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General systems theory (GST)

One of the several methodologies (such as operations research, systems analysis, systems dynamics) which employ systems
approach to understanding complex phenomenon and problems. GST focuses on the system's structure instead of on the system's
function. It proposes that complex systems share some basic organizing principles irrespective of their purposes, and that these
principles can be modeled mathematically. Introduced by the Austrian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-72) and by the UK
economist Kenneth Boulding (1910-93) around the year 1955.
General system theory: Toward a conceptual framework for science and technology education for all

In this paper we suggest using general system theory (GST) as a unifying theoretical framework for “science and technology
education for all.” Five reasons are articulated: the multidisciplinary nature of systems theory, the ability to engage complexity, the
capacity to describe system dynamics and change, the ability to represent the relationship between the micro-level and macro-level
of analysis, and the ability to bring together the natural and human worlds. The historical origins of system ideas are described, and
the major concepts of system theory are mapped; including the mathematical, technological, and philosophical constructs. The
various efforts to implement system thinking in educational contexts are reviewed, and three kinds of learning environments are
defined: expert presentation, simulation, and real-world. A broad research agenda for exploring and drawing-out the educational
implications of system thinking and learning is outlined. The study of both real-world and simulated learning environments is
Science education for all general system theory system thinking learning technology complexity simulation real world

What is evaluation?
Evaluation is the process by which you make a judgement about the worth of something.
Some definitions of evaluation…

“The process by which we decided the value of worth of something. For health promotion, this process involves
measurement and observation and comparison with some criterion or standard” (Hawe, Degeling and Hall, 1990)

“Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the operation and/or the outcomes of a program or policy, compared
to a set of explicit or implicit standards, as a means of contributing to the improvement of the program or policy”
(Weiss, 1998)

Evaluation involves observing, documenting and measuring. It compares what happened with what you expected to happen.
It involves looking at the project and judging whether you are doing what you said you’d do, whether it’s going well, how you could
improve it, and whether it resulted in any unexpected developments.
Evaluating, or assessing the value or worth of something, it is an activity that involves making judgements. “Value” is not absolute –
people have different views about what is of value. This will influence what information about the project is important to collect. This
is explored late in “who could have an interest in your evaluation”.


Evaluations are carried out using social research methods and practices to measure what changes the programme, projects and

policies have contributed to and to get a mature understanding of how it happened. Evaluation aims at increasing the knowledge

about one or several aspects of the intervention for learning, informing decision-making processes, and being accountable to

stakeholders, donors and citizens.

More precisely, UNODC uses the definition of evaluation developed by the United Nations Evaluation Group (UNEG). The key part

of the definition being that evaluation is:

"An assessment, as systematic and impartial as possible, of an activity, project, programme, strategy, policy, topic, theme, sector,

operational area, or institutional performance. It analyses the level of achievement of both expected and unexpected results by

examining the results chain, processes, contextual factors and causality using appropriate criteria such as relevance, effectiveness,

efficiency, impact and sustainability."

In order to bring consistency to evaluation processes, the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic

Cooperation and Development (OECD-DAC) developed the above standard set of evaluation criteria to be used in assessing all

types of interventions. These include relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability. UNODC together with

other United Nations entities, and following UNEG norms and standards, requires evaluations to consider how well its interventions

have addressed the principles of human rights and gender equality and to identify and analyse the specific results at these

levels. Therefore, human rights and gender aspects need to be considered as part of any UNODC evaluation.Design, partnership

and cooperation are also criteria that are required in UNODC evaluations.

UNEG's definition of evaluation further states that evaluation "should provide credible, useful evidence-based information that

enables the timely incorporation of its findings, recommendations and lessons into the decision-making processes of the

organizations and stakeholders" [1]

Importantly, evaluation is not about fault-finding or judging an individual or a team. Rather, evaluation is an opportunity for internal
and external stakeholders to contribute their knowledge and views about a particular intervention. At the end of the process,
evaluation provides feedback, recognising achievements that have been made, identifying ways for improvement and supporting
evidence-based decision-making.
DAC Criteria

A. Relevance

The extent to which the aid activity is suited to the priorities and policies of the target group, recipient and donor.

In evaluating the relevance of a programme or a project, it is useful to consider the following questions:

1. To what extent are the objectives of the programme still valid?

2. Are the activities and outputs of the programme consistent with the overall goal and the attainment of its objectives?

3. Are the activities and outputs of the programme consistent with the intended impacts and effects?


B. Effectiveness

A measure of the extent to which an aid activity attains its objectives.

In evaluating the effectiveness of a programme or a project, it is useful to consider the following questions:

1. To what extent were the objectives achieved/are likely to be achieved?

2. What were the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of the objectives?


C. Efficiency

Efficiency measures the outputs - qualitative and quantitative - in relation to the inputs. Is is an economic term which signifies that

the aid uses the least costly resources possible in order to achieve the desired results. This generally requires comparing alternative

approaches to achieving the same outputs, to see whether the most efficient process has been adopted.

When evaluating the efficiency of a programme or a project, it is useful to conider the following questions:

1. Were activities cost-efficient?

2. Were objectives achieved on time?

3. Was the programme or project implemented in the most efficient way compared to alternatives?


D. Impact

The positive and negative changes produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. This

involves the main impacts and effects resulting from the activity on the local social, economic, environmental and other development

indicators. The examination should be concerned with both intended and unintended results and must also include the positive and

negative impact of external factors, such as changes in terms of trade and financial conditions.

When evaluating the impact of a programme or a project, it is useful to consider the following questions:

1. What has happened as a result of the programme or project?

2. What real difference has the activity made to the beneficiaries?

3. How many people have been affected?

E. Sustainability

Sustainability is concerned with measuring whether the benefits of an activity are likely to continue after donor funding has been

withdrawn. Projects need to be environmentally as well as financially sustainable.

When evaluating the sustainability of a programme or project, it is useful to consider the following questions:

1. To what extent did the benefits of a programme or project continue after donor funding ceased?

2. What were the major factors which influenced the achievement or non-achievement of sustainability of the programme or project?

Effective (adj.) – Adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended or expected result.

Efficient (adj.) – Performing or functioning in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.
Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.
Accuracy is precision, correctness, rightness, exactness, exactitude, reliability, sufficiency, adhesion or coherence.
For example,
1. Digital clocks have a higher accuracy than the analogue clocks.
2. In the 20th century, the distance between the planets could not be calculated with as much accuracy, as it is today.
1. General: Freedom from error (correctness), or closeness to truth or fact, resulting from exercise of painstaking care or due
diligence. Accuracy depends on how the data is collected, and is usually judged by comparing several measurements
from the same or different sources.
2. Accounting: (1) A financial statement item is judged accurate when all account balances included in it are correct in (a)
value, (b) presentation, and (c) disclosure of material information. (2) An account balance is judged accurate when all
elements included in it (such as assets, costs, equities, liabilities, reserves) are correct in (a) value, and (b) classification.
(3) A class of transactions is judged accurate when all accounting events included in it are correct in (a) value, and (b)
3. Engineering: Ratio of an error to the range of possible output (full scale output) values.
4. Forecasting: Degree of fit (matching) between the predictions and the actual data.
5. Testing: Degree of the closeness (to actual value) by which an instrument
measures or senses the value of a variable being measured or sensed.


Portability is a characteristic attributed to a computer program if it can be used in an operating systems other than the one in which it

was created without requiring major rework. Porting is the task of doing any work necessary to make the computer program run in

the new environment. In general, programs that adhere to standard program interfaces such as the X/Open UNIX 95

standard C language interface are portable. Ideally, such a program needs only to be compiled for the operating system to which it

is being ported. However, programmers using standard interfaces also sometimes use operating system extensions or special

capabilities that may not be present in the new operating system. Uses of such extensions have to be removed or replaced with

comparable functions in the new operating system. In addition to language differences, porting may also require data conversion

and adaptation to new system procedures for running an application.

Portability has usually meant some work when moving an application program to another operating system. Recently,

the Javaprogramming language and runtime environment has made it possible to have programs that run on any operating system

that supports the Java standard (from Sun Microsystems) without any porting work. Java applets in the form of

precompiled bytecode can be sent from a serverprogram in one operating system to a client program (your Web browser) in another

operating system without change.


1. in general principle of management when and how the managers, administrator, leader and executive is being characterized in

The Manager

Managers oversee specific operations within a company, such as a division or section. Certain projects have managers, called

project managers, who are largely if not entirely responsible for the day-to-day workings of that particular project. Managers often

have one or more employees that report directly to them, either connected to a particular project, or assigned to a specific division.

While managers can be an essential element in making a company work, in many instances, managers do not direct the policy or

mission of the company.

The Executive

Executives guide the general policy and the overall mission of a company and are commonly assigned to the highest levels of the

organizational ladder. Executives often have broad latitude and authority to make decisions that affect large segments of a
company, if not the entire company. Whereas managers frequently often have a specific division or team they are assigned to direct

in a more or less hands-on fashion, executives may or may not be involved in the day-to-day operations of the company.
Excellent Administrator Leadership Qualities

Professional organizations for education leaders put forth school leadership definitions that articulate key performance indicators.
For example, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration describes excellent administrators as “… tenacious change
agents who are creative, inspirational and willing to weather the potential risks, uncertainties and political fall-out to make their
schools places where each student thrives.” Leadership qualities of a good educational administrator further include determination,
self-confidence and high emotional intelligence.
Embraces Mission and Vision

An excellent school starts with a well-defined mission and vision statement developed in collaboration with key stakeholders,
including teachers, parents, students and community members. An excellent administrator articulates and institutionalizes the
school’s mission and vision. Excellent school leaders ensure that opportunity exists for each child to receive a top-notch education
along with preparation for college or a vocation.

Nimble administrators understand that mission and vision should be revisited periodically to keep pace with the changing needs and
expectations of students and schools. Above all, high-performing school administrators must personally embrace and role model an
authentic commitment to student success. Multiple measurements are used to evaluate effort, achievement and progress.
Possesses Ethical and Moral Core

Ethics, integrity and basic human decency are important personal characteristics of excellent administrators. Without a moral
compass, leaders can turn into cult figures or evil dictators like Adolf Hitler. School leaders must be honest, fair, trustworthy and

Similarly, an excellent administrator is a good steward of the school’s budget and appropriately allocates funds. Resources are
properly used, managed and monitored. Record keeping and accounting are above reproach. School leaders with a solid reputation
earn public trust, which is needed to gain support for school-funding referendums.
Promotes Equity and Inclusion

Excellent administrators embrace diversity and welcome students from all backgrounds. Curriculum is taught from a culturally
inclusive lens that makes lessons meaningful to diverse students. Respect and tolerance permeate the culture of the school.
Students feel safe and secure when an effective leader is at the helm.

Excellent administrators ensure that student disciplinary codes are consistently enforced with an emphasis on positive behavioral
supports. Strong leaders have the courage to confront institutional bias or marginalization of certain student groups. Teachers and
staff must demonstrate cultural sensitivity and unbiased treatment of students as a condition of continued employment.
Values Professional Development

High-performing school leaders consistently strive for greatness and don’t allow excuses for why improvements aren’t possible.
They affirmatively recruit, hire, mentor and support teachers and staff. Professional development is strongly encouraged to help
teachers stay abreast of emerging technologies and pedagogy.

Qualities of a good educational administrator also include a passion for lifelong learning. Teachers aspiring to senior school
leadership jobs pursue graduate education, such as a specialist credential, master’s degree or doctorate in education. Other
learning activities include membership in professional organizations and participation in educational conferences each year.
Cultivates a Collaborative Workplace

Teachers and professional staff appreciate an excellent administrator who creates an interesting, fun and nurturing work
environment. High-performing schools are typically run by a school administrator who strives for outstanding teaching, learning and
innovation. Teachers are encouraged to work collaboratively.

Under the leadership of an excellent administrator, relationships between co-workers, teachers, students and parents are warm,
trusting and open. Problems are identified and resolved productively. School staff see themselves as valuable members of a team.
Engages Parents and Community Members

School leaders with a reputation for excellence are approachable, friendly and accessible. They are highly visible at school
functions and are active in the larger community. They seek out opportunities to personally meet and greet students and their
families. An open-door policy welcomes anyone who has a concern or suggestion, even angry or upset parents.

Parents are treated as partners in their students' educational progress. Families are kept well informed of school happenings and
are invited to volunteer. Regular updates are sent to parents noting attendance, test scores and missing assignments.
Exceeds Job Expectations

Excellent school administrators go above and beyond when executing their duties. They strive for maximum efficiency, high
productivity and ongoing improvements in curriculum, equipment and facilities. Every effort is made to follow proposed changes
to local, state or federal laws that may affect school policy or funding allocations.

Gains in student achievement are often tied to initiatives spearheaded by top leadership. For instance, new programs to narrow the
performance gap among students from different socioeconomic backgrounds can level the playing field as students prepare for
college. Exemplary leadership performance can bring recognition such as the National School Principal of the Year award by the
National Association of Secondary School Principals.
Exudes Passion and Commitment

Exceptional administrators share a passion for providing a quality education to all students attending the school. “Passion is the
ardor or the fire to develop and maintain an excellent school,” as defined by the National School Boards Association. Top
administrators inspire others to get on board and achieve stretch goals. Motivation runs deeper than a desire to simply comply with
state or federal testing benchmarks.

Commitment is evident in long hours spent attending school board meetings, speaking at school functions, attending conferences,
following up on major incidents and keeping up with professional literature. Some principals and superintendents see their role as a
calling to serve others. Balancing endless job responsibilities with their own personal and family commitments requires exceptional
time management and personal sacrifice.
Strives for Innovation

Effective educational leaders are analytical thinkers who base decisions on research, theory, evidence and best practices. Time
and money is not wasted on programs that are not impactful. Stakeholders are brought into the strategic-planning process to
analyze data, discuss emerging trends and forecast future needs. Assessment is an ongoing process that provides immediate
feedback on what students are learning and how they learn best.

Teachers and staff are encouraged to be leaders and innovators in their discipline. Hard work is expected but is also recognized and
rewarded. Innovation and professional networking is encouraged. Quantifiable goals and objectives consistently aim for above-
average outcomes.
Makes Tough Decisions

Excellent principals and superintendents have the courage and wisdom to make tough decisions when it comes to balancing the
budget, investing in new initiatives, managing a teachers’ strike, responding to a lawsuit against the school and other challenging
circumstances. Diplomacy, tact and decisiveness are essential personal characteristics when it comes to handling heated issues.
Other important qualities are empathy, patience, willingness to listen and fair mindedness.

An excellent school leader maintains composure and provides direction in times of a crisis or a serious weather emergency. If a
tragedy occurs at school, an excellent administrator possesses the confidence and composure to assess the situation, intervene
and share frequent updates. An exceptional administrator is comfortable speaking to the media and law enforcement after an
incident on school grounds.
An administrator is a person who ensures that an organization operates efficiently. Their specific duties depend on the type of
company, organization, or entity where they work. Above all, administrators need to be highly organized and have good
communication skills.
The term may also refer to somebody who a court appoints to wind up a deceased person’s estate. In such cases, the person died
without leaving a will, or it did not name an executor. Additionally, the court may appoint an administrator if the named executor
cannot or will not act.
An administrator could be somebody the court appoints to manage the affairs of a company. Specifically, to manage the affairs of a
business that has become insolvent. In other words, they manage a firm that has been put into administration.
We call a female administrator either an administratrix or administrator. Even though we rarely use the former term today, it is still
valid and correct.

An administrator is an organizer
In companies, administrators devise short- and long-term plans that establish a clear set of goals and objectives. In other words,
they aim to get the organization to where it wants to go.
To make sure these plans succeed, the administrator above all needs to understand the how, when, and who of the whole plan.
All administrators are in charge of administration. Administration refers to activities that deal with organizing and managing the work
of a business. Administration also exists in government, charities, and many other types of organizations.
Administrators’ roles are integral to the organization in which they work. Their functions typically comprise a wide set of duties,
including filing and management.
Most administrators work full-time hours in a single location. In smaller businesses, however, they may work part-time.

Clerical level administrator

An administrator may be somebody who is responsible for the smooth and effective running of a single office. Their duties include
overseeing all the paperwork and answering the telephone.
They will usually report to all people within the office. Their role will probably depend on what the other colleagues’ duties are.
Most office administrators are responsible for dealing with or distributing all post within an office. Mail duties may include opening all
letters that come in and making sure they get to the relevant people. Additionally, they are in charge of all the outgoing post.
They will also devise and organize the office’s filing. Filing not only involves fetching the required documents but also putting them
back after people have used them.
Other general office duties include operating the switchboard if the office has one, photocopying, and faxing.
Senior members of the department may instruct the administrator to phone other organizations or departments to relay their
In some organizations, the first port-of-call for office emails is the administrator. In the same way that they do with the post, they
then send the emails to the relevant people.
Most administrators are in charge of the company’s address book. This book has the contact details of contractors and clients. Their
job is to keep them up-to-date and in working order.
Some administrators may have to type letters and produce documents, i.e., they perform secretarial-type duties.

Other examples of administrators

 Forum Administrators manage the forum’s technical details. They may promote or demote members to or from
moderators, and manage the rules. They may also create sections and sub-sections, and perform any database
operations. Some forum administrators even act as moderators.
 Network Administrators maintain the computer infrastructure, with emphasis on networking. They are in charge of the
on-site servers, software-network interactions, and network integrity and resilience.They are often involved in proactive
work which may include network monitoring and testing the whole network for weakness. Some install and implement
updates, as well as email and Internet filters.
 Server Administrators are in control of a server. They oversee the performance and condition of the multiple servers of
an organization. A server administrator may be in charge of a game server. They design, install, administer and optimize
company servers and related components. Above all, their aim is to get the best performance possible.
 System Administrators, or sysadmins, are responsible for the maintenance, configuration, and the reliable operation of
computer systems. They may be in charge of multi-user computers such as servers. They seek to make sure that the up-
time, resources, performance, and security of the computers meet the needs of the users. Furthermore, they need to
make sure they do all this without exceeding the budget.

Working in publishing, arts, and education

Arts Administrators, or arts managers, work for arts and cultural organizations. Examples include art galleries, art festivals, arts
councils, regional arts boards, and symphonies. Arts administrators may also work in theaters, dance companies, and local
In a small organization, they may deal with the event booking and handle financial matters. They may even organize the marketing.
In larger organizations, they may be in charge of the buildings and facilities. Within some organizations, arts administrators are
responsible for the performers and artists, public relations, marketing, as well as writing reports.
Wikipedia Administrators: or admins or sysops (systems operators), are Wikipedia editors who block/unblock user accounts and
IP addresses from editing, delete/undelete pages, rename pages without restriction, and edit fully protected pages. There are nearly
3,000 administrators in the English Wikipedia.
University Department Administrators play a vital role in their institution. There are two types:

1. Those who work in central admin.

2. Those who work in specific university departments or faculties.
University department administrators are the main point of contact for both students and staff. They take care of finances, including
financial planning and monitoring. Some of them coordinate staff meetings and are also responsible for the department’s website.

A leader is "a person who influences a group of people towards the ach ievement of a goal". A mnemonic for this
definition would be 3P's - Person, People and Purpose as illustrated by the following diagram.

1. Vision

Leading means having a vision and sharing it with others. Only when you get to inspire others, it is possible to share a common

goal towards which to direct the efforts and dedication of the entire team. What is your vision?You may also like: The 7 Great

Challenges for the Leaders of Tomorrow

2. Motivation A leader knows how to motivate better than anyone else; it is one of their main functions as people managers.
Through motivation, a leader channels their coworkers energy and professional potential in order to achieve objectives.
3. Serving

The leader is at the service of the team, and not the other way around. Group members must have and feel the support of their

leader, the tools needed to do their jobs properly must be available to them, they must have recognition for their efforts and know

that there is a person paying attention in order to correct bad habits. That is all part of a leadership which serves the team, and not

the opposite.
4. Empathy

One of the basic qualities of any leader seeking success is precisely emotional intelligence, that ability – often innate – that makes

leaders put themselves in the place of others, understand their concerns and solve problems. Leaders know the secrets of their

businesses and therefore can empathize with customers and members of their teams: that empathy gets to inspire and establish

links that will ultimately lead to success.

Read more: Top 11 Leadership Competencies That Will Make You Indestructible in 2016 (Infographic)
5. Creativity

The definition of leadership also has to do with creativity. Good leaders are able to create an environment that will encourage all the

members of their team to develop their skills and imagination, so that they can contribute to the common project and vision of the

company. If you want to lead successfully, respect the creativity of others and learn from the people around you; their ideas will

surely prove to be positive for you.

6. Thoroughness

A good leader sets the bar high for their people, because they want to reach the goals and bring the best ou of their teams. Only a

demanding leader will achieve great results. In addition to this thoroughness, the leader must know how to listen, in order to know

the needs of the people, and then provide the necessary time and resources for them to do their job properly, and therefore meet

what is demanded of them.

7. Managing

The leader must be at the forefront to lead and guide their team throughout the whole process until the goal is reached. But

besides being that “torchbearer”, leaders also know when to step back and make their team take the initiative. In this way, the team

gets the chance to develop, both personally and professionally. Pure management focuses on the tasks, real leadership focuses on

the people.
8. Team building

True leadership is about working in a team to reach a common goal. People management is one of the most difficult tasks faced by

leaders. Thanks to the positive attitude, essential in good leaders, and the trust in their workmates, people get better results. Team-

aware leaders take responsibility when something is wrong, and reward the group after a job well done.

