or 2. maiden first name, surname and husbands
2. Her maiden first name and her husband's surname
surname or 3. maiden name and her husbands surname
3. Her husband's full name, but prefixing a word 4. husbands full name plus “Mrs.”
indicating that she is his wife, such as "Mrs." * Option is give to the woman.

Art. 371: In case of annulment of marriage, and In case of annulment:

the wife is the guilty party, she shall resume her
maiden name and surname. If she is the innocent 1. wife is guilty: shall resume her maiden name
spouse, she may resume her maiden name and 2. innocent: resume her maiden name or continue
surname. However, she may choose to continue using her husbands name unless the court
employing her former husband's surname, unless: decrees otherwise or if either of them remarries.
1. The court decrees otherwise, or In case of legal separation: wife will continue to use
2. She or the former husband is married again to the name she used prior to separation
another person. Widow: may continue to use deceased husband’s
Art. 372: When legal separation has been
granted, the wife shall continue using her name
and surname employed before the legal

Art. 373: A widow may use the deceased

husband's surname as though he were still living,
in accordance with Article 370.

Art. 374: In case of identity of names and • If there are similar names, the younger will be Grandsons and direct male
surnames, the younger person shall be obliged to obliged to use additional names descendants will use:
use such additional name or surname as will avoid • If between ascendants and descendants the 1. add middle name or
confusion. word “junior” can only be used by a son. mothers surname
add roman numerals
Art. 375: In case of identity of names and
surnames between ascendants and descendants,
the word "Junior" can be used only by a son.
Grandsons and other direct male descendants
shall either:
1. Add a middle name or the mother's surname, or
2. Add the Roman Numerals II, III, and so on.

Art. 376: No person can change his name or • No change in name or surname without judicial Exception: if it is for merely
surname without judicial authority. authority changing clerical or typographical
Reasons for change in surname: error no need for judicial authority
1. ridiculous name (must not involve a change in
2. change of civil status nationality, age, status, or sex)
3. to avoid confusion Change in nickname:
*laws do not permit a legitimate child of another to adopt 1. ridiculous, tainted with
the surname of another person even if that person is dishonor, difficult to
exercising parental authority. But if it is an illegitimate pronounce
child, change of surname is permitted 2. habitually used and
- change of name does not alter family relations, known by other people as
rights or duties, legal capacity, civil status or that
citizenship. 3. change will avoid
Art. 377: Usurpation of a name and surname may • The usurpation or use of a name and surname *usurpation means some injury to
be the subject of an action for damages and other without authority could result in a claim for the interests of the person
relief. damages (possibility of confusion of identity
Art. 378: The unauthorized or unlawful use of • Unauthorized or unlawful use of another’s name etc)
another person's surname gives a right of action also gives right for an action to the latter.
to the latter.
Art. 379: The employment of pen names or stage • Pen names and stage names permitted as long *stage names cannot be usurped
names is permitted, provided it is done in good as done in good faith and no one gets injured. as the people have vested rights
faith and there is no injury to third persons. Pen in them as well.
names and stage names cannot be usurped.

Art. 380: Except as provided in the preceding

article, no person shall use different names and

- at the instance of an interested party the judge may appoint a person to represent him
- judge shall take necessary measures to safeguard rights and interests of absentee (specify powers, regulations etc.) –spouse is preferred
if no legal separation.
Declaration of absence - 2 yrs if no news about the absentee
- 5 yrs if absentee left someone in charge
Who may seek - spouse present *judicial declaration shall not take effect until 6
declaration of absence - heirs instituted in a will months after its publication.
- relatives who may succeed by the law of intestacy
(legitimate, illegitimate relatives, collateral relatives)
- those who have right to the property subordinated to the
condition of his death
Some of its effects - cause for involuntary judicial separation *spouse can’t alienate/encumber property
- basis for termination of property regime without judicial authority.
- transfer of exclusive properties to the present spouse
- termination of parental authority
Termination of - when absentee appears of his agent
administration - death of the absentee is proved and his heirs appear
- 3 person appears with a right over the property
Presumption of death - 7 years for intents and purposes except succession *if the absentee appears or his existence is
through absence - 10 yrs for purposes of opening succession proven he shall recover all his property in the
- if disappeared after the age of 75, 5 years enough condition they are in but cannot claim the fruits
Presumption of death in - on board a lost vessel during sea voyage, airplane that is or rents.
dangerous situations missing and has not been heard of in 4 years since loss. *if the absentee is the heir, his share shall
(if there is a wreckage and person is missing, not 4 years) accrue to his co-heirs, unless hi has heirs or a
- Person in the armed forces engaged in war and is representative. (right of representation). If
missing for 4 years absentee reappears he has claim to get what
- Person in danger of death and existence has not been was supposed to be his from those that got it
known for 4 years. within the prescriptive period.