It may interest you: 10 Leadership Tips To Manage Every Type Of Team

9. Taking risks

The leader is the one responsible for taking the risks that others are not willing to take. They are confident enough to make a

decision, and if they make a mistake, the leader must have the courage to rectify, assume their guilt and take the right path, without

blaming it on the team. Good leaders know how to get ahead of their time, they see opportunities where others can’t and know

how to spread the enthusiasm for their vision to try to make it real.
10. Improving

True leadership seeks continuous improvement. Leaders have the ability to turn the people in their teams into stars, people who

have improved and developed their skills through the influence of their leader.

In short, the definition of leadership has nothing to do with the hierarchy or anyone’s position within the company; it has nothing to

do with imposing views but its about listening to those who know. Leadership is the attitude assumed by those looking for

something different, who are committed to achieving a goal and whose conviction they manage to transmit to others through

enthusiasm and optimism in order to reach a common goal.

5 E ss e n t i a l Ch a ra c t e ris t ic s f o r G o o d L e a d ers

1. Courage: There are two kinds of courage: physical and moral. Leadership character requires moral courage. This means

standing up for one’s convictions and values while risking criticism, censure or ridicule. It can also mean risking loss of power,

position or reputation. Moral courage inspires respect for several reasons: it is viewed as being a selfless form of behavior; it is seen

as a sign of having overcome fear; and it implies that leaders take responsibility for their own actions.

2. Caring: Caring means showing sincere interest in and genuine concern for others. It includes consideration, compassion,

empathy, sympathy, and nurturing. Caring does not mean tolerating or ignoring shoddy performance, violations of company policies,

bad attitudes, or dishonesty. What it does mean is seeing humans as the most important resource in an organization – and the

resource with the most overall potential. Leaders who are caring will likely be rewarded with cooperative and supportive behavior in


3. Optimism: This is the tendency to take the most hopeful and cheerful view and to expect the best outcome. Optimists see

opportunities, possibilities and silver linings in every situation. They often contend that, with hard work, focus, resilience and a bit of

luck, a positive outcome is possible. People are naturally drawn to leaders who are positive, upbeat and cheerful – who have a “We

can do this!” type of attitude.

4. Self-control: Leaders must choose what they will do and not do and then accept the consequences of their choices. This

includes personal discipline in behaviors and lifestyle. Self-control implies that as a leader you have sufficient drive and initiative, as

well as a clear vision and focus. Self-control keeps a person motivated and focused on goals, and it also contributes to momentum.

5. Communication: There are, of course, several methods of interpersonal communication – written, verbal, and nonverbal signs,

attitudes and body language, as well as communication through actions and appearance. Listening is also an important part of

communication. A leader’s communication casts a vision, establishes direction, shapes goals and objectives, reinforces key values

and clarifies tasks. Communication makes the emotional connection that is so critical in effective leadership.

The executive is the branch of democratic government that is constituted by the Cabinet, which is the President, Deputy President
and the Ministers, and also the Deputy Ministers.
The branch is responsible for the day-to-day administration and carrying out of national legislation and policies through the work of
its Departments. The executive operates at three levels of government: the national, provincial and local levels. All of these levels of
government have executive authority in their own spheres. Within the balance of powers, the executive is accountable to and is
being monitored by the legislative and the judiciary.

Effective executives
1. Effective executives know where their time goes. They work systematically at managing the little of their time that can be
brought under control.
2. Effective executives focus on outward contribution. They gear their efforts to results rather than to work. They start with the
question, “What results are expected of me?” rather than with the work to be done, let alone with its techniques and tools.
3. Effective executives build on strengths — their own strengths, the strengths of their superiors, colleagues, and
subordinates; and on the strengths of the situation, that is, on what they can do. They do not build on weakness. They do
not start out with the things they cannot do.
4. Effective executives concentrate on the few major areas where superior performance will produce outstanding results.
They force themselves to set priorities and stay with their priority decisions. They know that they have no choice but to do
first things first — and second things not at all. The alternative is to get nothing done.
5. Effective executives, finally, make effective decisions.

‘Executive’ has been defined both in its broad and narrow forms. In its broad form, it is taken to mean all the functionaries, political

power-holders (Political Executive) and permanent civil servants who undertake the execution of laws and policies and run the

administration of state.

In its narrow form, it is taken to mean only the executive heads (ministers i.e. the political Executive), who head the government

departments, formulate the policies and supervise the implementation of the laws and policies of the government. In the narrow

form, the civil service and its administrative functions are not included in the realm of the Executive.

Traditionally, only the narrow meaning used to be accepted by the political scientists. However, in modern times, the executive is

defined in its broader form and it covers both the Political Executive as well as the Civil Service.

Executive: Definition:

(1) “In a broad and collective sense, the executive organ embraces the aggregate or totality of all the functionaries and agencies

which are concerned with the execution of the will of the state as that will has been formulated and expressed in terms of law.”



(2) “In its broadest sense, the executive department consists of all government officials except those acting in legislative or judicial

capacity. It includes all the agencies of government that are concerned with the execution of states will as expressed in terms of

law.” Gettell

These two definitions make it clear that executive includes the political executive (Ministers and Head of State) and the non-political

permanent executive (Civil Service or Bureaucracy). The political executive performs the function of making policies and ensuring

that all the laws are properly enforced by all the departments of the government.
The permanent executive i.e. bureaucracy/civil service runs the day-to- day administration and works in government departments. It

works under the supervision and control of the political executive.

Two Parts of Executive: Political Executive & Permanent Executive: Distinction:


(i) The Political Executive (Ministers):

It consists of the executive head of the state and other heads of the executive departments is ministers. Ministers are political

leaders. They are mostly elected representative of the people and responsible for all their decisions and policies before the public.

Political Executive work for a fixed tenure of about 5 years.

It acts as a temporary executive in the sense that it changes after every election. After completing one tenure, ministers have to

again contest elections. They can again become ministers only when the party to which they belong returns to power as the majority


The ministers are amateurs, non-experts and non-professionals. Their function is to formulate policies and get these policies and

laws approved from the Legislature. Thereafter these policies and laws of the State are implemented by the civil servants, who work

under the control of Political Executive. The political executive heads the government. Each minister is head of a department or

some of the government.


(ii) The Non-political Permanent Executive (Civil Servants):

It consists of the civil servants (Bureaucracy) from the lowest to the highest levels. It carries out the day to day administration by

working in the government departments. The civil servants are politically neutral. They do not owe allegiance to any political party.

Their job is to carry out the laws and policies of the government without any political consideration. They are specially educated and

trained persons. They are experts and professionals. They give expert advice and opinion as well as collect, classify and present

data to the political executive on the basis of which the latter takes all decisions.

Once appointed, the civil servants remain in office till the attainment of the retirement age, usually up to the age of 55 or 60 years.

They get regular and fixed salaries and are hierarchically organised into higher and lower relationships.

Functions of the Executive:


1. Enforcement of Laws:

The primary function of executive is to enforce laws and to maintain law and order in the state. Whenever a breach of law takes

place, it is the responsibility of the executive to plug the breach and bring the offenders to book. Each government department is
responsible for the implementation of the laws and policies concerning its work. For maintaining law and order in the state, the

executive organises and maintains the police force.

2. Appointment-making Functions:

All major appointments are made by the chief executive. As for example, the President of India appoints the Chief Justice and other

Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. Ambassadors, Advocate General of India, Members of Union Public Service

Commission, Governors of States etc.

Likewise, the President of the United States makes a very large number of key appointments. All the secretaries who head various

government departments, Judges of the Supreme Court and other Federal Courts, the Federal officials in the States etc., are

appointed by the US President. However, all such appointments require the approval of the US Senate (Upper House US Congress

i.e. Parliament).

The members of the civil service are also appointed by the Chief executive. This is, usually, done on the recommendation of a

service recruitment commission. In India, the Union Public Service Commission annually holds competitive examinations for All

India Services, Central Services and Allied Services.

It recruits on merit, candidates for appointment to these cadres. The appointments are done by the Chief executive in accordance

with the recommendations of the UPSC. Similar practice prevails in almost all the states. As such appointment-making is a function

of the executive.

3. Treaty-making Functions:

It is the responsibility of the executive to decide as to which treaties are to be signed with which other countries. The executive

negotiates the treaties in accordance with the procedure defined by international law and also in accordance with the provisions the

constitution of the state.

Each treaty is signed by a member of the executive. Most of the treaties also require ratification by the legislature of the State. It is

again the responsibility of the executive to secure legislative approval for the treaties signed by it.

4. Defence, War and Peace Functions:

One of the key functions of the state is to defend and preserve the unity and integrity of the country and protect it in the event of an

external aggression or war. It is the responsibility of the executive to undertake this work. To organise military for the defence of the

state, to prepare for and fight the war, if it becomes necessary, and to negotiate and sign peace settlement after every war, are the

functions performed by the executive.

The executive is the final judge of the nature of the threat to the security of the country. It has the prime responsibility to take all

such steps as are needed in the interest of the security and integrity of the state. The chief executive of the state is also the

supreme commander of the armed forces of the state.

5. Foreign Policy-making and the Conduct of Foreign Relations:


In this age of ever-increasing global interdependence, it has become one of the most important functions of a government to

formulate the foreign policy of the state and to conduct foreign relations. This function is also performed by the executive.

The executive formulates the goals of national interest and fixes the priorities. It first formulates the foreign policy of the nation and

then implements it for securing the defined goals of national interest. The executive appoints the ambassadors of the state to other


6. Policy-making:

Modern welfare state has to carry out a large number of functions for securing the socio-economic-cultural development of its

people. It has to formulate policies, prepare short-term and long-term plans and implement these. All actions of the state are guided

by definite policies and plans.

Education School/Level Grades Age Years

2. Differentiate the goals and objectives of tech-voc education from the other eduction system in the philippines the TESDA, CHED

Education System in the Philippines

Primary Education
Paaralang Elementarya or elementary education is the first part of the educational system, and it includes the first six years of
compulsory education from grade 1 to 6, with an optional 7th grade offered by some schools. Major subjects include maths, science,
English, Filipino and social sciences. Optional subjects include music, arts, physical education, and health. Private school students
may select subjects from a wider curriculum including religious instruction in the dogma of their choice.
Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department
of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). However, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their
admission into Secondary school.
During 2004, when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and as a result of reorganization, the
NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). Students from both public and
private elementary schools take this exam to measure a school's competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance
examinations for Secondary school.

Middle Education
Middle school education is a part of Primary (or Elementary) Education

Secondary Education
Secondary education known as Paaralang Sekundarya comprises 4 grades that have changed little since the second world war.
The curriculum is prescribed for both private and state schools. Core subjects are as follows:

 Year 1 - Filipino 1, Algebra 1, Integrated Science, English 1, Phillipine History

 Year 2 - Filipino 2, Algebra 2, Biology, English 2, Asian History

 Year 3 - Filipino 3, Geometry, Chemistry, World History, Geography

 Year 4 - Filipino 4, Calculus, Trigonometry, Physics, Literature, Economics

Minor optional subjects include Health, Music, Arts, Physical Education, Home Economics and Technology. Selected schools
present additional subjects. Total secondary school numbers exceed 5.5 million.

Vocational Education
Accredited mainly private institutions known as colleges offer technical and vocational education. Programs offered vary in duration
from a few weeks to two-year diplomas. On completion students may take centrally-administered examinations to obtain their
diploma or certificate.
Vocational colleges don’t usually require an entrance examination, only a record of high school education and an enrollment fee.

Tertiary Education
Most institutions of higher learning are regulated by the commission for higher education.

Colleges typically offer 1 or more specialized programs while universities must offer at least 8 different undergraduate degree
programs in a wide array of subjects and at least 2 graduate programs.

Public universities are all non-sectarian and offer a wide-range of programs, with English as a medium of instruction. Public
universities are government funded, with the largest, the University of the Philippines, receiving the substantial portion of the annual

There are also a number of private tertiary institutions, sectarian or non-sectarian as well as for-profit or not-for-profit. Most private
institutions are Catholic non-profit organizations.

Most universities offer 4 year degree programs with 2 semesters per year.

Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational
institutions in the country. Funding for public education comes from the national government. For the academic year 2017–2018,
about 83% of K–12 students attended public schools and about 17% either attended private schools or were home-schooled.
With the "trifocalization" of the educational system in the country, three government agencies handle each level of education. At the
basic education level, the Department of Education (DepEd) sets overall educational standards and mandates standardized tests for
the K–12 basic education system, although private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum in accordance with
existing laws and Department regulations. On the other hand, at the higher education level, the Commission on Higher
Education(CHED) supervises and regulates colleges and universities. Meanwhile, the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority(TESDA) regulates and accredits technical and vocational education programs and institutions in the country.
By law, education is compulsory for thirteen years (kindergarten and grades 1–12) and is grouped into three levels: elementary
school (kindergarten–grade 6), junior high school (grades 7–10), and senior high school (grades 11–12). They may also be grouped
into four key stages: 1st key stage (kindergarten–grade 3), 2nd key stage (grades 4–6), 3rd key stage (grades 7–10) and 4th key
stage (grades 11–12). Children could enter kindergarten at age 5.
Institutions of higher education may be classified as either public or private college or university, and public institutions of higher
education may further be subdivided into two types: state universities and colleges and local colleges and universities.


1. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through a system of educational planning and
evaluation.  Develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge
through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life;  Train the nation’s
manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development;  Help the individual participate in the
basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his/her development into a productive and
versatile citizen;  Provide a broad general education that will assist each individual in society to attain his/her
potential as a human being, and enhance the range and quality of the individual and the group; 1. Principles
and general objectives of Education In the Philippines the education system aims to:
2. 2. The DepEd Vision We are people organization committed to a culture of excellence in public service. Believing that the
most important resource of our country is its people, we make the task of educating the Filipino child our singular mission.
3. 3. We assist the Filipino child to discover his/her full potential in a child-centered and value-driven teaching-learning
environment and thereby, enable him/her to create his/her own destiny in global community. We prepare him/her to
become a responsible citizen and an enlightened leader who loves his/her country and is proud to be a Filipino.
4. 4. We provide a school system… Where teachers and principals achieve the desired learning outcome not only because
they are empowered, competent and accountable, but because they care; Where administrator exercise visionary
leadership responsive to emerging learning needs of the nation; ensure adequate resources; promote appropriate
technology; create and sustain a conducive climate to enhance learning; and Where the family, the community and other
institutions actively support our efforts. We affirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged to benefit
from such a system. This is our vision. With God’s help, we dedicate all our talents and energies to its realization.
5. 5. The DepEd Mission To provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for life-
long learning and service for the common good.
6. 6. DepEd MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE To carry out its mandates and objectives, the Department is
organized into two major structural components. The Central Office maintains the overall administration of basic education
at the national level. The Field Offices are responsible for the regional and local coordination and administration of the
Department’s mandate. RA 9155 provides that the Department should have no more than four Undersecretaries and four
Assistant Secretaries with at least one Undersecretary and one Assistant Secretary who are career service officers
chosen among the staff of the Department. At present, the Department operates with four Undersecretaries in the
areas of: (1) Programs and Projects; (2) Regional Operations; (3) Finance and Administration; and (4) Legal Affairs; four
Assistant Secretaries in the areas of: (1) Programs and Projects; (2) Planning and Development; (3) Budget and Financial
Affairs; and (4) Legal Affairs.
7. 7. Backstopping the Office of the Secretary at the Central Office are the different services, bureaus and
centers. The five services are the Administrative Service, Financial and Management Service, Human Resource
Development Service, Planning Service, and Technical Service. Three staff bureaus provide assistance in formulating
policies, standards, and programs related to curriculum and staff development. These are the Bureau of Elementary
Education (BEE), Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE), and the Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE). By virtue of
Executive Order No. 81 series of 1999, the functions of a fourth bureau, the Bureau of Physical Education and School
Sports (BPESS), were absorbed by the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) last August 25, 1999. Six centers or
units attached to the Department similarly provide technical and administrative support towards the realization of the
Department’s vision. These are the National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC), Health and Nutrition
Center (HNC), National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP), Educational Development Projects Implementing
Task Force (EDPITAF), National Science Teaching Instrumentation Center (NSTIC), and Instructional Materials Council
Secretariat (IMCS). There are four special offices under OSEC: the Adopt-a-School Program Secretariat, Center for
Students and Co-curricular Affairs, Educational Technology Unit, and the Task Force Engineering Assessment and
8. 8. 7,683 secondary schools (4,422 public and 3,261 private)40,763 elementary schools (36,234 public and 4,529 private)
Other attached and support agencies to the Department are the Teacher Education Council (TEC), Philippine High
School for the Arts, Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC), and the Instructional Materials Council (IMC). At the sub-
national level, the Field Offices consist of the following: Sixteen (16) Regional Offices, including the Autonomous Region
in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM*), each headed by a Regional Director (a Regional Secretary in the case of ARMM); One
hundred fifty-seven (157) Provincial and City Schools Divisions, each headed by a Schools Division Superintendent.
Assisting the Schools Division Offices are 2,227 School Districts, each headed by a District Supervisor; Under the
supervision of the Schools Division Offices are forty-eight thousand, four hundred forty-six (48, 446) schools, broken down
as follows:
10. 10. ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE The Administrative Service is responsible for providing the Department with economical,
efficient, and effective services relating to legal assistance, information records, supplies, equipment, security and
custodial work. Office of the Director The Director manages and supervises the operation of the Administrative Service in
the implementation of its functions. Legal Division The legal division provides legal advice to the Secretary,
Undersecretary and the Bureaus and Offices of the Department; interprets laws and rules affecting the operations of the
Department; prepares contracts and instruments to which the department is a part and interprets provisions of contracts
covering work/services; investigates administrative cases/ charges filed against employees of the Department; prepares
decisions/resolutions on administrative cases; assists in the promulgation of rules, regulations and policies governing the
activities of the Department; prepares the legal opinions for the Secretary and prepares comments on proposed
legislations concerning the Department.
11. 11. General Services Division The General Services Division provides basic services to DECS Officials and employees
such as: Medical services, Dental services, Radio Communication services, Transportation/Mechanic services, Electrical/
Air-conditioning services, Building Maintenance and Plumbing services and Security services. Dental Clinic Dental
services are intended to address the health and welfare of DECS officials, employees and their immediate dependents at
the Central office as well as visiting DECS officials, teachers, support personnel from the field to be treated as walk-in
patients. The Dental Clinic performs the following functions: consultation, complete oral examination, treatment of carious
teeth such as extraction and temporary or permanent filing simple dental surgery, oral prophylaxis and simple gum
treatment, prosthetics maybe made if laboratory cost to be shouldered by the patient, dental periapical X-Ray and referral
when necessary.
12. 12. Medical The Medical Clinic takes care of the health of the employees to make sure that they are fit perform their work
effectively. It attends to the basic needs of the employees like monitoring of blood pressures and prescribing the
appropriate medicines whenever necessary. It holds our Annual Medical/Dental Check-ups which include laboratory
examinations, electro diagrams and chest X-rays. When the results are sent to us, we interpret them for the employees
and give necessary medicines and advices. Radio Communication Network Unit The primordial function of this unit is to
send and receive calls to and from the field offices and other Department's clientele (local and international) through radio
transmitter or radio transceiver, fax machine, PABX digital telephones. Security Service Unit This unit plans, organizes
and supervises operations in the building area; advises, recommends security measures to immediate supervisors;
implements security measures directed by supervisors; investigates and reports unusual occurrences and infraction of
rules and regulations; prepares report of daily guarding activities; takes charge of the training of mend; and serves the
Administrative men of the unit.
13. 13. Records Division The Records Division establishes and maintains a systematic records system for the Central Office;
receives and distributes all communications to the field; release and mails or disposes all communications to the field;
disposes all DECS old file in accordance with attending rules and regulations and laws; exercises absolute care and
fidelity in the custody of DECS records. Property Division The Property Division procures supplies, materials and
equipment to meet the service requirements of the DECS Central Office; evaluates Program of Expenditures forwarded by
DECS Regional Office, Division Offices, and National Schools and make recommendations to the Secretary; implements
effective control and management of General Office property; distributes supplies, materials and equipment available as
per requisitions of different units in the Central Office; properly dispose off unserviceable of excess properties in
accordance with applicable rules, regulations and laws; prepares annual property inventory for submission to the
Commission on Audit; prepares and maintains property account cards for all properties of the General Office; prepares
and submits sales report for properties lost and paid for collections remitted to the Treasury; signs all property clearances
of all officials and employees of the DECS Proper, Regional Directors and Schools Division Superintendents; conducts
emergency purchases through canvass of urgently needed supplies and equipment which the Procurement Service
cannot supply.
14. 14. Teachers Camp The Teachers Camp plans and directs the program for the year round maintenance and utilization of
the physical facilities of the Camp consisting of eleven (11) dormitories, forty-seven (47) cottages and guest houses, four
(4) conference halls, two (2) dining rooms, a school building and meeting rooms. It also attends to the housing and
conference requirements of teachers, school officials, and organizations attending various conferences scheduled in the
Camp throughout the year; plans/implements the year round beautification and greening program within the 25-hectare
Camp reservation; provides, maintains, coordinates and oversees the effective operations of the various sections namely:
Accounting, Property and Supply, Engineering and Physical Facilities, Collection and Disbursement, Front Desk and
Customer Relations and Administrative Sections
16. 16. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE The FMS is composed of five (6) divisions namely: Budget Division,
Accounting Division, Management Division, Payroll Services Division, Systems Division and Cash Division. Budget
Division The Budget Division is responsible in the preparation, including submission to the Department of Budget and
Management of budgetary estimates in support of the DECS' operations, plans and programs to achieve its goals of
providing the citizenry better access to quality basic education. The process also involves the review, evaluation and
consolidation of the budget proposals of all DECS Central and Regional Offices, and coordination with the Office of the
Planning Service. This division assists management in the presentation of the Department's budgetary
estimates/proposals before administrative and legislative bodies; and provides technical assistance to other units in the
application and utilization of budgetary methods and procedures. It also the primary responsibility of the Division to
prepare the annual work and financial plans and matrices, and other documentation to ensure the release of funds as
reflected in the General Appropriations Act (GAA) and from other sources.
17. 17. Accounting Division The Accounting Division is responsible for the maintenance of the books of accounts of Central
Office staff, Bureaus and Centers. It administers financial reports, processes of disbursement and trust accounts and
makes branch accounting in regional offices. It consolidates financial reports of all Central Offices and Regional offices for
submission to fiscal agencies. It has technical supervision over all DECS Accounting offices. Payroll Services Division The
division is responsible for the centralized production of payrolls, salary checks and compensation, benefits of teachers
and administrative personnel in provinces, chartered cities headed by a Superintendent, including the Secondary
Teachers of the National Capital Region in the most effective and cost-efficient manner. Systems Division The division
serves as a center for the strategic management of an effective and efficient information system for the DECS through
developing a mechanism that integrates and coordinates the DECS information requirements that are accessible and
responsive to users. It also synchronizes data collection, processing and dissemination to ensure quality of information
18. 18. Management Division The division develops plan and program objectives relative to management improvement in the
Department, examines its administrative organization, maintains its organizational charts and manual operations and
undertakes regular management surveys on organizational structure, manpower and operations, studies special problems
as assigned and makes recommendations for improvement. Cash Division The Cash Division collects and disburses
funds; accounts for receipts, custody and disbursement of funds; undertakes encashment of checks for cash advances
and payment of salaries, wages and other obligations; provides proper recording of cash advances, disbursements,
collection and deposits; prepares reports and documents pertinent to the collection of disbursements and deposits of
funds. The Cash Division controls the Notice of Cash allocations (NCAs) of DECS proper and the different staff bureaus,
centers, and other foreign assisted projects of the Department for payments of different government obligations to both
private and government obligations to both private and government agencies. Release/mail checks to different claimants
for payments of different government obligations. Deposit checks for fund transfer to the different Regional Offices.
20. 20. Personnel Audit of Schools and Personnel of the Central OfficeReview of Position Description to update position titles
in DECS DECS-PLM Off-Campus Masteral and Doctoral Programs Revision of the DECS Performance Appraisal
System (PAS) National Search Committee Establishment of the DECS Personnel Information System (PIS) Monitoring
and evaluation of Personnel Records and Current Personnel Actions in the different Regional and Division Offices. The
Human Resource Development Service develops and administers personnel programs which include selection and
placement, classification and pay, career and employment development performance appraisal, employee relations and
welfare services. It consists of three (3) divisions: personnel division, employees welfare and benefits division and staff
development division. Personnel Division The Personnel Division provides comprehensive, well-organized and
synchronized personnel services. It develops and administers personnel
21. programs such as recruitment, selection, placement, transfers, details/reassignments, reinstatements and other personnel movements; leaves
such as vacation, sick, maternity, study and terminal; separation from the service (retirement, resignation, dropping from the rolls, etc. and
salaries (vouchers, payrolls). Projects
22. 21. DECS Hospitalization Fund Program DECS-PVB Financial Assistance  Pre-Retirement Innovation and Option for Results (PRIOR) 
DECS Employees Suggestion and Incentive Awards System (ESIAS)  DECS Cooperative Program  DECS Expanded Shelter Program 
DECS Provident Fund Employees Welfare and Benefits Division The Employees Welfare and Benefits Division undertakes a continuous
evaluation of existing programs and projects intended to enhance the welfare of DECS teaching and non-teaching employees. The Division is
also concerned with the development of new welfare programs to suit the emerging needs of DECS personnel. Moreover, the EWBD provides
consultative researches and studies in aid of legislation on matters pertinent for upgrading the welfare and benefits of the Department's
employees. Conformably, EWBD, a relatively new office of the Department, has initiated the establishment and implementation of the following
programs and projects:
23. 22. Graft and Corruption Prevention EducationGender and Development Peace Educations Human Rights Education Values Orientation
Workshop Staff Development Division The Division's primordial concern is to conceptualize, implement, monitor and evaluate programs on
skills enhancement, values orientation, frontline functions improvement and special programs for teaching and non-teaching personnel of the
DECS Central and field offices. It's other functions include: conducting orientation/induction programs for new entrants on the history,
structure, vision and mission, work ethics, organization and functions of the Department; undertake a well-planned and coordinated materials
development program including the preparation of training modules and supplementary reading handouts. Special Programs
24. 23. The Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) is responsible for providing access and quality elementary education for all. It also focuses on
social services for the poor and directs public resources and efforts at socially disadvantaged regions and specific groups. The Bureau of
Secondary Education (BSE) is responsible for providing access and quality secondary education. Its aim is to enable every elementary
graduate to have access to secondary education. It improves access to secondary education by establishing schools in municipalities where
there are none and reviews the overall structure of secondary education as regards curriculum, facilities, and teachers’ in-service
training. The Bureau of Non-formal Education (BNFE) is responsible for contributing to the improvement of the poor through literacy
and continuing education programmes. Its aim is to provide focused basic services to the more disadvantaged sections of the population to
improve their welfare and contribute to human resource development.
25. 24. The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) is responsible for physical fitness promotion, school sports development,
cultural heritage revival (Kundiman Fiesta), natural heritage conservation, and values development. Its aim is to inculcate desirable values
such as self-discipline, honesty, teamwork, sportsmanship, excellence and others and make the Filipino youth fit to respond adequately to the
demands, requirements, challenges and opportunities that the next century may bring. The functions of the BPESS were absorbed by the
Philippine Sports Commission in August 1999. Attached agencies to the Department are the National Museum, National Library,
National Historical Institute, and Records Management and Archives Office. Other offices are the Instructional Materials Corporation,
Instructional Materials Council, Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force, Educational Assistance Policy Council, National
Youth and Sports Development Board, National Social Action Council and Teacher Education Council. The main objective of the cultural
agencies of the Department is to preserve, conserve, restore and enrich the cultural heritage, customs and traditions.
26. 25. UbD K+12  ALS  Lib Hub Project Trends in Education
27. 26. Library Hub makes books accessible to all
28. 27. to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction, encompassing both the non- formal and informal sources of
knowledge and skills to promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino
children in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include alternative learning system for
out-of school youth and adult learners.“ (Section 2 of PA. 9155, The Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001).  to protect and promote
the right of all citizen to quality basic education Goals of Alternative Learning System
29. 28. Understanding by Design
30. 29. K+12
31. 30. CHED Vision A key leader and effective partner in transforming HEIs towards producing highly competent and productive professionals
through dynamic excellent and client oriented services
32. 31. CHED Mission CHED is committed to provide effective central office direction and implement programs and mechanisms to ensure
affordable quality higher education accessible to all
33. 32. CHED Thesis / Dissertation Grants / Paper Presentation / Visiting Research Fellow Centers of Excellence/Development (COE/COD) 
National Agriculture and Fisheries Education System (NAFES)  Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program
(ETEEAP)  Student Financial Assistance Programs (StuFAPs)  Faculty Development (FacDev) Commission on Higher Education
Projects and Programs
34. 33. Faculty Development (FacDev) The quality of education depends largely on the qualifications and competencies of the faculty. In view of
the faculty’s vital role in influencing education outcomes, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) requires that teachers at higher
education level must have at least masters degree in the fields in which they teach. The Faculty Development Program (FDP) is a critical
factor towards building the strong foundation of an educational system to ensure quality education. In previous and current studies, faculty
development has always surfaced as a priority concern. Our nation cannot compete with its neighboring countries that are now moving
towards offering cutting-edge programs and technologies unless we invest in creating a pool of experts in our academic institutions. This
critical mass will then be capable to train and equip students for significant and promising careers in the global market.
35. 34. Faculty Development (FacDev)… More that 50% or 70,000 higher education institutions (HEIs) faculty need to upgrade their qualifications
and competencies in order to improve the quality of teaching in our HEIs. The vast majority of students in higher education are being taught by
faculty who possess no more than the level of qualification for which they are studying. Low teacher qualification inevitably leads to low
standards of learning achievement among students. CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 40, s. 2008 which requires all higher education
institutions (HEIs) faculty to have at least masters degree shall be fully implemented by AY 2011-2012. Hence, there is need to encourage and
provide assistance to HEIs to enable them to meet this CMO requirement.
36. 35. Half-Merit - P7,500.00/sem HALF - For bright Filipino students who got a percentile NCAE rating score of 85 to 89. Scholars under this
program shall enroll in any government or private HEIs. It also includes Persons With Disabilities (PWDS).  Full-Merit - P15,000.00/sem 
FULL - This program is for bright Filipinos students who got the highest score in the NCAE and must belong to the top ten of the graduating
class. Scholars under this program can enroll in any government or private college/university HEIs with parent whose Annual Income Tax
Return of not less than P300,000.00. Student Financial Assistance Programs (StuFAPs) As per CMO 29, s.2009 Revised Implementing
constituents for Congressmen, Party List Representatives, and Senators. P5,000.00/sem  OPAPP-CHED STUDY GRANT PROGRAM
FOR REBEL RETURNEES - This grant-program is intended for former rebels and the legitimate/legitimized dependents which expands the
access to college education opportunities.  P2,500.00/sem  DND-CHED-PASUC STUDY GRANT PROGRAM - This grant-program is
intended for dependents of killed-in-action (KIA), battle related, Complete Disability Discharged (CDD-Combat) and active Military Personnel
of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Educational benefit given to children of KIA- CDD Combat in order to contribute to the enhancement of
our soldiers to fight by ensuring their children’s education.  P6,000.00/sem  STUDY GRANT PROGRAM FOR SOLO PARENTS AND
THEIR DEPENDENTS – This program is intended for all solo parents and their children Student Financial Assistance Programs GRANT-
IN-AID PROGRAMS Tulong-Dunong includes the following components:
38. 37. P7,500.00/sem Study Now Pay Later Plan (SNPLP) - This program is designed to promote democratization of access to educational
opportunities in the tertiary level to poor but deserving students through financial assistance in the form of an educational loan. It is a scheme
that extends loan or credit to poor but deserving students who are entering freshman college or tertiary students with college units earned
Student Financial Assistance Programs (StuFAPs) STUDENT LOAN PROGRAM
39. 38. Student Financial Assistance Programs (StuFAPs) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: • Must be a Filipino citizen of good moral character; • A
high school graduate or a candidate for graduation from high School; • At least 80% general weighted average (GWA) based on Form 138 and
a general scholastic aptitude (GSA) of National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE), as follows: a. 90% above - full merit b. 85%
above - half merit c. 80-84% - grant-in-aid and student loan programs • Combined Annual Gross Income of Parents/Guardian not to exceed
P300,000.00; • Must not be more than 30 years of age at the time of application except for CHED OPAPPSGPRR; • Entering freshmen and/or
college student in any curricular year level; • For student-borrower: a. must enter into a loan agreement with CHEDRO; and b. must have
a co-borrower who is a member of SSS/GSIS in good standing (at least paying contribution for six (6) months for the last 12 months); and •
Has not availed of any government scholarship and/or grant.
40. 39. Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (ETEEAP) The ETEEAP is a comprehensive educational
assessment program at the tertiary level that recognizes, accredits and gives equivalencies to knowledge, skills, attitudes and values gained
by individuals from relevant work. It is implemented through deputized higher education institutions that shall award the appropriate college
degree. Beneficiaries must be Filipinos who are at least high school graduates. They must have worked for at least five years in the field or
industry related to the academic program they are obtaining an equivalency. They must also be able to show proof of proficiency, capability
and thorough knowledge in the field applied for equivalency
41. 40. National Agriculture and Fisheries Education System (NAFES) The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in coordination with the
Department of Agriculture (DA) and other government agencies was mandated to establish a National Agriculture and Fisheries Education
System (NAFES) by virtue of Section 66 of Republic Act (RA) No. 8435 otherwise known as the “Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act
(AFMA) of 1997” NAFES aims to establish, maintain and support a complete and integrated system of agriculture and fisheries education
(AFE), modernize and rationalize agriculture and fisheries education from elementary to tertiary levels, unify the system of implementation of
academic programs and upgrade the quality and ensure sustainability and promote the global competitiveness at all levels of AFE. To address
these objectives, the National Universities and Colleges of Agriculture and Fisheries (NUCAFs) and Provincial Institutes of Agriculture and
Fisheries (PIAFs) were identified. The selection of the NUCAFs and PIAFs were based on the following criteria namely, institutional
accessibility, population, economic contribution of agriculture and fisheries in the community, quantity and quality of research studies
conducted, degree of utilization of research results, quantity and quality of faculty members, type of facilities, linkages and potential
contribution to agriculture and fisheries development in the target area
42. 41. Centers of Excellence/Development (COE/COD) Centers of Excellence (COEs) and Centers of Development (CODs) are either public or
private higher education institutions (HEIs) which have demonstrated the highest degree or level of standard along the areas of instruction,
research and extension. They provide institutional leadership in all aspects of development in specific areas of discipline in the various regions
by providing networking arrangements to help ensure the accelerated development of HEIs in their respective service areas. COEs/CODs in
the different disciplines are identified and carefully selected for funding assistance. Funds released to these centers are utilized for student
scholarships, faculty development, library and laboratory upgrading, research and extension services, instructional materials development,
and networking of existing COEs and CODs.
43. 42. CHED Thesis / Dissertation Grants / Paper Presentation / Visiting Research Fellow Guidelines ■Guidelines for CHED Dissertation Grant
CMO 04 S. 2003.pdf ■Guidelines for CHED Visiting Research Fellowships CMO 13 S. 2003.pdf ■Addendum to CHED Memorandum Order
No. 13, Series of 2003 Re: Guidelines for CHED Visiting Research Fellowships CMO 32 S. 2004.pdf ■Guidelines for CHED Thesis Grant
CMO 33 S. 2004.pdf ■Revised Guidelines for CHED Support for Paper Presentations in International Conferences CMO_12_s2009.pdf Forms
Application Form SPPIC.doc dissform-1.doc thesis application form.doc
44. 43. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of Republic Act No. 7796
otherwise known as the "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos on
August 25, 1994. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units and technical-
vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resources.
45. 44. The merging of the National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). The Bureau of
Technical and Vocational Education (BTVE) of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and The Apprenticeship Program of
the Bureau of Local Employment (BLE) of the DOLE gave birth to TESDA.
46. 45. The fusion of the above offices was one of the key recommendations of the 1991 Report of the Congressional Commission on Education,
which undertook a national review of the state of Philippine education and manpower development. It was meant to reduce overlapping in
skills development activities initiated by various public and private sector agencies, and to provide national directions for the country's
technical- vocational education and training (TVET) system. Hence, a major thrust of TESDA is the formulation of a comprehensive
development plan for middle- level manpower based on the National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan. This plan shall provide
for a reformed industry-based training program that includes apprenticeship, dual training system and other similar schemes.
47. 46. TESDA is mandated to: 1. Integrate, coordinate and monitor skills development programs; 2. Restructure efforts to promote and develop
middle-level manpower; 3. Approve skills standards and tests; 4. Develop an accreditation system for institutions involved in middle-level
manpower development; 5. Fund programs and projects for technical education and skills development; and 6. Assist trainers training
48. 47. Manage skills development funds. Organize skills competitions; and  Develop and administer training incentives;  Formulate a skills
development plan;  Involve industry/employers in skills training;  Reform the apprenticeship program;  Devolve training functions to local
governments; At the same time, TESDA is expected to:
49. 48. Overall, TESDA formulates manpower and skills plans, sets appropriate skills standards and tests, coordinates and monitors manpower
policies and programs, and provides policy directions and guidelines for resource allocation for the TVET institutions in both the private and
public sectors. Today, TESDA has evolved into an organization that is responsive, effective and efficient in delivering myriad services to its
clients. To accomplish its multi- pronged mission, the TESDA Board has been formulating strategies and programs geared towards yielding
the highest impact on manpower development in various areas, industry sectors and institutions.
50. 49. Vision TESDA is the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world-class competence and positive work values.
Mission TESDA provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skill development.
51. 50. Values Statement We believe in demonstrated competence, institutional integrity, personal commitment and deep sense of nationalism.
Quality Policy "We measure our worth by the satisfaction of the customers we serve" Through: Strategic Decisions Effectiveness
Responsiveness Value Adding Integrity Citizen focus Efficiency
52. 51. TESDA CORE BUSINESS Direction Setting Crucial to TESDA's role as the TVET authority in the country is its capacity to steer and
provide guidance to the sector. With the end in view of setting out clear directions and establishing priorities, the availability of timely, relevant
and accurate information is of essence. Data gathered through the conduct of researchers and studies shall be desseminated to enable the
TVET stakeholders to make informed decisions. With quality information, TVET policies and plans shall be formulated that will serve as the
blueprint for TVET implementation in the country.
53. 52. Policies, Plans and Information Programs and services relating to these concern embody the role of TESDA as the authority in technical
vocational education and training (TVET). These are aimed at providing clear directions and priorities for TVET in the country. These include
the formulation of plans and policies for the TVET sector and the generation through researches and studies and the dissemination of relevant
data and information for informed decision of stakeholders of the sector. National Technical Education Skills Development (TESD) Plan
National Technical Education Skills Development (TESD) Agency Philippine Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System
Philippine Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Outlook Labor Market Intelligence Reports List of Technical Vocational
Education and Training (TVET) Studies Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Statistics
54. 53. Pro-active Job Matching Process TESDA shall SEEK (jobs) through domestic and international market intelligence report to pinpoint
specific job requirements. TESDA shall FIND (people) the right people who can be trained to fit the jobs in partnership with NGOs, social
welfare agencies / institutions, school and community organizations. TESDA shal TRAIN (people) using standards of quality for TVET
developed in consultation with various industry sectors. This pro-active matching process contributes to the best job-skills fit. TESDA also
focuses on increasing productivity of implemented training programs by assisting individuals or groups who prefer to go into micro business,
small and medium enterprises of enterpreneurship training.
55. 54. Support to TVET Provision In view to the need to provide equitable access and provision of TESD programs to the growing TVET clients,
TESDA continues to undertake direct training provision. There are four training modalities - school-based, center-based, enterprise-based and
community-based. These are being done with the TESDA's infrastructure in place - 57 administered schools, 60 training centers, enterprise-
based training through DTS/Apprenticeship and community-based training in convergence with the LGUs.
56. 55. School Based Programs Center Based Program Community Based Programs Enterprise Based Programs TESDA Language Skills
Institutes Scholarship and Student Assistance Programs Career Guidance and Placement Programs Institutional Capacity Building For
TESDA to provide the required services and live up to its core business, it must muster internal capacity and capability. It is necessary to build
its competencies along various requirements of its responsibilities in direction setting, standards setting and systems development and in
supporting TVET provision. Institutional capacity building also involves the installation of the TESDA quality management system at all levels
of the organization. Foreign Scholarship Training Program
57. 56. TVET Programs In view of the need to provide equitable access and provision of TESD programs to the growing TVET clients, TESDA
continues to undertake direct training provisions. There are four training modalities school- based, center-based, enterprised-based and
community-based. These are being done with TESDA’s infrastructure in place – 57 TESDA administered schools, 60 training center,
enterprized-based training through DTS/apprenticeship and community-based training in convergence with the LGU’s.
58. 57. School Based Program This refers to the direct delivery or provision of TVET programs by the TESDA-administered schools. Totaling to
57, 19 are agricultural schools. 7 are fishery schools and 31 are trade schools. These school based programs include post-secondary
offerings of varying duration not exceeding three years.
59. 58. Center Based Programs These refer to training provisions being undertaken in the TESDA Regional (15) and Provincial (45) Training
Centers totaling 60 in selected trade areas in the different regions and provinces in the country.
60. 59. TESDA Training Center Taguig Campus Enterprise (TTCTCE) The TTCTCE conducts and advanced technology training programs
registered under UTPRAS in partnership with industry organizations under a co-management scheme in response to the training requirements
of the industry. These programs generate income to support TESDA Development Fund (TDF). The TESDA board approves the training fees.
From the training fees, at an agreed sharing scheme contained in a MOA, the industry partners assume all the training expenses, repair and
maintain the training facilities of the center. They also bring the equipment to augment TESDA's delivery system.
61. 60. Community Based Programs Community-based Training for Enterprise development Program is primarily addressed to the poor and
marginal groups, those who cannot access, or are not accessible by formal training provisions. They have low skills, limited management
abilities, and have few economic options. They have no access to capital – most of them are unqualified for formal credit programs. The
program goes further than just mere skills training provision. It is purposively designed to catalyzed the creation of livelihood enterprises that
shall be implemented by the trainees, immediately after the training. Likewise, it is designed to assist partner agencies such as LGUs, NGOs,
people organizations and other agencies organizations with mission to help the poor get into productive undertakings to help themselves and
their communities. a. The Evolution of Community-based Training and Enterprise Development in TESDA
62. 61. Enterprise Based Programs Enterprised-Based Programs are training program being implemented within companies/firms. These
programs can be any of the following: Apprenticeship Program is a training and employment program involving a contract between an
apprentice and an employer on an approved apprenticeable occupation. Generally, it aims to provide a mechanism that will ensure availability
of qualified skilled workers based on industry requirements. The period of apprenticeship covers a minimum of four months and a maximum of
six months. Only companies with approved and registered apprenticeship programs under TESDA can be hire apprentices. Objectives: To
help meet the demand of the economy for trained manpower; To establish a national apprenticeship program through the participation of
employers, workers and government and non- government agencies; and To establish apprenticeship standards for the protectionof
63. 62. Dual Training System is an instructional mode of delivery for technology-based education and training in which learning takes place
alternately in two venues: the school or training center and the company. One of the strategic approaches on this program is the conversion of
selected industry practices/ programs registered under the apprenticeship program into DTS modality. Objectives: To strengthen manpower
education and training in the Philippines by institutionalizing the DTS as an instructional delivery system of technical and vocational education
and training (TVET). Learnership Program is a practical training on-the-job for approved learnable occupations, for a period not exceeding
three months. Only companies with TESDA approved and registered learnership programs can hire learners. 
64. 63. Trainers Teachers  Parents  GOs  NGOs  LGUs  IBs/Industry Associations  Training Institutions  Training Centers  Schools 
Companies  Trainees/ Students Target Beneficiaries:
65. 64. Tax exemption for imported equipment  Enhanced public image  Better employment opportunities for its graduates  Maximized use of
equipment and facilities  Responsiveness to industries' needs  Less need for sophisticated equipment and facilities  FOR SCHOOLS: 
Savings on production cost through tax incentives  Guaranteed highly skilled and productive workers  Workers developed according to the
company's needs  FOR COMPANIES:  Allowance for transportation and other expenses.  Better chances for career mobility  Enhanced
employability after training  Quality training and proper skills, work attitude and knowledge  Benefits of the Dual Training System: FOR
66. 65. Competency Standards Development TESDA develops competency standards for middle-level skilled workers. These are in the form of
units of competency containing descriptors for acceptable work performance. These are packaged into qualifications corresponding to critical
jobs and occupations in the priority industry sectors. The qualifications correspond to a specific levels in the Philippine TVET Qualifications
Framework (PTQF).The competency standards and qualifications, together with training standards and assessment arrangements comprise
the national training regulations (TR) promulgated by the TESDA Board. The TRs serve as basis for registration and delivery of TVET
programs, competency assessment and certification and development of curricula for the specific qualification.
67. 66. Assessment and Certification TESDA pursues the assessment and certification of the competencies of the middle-level skilled workers
through Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System (PTQCS). The assessment process seeks to determine whether the graduate
or worker can perform to the standards expected in the workplace based on the defined competency standards. Certification is provided to
those who meets the competency standards. This ensures the productivity, quality and global competitiveness of the middle-level workers.
TESDA has a Registry of Certified Workers which provides information on the pool of certified workers for certain occupations nationwide.
TESDA also has accredited assessment centers as well as the competency assessors who conduct competency assessment process for
persons applying for certification.
68. 67. TESDA also has accredited assessment centers as well as the competency assessors who conduct competency assessment process for
persons applying for certification. a. General Requirements and Procedures in Applying for Assessment and Certification (National
Certificate (NC) / Certificate of Competency (COC)) 1. List of TESDA Accredited Assessment Centers 2. List of Accredited TESDA
Qualified Assessors b. Free Assessment Service of TESDA (FAST) 1. Application Requirements and Procedures c. Maritime /
Seafarer’s Ratings 1. Steps in Applying for Certificate of Competency (COC) under STCW 2. List of Accredited Assessment
Centers for
69. 68. d. Household Service Worker 1. Procedures and Guidelines in applying for Household Service Worker NC II e. Online Registries
1. Registry of Workers Assessed and Certified (RWAC) 2. Maritime Certificate (COC) Verification 3. Registry of Certified
Household Service Workers 3. Registry of Certified Welders
70. 69. Of the three training delivery modes, community-based training programs produced the highest number of graduates at 907,730, followed
by institution-based training with 873,558 and enterprise- based training with 122,505 graduates. In skills assessment and certification, some
836,131 skilled workers and new graduates were assessed. Of this number 690,836 workers were certified.  An additional 5,264 tech-voc
programs were registered in 4,041 public and private training providers nationwide. The registry of certified workers was up by 482,034 while
the number of accredited assessors and assessment centers totaled to 2,665 and 1,676, respectively.  TESDA also upgraded the skills and
certified 10,335 tech-voc trainers and dispatched 2,896 trainees under the TESDA-JITCO Skills and Technology Transfer Project during the
year.  In 2009, TESDA provided 592,977 scholarships to displaced local workers and OFWs under the Pangulong Gloria Scholarships
(PGS). Some 592,977 students and trainees also qualified as scholars under the Private Education and Student Financial Assistance
(PESFA) program. A total of 158,855 high school students were profiled under the Youth Profiling for Starring Career (YP4SC) in 2009. A one-
stop center on job referral and placement assistance was established in 672 blue-desks throughout the country. ACHIEVEMENTS
71. 70. The biggest number of graduates were employed in the following business sectors: footwear and leathergoods; land transportation;
processed food and beverages; business process outsourcing; heating, ventilation and air- conditioning; metals and engineering; construction
and furniture and fixtures. The skills learned by vocational training graduates, according to TESDA, are very much in demand and are
attuned to the needs of companies. The courses they have chosen were based on their occupational interests and aptitudes.  This study
also showed that graduates of technical vocational courses have higher chances of getting employment than college graduates.  The impact
evaluation study conducted by TESDA showed that of the more than 200,000 graduates who responded in the survey, 55 percent were
already employed. More than one-third (36%) got their jobs in less than a month and one- fourth (26%) were employed within one to three
months after completing their courses. EMPLOYED
72. 71. Enrollment in tech-voc courses has in fact increased over the years and has reached 1.98 million in 2009. Half of the enrollees were high
school graduates while 13 percent were already college graduates. The rest were either college undergraduates (16 percent) or have
previously taken other post-secondary tech-voc course (12 percent). In the past, many Filipinos shy away from tech-voc courses, thinking
that these are only for the poor and those with low mental ability. The reality now is that most of the successful workers and entrepreneurs
have taken at least one or two tech- voc courses. Most of the job vacancies now, both in the domestic and overseas labor markets, require
technical skills. THE VALUE OF TECH-VOC