Adoption: Right to create relationship of parent and child between persons who are not related exists only by virtue of statute.

Domestic adoption
- Policy of the state to ensure that child is provided with love, care and remains with parents and only when the child can’t be placed with
extended family shall adoption by unrelated person be considered.
In accordance with tenets of:
1. UN Convention on Rights of a Child
2. UN Declaration of Social and Legal Principles Relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children
3. Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-country Adoption.
State Policy:
1. Safeguard biological parents from making hurried decisions. (Counseling, no commitment to a potential adopter before birth, etc.)
2. Prevent child from unnecessary separation from parents
3. Protect adoptive parents from disturbance of their parental authority over adopted.
4. Promote sensitive environment for adoption through campaigns and public information
5. Government has sufficient capacity to provide for adoption properly.
6. Encourage domestic adoption and make inter-country adoption a last resort.
- Being a statutory creation, all requirements must be met with if not, no rights may flow from this.
Pre-Adoption Services: Counseling for natural parents, adopter, and adoptee.
1. Filipino citizen of legal age with full civil capacity and legal rights.
a. Not convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude
b. Emotionally/Psychologically capable of caring for children
c. At least 16 years older then the adoptee (unless adopter is the biological parent or spouse of the biological parent)
d. In a position to support and care for
2. Aliens with same qualifications plus
a. Country has diplomatic relations with Philippines
b. Living in the Philippines for at least 3 continuous years
i. Residency requirement is waived if the adopter was:
1. Former Filipino citizen who seeks to adopt a relative with in the 4 degree of consanguinity or affinity
2. Seeks to adopt legitimate child of Filipino spouse
3. One who is married to a Filipino and seeks to adopt jointly with her a relative within the 4 degree of
consanguinity or affinity of Filipino spouse.
c. Foreign country will allow the adoptee to enter such country
d. Certified to be legally capacitated to adopt
3. Guardian with respect to ward (after clearance of finances
Husband and wife shall jointly adopt except:
1. One spouse seeks to adopt legitimate child of other
2. One spouse adopts his/her own illegitimate child provided other spouse signifies consent to this
3. Spouses are legally separated
Who may be adopted:
1. Below 18, judicially/administratively declared available for adoption
2. Legitimate child of one spouse by the other
3. Illegitimate child by qualified adopter to improve status
4. A person of legal age of when younger was treated as adopter’s child since minority
5. A childe whose adoption has been previously rescinded
6. Child where parents have died (no proceeding until after 6 months from time of death)
Consent needed: To make sure everyone knows and accepts the adoption
1. The adoptee if 10 years and over
2. Who ever has legal custody of the child (parent, guardian, gov’t.)
3. Legitimate and adopted children of adoptee (10 years and above)
4. Illegitimate children if living with adopter (10 years or over)
5. Spouse of adopter
- No consent can be given prior to birth of child. 6-month period to revoke consent by parent after decision has been made. After that
consent is binding.
1. Court needs proof that there wasn’t a hurried decision.
2. Social worker should make case study of adopter and adoptee prior to any hearing for adoption
3. Before adoption decree becomes final there is 6 month custody period
- Only a direct attack in cases of adoption, can’t be collaterally attacked
- Decree becomes effective as of the date petition was filed
• Retroacts except when it comes to vicarious liability
- Hearing in adoption cases will be considered confidential and not open to public.
Effects of Adoption:
1. Parental authority – all legal ties between biological parent and adoptee severed (unless biological is the one adopting)
2. Legitimacy – for all intents and purposes adoptee is considered legitimate child
a. Relationship established is only between parent and child, does not extend to other relatives unless expressly provided by law
3. Succession - adopter and adoptee become legitimate/ legal heirs of one another (entitled to legitime), biological parents won’t get
- No right of representation (Meaning if adopter dies, adoptee can’t get from parents of adopter)
- Does not inherit form the other relatives, etc.
- However if something is left by will the adoptee/biological parent can inherit (from the free portion)
Rescission of adoption: by adoptee or guardian:
1. Repeated physical or verbal maltreatment
2. Attempt on the life of the adoptee
3. Sexual assault or violence
4. Abandonment and failure to comply with parental obligations
- Adopter cannot rescind adoption (can only disinherit)
- If adoption is rescinded then parental authority of biological parents or Department of Social Welfare will be restored if adoptee is still a
minor. But adopter and adoptee relationship extinguished.