3. Now consider yourself as a head of school how you can help in the improvement of implementation of K-12.

Teaching throughout their professional lives. In order for this to be accomplished, it is essential that bridges are built between the education faculty and
the content faculty involved in teacher preparation. We tend to know our own area. Discipline specialists know developments in science, but may not
know about current recommendations in science education.

The State of Minnesota Framework for Education of Teachers of Mathematics and Science was developed to communicate clearly common, statewide
goals for the preparation of teachers in mathematics and science. The framework describes five areas important to teacher preparation programs that
will transform teacher education: content, pedagogy, students, an environment for learning, and the process of professional development.

Within each of those five areas, the framework addresses four questions. First, "What are the knowledge and skills individuals need to acquire?"
Second, "What are the experiences that these individuals need to have in order to acquire those knowledge and skills?" Third, "What are the roles and
responsibilities of faculty throughout the university?'' And fourth, "What are the characteristics of a university that produce accomplished beginning

Teachers are the key to effective reform in science and mathematics education. The education of mathematics and science teachers is the responsibility
of an entire institution, and the successful transformation of science and mathematics education will require strong and sustained support from many
individuals over time. For example, convincing the dean of a college of science and technology to buy into the necessary changes for educating teachers
implies change within the entire college. The dean must understand that in the end, successful efforts to reform teacher preparation programs ultimately
will enhance the education of every student who attends the university.

When working with stakeholders from different communities, we must remember that everyone is an expert in a different area and has ideas that need to
be valued. One of the most important messages to take away from this conference is the need to establish communities of learners composed of all the
individuals involved in teacher preparation. The first step in building this community of learners is to establish an environment of trust and respect within
and between university colleges, departments, and the local K-12 teachers and administrators.
A Principal's Perspective on the K-12 School's Role in Preparing Teachers

Mary Ann Chung, Principal, Sunrise Valley Elementary, Fairfax County, Virginia

In the Fairfax County Public School system, each elementary school has lead teachers for science, social studies, and mathematics. Lead teachers
attend in-depth programs and then are supposed to provide turn-around training in

their own schools. But at the school level, principals still need to provide that precious resource of time. Turn-around training is not effective when it is
reduced to one after school in-service. Where do the teachers find the time to learn new teaching strategies, let alone the time to create visions? My
vision was to meet the professional development needs of teachers in my building within the time constraints of the school day.

At Sunrise Valley Elementary, the staff had worked together for a long time. There was a climate for readiness—to think about how to reduce the
pupil/teacher ratio and to provide opportunities for teachers to create visions and to grow as professionals. We developed strategies to create a
''community of learners" by way of a partnership with Marymount University, establishing a professional development academy at our school. Creating
this academy—a community of learners—has resulted in some wonderful achievements. For example, there is one intern for every teacher in our
building. That intern stays with the same teacher all year long, not just for six or twelve weeks, and has the opportunity to be totally immersed in the
school environment.

The teaching staff wanted professional development, and the interns helped make it possible. Once the interns became accustomed to the students and
the routines of the class and the content, they could supervise the classrooms, enabling teachers to have professional development activities right there
at the school site during their regular contract hours.

The interns are also learning. They are learning from the sophisticated questions experienced teachers ask in their own staff development sessions and
from the teachers as they apply their pedagogical content knowledge. The teachers have the opportunity to go back minute by minute, reflecting on their
practice. They think about why they did something when they answer the intern who asks, "How did you ever make that child do whatever?" or "I have
been working with Jimmy for two days, and he still has not learned fractions. How can I improve?" Both the intern and the teacher are constantly
reflecting and learning.

Education professors are out in the school every day. They come to the school in the afternoon to teach their university courses. They send a
coordinator or director of the elementary program out one day a week. We all meet together regularly, and the teachers and interns constantly assess
the program and make changes.

One of the comments interns have about the experience is that while they were in the university setting, they would be asked to design lesson plans, but
there was no audience, no way to test the plan, and no need to refine it. They were creating in a vacuum. Now they are in the school setting. When they
design a lesson, the interns learn both to implement and assess the plan. They also can reflect on how well it works.

Top Ten Ways to Improve K-12 Education?

There has been a lot of discussion online about the need to improve schooling in the United States. Ultimately, the solution will be found in specific

actions. The question is: What specific actions are needed? To get the conversation started, below is a list of ten action items. I hope this will

encourage readers to refine the list—better define some statements, replace others, etc. What are the top ten things we need to do to improve K-12

education? Here is a starting point:

1. Return teaching to professional status—invest in teachers and reward good ones.

2. Make teacher education programs more robust and demanding, both in terms of content-area study and educational philosophy and process study.

3. Put teachers in control of the curriculum; de-politicize the curriculum process.

4. Move away from standardized tests that drive curricula toward too-low norms.

5. Empower teachers with well-developed teaching resources; better use of technology to share curricular content across schools through open

educational resources (OERs), emulating what we did nationally with educational television in the 1960s-1970s.

6. Build collaborative relationships between schools and higher education; offer university-based high school courses and dual enrollment courses to

ensure that students complete high school ready for college.

7. Re-emphasize civics education to give students a better understanding of their role as citizens.

8. Emphasize active learning—inquiry, research, application—rather than just knowledge transfer at all levels.

9. Build collaborations with local employers for internships and with social service organizations to integrate an expectation of community service into the


10. Ensure a well-defined general education curriculum (history, literature, writing, speaking, civics, arts) to complement a STEM/vocational emphasis.


K-12 program to improve quality of education: Briones

TESDA, which stands for Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, is the government agency tasked to manage and supervise technical
education and skills development in the Philippines.

With the K to 12 program, Briones said students are given better options and opportunities to improve their education and quality of life.

“To those who will go to college, the chances are all up to their hard work since tuition is already free in state colleges and local universities,” she said.

In an earlier interview with Philippine News Agency (PNA), Assistant Secretary Nepomuceno Malaluan said the K to 12 program, in its third year of
implementation, is already in a good position in terms of the required infrastructures, materials and teacher training.
Malaluan said that a recent survey showed that SHS education has decreased the percentage of dropouts among high school students.

“Before less than 50 percent of fourth year high school graduates go to college, now 93 percent of the SHS graduates will continue to college, this shows
strong support from learners,” he said.

With regard to program implementation, Malaluan said DepEd needs to strengthen its collaboration with the community and private sector to improve on
the alignment of education with the companies’ employment requirements.

In April, some 1.252 million learners graduated from SHS. For the school year 2018 to 2019, DepEd welcomed some 2.813 million grade 11 and grade
12 learners based on their projected data. (PNA)

The goal of the new curriculum is to give Filipino students enough time to master skills and concepts so that they are ready for tertiary education when

the time comes.

Kindergarten was previously optional, and advocates of the K-12 programme argue that students who went to kindergarten are better prepared for

primary education than those who did not. In addition, the K-12 programme “provides for the use of the ‘mother tongue‘ language as the medium of

instruction for students in the basic and lower years to facilitate and expedite learning.”

This fabulous interactive map of all public schools in the country could be a useful tool in planning a recruitment strategy. It contains data on the school’s

budget, enrolment statistics, education indicators, number of teaching personnel, furniture, textbooks, classrooms, plus the water and power supply of

some 45,000 schools nationwide.

Building classrooms and adding teachers

As mentioned, one of the ten points on the Education Agenda aims to address severe overcrowding in Philippine schools and the shortage of


In October of last year, the Department of Education signed an agreement “with two winning consortia which will undertake the construction of close to

10,000 classrooms.”

The department’s Public Private Partnership for School Infrastructure Project (PSIP) will give schools the physical space they need and “provides the

private sector the business opportunity to invest in the design, construction and maintenance of classrooms.”

Philippine Education Secretary Armin A. Luistro has said he hopes that by doing so, the classrooms would stand as a testament to Filipino capability and

efficiency. Progress is well underway; construction of more than 9,000 classrooms began in March of this year.

But making more room for students is only half the solution; someone has to teach them and as of early last month, the Department of Education still

hadn’t filled over 61,500 teaching positions.

An increase in student enrolment which caused the shortage of teachers was due to an increase in kindergarten students – a result of the new K-12

curriculum, as well as students who were formerly enrolled in private school transferring to public school because of tuition fee hikes.

Student enrolment in 2012/3 stood at 20.67 million: 1.77 million kindergarten students, 13.26 million elementary students, and 5.64 million high school


For foreign education providers, this lack of qualified teachers could mean an opportunity to partner with institutions in the Philippines to develop a

teacher-training programme or qualification.

Increased focus on vocational education

A final point on the 10 Point Education Agenda calls for a re-introduction of vocational and technical education in high schools, which has been designed

to give Filipino students practical skills to gain employment after graduation – a key component in tackling the high youth unemployment rate in the


Some advocates are calling for the adoption of the German model of apprenticeship. The Manilla Bulletin reported:

“The Philippine Business for Education (PBEd) wants the country to incorporate Germany’s system of dual technical-vocational education into the K-12

basic education programme.”

It is hoped that adopting the German model would help address the skills mismatch between Filipino graduates and the jobs available. Ramon del

Rosario, chairman of the PBEd, has said now is the time to implement the apprenticeship system, because of the start of the K-12 curriculum: “It is a

good time because of the development of the senior high school curriculum and that will have a track towards technical vocational education.”

In May, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) announced it had completed the K-12 technical vocational curriculum, and

everything was in place for the start of the new school year.

TESDA Secretary Joel Villanueva said, “Technical vocational education and training (TVET) will play a central role in the new education model that

prepares students for tertiary education, middle-skills development, employment and entrepreneurship.” Courses include automotive servicing,

horticulture, welding, consumer electronics, dressmaking/tailoring, carpentry, food processing and beauty care.

1.Give & explain the statistical test of the following:

a. Comparison of two means

Sometimes in a fieldwork it is only possible to collect small samples due to limitations of available individuals or of time: the Comparison of Two Means

allows you to reliably compare the two entire populations from which the samples are taken. It can tell you if the two samples (given as numerical non-
ranked data) are truly significant (in which case the two entire populations are truly different), or if the differences between the two samples simply

occurred by chance (in which case you cannot draw a conclusion as to the similarity/dissimilarity of the two entire populations).

Limitations of the Comparison of Two Means:

 If both samples have less than 30 values, use the T-Test

 If the sample is NOT normally distributed, or for ordinal (=ranked) data, use the Mann Whitney U-Test

The Comparison of Two Means is used when at least one of the samples has more than 30 values AND both samples are normally distributed.


1. The Null Hypothesis is that there is NO significant difference between the two samples

2. Calculate (D) = the difference between the means of the two samples (use only the positive value of the result)

3. Calculate (SE) = Standard Error of Difference, with the formula above, where (s) is the standard deviation of each sample, and (n) the number

of values in each sample

4. If D / SE > 2, then the Null Hypothesis can be rejected with 95% certainty, which means there is only a 95% probability that the entire

populations from which the samples are taken are significantly different.

Example: comparison between the IB grades obtained at two schools

We have sampled only 10% of the student body in each school. School A has 400 students (sample = 40) and school B has 500 students (sample = 50).

The results are as follows:

School A School B Clearly students at School B seem to perform better than at School A: is the a coincidence res

Size of Sample (n) 40 Students 50 Students students that were sampled (ie: another sample might show otherwise), or is this difference rep

Mean IB Grade (x̄) 4.1 5.3 a significant difference between the results for all students in both schools?

Standard Deviation (σ) 1.1 1.3

 D = 5.3 - 4.1 = 1.2 and SE = 0.25

 D / SE = 4.74 (> 2)

 We can therefore conclude, with 95% certainty, that the fact that there is a difference

sample is NOT a coincidence, and that the ENTIRE population of students in school

on average, than the ENTIRE population of students in school B

Comparison of Two Means

In many cases, a researcher is interesting in gathering information about two populations in order to compare them. As in statistical inference for one
population parameter, confidence intervals and tests of significance are useful statistical tools for the difference between two population parameters.

Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Means

A confidence interval for the difference between two means specifies a range of values within which the difference between the means of the two
populations may lie. These intervals may be calculated by, for example, a producer who wishes to estimate the difference in mean daily output from two
machines; a medical researcher who wishes to estimate the difference in mean response by patients who are receiving two different drugs; etc. The

confidence interval for the difference between two means contains all the values of ( - ) (the difference between the two population means)
which would not be rejected in the two-sided hypothesis test of

H0: = against Ha: , i.e.

H0: - = 0 against Ha: - 0.

If the confidence interval includes 0 we can say that there is no significant difference between the means of the two populations, at a given level of

(Definition taken from Valerie J. Easton and John H. McColl's Statistics Glossary v1.1)
Tests of Significance for Two Unknown Means and Known Standard Deviations

Given samples from two normal populations of size n1 and n2 with unknown means and and known standard deviations and , the
test statistic comparing the means is known as the two-sample z statistic

which has the standard normal distribution (N(0,1)).

The null hypothesis always assumes that the means are equal, while the alternative hypothesis may be one-sided or two-sided.

Tests of Significance for Two Unknown Means and Unknown Standard Deviations
In general, the population standard deviations are not known, and are estimated by the calculated values s1 and s2. In this case, the test statistic is
defined by the two-sample t statistic

Although the two-sample statistic does not exactly follow the t distribution (since two standard deviations are estimated in the statistic),
conservative P-values may be obtained using the t(k)distribution where k represents the smaller of n1-1 and n2-1. Another option is to estimate
the degrees of freedom via a calculation from the data, which is the general method used by statistical software such as MINITAB.

The confidence interval for the difference in means - is given by

where t* is the upper (1-C)/2 critical value for the t distribution with k degrees of freedom (with k equal to either the smaller of n1-1 and n1-2 or
the calculated degrees of freedom).

The dataset "Normal Body Temperature, Gender, and Heart Rate" contains 130 observations of body temperature, along with the gender of each
individual and his or her heart rate. In the dataset, the first column gives body temperature and the second column gives the value "1" (male) or "2"
(female) to describe the gender of each subject. Using the MINITAB "DESCRIBE" command with the "BY" subcommand to separate the two genders
provides the following information:
Descriptive Statistics

Variable C2 N Mean Median Tr Mean StDev SE Mean

C1 1 65 98.105 98.100 98.114 0.699 0.087
2 65 98.394 98.400 98.390 0.743 0.092

Variable C2 Min Max Q1 Q3

C1 1 96.300 99.500 97.600 98.600
2 96.400 100.800 98.000 98.800

Is there a significant difference between the mean body temperatures for men and women? To test H0: - = 0 against Ha: -
0, compute the test statistic (98.105 - 98.394)/(sqrt(0.699²/65 + 0.743²/65)) = -0.289/0.127 = -2.276. Using the t(64) distribution, estimated in Table E in
Moore and McCabe by the t(60) distribution, we see that 2P(t>2.276) is between 0.04 and 0.02, indicating a significant difference between the means at
the 0.05 level (although not at the 0.01 level).

To compute a 95% confidence interval, we first note that the 0.025 critical value t* for the t(60) distribution is 2.000, giving the interval ((98.105 -
98.394) + 2.000*0.127) = (-0.289 - 0.254, -0.289 + 0.254) = (-0.543, -0.045). The value 0 is not included in the interval, again indicating a significant
difference at the 0.05 level.

Performing this test in MINITAB using the "TWOT" command gives the results
Two Sample T-Test and Confidence Interval

Two sample T for C1

C2 N Mean StDev SE Mean
1 65 98.105 0.699 0.087
2 65 98.394 0.743 0.092

95% CI for mu (1) - mu (2): ( -0.540, -0.039)

T-Test mu (1) = mu (2) (vs not =): T= -2.29 P=0.024 DF= 127
Although the MINITAB calculated degrees of freedom (127) are much higher than the conservative estimate of 64, we see that the results are much the
Data source: Data presented in Mackowiak, P.A., Wasserman, S.S., and Levine, M.M. (1992), "A Critical Appraisal of 98.6 Degrees F, the Upper Limit of
the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich," Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 1578-1580.
Dataset available through the JSE Dataset Archive.

Pooled t Procedures
If it reasonable to assume that two populations have the same standard deviation, than an alternative procedure known as the pooled t procedure may
be used instead of the general two-sample t procedure. Since only one standard deviation is to be estimated in this case, the resulting test statistic will
exactly follow a t distribution with n1 + n2 - 2 degrees of freedom. The pooled estimator of the variance

is used in the pooled two-sample t statistic

which has a t(n1 + n2 -2) distribution.

In the body temperature example above, the sample standard deviations for the male and female subjects are reasonable close. Using the MINITAB
subcommand "POOLED" with the two-sample t test gives the following results:
Two Sample T-Test and Confidence Interval

Two sample T for C1

C2 N Mean StDev SE Mean
1 65 98.105 0.699 0.087
2 65 98.394 0.743 0.092

95% CI for mu (1) - mu (2): ( -0.540, -0.039)

T-Test mu (1) = mu (2) (vs not =): T= -2.29 P=0.024 DF= 128
Both use Pooled StDev = 0.721
The test results were nearly identical in this case.

Student's t-test: Comparison of two means


Among the most commonly used statistical significance tests applied to small data sets (populations samples) is the series of Student's tests.
One of these tests is used for the comparison of two means, which is commonly applied to many cases. Typical examples are:

Example 1: Comparison of analytical results obtained with the same method on samples A and B, in order to confirm whether both samples
contain the same percentage of the measured analyte or not.

Example 2: Comparison of analytical results obtained with two different methods A and B on the same sample, in order to confirm whether both
methods provide similar analytical results or not.

General aspects of significance tests

The outcome of these tests is the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis (H0). The null hypothesis generally states that: "Any
differences, discrepancies, or suspiciously outlying results are purely due to random and not systematic errors". The alternative hypothesis
(Ha) states exactly the opposite.

The null hypothesis for the aforementioned examples is:

The means are the same, i.e. in Example 1: both samples contain the same percentage of the analyte; in Example 2: both methods provide
the same analytical results. The differences observed (if any) are purely due to random errors.

The alternative hypothesis is:

The means are significantly different, i.e. in Example 1: each sample contains a different percentage of the analyte; in Example 2: the
methods provide different analytical results (so at least one method yields systematic analytical errors).

An erroneous rejection of H0 (even though it is true) constitutes a Type 1 error, whereas an erroneous acceptance of H0 (even though it is false)
constitutes a Type 2 error.

All significance tests provide results within a predefined confidence level %(CL%). Confidence levels commonly used are 90%, 95% and 99%,
with most usual (at least in the field of chemical analysis) the 95%.

A CL 95% means that: In case of rejecting Ho, we are 95% or more certain that we did the right thing. In other words, we risk a probability of no
more than (100-95)/100 = 0.05 for a Type 1 error.

We can decrease or increase the confidence level of a significance test, but one has to consider the following pitfalls:
(a) By decreasing CL say to 90% (making thus the rejection of H0 easier) the probability of Type 1 error obviously increases.

(b) By increasing CL say to 99% (making thus the rejection of H0 harder) the probability of Type 2 error increases.

A CL 95% is generally considered as a fair compromise between these two different risks.

Student's t-test for the comparison of two means

This test (as described below) assumes: (a) A normal (gaussian) distribution for the populations of the random errors, (b) there is no significant
difference between the standard deviations of both population samples.

The two means and the corresponding standard deviations are calculated by using the following equations (n A and nB are the number of
measurements in data set A and data set B, respectively):

Then, the pooled estimate of standard deviation sAB is calculated:

Finally, the statistic texp (experimental t value) is calculated:

texp value is compared with the critical (theoretical) tth value corresponding to the given degree of freedom N (in the present case N = nA + nB -
2) and the confidence level chosen. Tables of critical t values can be found in any book of statistical analysis, as well as in many quantitative
analysis textbooks. If texp>tththen H0 is rejected else H0 is retained.

How this test and the other significance tests are performed using a statistical analysis program

Nowadays, the rather tedious calculation of statistics (such as t exp) has been greatly simplified by using statistical analysis programs.
Furthermore, there is no need of using statistical tables containing critical values. Instead, after loading the data and executing the program, a
numerical value P is internally calculated (usually by mathematically complicated procedures) and it is finally displayed. This P is the probability
of Type 1 error (specific for the data given), and this is more than adequate information for the user to judge the acceptance or the rejection of
the null hypothesis.

For example, supposing that we have decided to work at CL 95% (i.e. we risk a probability of error of Type 1 not greater than 0.05), then:

(a) A value of P = 0.085 means that H0 must be accepted otherwise we risk an unacceptably high probability (more than 0.05) of error of Type

(b) A value of P = 0.021 means that H0 must be rejected because the probability of error of Type 1 is quite low (less than 0.05).

Accordingly, if we had decided to work at CL 90%, in both cases (P = 0.085, P = 0.021) H 0 would have been rejected, whereas if we had decided
to work on CL 99%, in both cases H0 would have been accepted.


This applet provides a demonstration of the aforementioned Student's t test. The user can easily create two demo sets (A and B) of
measurements by left-clicking on the provided areas. All demo data values (45<x<55) are displayed (as dot/lines plots) in these areas in red

By clicking "CALCULATE" the number of measurements (N), the means and the standard deviations (SD) for each set are displayed in the next
to the plots areas as shown below (the positions of the means and the +/-1 SD width are also shown in deep blue color):

whereas the texp and P values are shown in the t-test report text area:
In addition, this outcome is explicitly stated (although redundantly) in terms of positive or negative detection of any difference between the
means at CL 90%, 95% and 99%.

The user can study the effect of measurements spreading and of the number of measurements on the final outcome. Thus, for means differing
by the same amount, in case of low data spreading (small SD values) a significant difference may be reported, whereas in case of high data
spreading (high SD values) no significant difference is reported.

This applet can be used (by clicking on the radiobutton "user's data") for testing actual numerical values provided by the user, acting exactly like
a statistical analysis program performing this type of significance test.

IFor a full list of all applets click here.
Page maintained by Prof. C. E. Efstathiou

b.Comparison of more than means

Comparing More Than Two Means:

Copyright © 2009–2019 by Stan Brown

When you have several means to compare, it’s not valid just to compare all possible pairs with t tests. Instead, you follow a two-stage process:
1. Are all the means equal? A computation called ANOVA (analysis of variance) answers this question.
2. If ANOVA shows that the means aren’t all equal, then which means are unequal, and by how much? There are many ways to answer this
question (and they give different answers), but we’ll use a process called Tukey’s HSD (Honestly Significant Difference).

Example 1: Fat for Frying Donuts
Step 1: ANOVA Test for Equality of All Means
Requirements for ANOVA
Perform a 1-Way ANOVA Test
Step 2: Tukey HSD for Post-Hoc Analysis
Estimating Differences of Means
Other Comparisons
Example 2: Stock Market
Example 3: CRT Lifetimes
Appendix (The Hard Stuff)
Why Not Just Pick Two Means and Do a t Test?
How ANOVA Works
Estimating Individual Treatment Means
η²: Strength of Association
What’s New


The factor that varies between samples is called the factor. (Every once in a while things are easy.) The r different values or levels of the factor are
called the treatments. Here the factor is the choice of fat and the treatments are the four fats, so r = 4.

The computations to test the means for equality are called a 1-way ANOVA or 1-factor ANOVA.

Example 1: Fat for Frying Donuts

g Fat Absorbed in Batch x̅ s

Fat 1 64 72 68 77 56 95 72 13.34

Fat 2 78 91 97 82 85 77 85 7.77

Fat 3 75 93 78 71 63 76 76 9.88

Fat 4 55 66 49 64 70 68 62 8.22

source: Snedecor 1989 pp 217–218

Hoping to produce a donut that could be marketed to health-conscious consumers, a company tried four different fats to see which one was least
absorbed by the donuts during the deep frying process. Each fat was used for six batches of two dozen donuts each, and the table shows the grams of
fat absorbed by each batch of donuts.
It looks like donuts absorb the most of Fat 2 and the least of Fat 4, with intermediate amounts of Fat 1 and Fat 3. But there’s a lot of overlap, too: for
instance, even though the mean for Fat 2 is much higher than for Fat 1, one sample of Fat 1, 95 g, is higher than five of the six samples of Fat 2.
Nevertheless, the sample means do look different. But what about the population means? In other words, would the four fats be absorbed in
different if you made a whole lot of batches of donuts — do statistics justify choosing one fat over another? This is the basic question of a hypothesis test
or significance test: is the difference great enough that you can rule out chance?

If Fats 2 and 4 were the only ones you had data for, you’d do a good old 2-sample t test. So why can’t you do that anyway? because that would greatly
increase your chances of a Type I error. The reasons are given in the Appendix.
By the way, though usually you are interested in the differences between population means with various treatments, you can also estimate the
individual means. If you’re interested, see Estimating Individual Treatment Means in the Appendix.

Step 1: ANOVA Test for Equality of All Means

The ANOVA procedure tests these hypotheses:

H0: μ1 = μ2 = ... = μr, all the means are the same
H1: two or more means are different from the others
Let’s test these hypotheses at the α = 0.05 significance level.

You might wonder why you do analysis of variance to test means, but this actually makes sense. The question, remember, is whether the observed
difference in means is too large to be the result of random selection. How do you decide whether the difference is too large? You look at the
absolute difference of means between treatments (samples), but you also consider the variability within each treatment. Intuitively, if the
difference betweentreatments is a lot bigger than the difference within treatments, you conclude that it’s not due to random chance and there
is a real effect.
And this is just how ANOVA works: comparing the variation between groups to the variation within groups. Hence, analysis of variance.

Requirements for ANOVA

1. You need r simple random samples for the r treatments, and they need to be independent samples. The sample sizes need not be the same,
though it’s best if they’re not very different.

2. The underlying populations should be normally distributed. However, the ANOVA test is robust and moderate departures from normality aren’t
a problem, especially if sample sizes are large and equal or nearly equal (Kuzma & Bohnenblust 2005 page 180).

3. The samples should all have the same standard deviation, theoretically. Because the ANOVA test is robust, Sullivan 2011 page C–21 (on CD)
says it’s good enough if the largest standard deviation is less than double the smallest standard deviation.
Miller 1986 (pages 90–91) is more cautious. When sample sizes are equal but standard deviations are not, the actual p-value will be slightly
larger than what you find in the tables. But when sample sizes are unequal, and the smaller samples have the larger standard deviations, the
actual p-value “can increase dramatically above” what the tables say, even “without too much disparity” in the standard deviations. “Falsely
reporting significant results when the small samples have the larger variances is a serious worry. The lesson to be learned is to balance the
experiment [equal sample sizes] if at all possible.”

Perform a 1-Way ANOVA Test

A 1-way ANOVA tests whether the means of all groups are equal for different levels of one factor, using some fairly lengthy calculations. You could do all
the computations by hand as shown in the Appendix, but no one ever does. Here are some alternatives:
 Excel’s Anova: Single Factor command is in the Tools » Data Analysis menu in Excel 2003 and below, or
the Data » Analysis » Data Analysis menu in Excel 2007. If you don’t see it there, follow instructions in Excel help to load the Analysis
 On a TI-83 or TI-84, enter each sample in a statistics list, then press [STAT] [◄] [▲] to select ANOVA, and enter the list names separated by
 There are even Web-based ANOVA calculators, such as Lowry 2001b.
 There are many software packages for mathematics and statistics that include ANOVA calculations. One of them, R, is highly regarded and is
open source.

When you use a calculator or computer program to do ANOVA, you get an ANOVA table that looks something like this:

SS df MS F p

Between groups 1636.5 3 545.4 5.41 0.0069

(or “Factor”)

Within groups 2018.0 20 100.9

(or “Error”)

Total 3654.5 23

Note that the mean square between treatments, 545.4, is much larger than the mean square within treatments, 100.9. That ratio, between-groups mean
square over within-groups mean square, is called an F statistic (F = MSB/MSW = 5.41 in this example). It tells you how much more variability there is
between treatment groups than within treatment groups. The larger that ratio, the more confident you feel in rejecting the null hypothesis, which was that
all means are equal and there is no treatment effect.
But what you care about is the p-value of 0.0069, obtained from the F distribution. The p-value has the usual interpretation: the probability of the
between-treatments MS being ≥5.41 times the within-treatments MS, if the null hypothesis is true, is p = 0.0069.
The p-value is below your significance level of 0.05: it would be quite unlikely to have MS B/MSW this large if there were no real difference among
the means. Therefore you reject H0 and accept H1, concluding that the mean absorption of all the fats is not the same.

An interesting extra parameter can be derived from the ANOVA table; see η²: Strength of Association in the Appendix below.

Now that you know that it does make a difference which fat is used, you naturally want to know which fats are significantly different. This is post-hoc
analysis. There are several different post-hoc analyses, and no one is superior on all points, but the most common choice is the Tukey HSD.
Step 2: Tukey HSD for Post-Hoc Analysis

If your ANOVA test shows that the means aren’t all equal, your next step is to determine whichmeans are different, to your level of significance. You
can’t just perform a series of t tests, because that would greatly increase your likelihood of a Type I error. So what do you do?
John Tukey gave one answer to this question, the HSD (Honestly Significant Difference) test. You compute something analogous to a t score for
each pair of means, but you don’t compare it to the Student’s t distribution. Instead, you use a new distribution called the studentized range or q

Caution:Perform post-hoc analysis only if the ANOVA test shows a p-value less than your α. If p>α, you don’t know whether the
means are all the same or not, and you can’t go fishing for unequal means.

You generally want to know not just which means differ, but by how much they differ (theeffect size). The easiest thing is to compute the confidence
interval first, and then interpret it for a significant difference in means (or no significant difference). You’ve already seen this relationship between a test
of significance at the α level and a 1−α confidence interval:
 If the endpoints of the CI have the same sign (both positive or both are negative), then 0 is not in the interval and you can conclude
that the means are different.
 If the endpoints of the CI have opposite signs, then 0 is in the interval and you can’t determine whether the means are equal or

You compute that confidence interval similarly to the confidence interval for the difference of two means, but using the q distribution which avoids the
problem of inflating α:

where x̅i and x̅j are the two sample means, ni and nj are the two sample sizes, MSW is the within-groups mean square from the ANOVA table, and q is
the critical value of the studentized range for α, the number of treatments or samples r, and the within-groups degrees of freedom dfW. The square-root
term is called the standardized error (as opposed to standard error).
Using the studentized range, developed by Tukey, overcomes the problem of inflated significance level that I talked about earlier. If sample sizes
are equal, the risk of a Type I error is exactly α, and if sample sizes are unequal it’s less than α: the procedure is conservative. In terms of confidence
intervals, if the sample sizes are equal then the confidence level is the stated 1−α, but if the sample size are unequal then the actual confidence level is
greater than 1−α (NIST 2012 section

Estimating Differences of Means

Usually the comparisons are presented in a table, like this one for the example with frying donuts:

Critical q Standardized 95% Conf Interval Signif

q(α,r,dfW) error for μi−μj at 0.05?

Fat 1 − Fat 2 −13 3.9597 4.1008 −29.2 3.2

Fat 1 − Fat 3 −4 3.9597 4.1008 −20.2 12.2

Fat 1 − Fat 4 10 3.9597 4.1008 −6.2 26.2

Fat 2 − Fat 3 9 3.9597 4.1008 −7.2 25.2

Fat 2 − Fat 4 23 3.9597 4.1008 6.8 39.2 YES

Fat 3 − Fat 4 14 3.9597 4.1008 −2.2 30.2

How do you read the table, and how was it constructed? Look first at the rows. Each row compares one pair of treatments.
If you have r treatments, there will be r(r−1)/2 pairs of means. The “/2” part comes because there’s no need to compare Fat 1 to Fat 2 and then
Fat 2 to Fat 1. If Fat 1 is absorbed less than Fat 2, then Fat 2 is absorbed more than Fat 1 and by the same amount.

Now look at the columns. I’ll work through all the columns of the first row with you, and you can interpret the others in the same way.

1. The row heading tells you which treatments are being compared in this row, and the direction of comparison.

2. The next column gives the point estimate of difference, which is nothing more than the difference or the two sample means. The sample
means of Fat 1 and Fat 2 were 72 and 85, so the difference is −13: the sample average of Fat 1 was 13 g less fat absorbed than the
sample average of Fat 2.

3. Next is critical q, from the confidence interval formula. q(α,r,dfW) depends on the number of treatments and total number of data points,
not on the individual treatments, so it’s the same for all rows in any given experiment.
For this experiment, we had four treatments and dfW from the ANOVA table was 20, so we need q(0.05, 4, 20). Your textbook may have a
table of critical values for the studentized range, or you can look up q in an online table such as the one at the end of Abdi and Williams
2010, or find it with an online calculator like Lowry 2001a. Most textbooks don’t have a table of q, and the TI calculators can’t compute it.)
Different sources give slightly different critical values of q, I suspect because q is extremely difficult to compute. One value I found
was q(0.05,4,20) = 3.9597.

4. The standardized error is the square-root term from Tukey’sformula for confidence interval.
In an experiment with unequal sample sizes, the standardized error would vary for comparing different pairs of treatments. But in this
experiment, every treatment has six data points, and so the standardized error is the same for every pair of means:
√[(MSW/2)·(1/6+1/6)] = √[(100.9/2)·(2/6)] = 4.1008
5. The endpoints of the confidence interval, as usual, are the point estimate plus or minus the critical q times the standardized error.
Critical q times the standardized error is 3.9597×4.1008 = 16.2, and the difference of means in the first row is x̅1−x̅2 = −13, so the endpoints
of the confidence interval are −13−16.2 = −29.2 and −13+16.2 = 3.2.
Interpretation: You’re 95% confident that, on average, a batch of 24 donuts absorbs between 29.2 g less and 3.2 g more of Fat 1 than
Fat 2.

6. The last column applies the relation between confidence interval and significance test to say whether there’s a significant
difference between the two treatments.
The confidence interval for the difference between Fat 1 and Fat 2 goes from a negative to a positive, so it does include zero. That means
the two fats might have the same or different absorption, so you can’t say whether there’s a difference.
Caution: It’s generally best not to say that there is no significant difference. Even though that’s literally true, it’s easily misinterpreted
to mean that the absorption of the two fats is the same, and you don’t know that. It might be, and it might not be. Stick to neutral language.

On the other hand, when the endpoints of the confidence interval are both positive or both negative, then 0 is not in the interval and we
reject the null hypothesis of equality. In this table, only Fats 2 and 4 have a significant difference.
Interpretation: Fats 2 and 4 are not equally absorbed in frying donuts, and we’re 95% confident that a batch of 24 donuts absorbs
6.8 g to 30.2 g more of Fat 2 than Fat 4.

Other Comparisons

Because this article helps you,

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It’s possible to make more complicated comparisons. For instance, with a control group and two treatments you might compare the mean of the control
group to the average of the means of the two treatments. Any kind of linear comparison can be done using a procedure developed by Henry Scheffé. A
good brief explanation of Scheffé’s method is at NIST 2012 section

Tukey’s method is best when you are simultaneously comparing all pairs of means. If you have pre-selected a subset of means to compare, the
Bonferroni method (NIST 2012 section may be better.

Example 2: Stock Market

5-year Rates of Return

Financial Energy Utilities

10.76 12.72 11.88

15.05 13.91 5.86

17.01 6.43 13.46

5.07 11.19 9.90

19.50 18.79 3.95

8.16 20.73 3.44

10.38 9.60 7.11

6.75 17.40 15.70

x̅ 11.585 13.846 8.913

s 5.124 4.867 4.530

source: morningstar.com via Sullivan 2011 page C–30 (on CD)

A stock analyst randomly selected eight stocks in each of three industries and compiled the five-year rate of return for each stock. The analyst would like
to know whether any of the industries have a different rate of return from the others, at the 0.05 significance level.

Solution: The hypotheses are

H0: = μF = μE = μU, all three industries have the same average rate of return
H1: the industries don’t all have the same average rate of return

You can use a normal probability plot to assess normality for each sample; see MATH200A Program part 4. The standard deviations of the three
samples are fairly close together, so the requirements are met.

Here is the ANOVA table:

SS df MS F p

Between groups 97.5931 2 48.7965 2.08 0.1502

(or “Factor”)

Within groups 493.2577 21 23.4885

(or “Error”)

Total 590.8508 23

The F statistic is only 2.08, so the variation between groups is only about double the variation within groups. The high p-value makes you fail to reject
H0 and you cannot reach a conclusion about differences between average rates of returns for the three industries.
Since you failed to reject H0 in the initial ANOVA test, you can’t do any sort of post-hoc analysis and look for differences between any
particular pairs of means. (Well, you can, but you know in advance that all of the intervals will include zero, meaning that you don’t know whether any
particular sector has a different return from any other sector or not.)

Example 3: CRT Lifetimes

Lifetime, hr x̅ s

Type A 407 411 409 409 2.0

Type B 404 406 408 405 402 405 2.2

Type C 410 408 406 408 408 1.6

source: Spiegel and Stephens 1999, pp 378–379

A company makes three types of high-performance CRTs. A random sample finds lifetimes shown in the table at right. At the 0.05 level, is there a
difference in the average lifetimes of the three types?