Inter-country Adoption:
- Socio-legal process of adopting a Filipino Child by a foreign national or Filipino Citizen residing abroad where petition for adoption is filed
Inter-country adoption board: act as central authority for all matters relating to inter-country adoption
- Board shall ensure that adoption in family code has been exhausted and inter-country adoption is in the best interest of the child.
- The board upon recommendation of the placement committee shall only approve matching of a child to a foreign adoptive family.
Functions of Board:
1. Rules and regulations
2. Guidelines for the convening of inter-country adoption placement committee
3. Guidelines for Matching/Collection
4. Fees and Charges to be executed
5. Form and Contents of application
6. Formulate policies etc to protect children
7. Prevent improper financial gain
8. Promote development of adoption service
9. Accredit/authorize foreign adoption agency
10. Ensure confidentiality of records
11. Prepare/Modify agreements
12. Assist other agencies
13. Others
Who may be adopted: Only a legally free child (voluntarily or involuntarily committed)
Who may adopt: Any alien or Filipino citizen residing abroad provided:
1. At least 27 years old and 16 years older then the adopted unless adopter is biological parent. If married, they must jointly file adoption.
2. Has capacity to act and assume rights and responsibilities of a parent under his national laws. Also has undergone counseling form an
accredited counselor in his/her country
3. Not been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude
4. Eligible to adopt under his nationality laws
5. Able to give proper care and support
6. Agrees to uphold basic rights of child
7. Comes from a country that the Philippines has diplomatic ties with. (Philippine maintains authorized and accredited agency, adoption is
allowed under his or her laws)
- To be filed with the RTC or the board through an agency.
Matching: Judicious pairing of the applicant and the child to promote a mentally satisfying parent-child relationship.
- No matching arrangement between applicant and parents before the committee’s proposal unless it is relative or it is for the child’s best
- Applicant must fetch child within 30 days after notice of issuance of visa.
Trial custody: 6 months with submission of progress reports before adoption decree becomes final.
- If pre-adoptive relationship is unsatisfactory, it will be terminated and Board may choose from roster of applicants a qualified family,
absence the foreign agency may propose.
Executive Agreement: DFA upon representation of the Board shall cause the preparation of Executive Agreements with countries of the
foreign adoption agencies.
Illegal Adoption (presumed):
1. Consent for adoption acquired through or attended by force, coercion, etc.
2. No authority from board
3. Procedures and safeguards not complied with
4. Child exposed to danger, abuse and exploitation
- Attempt to commit offense punishable
- Acts punishable above considered child trafficking

RA 7610: Special Protection of Children Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act.
- State shall intervene when person who is supposed to protect a child cannot or if those acts are being committed by the parent against the
Children 18 years or below or those above 18 but are unable to protect themselves from exploitation/discrimination due to physical or mental
Child Abuse: habitual or non-habitual maltreatment
1. Psychological or physical abuse (neglect, cruelty emotional maltreatment, sexual abuse)
2. Acts by deeds or words, which degrades or demeans intrinsic worth or human dignity of child.
3. Unreasonable deprivation of basic needs
4. Failure to give immediate medical treatment when needed.
Circumstances, which gravely threaten or endanger survival and normal development:
1. Living in an area affected by armed conflict
2. Working under conditions hazardous to life, safety, morals
3. Living or fending for themselves without the care of anyone
4. Living in an area lacking basic services (indigenous cultural community, extreme poverty, underdeveloped area)
5. Victim of calamity
6. Analogous situations.
Child prostitution and other sexual acts/abuse: For any consideration or through coercion or influence indulge in sexual acts.
Attempt to commit: Any person who is in a secluded area with a child and such person is not a relative.
Child trafficking: trading, dealing, buying, and selling of children
Attempt to commit: Child travels alone to foreign country without reason or clearance form DSWS, pregnant women consents to adoption
for a consideration, establishment which recruits women to bear children. Person engaged in finding children from low-income families.
Obscene publications and indecent shows: perform obscene exhibitions in shows, video or model and sells/distributes this.
Other acts of abuse: use coercion, force or intimidation to make a child beg, traffic drugs, or conduct other illegal activities
- Establishments where these acts are done will be closed and their license to operate will be canceled.
Working Children: below 15 years of age can work provided:
1. Work permit from DOLE
2. Employer shall ensure protection, health, safety, morals
3. Prevent exploitation or discrimination
4. Continuous training of child
- Cant employ child in commercials for alcohol, tobacco, violence
Children of Indigenous Cultural Communities:
- Institute an alternative education for children which is culture specific and relevant to their needs
- Delivery of basic social services.
Situations of Armed Conflict:
- Policy of state to resolve such for best interest of children
1. Shall not be object of attack; entitled to special respect
2. Not recruited in army
3. Delivery of basic social services
4. Public infrastructures (schools, hospitals) not to be used
5. Facilitate reunion of families
Children arrested for reasons of armed conflict:
1. Separate detention cells from adults unless they are family.
2. Immediate free legal assistance
3. Immediate notice to parents
4. Release within 24 hours to DSWD or other
Who may file: offended parents/ guardians, ascendants, relative within the 3 degree of consanguinity social worker of DSWS or other,
Barangay chairman, 3 citizens of the place where it occurred.
Article 86: Donor may revoke 5. Marriage is not celebrated or is void ab initio Exception: If the donation is in the
donation by reason of marriage in (including art. 52-53) marriage settlement it will be revoked by
the following cases Prescription: operation of law.
- marriage is void: 5 years from Judicial Declaration Exception: If the marriage is void due to
of Nullity (if doesn’t want to give it back, prescribe Article 40, or Article 44, then automatically
after 8 years for movable, 30 years for immovable) revoked
- marriage not celebrated: 5 years from when it was
not celebrated
6. Marriage takes place without consent of parents
- 5 years from the time he had knowledge that consent was
not obtained, after the marriage.
7. Upon legal separation when donee is the guilty Exception: if the ground for legal
spouse separation is infidelity in the form of
Prescription: adultery or concubinage it will be
- 5 years from finality of decree. automatically void.
8. When there is a resolutory cause and the condition Exception: between husband and wife
has been complied with prescription does not run.
5 years from the happening of the resolutory condition.
6. Acts of ingratitude:
- donee commits an offense against the person or property
of the donor, his wife, or children
- donee imputes to the donor any criminal offense involving
moral turpitude unless it against the donee
- donee unduly refuses to support donor when he is legally
or morally bound to give support.
- 1 year from the time the donor had knowledge of the fact
of ingratitude
Article 87 -husband and wife can’t donate to each other Exception: can give moderate gifts.
-also those who cohabitate with each other