Solution: Your hypotheses are

H0: μA = μB = μC, the three types have equal mean lifetime
H1: the three types don’t all have the same mean lifetime

Excel or the TI-83/84 gives you this ANOVA table:

SS df MS F p

Between groups 36 2 18 4.50 0.0442

(or “Factor”)

Within groups 36 9 4
(or “Error”)

Total 72 11

p<α, so you reject H0 and accept H1, concluding that the three types don’t all have the same mean lifetime.
Since you were able to reject the null hypothesis, you can proceed with post-hoc analysisto determine which means are different and the size of
the difference. Here is the table:

Critical q Standardized 95% Conf Interval Signif

q(α,r,dfW) error for μi−μj at 0.05?

Type A − Type B 4 3.9508 1.0328 −0.1 8.1

Type A − Type C 1 3.9508 1.0801 −3.3 5.3

Type B − Type C −3 3.9508 0.9487 −6.7 0.7

This result might surprise you: although the three means aren’t all equal, you can’t say that any two of the means are unequal. But when you look
more closely at the numbers, this doesn’t seem quite so unreasonable.
First, look at the p-value in the ANOVA table: 0.0442 is below 0.05, yes, but it’s not very far below. There’s almost a 4½% chance that we’re
committing a Type I error in rejecting H0. Next, look at the confidence interval μ A−μB. While the interval does include 0, it’s extremely lopsided
and almost doesn’t include 0.
Though we’re used to thinking of significance as “either it is or it isn’t”, there are cases where the decision is a close one, and this is one of those
cases. And the confidence intervals are computed by a different method than the significance test, using a different distribution. Here again, the decision
is a close one. So what we have is two close decisions, based on different computations, one falling slightly on one side of the line and the other falling
slightly on the other side of the line. It’s a good reminder that in statistics we’re dealing with probabilities, not certainties.

Appendix (The Hard Stuff)

The following sections are for students who want to know more than just the bare bones of how to do a 1-way ANOVA test.

Why Not Just Pick Two Means and Do a t Test?

Remember that you have to set up hypotheses up before you know the data. Before you’ve actually fried the donuts, you have no reason to expect
any particular outcome. Specifically, until you have the data you have no reason to think Fats 2 and 4 are any more different than Fats 1 and 4, or any
other pair.
Why can’t you collect the data and then select your hypotheses? Because that can put significance on a chance event. For example, a golfer
hits a ball and it lands on a particular tuft of grass. The probability of landing on that particular tuft is extremely small, so there’s something different
about that particular tuft, right? Obviously not! It’s a logical fallacy to decide what to test after you already have the data.

So if you want to do a 2-sample t test in differences among four fats you would have to test every pair of fats: 1 and 2, 1 and 3 1 and 4, 2 and 3, 2 and 4,
3 and 4. That’s six hypotheses in all.

Well, why not do a 0.05 significance test on pair of means? Remember what a 0.05 significance level means: you’re willing to accept a 5% chance of
a Type I error, rejecting H0when it’s actually true. But if you test six 0.05 hypotheses on the same set of data, you’re much more likely to commit a Type I
error. How much more likely? Well, for each hypothesis there’s a 95% chance of escaping a Type I error, but the probability of escaping a Type I error
six times in a row is 0.956 = 0.7351. 1−0.7351 = 0.2649, so if you test all six pairs at the 0.05 level, you’re more likely than one chance in four to get
a false positive, finding a difference between two fats when there’s actually no difference.
Prob. of Type I Error

groups pairs α = 0.05 α = 0.01

3 3 0.1426 0.0297

4 6 0.2649 0.0585

5 10 0.4013 0.0956

6 15 0.5367 0.1399
In general, if you have r treatments, there arer(r−1)/2 pairs of means to compare. If you test each pair at significance level α, the overall
probability of a Type I error is 1 − (1−α)r(r−1)/2. The table at right shows the effective α for various numbers of treatments when the nominal α is 0.05 or
0.01. You can see that testing multiple hypotheses increases your α dramatically. Even with just three treatments, the effective α is almost three
times the nominal α. This is clearly unacceptable.

Why not just lower your alpha? Because as you lower your α you increase your β, the chance of a Type II error. β represents the probability of a false
negative, failing to find a difference in fats when there actually is a difference. This, too, is unacceptable.

So you have to find a way to test all the pairs of means at the same time, in one test. The solution is an extension of the t test to multiple samples, and
it’s called ANOVA. (If you have only two treatments, ANOVA computes the same p-value as a two-sample t test, but at the cost of extra effort.)

How ANOVA Works

How does the ANOVA procedure compute a p-value? This section shows you the formulas and carries through the computations for the example
with fat for frying donuts.

Remember, long ago in a galaxy called Descriptive Statistics, how the variance was defined: find the mean, then for each data point take the square of
its difference from the mean. Add up all those squares, and you have SS(x), the sum of squared deviations in x. The variance was SS(x) divided by the
degrees of freedom n−1, so it was a kind of average or mean squared deviation. You probably learned the shortcut computational formulas:
SS(x) = ∑x² − (∑x)²/n or SS(x) = ∑x² − nx̅²
and then
s² = MS(x) = SS(x)/df where df = n−1

In 1-way ANOVA, we extend those concepts a bit. First you partition SS(x) into between-treatments and within-treatments parts, SSB and SSW. Then you
compute the mean square deviations:
MSB is called the between-treatments mean square, between-groups variance, or factor MS. It measures the variability associated with the different
treatment levels or different values of the factor.
MSW is called the within-treatments mean square, within-group variance, pooled variance, or error MS. It measures the variability that
is not associated with the different treatments.
Finally you divide the two to obtain your test statistic, F = MSB/MSW, and you look up the p-value in a table of the F distribution.
(The F distribution is named after “the celebrated R.A. Fisher” (Kuzma & Bohnenblust 2005, 176). You may have already seen the F distribution in
computing a different ratio of variances, as part of testing the variances of two populations for equality.)

There are several ways to compute the variability, but they all come up with the same answers and this method in Spiegel and Stephens
1999 pages 367–368 is as easy as any:

SS df MS F

Between groups SSB = ∑njx̅j²−Nx̅² dfB = r−1 MSB = SSB/dfB F = MSB/MSW

(or “Factor”)

Within groups SSW = SStot−SSB dfW = N−r MSW = SSW/dfW

(or “Error”)*

Total* SStot = ∑x²−Nx̅² dftot = N−1

* or, if you know the standard deviations of the samples,

SSW = ∑(nj−1)sj²
SStot = SSB + SSW

 r is the number of treatments.
 nj, x̅j, sj for each treatment are the sample size, sample mean, and sample standard deviation.
 N is the total sample size and x̅ = ∑x/N is the overall sample mean or “grand mean”. x̅ can also be computed from the sample means by
x̅ = ∑njx̅j/N

You begin with the treatment means x̅j={72, 85, 76, 62} and the overall mean x̅=73.75, then compute
SSB = (6×72²+6×85²+6×76²+6×62²) − 24×73.75² = 1636.5
MSB = 1636.5 / 3 = 545.4

The next step depends on whether you know the standard deviations s j of the samples. If you don’t, then you jump to the third row of the table to
compute the overall sum of squares:
∑x² = 64² + 72² + 68² + ... + 70² + 68² = 134192
SStot = ∑x² − Nx̅² = 134192 − 24×73.75² = 3654.5

Then you find SSW by subtracting the “between” sum of squares SSB from the overall sum of squares SStot:
SSW = SStot−SSB = 3654.5−1636.5 = 2018.0
MSW = 2018.0 / 20 = 100.9
Now you’re almost there. You want to know whether the variability between treatments, MS B, is greater than the variability within treatments, MSW . If it’s
enough greater, then you conclude that there is a real difference between at least some of the treatment means and therefore that the factor has a real
effect. To determine this, divide
F = MSB/MSW = 5.41
This is the F statistic. The F distribution is a one-tailed distribution that depends on both degrees of freedom, dfB and dfW.
At long last, you look up F=5.41 with 3 and 20 degrees of freedom, and you find a p-value of 0.0069. The interpretation is the usual one: there’s
only a 0.0069 chance of getting an F statistic greater than 5.41 (or higher variability between treatments relative to the variability within treatments) if
there is actually no difference between treatments. Since the p-value is less than α, you conclude that there is a difference.

Estimating Individual Treatment Means

Usually you’re interested in the contrast between two treatments, but you can also estimate the population mean for an individual treatment. You do use
a t interval, as you would when you have only one sample, but the standard error and degrees of freedom are different (NIST 2012 section

To compute a confidence interval on an individual mean for the jth treatment, use
df = dfW
standard error = √(MSW/nj)
Therefore the margin of error, which is the half-width of the confidence interval, is
E = t(α/2,dfW) · √(MSW/nj)

Example: Refer back to the fats for frying donuts. Estimate the population mean for Fat 2 with 95% confidence? In other words, if you fried a great many
batches of donuts in Fat 2, how much fat per batch would be absorbed, on average?

Solution: First, marshal your data:

sample mean for Fat 2: x̅2 = 85
sample size: n2 = 6
degrees of freedom: dfW = 20 (from the ANOVA table)
MSW = 100.9 (also from the table)
1−α = 0.95

TI-83 or TI-84 users, please see an easy procedure below.

Computation by Hand

Begin by finding the critical t. Since 1−α = 0.95, α/2 = 0.025. You therefore need t(0.025,20). You can find this from a table:
t(0.025,20) = 2.0860

Next, find the standard error. This is

standard error = √(MSW/nj) = √(100.9/6) = 4.1008

Now you’re ready to finish the confidence interval. The margin of error is
E = t(α/2,df) · √(MSW/nj) = 2.0860×4.1008 = 8.5541
Therefore the confidence interval is
μ2 = 85 ± 8.6 g (95% confidence)
76.4 g ≤ μ2 ≤ 93.6 g (95% confidence)

Conclusion: You’re 95% confident that the true mean amount of fat absorbed by a batch of donuts fried in Fat 2 is between 76.4 g and 93.6 g.

TI-83/84 Procedure

Your TI calculator is set up to do the necessary calculations, but there’s one glitch because the degrees of freedom is not based on the size of the
individual sample, as it is in a regular t interval. So you have to “spoof” the calculator as follows.
Press [STAT] [◄] [8] to bring up the TInterval screen. First I’ll tell you what to enter; then I’ll explain why.

 x̅: mean of the treatment sample, here 85

 Sx: √(MSW*(dfW+1)/nj), here √(100.9*21/6)
 n: dfW+1, here 21
 C-Level: as specified in the problem, here .95
Now, what’s up with n and Sx? Well, the calculator uses n to compute degrees of freedom for critical t as n−1. You want degrees of freedom to be df W,
so you lie to the calculator and enter the value of n as dfW+1 (20+1 = 21).
But that creates a new problem. The calculator also divides s by √n to come up with the standard error. But you want it to use n j (6) and not your
fake n (21). So you have to multiply MSW by dfW+1 and divide by nj to trick the calculator into using the value you actually want.
By the way, why is MSW inside the square root sign? Because the calculator wants a standard deviation, but MSW is a variance. As you know,
standard deviation is the square root of variance.

All this fakery achieves the desired result: the confidence interval matches the one that you would have if you computed it by hand.

Conclusion: You’re 95% confident that the true mean amount of fat absorbed by a batch of donuts fried in Fat 2 is between 76.4 g and 93.6 g.
η²: Strength of Association

Lowry 1988 chapter 14 part 2 mentions a measure that is usually neglected in ANOVA: η². (η is the Greek letter eta, which rhymes with beta.)

η² = SSB/SStot, the ratio of sum of squares between groups to total sum of squares. For thedonut-frying example,
η² = SSB/SStot = 1636.5 / 3654.5 = 0.45

What does this tell you? η² measures how much of the total variability in the dependent variable is associated with the variation in treatments. For the
donut example, η² = 0.45 tells you that 45% of the variability in fat absorption among the batches is associated with the choice of fat.

Any statistical test that uses the chi square distribution can be called chi square test. It is applicable both for large and small samples-

depending on the context.

For example suppose a person wants to test the hypothesis that success rate in a particular English test is similar for indigenous and

immigrant students.

If we take random sample of say size 80 students and measure both indigenous/immigrant as well as success/failure status of each of the student,

the chi square test can be applied to test the hypothesis.

There are different types of chi square test each for different purpose. Some of the popular types are outlined below.

3. What is the purpose chi-square test explain in detail the process?

Tests for Different Purposes

1. Chi square test for testing goodness of fit is used to decide whether there is any difference between the observed (experimental) value and the

expected (theoretical) value.

For example given a sample, we may like to test if it has been drawn from a normal population. This can be tested using chi square goodness of fit


2. Chi square test for independence of two attributes. Suppose N observations are considered and classified according two characteristics say A

and B. We may be interested to test whether the two characteristics are independent. In such a case, we can use Chi square test for independence of

two attributes.

The example considered above testing for independence of success in the English test vis a vis immigrant status is a case fit for analysis using this


3. Chi square test for single variance is used to test a hypothesis on a specific value of the population variance. Statistically speaking, we test

the null hypothesis H0: σ = σ0 against the research hypothesis H1: σ # σ0 where σ is the population mean and σ0 is a specific value of the population

variance that we would like to test for acceptance.

In other words, this test enables us to test if the given sample has been drawn from a population with specific variance σ0. This is a small sample test

to be used only if sample size is less than 30 in general.


The Chi square test for single variance has an assumption that the population from which the sample has been is normal. This normality assumption

need not hold for chi square goodness of fit test and test for independence of attributes.

However while implementing these two tests, one has to ensure that expected frequency in any cell is not less than 5. If it is so, then it has to be pooled

with the preceding or succeeding cell so that expected frequency of the pooled cell is at least 5.

Non Parametric and Distribution Free

It has to be noted that the Chi square goodness of fit test and test for independence of attributes depend only on the set of observed and expected

frequencies and degrees of freedom. These two tests do not need any assumption regarding distribution of the parent population from which the

samples are taken.

Since these tests do not involve any population parameters or characteristics, they are also termed as non parametric or distribution free tests. An

additional important fact on these two tests is they are sample size independent and can be used for any sample size as long as the assumption on

minimum expected cell frequency is met.


1. Differentiate the fiscal management from financial management.


1. is the process of keeping an organization running efficiently within its allotted budget.
2. 3. “seeing to it that the school has funds it requires to meet its goals and that such funds are used for the purposes for which they were
3. 4. This involves a variety of tools, including budget spreadsheets, accounting, and guides outlining procedures for department management.
To improve the way the department operates by properly planning, recording, and performing procedures that relate to the budget. 
Fiscal Management Systems
Fiscal Management ensures accountability for federal assets, compliance with regulations, and includes internal controls. Appropriate
reporting systems are in place and program leadership work in partnership to develop and execute a budget that reflects and supports
program goals and priorities.

Financial Management
Most non-profit and public agency leaders come up through the program side of the agency and know very little about fiscal management, including
developing budgets, interpreting financial reports, and maintaining good internal controls. A non-profit agency is a business that doesn’t pay taxes. Its
leaders need to understand something about running a business.
Too often in the news you hear about long term employees or board members embezzling funds from small non-profits, or agencies getting in financial
difficulty because no one really knew how to track and analyze their fiscal situation. Many executive directors cannot adequately oversee the work of
their fiscal department.
Without adequate training, leaders tend to delegate too much to the fiscal staff and volunteers who do the work. Or they get involved in the day to day
minutia of fiscal management and can’t get their more important work done.
There is a healthy middle ground. By creating adequate, but simple, internal controls and learning to understand how the fiscal system operates, agency
leaders and board members can promote quality record keeping and have a much better handle on their finances without investing excessive time in the
Bookkeeping when done well is a seamless, almost invisible part of agency operations. It manages the financial transactions and provides important
data for forecasting future trends and needs. A well maintained set of books also makes for an easy and lower cost audit.
Krieger Solutions, LLC has developed a number of solutions to help you address these concerns:
 Individual coaching so leaders develop skills and strategies for improving their financial systems.
 Consulting with your bookkeeper and Treasurer to set up an efficient bookkeeping system that you can run yourself, or we can do the bookkeeping
for you.
 Direct bookkeeping services to ensure accurate and adequate records are maintained.
Call us 518-895-2939 or email us if you’d like to explore how we can be of assistance.
In addition to coaching and consulting we also offer training programs for non-financial managers and board members on the basics of non-profit or
municipal accounting with an emphasis on budgeting, reading reports and establishing good internal controls.
All programs are presented in plain English – no accounting background needed! They are designed for non-financial managers.
Financial management focuses on ratios, equities and debts. It is useful for portfolio management, distribution of dividend, capital raising, hedging and
looking after fluctuations in foreign currency and product cycles. Financial managers are the people who will do research and based on the research,
decide what sort of capital to obtain in order to fund the company's assets as well as maximizing the value of the firm for all the stakeholders. It also
refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization. It is the
specialized function directly associated with the top management. The significance of this function is not seen in the 'Line' but also in the capacity of the
'Staff' in overall of a company. It has been defined differently by different experts in the field.
The term typically applies to an organization or company's financial strategy, while personal finance or financial life managementrefers to an individual's
management strategy. It includes how to raise the capital and how to allocate capital, i.e. capital budgeting. Not only for long term budgeting, but also
how to allocate the short term resources like current liabilities. It also deals with the dividend policies of the share holders.

Meaning of Financial Management

Financial Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling the financial activities such as procurement and utilization of funds of the
enterprise. It means applying general management principles to financial resources of the enterprise.

1. Investment decisions includes investment in fixed assets (called as capital budgeting). Investment in current assets are also a part of
investment decisions called as working capital decisions.
2. Financial decisions - They relate to the raising of finance from various resources which will depend upon decision on type of source, period of
financing, cost of financing and the returns thereby.
3. Dividend decision - The finance manager has to take decision with regards to the net profit distribution. Net profits are generally divided into
a. Dividend for shareholders- Dividend and the rate of it has to be decided.
b. Retained profits- Amount of retained profits has to be finalized which will depend upon expansion and diversification plans of the
Objectives of Financial Management

The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be-

1. To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.

2. To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the
3. To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
4. To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
5. To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and
equity capital.
Functions of Financial Management

1. Estimation of capital requirements: A finance manager has to make estimation with regards to capital requirements of the company. This
will depend upon expected costs and profits and future programmes and policies of a concern. Estimations have to be made in an adequate
manner which increases earning capacity of enterprise.
2. Determination of capital composition: Once the estimation have been made, the capital structure have to be decided. This involves short-
term and long- term debt equity analysis. This will depend upon the proportion of equity capital a company is possessing and additional funds
which have to be raised from outside parties.
3. Choice of sources of funds: For additional funds to be procured, a company has many choices like-
a. Issue of shares and debentures
b. Loans to be taken from banks and financial institutions
c. Public deposits to be drawn like in form of bonds.

Choice of factor will depend on relative merits and demerits of each source and period of financing.

4. Investment of funds: The finance manager has to decide to allocate funds into profitable ventures so that there is safety on investment and
regular returns is possible.
5. Disposal of surplus: The net profits decision have to be made by the finance manager. This can be done in two ways:
a. Dividend declaration - It includes identifying the rate of dividends and other benefits like bonus.
b. Retained profits - The volume has to be decided which will depend upon expansional, innovational, diversification plans of the
6. Management of cash: Finance manager has to make decisions with regards to cash management. Cash is required for many purposes like
payment of wages and salaries, payment of electricity and water bills, payment to creditors, meeting current liabilities, maintainance of enough
stock, purchase of raw materials, etc.
7. Financial controls: The finance manager has not only to plan, procure and utilize the funds but he also has to exercise control over finances.
This can be done through many techniques like ratio analysis, financial forecasting, cost and profit control, etc.
8. Financial Management is a vital activity in any organization. It is the process of planning, organizing, controlling and monitoring financial
resources with a view to achieve organizational goals and objectives. It is an ideal practice for controlling the financial activities of an
organization such as procurement of funds, utilization of funds, accounting, payments, risk assessment and every other thing related to
9. In other terms, Financial Management is the application of general principles of management to the financial possessions of an enterprise.
Proper management of an organization’s finance provides quality fuel and regular service to ensure efficient functioning. If finances are not
properly dealt with an organization will face barriers that may have severe repercussions on its growth


2. Explain the interplay of planning and budgeting?

Planning and Budgeting

Planning and budgeting are essential for management control. Effective planning and budgeting require looking at the organization as a system
and understanding the relationship among its components.

Planning consists of developing the objectives (the work required to achieve the organization's goals), timetables, and performance standards
needed to implement the organization's strategy and assigning individual accountability for results.

Budgeting involves identifying, prioritizing, acquiring, and allocating the resources needed to carry out the plan.

Strategic thinking and planning are different activities and require different mental processes and insights. Strategic thinking is a creative activity
whereas planning is an analytical one. This difference in thinking can make it difficult to accomplish both of these processes at the same time.

The products of strategic thinking are goals and strategy. The products of planning are objectives, budgets, schedules, performance standards,
and a baseline to measure and evaluate performance.

Symptoms of incomplete or inadequate planning and budgeting

 Management activity is largely reactive, stressful , and disorganized.

 Authority and accountability for results are unclear or highly centralized.
 Funding and other resource priorities are unclear or non-existent.
 Cash flow problems are common.
 Persons responsible for activities have difficulty obtaining the necessary resources.
 Objectives, schedules, and budgets are not established or are not communicated to persons responsible for action.
 Performance expectations are not specified or achieved.
 Unexpected workforce reductions or excessive overtime are common.
 Untrained or inadequately trained employees are assigned important tasks.
 The organization has recurring difficulty meeting customer delivery and service requirements.

Three Sigma's services

We assist executives establish a formal planning, budgeting, and performance measurement process and create a time phased performance
measurement baseline integrating operating, financial, and investment activities.

We build customized, interactive organizational models that integrate planning, budgeting, and performance measurement and instruct and coach
clients how to use these models.

For executives who choose to improve their planning, budgeting and performance measurement systems using their own resources, we provide a roadmap to
guide them through the process of goal setting, strategy formulation, setting objectives, developing budgets, and establishing a performance measurement
baseline. The following models are available on this website and can be copied or downloaded free of charge.

 A Planning, Budgeting, and Performance Measurement Template

 A Profit Planning Model
 Social Entrepreneurship

We provide coaching on-site, by phone or e-mail to help or facilitate using these models.

Expected results

Planning enables the organization to anticipate and prepare for the future. Cleary defined objectives provide the means to delegate responsibility and
accountability to those who will do the work. This spreads the workload across the organization and frees top management to focus on strategic issues. A
strong management control and information system provides the information needed for timely corrective action.

An effective planning, budgeting, and performance measurement system should produce the following results:

 Proactive management activity and time for strategic thinking and planning.
 A focused, disciplined organization with good coordination among functions and activities.
 Higher productivity and greater operational efficiency because of better work planning and coordination.
 Crises and unanticipated events are contained and managed effectively.
 A stable, well trained workforce performing key tasks.
 Planned goals and objectives are regularly achieved.
 Customized organizational models significantly reduce the time required for planning, budgeting, and performance measurement.

Planning and Budgeting Process. Planning and Budgeting is an analytical application that helps you set top-down targets and generate a bottom-
up budget, which is at the foundation of your organization's operations. ... Use Planning and Budgeting to: Develop planning targets. Access and
analyze historical and current data.

Planning and Budgeting Process

Planning and Budgeting is an analytical application that helps you set top-down targets and generate a bottom-up budget, which is at the foundation of
your organization's operations. It helps management evaluate business alternatives and set financial targets, and it enables the organization to work
cooperatively and efficiently through the budgeting iterative process—reevaluating expenses and revenue estimates; changing start and end dates;
and modifying objectives.

Planning and Budgeting enables different departments to use compatible tools based on the same assumptions. By delivering a shared business
model with role-based access over the internet, every participant can interact with his or her portion of the business plan or budget at any time, from
any global location. You can respond quickly and efficiently to the changing business environment. Through what-if analysis and modeling, you can
simulate headcount changes, expense control strategies, and capital investment plans before implementation. Marketing volatility and other deviations
from the original plan can be handled proactively, in real time, rather than once a year.

Use Planning and Budgeting to:

 Develop planning targets.
 Access and analyze historical and current data.
 Connect strategic objectives with daily processes.
 Link top-down targets with bottom-up budgets.
 Integrate and update financial statements as business conditions change.
 Conduct continuous forecasting.
 Perform real-time, multidimensional modeling of your planning and budgeting data.
Like other PeopleSoft applications, Planning and Budgeting stores data in relational database tables. You can extract, view, analyze, and modify this
data and then move it back into the original tables. Understanding the concepts behind this process—and the tools that help you manipulate the
data—helps you perform your role in the planning and budgeting process at your organization.
Image: Planning and Budgeting process

This flowchart illustrates the Planning and Budgeting process, which includes defining budget objectives; accessing historical and actual data;
developing a base budget; preparing, reviewing and refining a budget; posting and reporting results; and monitoring progress and amending the
Definition: Planning is the fundamental management function, which involves deciding beforehand, what is to be done, when is it to be done, how it is
to be done and who is going to do it. It is an intellectual process which lays down an organisation’s objectives and develops various courses of
action, by which the organisation can achieve those objectives. It chalks out exactly, how to attain a specific goal.
Planning is nothing but thinking before the action takes place. It helps us to take a peep into the future and decide in advance the way to deal with
the situations, which we are going to encounter in future. It involves logical thinking and rational decision making.

Importance of Planning

 It helps managers to improve future performance, by establishing objectives and selecting a course of action, for the benefit of the organisation.

 It minimises risk and uncertainty, by looking ahead into the future.

 It facilitates the coordination of activities. Thus, reduces overlapping among activities and eliminates unproductive work.

 It states in advance, what should be done in future, so it provides direction for action.

 It uncovers and identifies future opportunities and threats.

 It sets out standards for controlling. It compares actual performance with the standard performance and efforts are made to correct the same.
Planning is present in all types of organizations, households, sectors, economies, etc. We need to plan because the future is highly uncertain and no
one can predict the future with 100% accuracy, as the conditions can change anytime. Hence, planning is the basic requirement of any organization for
the survival, growth and success.
What Is a Budget?
A budget is an estimation of revenue and expenses over a specified future period of time and is usually compiled and re-evaluated on a periodic basis.
Budgets can be made for a person, a family, a group of people, a business, a government, a country, a multinational organization or just about anything
else that makes and spends money. At companies and organizations, a budget is an internal tool used by management and is often not required for
reporting by external parties.

4. Enumerate and discuss the goals of fiscal management and financial management.

Good fiscal management including the efficient use of public funds shall be the practice of the Lake Washington School District. Programs shall be
implemented which shall:

1. Incorporate the best possible budgetary procedures.

2. Utilize all possible sources of income.
3. Control the expenditure of funds in a manner that shall provide the greatest returns to the educational program.
4. Provide the best accounting and reporting procedures available.
5. Report the financial conditions of the district to the board regularly.
6. Provide safe and functional buildings which shall create a pleasant and healthful learning environment.
7. Provide the necessary safe and efficient transportation to transport children to and from school within the bounds of statutory limitations.
8. Provide a food services program that shall prepare and serve nutritionally well balanced, tasteful meals at reasonable costs.
9. Incorporate appropriate risk management standards and programs which are designed to provide for the protection of the district's assets,
staff, students and patrons.
The goal of fiscal management is to maintain fiscal records and procedures of the Agency that provides protection for the resources of the Agency as
well as records and procedures which generate economy, effectiveness and efficiency of the operation. Responsibility for control of all Agency activity,
including fiscal control, is vested with the Board and the Administrator.
Document and formalize accounting policies and procedures. Establish record keeping practices and internal controls which protect the Agency and
its clients from misuses and/or abuse of its resources. Provide fiscal management that establishes economy in purchase and operations of the Agency
and its programs. Facilitate fiscal management that readily accesses information for purposes of decision-making. Maintain fiscal record keeping that
provides the Agency’s constituents and the general public with accountability for its operation in an easily unstandable format. Provide detailed
budgeting of all CESA #9 sponsored activities to ensure that each program is satisfactorily funded and that costs are substantiated and equitable.
The quantity and quality of learning programs are directly dependent on the effective, efficient management of allocated funds. It follows that
achievement of the school system's purposes can best be achieved through excellent fiscal management. As trustee of local, state, and federal funds
allocated for use in public education, the Somerville School Committee will fulfill its responsibility to see that these funds are used wisely for achievement
of the purposes to which they are allocated. In the school system's fiscal management, it is the committee’s intent: 1. To engage in thorough advance
planning, with staff and community involvement, in order to develop budgets and to guide expenditures so as to achieve the greatest educational returns
and the greatest contributions to the educational program in relation to dollars expended. 2. To establish levels of funding that will provide high quality
education for the students. 3. To use the best available techniques for budget development and management. 4. To provide timely and appropriate
information to all staff with fiscal management responsibilities. 5. To establish maximum efficiency procedures for accounting, reporting, business,
purchasing and delivery, payroll, payment of vendors and contractors, and all other areas of fiscal management.

Primary Goals of Financial Management

Financial management is a process that enables a business to plan, direct, organize, monitor and control its current and future financial resources and
events. It involves applying the basic principles of management in financial activities such as purchases, sales, capital expansion, inventory valuation,
financial reporting, and profit distribution. A business organization is organic in nature, and its successful growth depends on the financial efficiencies of
operations and strategies. Therefore, the primary goals of financial management dwell on both short-term and long-term activities that seek to maximize
value creation from scarce financial resources.


Timely dissemination of monthly, quarterly and annual financial information to internal and external stakeholders is a significant goal of financial

management. It ensures that financial information is prepared in accordance with accounting principles and International Financial Reporting Standards.
This provides internal stakeholders -- that is, owners and employees -- with reliable information on the performance and profitability of the business. The

financial reports furnish suppliers with the information they require to determine the stability of the business, and enable the government to examine the

tax obligations of the business.


Financial plans and forecasts aim at facilitating efficiency in the current and future activities of the business. The planning process seeks to match the

organization’s operational and investment activities to its overall cash flow capabilities. Current and future cash flow projections determine the scope of

short-term and long-term plans of the business. This goal ensures sufficient funds are sourced in good time and allocated to different business activities.

Financial planning also ensures the business engages in profitable long-term investments. For example, capital budgeting analyzes the financial viability

and profitability of long-term assets prior to procuring such assets.

Managing Risks

Risk management is a very important goal because it touches on one of the soft underbellies of the business enterprise. Financial management

prescribes the appropriate contingency measures for both operational and strategic risks. Insurance and automated financial management systems help

business owners and employees to prevent or reduce the risks from theft, fraud and embezzlement. Internal and external auditing processes also

enhance the detection of fraud and other forms of financial malpractices.

Exerting Controls

The financial management function exerts internal controls over financial resources with the objective of ensuring efficient resource utilization. These

controls enhance scrutiny of financial transactions to prevent business owners or employees from violating financial principles or undermining

transparency. The goal of enhancing internal financial controls is pursued through oversight by the senior financial management staff and internal

auditors. Failure to exert internal financial controls could spell unprecedented consequences for the business, as was the case of financial reporting

scandals by Enron, Tyco and WorldCom in the early 2000s.

4. Enumerate and discuss the budgeting process in National Government


1. What is government budgeting? Government budgeting is the critical exercise of allocating revenues and borrowed funds to attain the economic
and socia l goals of the country. It also entails the management of government expenditures in such a way that will create the most economic
impact from the production and delivery of goods and services while supporting a healthy fiscal position. 2. Why is government budgeting
important? Government budgeting is important because it enables the government to plan and manage its financial resources to support the
implementation of various programs and projects that best promote the development of the country. Through the budget, the government can
prioritize and put into action its plants, programs and policies within the constraints of its financial capability as dictated by economic conditions.
3. What are the major processes involved in national government budgeting? Budgeting for the national government involves four (4) distinct
processes or phases : budget preparation, budget authorization, budget execution and accountability. While distinctly separate, these processes
overlap in the implementation during a budget year. Budget preparation for the next budget year proceeds while government agencies are
executing the budget for the current year and at the same time engaged in budget accountability and review of the past year's budget. 4. How is
the annual national budget prepared? The preparation of the annual budget involves a series of steps that begins with the determination of the
overall economic targets, expenditure levels, revenue projection and the financing plan by the Development Budget Coordinating Committee
(DBCC). The DBCC is an inter-agency body composed of the DBM Secretary as Chairman and the Bangko Sentral Governor, the Secretary of
the Department of Finance, the Director General of the National Economic and Development Authority and a representative of the Office of the
President as members. The major activities involved in the preparation of the annual national budget include the following: a. Determination of
overall economic targets, expenditure levels and budget framework by the DBCC; b. Issuance by the DBM of the Budget Call which defines the
budget framework; sets economic and fiscal targets; prescribe the priority thrusts and budget levels; and spells out the guidelines and
procedures, technical instructions and the timetable for budget preparation; c. Preparation by various government agencies of their detailed
budget estimates ranking programs, projects and activities using the capital budgeting approach and submission of the same to DBM; d.
Conduct a budget hearings were agencies are called to justify their proposed budgets before DBM technical panels; e. Submission of the
proposed expenditure program of department/agencies/special for confirmation by department/agency heads. f. Presentation of the proposed
budget levels of department/agencies/special purpose funds to the DBCC for approval. g. Review and approval of the proposed budget by the
President and the Cabinet; h. Submission by the President of proposed budget to Congress. To meet the Constitutional requirement for the
submission of the President's budget with 30 days from the opening of each regular session of Congress, the budget preparation phase is guided
by a budget calendar. 5. How does the budget become a law? In accordance with the requirements of the Constitution, the President submits
his/her proposed annual budget in the form of Budget of Expenditure and Sources of Financing (BESF) supported by details of proposed
expenditures in the form of a National Expenditure Program (NEP) and the President's Budget Message which summarizes the budget policy
thrusts and priorities for the year. In Congress, the proposed budget goes first to the House of Representatives, which assigns the task of initial
budget review to its Appropriation Committee. The Appropriation Committee together with the other House Sub-Committee conduct hearings on
the budgets of departments/agencies and scrutinize their respective programs/projects. Consequently, the amended budget proposal is
presented to the House body as the General Appropriations Bill. While budget hearings are on-going in the House of Representatives, the
Senate Finance Committee, through its different subcommittees also starts to conduct its own review and scrutiny of the proposed budget and
proposes amendments to the House Budget Bill to the Senate body for approval. To thresh out differences and arrive at a common version of the
General Appropriations Bill, the House and the Senate creates a Bicameral Conference Committee that finalizes the General Appropriations Bill.
6. What is the General Appropriations Act? The General Appropriations Act (GAA) is the legislative authorization that contains the new
appropriations in terms of specific amounts for salaries, wages and other personnel benefits; maintenance and other operating expenses; and
capital outlays authorized to be spent for the implementation of various programs/projects and activities of all departments, bureaus and offices
of the government for a given year. 7. How is the budget implemented? Budget implementation starts with the release of funds to the agencies.
To accelerate the implementation of government programs and projects and ensure the judicious use of budgeted government funds, the
government adopted the Simplified Fund Release System (SFRS) beginning 1995. In contrast to the previous system of releasing funds based
on individual agency requests, the SFRS is a policy-driven system which standardized the release of funds across agencies which are similarly
situated in line with specific policy initiatives of the government. Following the SFRS, the agency budget matrix (ABM) is prepared by the DBM in
consultation with the agencies at the beginning of each budget year, upon approval of the annual General Appropriations Act. The ABM is a
disaggregation of all the programmed appropriations for each agency into various expenditure categories. As such, the ABM serves as a
blueprint which provides the basis for determining the timing, composition and magnitude of the release of the budget. Based on updated
resources and economic development thrusts and consistent with the cash budget program, the Allotment Release Program (ARP) which
prescribes the guidelines in the prioritization of fund releases is prepared. The ARP serves as basis for the issuance of either a General
Allotment Release Order (GARO) or a Special Allotment Release Order (SARO), as the case maybe, to authorize agencies to incur obligations.
Subsequently, the DBM releases the Notice of Cash Allocation (NCA) on a monthly or quarterly basis. The NCA specifies the maximum amount
of withdrawal that an agency can make from a government bank for the period indicated. The Bureau of the Treasury (BTr), replenishes daily the
government servicing banks with funds equivalent to the amount of negotiated checks presented to the government servicing banks by
implementing agencies. The release of NCAs by the DBM is based on: 1) the financial requirements of agencies as indicated in their ABMs, cash
plans and reports such as the Summary List of Checks Issued (SLCI); and 2) the cash budget program of government and updates on projected
resources. Agencies utilize the released NCAs following the "Common Fund" concept. Under this concept of fund release, agencies are given a
maximum flexibility in the use of their cash allocations provided that the authorized allotment for a specific purpose is not exceeded. Project
implementation is thus made faster. 8. Why are adjustments made on the budget program? Adjustments are made on the budget even during
implementation primarily because of the following: • Enactment of new laws - Within the fiscal year, new legislations with corresponding identified
new revenue sources are passed which necessitate adjustments in the budget program. • Adjustments in macroeconomic parameters - The
macroeconomic targets considered in the budget are periodically reviewed and updated to reflect the impact of recent developments in the
projected performance of the national economy and on the set fiscal program for the year. The relevant indicators affecting the budget
aggregates include the following: the Gross National Product (GNP), inflation rate, interest rate, foreign exchange rate, oil prices, and the level of
imports. Thus, a sensitivity measure on the impact of these parameters on the budget will determine whether recent macroeconomic
developments have a negative or favorable effect on the budget. • Change in resources availabilities - Budget adjustments are undertaken when
additional resources becomes available such as new grants, proceeds from newly negotiated loans and grants. Corresponding budget
adjustments are also made when resources generation falls below the targets. 9. What mechanism ensure that funds have been properly
allocated and spent? Cognizant of the fact that no propitious results can be obtained, even with maximum funding, if agency efficiency is low and
funds are wastefully spent, systems and procedures are set in place to monitor and evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of
agencies. These activities are subsumed within the fourth and the last phase of the budget process-the budget accountability phase. At the
agency level, budget accountability takes the form of management's review of actual performance or work accomplishment in relation to the work
targets of the agency vis-à-vis the financial resources made available. Also, detailed examinations of each agency's book of accounts are
undertaken by a resident representative of the Commission on Audit (COA) to ensure that all expenses have been disbursed in accordance with
accounting regulations and the purpose(s) for which the funds have been authorized. 10. Is the role of the DBM in the budgeting process limited
to national government agencies? No, the role of the DBM in the budgeting process is not limited to national government agencies. It coordinates
all three levels of government-national government department/agencies, government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs) and local
government units (LGUs) - in the preparation, execution and control of expenditures of their corresponding components entities. The DBM
reviews the corporate operating budgets of GOCCs and ensures the proper allocation of cash. The DBM likewise formulates and recommends
the budget policy covering the allowable deficit and the criteria for the determination of the appropriate subsidy and equity of GOCCs. For LGUs,
the DBM reviews the annual and supplemental budgets of provinces, and highly urbanized cities and manages the proper allocation and release
of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) of LGUs and their share in the utilization of national wealth.
Budget process
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A budget process refers to the process by which governments create and approve a budget, which is as follows:

 The Financial Service Department prepares worksheets to assist the department head in preparation of department budget estimates
 The Administrator calls a meeting of managers and they present and discuss plans for the following year’s projected level of activity.
 The managers can work with the Financial Services, or work alone to prepare an estimate for the departments coming year.
 The completed budgets are presented by the managers to their Executive Officers for review and approval.
 Justification of the budget request may be required in writing. In most cases, the manager talks with their administrative officers about budget
requirements. Adjustments to the budget submission may be required as a result of this phase in the process.


Reading Materials for LET (7 Philosophies of Education)

Seven Philosophies of Education

1. Essentialism
Why Teach – this philosophy contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. Teachers teach “not to radically
reshape society but rather to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizen.”
What to Teach? – Essentialist program are academically rigorous. The emphasis is on academic content for student to learn the basic skill or the
fundamental r’s – reading, riting, rithmetic, right conduct – as these are essential to the acquisition of higher or morecomplex skills needed in preparation
for adult life. The essentialist curriculum includes the “traditional disciplines such as math, natural science, history, foreign language, and literature.
Essentialist frown upon vocational courses. Or other courses with watered down academic content. The teachers and administrator decide what is most
important for the student to learn and place little emphasis on student interests, particularly when they divert time and attention from the academic
How to Teach – Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. They are expected to be intellectual and moral models of their students.
They are seen as “fountain” of information and as ‘Paragon of virtue”, if ever there is such a person, to gain mastery of basic skills, teachers have to
observe “core requirements, longer school day, a longer academic year”
2. Progressivism
Why Teach – progressivist teachers teach to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society. This group
of teachers teaches learners so they may live life fully NOW not to prepare them for adult life.
What to teach – the progressivists are identified with need – based and relevant curriculum. This is a curriculum that “responds to students” needs
and that relates to students’ personal lives and experiences.”

Progressivists accept the impermanence of life and inevitability of change. For the progressivists , everything else changes. Change is the only thing that
does not change. Hence, progressivists teachers are more concerned with teaching facts or bits of information that are true today but become obsolete
tomorrow, they would rather focus their teaching on the teaching of skills or processes in gathering and evaluating information and in problem – solving.
The subjects that are given emphasis in progressivists schools are the “natural and Social sciences. Teachers expose students to many new scientific,
technological, and social development, reflecting the progressivists otion that progress and change are fundamental.