Revoked by operation of law:

1. Article 43: Donations made in subsequent marriages without judicial declaration of nullity or in case of reappearance if the donee acted
with bad faith.
2. Article 44: When both spouses acted with bad faith then all donations and testamentary dispositions shall be revoked.
3. Article 64: (Legal separation) the offending spouse will be disqualified from inheriting from innocent spouse in intestate succession,
provisions in favor of the offending spouse in the will of the innocent spouse shall be revoked by operation of law.
4. Article 81: Donations and other stipulations made in the marriage settlement by reason of marriage shall be revoked by operation of law
is marriage is not celebrated
5. Article 87: Donations between husband and wife (direct or indirect), or those who cohabit = void
a. Even if made by both spouses for a purpose other than vocational or professional.
6. Donations given to one by another when they have committed adultery or concubinage is void and revoked by operation of law.

Rights under title 12 of civil code
1. entitled to parental care
2. receive at least elementary education
3. moral and civic training
4. live in an atmosphere conducive to his physical, moral and intellectual development
duties of the child
1. obey and honor his parents or guardian
2. respect his grandparents, old relatives and those with substitute parental authority.
3. Exert his utmost for his education and training.
4. Cooperate with the family

Legitimate Illegitimate
Those conceived in the 15-day period prior to the finality of the Children born in a valid marriage but is impugned by the
decree of annulment. father
Conceived or born before a voidable marriage is terminated Children conceived or born in a void marriage
Children conceived or born in a void marriage pursuant to article Cannot be legitimated: when from an adulterous
40, 52, and 53 relationship or bigamous marriage.
Children conceived or born in a void marriage because of
psychological incapacity
*but if child was conceived and born prior to the marriage, marriage
does not make child legitimate
Children conceived and born prior to the marriage if there are no
legal impediments at that time then the subsequent marriage will
make them legitimate.

Exception to when parents cannot administer property:

1. children and descendants of he person disinherited shall take his place and shall preserve rights of compulsory heirs with respect to
i. Article. 919: following shall be sufficient causes for disinheritance of children, descendants
1. Child or descendant has been found guilty of an attempt against the life of the testator his or her spouse,
descendants or ascendants.
2. When the child, descendant has accused the testator of a crime, which the law prescribes imprisonment for 6
years or more, if it is found to be groundless.
3. When a child or d has been convicted with adultery or concubinage with the spouse of the testator.
4. When a child or d by fraud, violence, intimidation, or undue influence causes the testator to make a will or change
one he has already made.
5. A refusal without justifiable cause to support the parent or ascendant who disinherits such child or descendant
6. Maltreatment of the testator by word or deed by the child or d
7. Child or descendant leads a dishonorable or disgraceful life
8. Conviction of a crime with civil interdiction
ii. Article 920: following shall be sufficient causes for disinheritance of parents or ascendants, whether legitimate or
1. When parents have abandoned their children, induced their daughters to live corrupt or immoral life, or attempted
against their virtue
2. Parent or ascendant has been convicted of an attempt against the life of the testator his or her spouse,
descendants or ascendants.
3. Accused testator of a crime…
4. Parent or ascendant convicted of concubinage with spouse of testator
5. Parent or ascendant by fraud, violence, undue influence causes new will or change will
6. Loss of parental authority
7. Refusal to support children or descendants without justifiable cause.
8. Attempt of one of the parents against the life of the other, unless there has been reconciliation
iii. Article 921: disinheriting a spouse
1. Spouse convicted of attempt against..
2. Spouse accused testator of crime…
3. Spouse by fraud, intimidation…
4. Spouse has given cause for legal separation
5. When the spouse has given grounds for loss of parental authority.
6. Unjustifiable refusal to support the children or other spouse
2. When parent is incapacitated to succeed one due to unworthiness:
i. Art. 1032: unworthiness
1. Parents abandoned their children, or induced their daughters to live a corrupt or immoral life, attempted against
her virtue
2. Convicted of an attempt against the life of the testator, his spouse, or descendants or ascendants.
3. Accused of a crime…
4. Any heir of full age who, having knowledge of the violent death of the testator, should fail to report it to an officer
within a month unless authorities have already taken action. (not applicable wherein law there is no obligation to
make an accusation.
5. Person convicted or adultery or concubinage with the spouse of the testator
6. Cause testator to make or change will
7. By same means, prevents one from making will, revoking will, or concealing will
8. Falsifies or forges will of decedent
b. Incapable of succeeding
i. Art. 1027: the following are incapable of succeeding
1. Priest etc who hear confession of testator during his last illness or minister who extended spiritual aid to him
2. Relatives of 1 within the fourth degree, the church or institution to which such minister may belong
3. Those made to a guardian by his ward before the final accounts have been approved unless guardian is
ascendant, descendant, brother or sister or spouse
4. Any attesting witness to the execution of a will, the spouse, parents or children or an one claiming under such
witness, spouse, parents or children.
5. Physician, surgeon, nurse, etc who took care of testator during last illness
6. Individuals, associations, corporations not permitted by law to inherit.

• Prohibited compromise: matters which cannot be negotiated nor set by agreement:

§ Civil status
§ Validity of marriage or of a legal separation
§ Ground for legal separation
§ Future support
§ Jurisdiction of the courts
§ Future legitimes

Abandonment: he or she has left the conjugal dwelling without intention of returning. A spouse who has left the conjugal dwelling for a period of 3
months or has failed within the same period to give any information as to his or her whereabouts shall be prima facie presumed to have no
intention of returning to the conjugal dwelling. (physical, financial and moral desertion)
- spouse can seek for receivership, judicial separation of property, and sole administration
- abandonment for more than one year can lead to legal separation

Article Contents Deadlines/prescriptions

Article 30 Marriage certificate with affidavit for marriages in Within 30 days after the performance of the
articulo mortis or remote residence marriage
Article 38 Action or defense for absolute nullity (anyone can file) Does not prescribe

Article 47 For one who obtains a marriage without prior consent - Any time between 18-21 years old by parents
*If ratified then can no longer after he reaches the age of 21 - 5 years after reaching 21 by the party.
be annulled.
Article 47 By the sane spouse without knowledge of insanity, Anytime before the death of either party.
relative, guardian, or person having legal charge
Article 47 By the insane during a lucid interval Anytime before the death of either
Article 47 Consent through fraud 5 years after having knowledge
Article 47 Consent through intimidation, force, undue influence 5 years after it ceases
Article 47 For STD and physical incapacity 5 years after the marriage
Article 50-51 Entry of judgment and decree of nullity become final 15 days from receipt of the parties of the decision
Article 57 Prescription of action for legal separation 5years from the occurrence of the cause.
Article 58 Legal separation trial (during trial they are entitled to After the laps of 6 months after the filing of the
live separately already) petition.
Article 61 After filing of complaint respondent should answer but 15 days after receipt of summons
is not in default if not answered
Article 61 Action for legal separation Terminates upon death of either spouse
Article 64 Revocation by choice of the innocent spouse of 5 years after the decree of legal separation
donations after decree of legal separation becomes final. (Unless the donation is actually void
Art. 87)
Article 182 Impugning legitimacy by those who are prejudiced 5 years from the time their cause of action accrues