3. Perennialism
Why Teach – We are all rational animals. Schools should, therefore, develop the students’ rational and moral powers. According to Aristotle, if we
neglect the students’ reasoning skills, we deprive them of the ability to use their higher faculties to control their passions and appetites.
What to Teach – the Perennialist curriculum is a universal one on the view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. It is heavy on the
humanities, on general education. It is not a specialist curriculum but rather a general one. There is less emphasis on vocational and technical
education. Philosopher Mortimer Adler claims that the “Great Books of ancient and medieval as well as modern times are a repository of knowledge and
wisdom, a tradition of culture which must initiate each generation”. What the Perennialist teachers teach are lifted from the Great Books.
How to Teach – the Perennialist classroom are “centered around Teacher”. The teachers do not allow the students’ interest or experiences to
substantially dictate what they teach. They apply whatever creative techniques and other tried and true methods which are believed to be most
conducive to disciplining the students’ minds. Students engaged in Socratic dialogues, or mutual inquiry sessions to develop an understanding of
history’s most timeless concepts.”
. Existentialism
Why Teach – the main concern of the existentialists is “to help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept
complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and actions” Since existence precedes essence “ the existentialist teacher’s role is to help students
define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they take in life and by creating an environment in which they freely choose their own
preferred way. Since feeling is not divorced from reason in decision making, the existentialist demands the education of the whole person, not just the
What to Teach – “In an existentialist curriculum, students are given a wide variety of options from which to choose.” Students are afforded great
latitude in their choice of subject matter. The humanities, however are given tremendous emphasis to “provide students with vicarious experiences that
will help unleash their own creativity and self-expression. For example, rather than emphasizing historical events, existentialist focus upon the actions of
historical individuals, each of whom provide possible models for the students’ own behaviour.
How to Teach – existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self-directed. It includes a great deal of individual contact with the
teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. To help students known themselves and their place in society, teachers employ values
clarification strategy. In the use of such strategy, teachers remain non-judgmental and take care not to impose their values on their students since values
are persona.
5. Behaviorism
Why Teach – Behaviorist school are concerned with the modification and shaping of students’ behaviour by providing for a favourable environment,
since they believe that they are a product of their environment. They are after students’ who exhibit desirable behaviour in society.
What to Teach – Because behaviourists look at “people and other animals… as complex combinations of matter that act only in response to internally
or externally generated physical stimuli”, behaviourist teachers teach students to respond favourably to various stimuli in the environment.
How to Teach – behaviourists teachers “ought to arrange environmental conditions so that students can make the responses to stimuli. Physical
variables like light, temperature, arrangement of furniture, size and quantity of visual aids have to be controlled to get the desired responses from the
learners. Teachers ought to make the stimuli clear and interesting to capture and hold the learners’ attention. They ought to provide appropriate
incentives to reinforce positive responses and weaken or eliminate negatives ones.” (Trespeces, 1995)
6. Linguistic Philosophy
Why Teach – to develop the communication skills of the learner because the ability to articulate, to voice out the meaning and values of things that
one obtains from his/her experiences of life and the world is the very essence of man. It is through his/her ability to express himself/herself clearly, to get
his/her ideas across, to make known to others the values that he/she has imbibed, the beauty that he/she has seen, the ugliness that he rejects and the
truth that he/she has discovered. Teachers in the learner the skill to send messages clearly and receive messages correctly.
What to Teach – Learners should be taught to communicate clearly – how to send clear – concise messages and how to receive and correctly
understand messages sent. Communication takes place in three (3) ways – verbal nonverbal, and paraverbal. Verbal component refers to the content of
our message, the choice and arrangement of our words. This can be oral or written. Nonverbal component refers to the message we send through our
body languages while paraverbal component refers to how we say what we say – the tone, pacing and volume of our voices.
There is need to teach learners to use language that is correct, precise, grammatical, coherent, accurate so that they are able to communicate clearly
and precisely their thoughts and feelings. There is need to help students expand their vocabularies to enhance their communication skills. There is need
to teach the learners how to communicate clearly through non-verbal means and consistently though para-verbal means.

How to Teach – the most effective way to teach language and communication is the experiential way. Make them experience sending and receiving
messages through verbal, non-verbal and paraverbal manner. Teacher should make the classroom a place for the interplay of minds and hearts. The
teacher facilities dialogue among learners and between him/her and his/her students because in the exchange of words there is also an exchange of
7. Constructivism
Why Teach – to develop intrinsically motivated and independent learners adequately equipped with learning skills for them to be able to construct
knowledge and make meaning of them.
What to Teach – the learners are taught how to learn. They are taught learning processes and skill such as searching, critiquing and evaluating
information, relating these pieces of information, reflecting on the same, making meaning out of them, drawing insights, posing questions, researching
and constructing new knowledge out of these bits of information learned.
How to Teach – in the constructivist classroom, the teacher provides students with data or experiences that allow them to hypothesize, predict,
manipulate objects, pose questions, research, investigate, imagine, and invent. The constructivist classroom is interactive. It promotes dialogical
exchange of ideas among learners and between teachers and learners. The teacher’s role is to facilitate this process.



Conceptual Tools, Philosophy of Education, Criticism

Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator whose revolutionary pedagogical theory influenced educational and social movements throughout
the world and whose philosophical writings influenced academic disciplines that include theology, sociology, anthropology, applied linguistics, pedagogy,
and cultural studies. He was born to a middle-class family in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco in the northeast of Brazil. His early work in adult
literacy–the most famous being his literacy experiments in the town of Angicos in Rio Grande do Norte–was terminated after the military coup in 1964.
That year he went into exile, during which time he lived in Bolivia; then Chile where he worked for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) and the Chilean Institute for Agrarian Reform, and where he wrote his most important work, Pedagogy of the
Oppressed (1970); Mexico; the United States where he held a brief appointment at Harvard University's Center for Studies in Development and Social
Change; and Switzerland where he worked for the World Council of Churches as the director of their education program. He also served as an adviser
for various governments, most notably the government of Guinea-Bissau. In 1980 he returned to Brazil to teach and later to serve as secretary of
education for Sāo Paulo. He worked as a consultant for revolutionary governments such as the New Jewel Movement in Grenada, the Sandinista
government in Nicaragua, and the government of Julius K. Nyerere in Tanzania. From 1985 until his death in 1997, Freire served as the honorary
president of the International Council for Adult Education. Freire's conception of education as a deeply political project oriented toward the
transformation of society has been crucial to the education of revolutionary societies and societies undergoing civil war, as well as established Western
democracies. Freire's work has exercised considerable influence among progressive educators in the West, especially in the context of emerging
traditions of critical pedagogy, bilingual education, and multicultural education.
Freire's revolutionary pedagogy starts from a deep love for, and humility before, poor and oppressed people and a respect for their "common sense,"
which constitutes a knowledge no less important than the scientific knowledge of the professional. This humility makes possible a condition of reciprocal
trust and communication between the educator, who also learns, and the student, who also teaches. Thus, education becomes a "communion" between
participants in a dialogue characterized by a reflexive, reciprocal, and socially relevant exchange, rather than the unilateral action of one individual agent
for the benefit of the other. Nevertheless, this does not amount to a celebration of the untrammeled core of consciousness of the oppressed, in which the
educator recedes into the background as a mere facilitator. Freire conceived of authentic teaching as enacting a clear authority, rather than being
authoritarian. The teacher, in his conception, is not neutral, but intervenes in the educational situation in order to help the student to overcome those
aspects of his or her social constructs that are paralyzing, and to learn to think critically. In a similar fashion, Freire validated and affirmed the
experiences of the oppressed without automatically legitimizing or validating their content. All experiences–including those of the teacher–had to be
interrogated in order to lay bare their ideological assumptions and presuppositions. The benchmark that Freire used for evaluating experiences grew out
of a Christianized Marxist humanism. From this position, Freire urged both students and teachers to unlearn their race, class, and gender privileges and
to engage in a dialogue with those whose experiences are very different from their own. Thus, he did not uncritically affirm student or teacher
experiences but provided the conceptual tools with which to critically interrogate them so as to minimize their politically domesticating influences.

Conceptual Tools
Banking education. Freire criticized prevailing forms of education as reducing students to the status of passive objects to be acted upon by the teacher.
In this traditional form of education it is the job of the teacher to deposit in the minds of the students, considered to be empty in an absolute ignorance,
the bits of information that constitute knowledge. Freire called this banking education. The goal of banking education is to immobilize the people within
existing frameworks of power by conditioning them to accept that meaning and historical agency are the sole property of the oppressor. Educators within
the dominant culture and class fractions often characterize the oppressed as marginal, pathological, and helpless. In the banking model, knowledge is
taken to be a gift that is bestowed upon the student by the teacher. Freire viewed this false generosity on the part of the oppressor–which ostensibly
aims to incorporate and improve the oppressed–as a crucial means of domination by the capitalist class. The indispensable soil of good teaching
consists of creating the pedagogical conditions for genuine dialogue, which maintains that teachers should not impose their views on students, but
neither should they camouflage them nor drain them of political and ethical import.
Problem-posing method. Against the banking model, Freire proposed a dialogical problem-posing method of education. In this model, the teacher and
student become co-investigators of knowledge and of the world. Instead of suggesting to students that their situation in society has been
transcendentally fixed by nature or reason, as the banking model does, Freire's problem-posing education invites the oppressed to explore their reality
as a "problem" to be transformed. The content of this education cannot be determined necessarily in advance, through the expertise of the educator, but
must instead arise from the lived experiences or reality of the students. It is not the task of the educator to provide the answer to the problems that these
situations present, but to help students to achieve a form of critical thinking (or conscientization) that will make possible an awareness of society as
mutable and potentially open to transformation. Once they are able to see the world as a transformable situation, rather than an unthinkable and
inescapable stasis, it becomes possible for students to imagine a new and different reality.
In order, however, to undertake this process, the oppressed must challenge their own internalization of the oppressor. The oppressed are accustomed to
thinking of themselves as "less than." They have been conditioned to view as complete and human only the dominating practices of the oppressor, so
that to fully become human means to simulate these practices. Against a "fear of freedom" that protects them from a cataclysmic reorganization of their
being, the oppressed in dialogue engage in an existential process of dis-identifying with "the oppressor housed within." This dis-identification allows
them to begin the process of imagining a new being and a new life as subjects of their own history.
Culture circle. The concrete basis for Freire's dialogical system of education is the culture circle, in which students and coordinator together discuss
generative themes that have significance within the context of students' lives. These themes, which are related to nature, culture, work, and
relationships, are discovered through the cooperative research of educators and students. They express, in an open rather than propagandistic fashion,
the principle contradictions that confront the students in their world. These themes are then represented in the form of codifications (usually visual
representations) that are taken as the basis for dialogue within the circle. As students decode these representations, they recognize them as situations
in which they themselves are involved as subjects. The process of critical consciousness formation is initiated when students learn to read the
codifications in their situationality, rather than simply experiencing them, and this makes possible the intervention by students in society. As the culture
circle comes to recognize the need for print literacy, the visual codifications are accompanied by words to which they correspond. Students learn to read
these words in the process of reading the aspects of the world with which they are linked.
Although this system of codifications has been very successful in promoting print literacy among adult students, Freire always emphasized that it should
not be approached mechanically, but rather as a process of creation and awakening of consciousness. For Freire, it is a mistake to speak of reading as
solely the decoding of text. Rather, reading is a process of apprehending power and causality in society and one's location in it. Awareness of the
historicity of social life makes it possible for students to imagine its re-creation. Literacy is thus a "self-transformation producing a stance of intervention"
(Freire 1988, p. 404). Literacy programs that appropriate parts of Freire's method while ignoring the essential politicization of the process of reading the
world as a limit situation to be overcome distort and subvert the process of literacy education. For Freire, authentic education is always a "practice of
freedom" rather than an alienating inculcation of skills.

Philosophy of Education
Freire's philosophy of education is not a simple method but rather an organic political consciousness. The domination of some by others must be
overcome, in his view, so that the humanization of all can take place. Authoritarian forms of education, in serving to reinforce the oppressors' view of the
world, and their material privilege in it, constitute an obstacle to the liberation of human beings. The means of this liberation is a praxis,or process of
action and reflection, which simultaneously names reality and acts to change it. Freire criticized views that emphasized either the objective or subjective
aspect of social transformation, and insisted that revolutionary change takes place precisely through the consistency of a critical commitment in both
word and deed. This dialectical unity is expressed in his formulation, "To speak a true word is to transform the world" (Freire 1996, p. 68).
Freire's educational project was conceived in solidarity with anticapitalist and anti-imperialist movements throughout the world. It calls upon the more
privileged educational and revolutionary leaders to commit "class suicide" and to struggle in partnership with the oppressed. Though this appeal is firmly
grounded in a Marxist political analysis, which calls for the reconfiguring of systems of production and distribution, Freire rejected elitist and sectarian
versions of socialism in favor of a vision of revolution from "below" based on the work of autonomous popular organizations. Not only does Freire's
project involve a material reorganization of society, but a cultural reorganization as well. Given the history of European imperialism, an emancipatory
education of the oppressed involves a dismantling of colonial structures and ideologies. The literacy projects he undertook in former Portuguese colonies
in Africa included an emphasis on the reaffirmation of the people's indigenous cultures against their negation by the legacy of the metropolitan invaders.
Freire's work constitutes a rejection of voluntarism and idealism as well as determinism and objectivism. The originality of Freire's thought consists in his
synthesis of a number of philosophical and political traditions and his application of them to the pedagogical encounter. Thus, the Hegelian dialectic of
master and slave informs his vision of liberation from authoritarian forms of education; the existentialism of Jean Paul Sartre and Martin Buber makes
possible his description of the self-transformation of the oppressed into a space of radical intersubjectivity; the historical materialism of Karl Marx
influences his conception of the historicity of social relations; his emphasis on love as a necessary precondition of authentic education has an affinity
with radical Christian liberation theology; and the anti-imperialist revolutionism of Ernesto Che Guevara and Frantz Fanon undergird his notion of the
"oppressor housed within" as well as his commitment to a praxis of militant anticolonialism.
Freire's pedagogy implies an important emphasis on the imagination, though this is not an aspect that has been emphasized enough in writings about
him. The transformation of social conditions involves a rethinking of the world as a particular world, capable of being changed. But the reframing
proposed here depends upon the power of the imagination to see outside, beyond, and against what is. More than a cognitive or emotional potential, the
human imagination, in Freire's view, is capable of a radical and productive envisioning that exceeds the limits of the given. It is in this capacity that
everyone's humanity consists, and for this reason it can never be the gift of the teacher to the student. Rather, educator-student and student-educator
work together to mobilize the imagination in the service of creating a vision of a new society. It is here that Freire's notion of education as an ontological
vocation for bringing about social justice becomes most clear. For Freire, this vocation is an endless struggle because critical awareness itself can only
be a necessary precondition for it. Because liberation as a goal is always underburdened of a necessary assurance that critical awareness will propel the
subject into the world of concrete praxis, the critical education must constantly be engaged in attempts to undress social structures and formations of
oppression within the social universe of capital without a guarantee that such a struggle will bring about the desired results.
Since its first enunciation, Freire's educational theory has been criticized from various quarters. Naturally, conservatives who are opposed to the political
horizon of what is essentially a revolutionary project of emancipation have been quick to condemn him as demagogic and utopian. Freire has faced
criticism from the left as well. Some Marxists have been suspicious of the Christian influences in his work and have accused him of idealism in his view
of popular consciousness. Freire has also been criticized by feminists and others for failing to take into account the radical differences between forms of
oppression, as well as their complex and contradictory instantiation in subjects. It has been pointed out that Freire's writing suffers from sexism in its
language and from a patriarchal notion of revolution and subjecthood, as well as a lack of emphasis on domination based on race and ethnicity.
Postmodernists have pointed to the contradiction between Freire's sense of the historicity and contingency of social formations versus his vision of
liberation as a universal human vocation.
Freire was always responsive to critics, and in his later work undertook a process of self-criticism in regard to his own sexism. He also sought to develop
a more nuanced view of oppression and subjectivity as relational and discursively as well as materially embedded. However, Freire was suspicious of
postmodernists who felt that the Marxist legacy of class struggle was obsolete and whose antiracist and antisexist efforts at educational reform did little
to alleviate–and often worked to exacerbate–existing divisions of labor based on social relations of capitalist exploitation. Freire's insights continue to be
of crucial importance. In the very gesture of his turning from the vaults of official knowledge to the open space of humanity, history, and poetry–the
potential space of dialogical problem-posing education–Freire points the way for teachers and others who would refuse their determination by the
increasingly enveloping inhuman social order. To believe in that space when it is persistently obscured, erased, or repudiated remains the duty of truly
progressive educators. Freire's work continues to be indispensable for liberatory education, and his insights remain of value to all who are committed to
the struggle against oppression.

3. WHICH PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION IN K-12 curriculum anchored and why?

The K to 12 Curriculum and its Philosophies
Education is always faced with the ever changing philosophical ideas that in turn have an effect on how educators and policy makers chart the learning
process of students. This is particular ly true in the context of the Philippine educational system.
The K to 12 philosophical points, as enumerated and divided into points by this writer, are anchored on philosophical approaches and trends.
The first aspect of the need to strengthen the Ear ly Childhood Education is based on the philosophy of German educator Fredrick Froebel. Much of the
kindergarten system is credited to Froebel. In fact the main points of the K to 12 on the Kindergar ten program are merely are echos of Frobel’s
educational ideas of the emphasis on songs, stories and crafts. The K to 12 program adheres to his cognitive approach of enhancing a child’s skills
through mental stimulation.
The second aspect of the K to 12 is on Contextualization and Enhancement which barrows heavily on the philosophies of American philosopher John
The second aspect of the program aims to make a learner-relevant curriculum. This very much echoes Dewey’s pragmatist approach. Dewey, as well as
the second aspect of the K to 12 program, believes that education is a process by which the young were introduced to their cultural her itage. The K to
12 approach to a curriculum that is relevant to the learners sounds entirely a pragmatic philosophy.
The inclusion of topics like issues on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
are included in the enhanced curr iculum is homage to Dewey’s view that education is a process of social activity and believed that the school was
related to the society that it served.
The third aspect of K to 12 on use of the Mother Tongue bor rows its rationalization from the Multilingual Education ( MLE) of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for 2003 and 2005.
In fact, the program stages of the MLE programs of the UNESCO that promotes four stages of instruction are exactly the same on how the MT is
introduced in the K to 12 programs. UNESCO’s stages include: Stage I - learning takes place entirely in the child’s home language Stage II - building
fluency in the mother tongue. Introduction of oral L2. Stage III - building oral fluency in L2. Introduction of literacy in L2. Stage IV - using both L1 and L2
for lifelong learning. This shows that the Philippine system of introduction of the MT in the K to 12 program is merely a replication of the MLE programs
of UNESCO that has, in fact, produced considerable positive results.
The rationale for the use of the MT is more scientific than philosophical. According to educator and researcher Wayne P. Thomas, research have shown
that children whose early education is in the language of their home tend to do better in the later years of their education
In addition to the basic theory of Paulo Freire on critical pedagogy, Gramscian theory on education, Lev Vigostky’s scaffolding and Piaget’s theory of
cognition is applied in the Multilingual Education, according to UNESCO.
The fourth and last aspect of the program is Learning Spiral Progression. This adheres to the educational theor ies of Essentialism. Essentialism is
particularly concerned with the fundamentals of education. Curricular points of Essentialism encourage the cultivation of basic skills that contr ibute to
mastery and literacy.
Thus the K to 12 program has subjects that are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in spiral
Essentialism promotes the cultivation of competencies in history, mathematics and sciences. In the K to 12 model, as early as elementary, students gain
knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry, Ear th Science, Chemistry, and Algebra. This ensures a mastery of knowledge and skills after each
The K to 12 program br ings together the best concepts in educational philosophy. — oOo— The author is Master Teacher I at Magsaysay Elementary

4,As a teacher how you address the academic freedom in the classroom.
Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge and research without unreasonable interference or
restriction from law, institutional regulations, or public pressure. Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject that evokes
their intellectual concern; to present their findings to their students, colleagues, and others; to publish their data and conclusions without control or
censorship; and to teach in the manner they consider professionally appropriate. For students, the basic elements include the freedom to study subjects
that concern them and to form conclusions for themselves and express their opinions.

According to its proponents, the justification for academic freedom thus defined lies not in the comfort or convenience of teachers and students but in the
benefits to society; i.e., the long-term interests of a society are best served when the educational process leads to the advancement of knowledge, and
knowledge is best advanced when inquiry is free from restraints by the state, by the church or other institutions, or by special-interest groups.
The foundation for academic freedom was laid by the medieval European universities, even though their faculties met periodically to condemn on
religious grounds colleagues’ writings. Protected by papal bulls and royal charters, the universities became legally self-governing corporations with the
freedom to organize their own faculties, control admissions, and establish standards for graduation.
Until the 18th century the Roman Catholic church and, in some areas, its Protestant successors exerted censorship over universities or certain members
of their faculties. Similarly, in the 18th and 19th centuries the newly emerged nation-states of Europe constituted the chief threat to
universities’ autonomy. Professors were subject to governmental authority and were liable to be allowed to teach only what was acceptable to the
government in power. Thus began a tension that has continued to the present. Some states permitted or encouraged academic freedom and set an
example for subsequent emulation. For example, the University of Leiden in the Netherlands (founded in 1575) provided great freedom from religious
and political restraints for its teachers and students. The University of Göttingen in Germany became a beacon of academic freedom in the 18th century,
and, with the founding of the University of Berlin in 1811, the basic principles of Lehrfreiheit (“freedom to teach”) and Lernfreiheit(“freedom to learn”)
were firmly established and became the model that inspired universities elsewhere throughout Europe and the Americas.

Defining Academic Freedom

Over the course of decades, a great many books, essays, and policies have been written and published about academic freedom. We have learned how
to apply it to pedagogical, technological, cultural, and political realities that did not exist when the concept was first defined. Not only faculty members,
administrators, trustees, and students, but also parents, politicians, and other members of the public, would now benefit from a concise summary of its
major features. Sometimes academic freedom is invoked in situations where it doesn't actually apply. But many within and without higher education are
not well-versed in all the protections it does provide. This statement is designed to help clarify both what academic freedom does and doesn't do.
PART 1: What it does do
1. Academic freedom means that both faculty members and students can engage in intellectual debate without fear of censorship or retaliation.
2. Academic freedom establishes a faculty member’s right to remain true to his or her pedagogical philosophy and intellectual commitments. It preserves
the intellectual integrity of our educational system and thus serves the public good.
3. Academic freedom in teaching means that both faculty members and students can make comparisons and contrasts between subjects taught in a
course and any field of human knowledge or period of history.
4. Academic freedom gives both students and faculty the right to express their views — in speech, writing, and through electronic communication, both
on and off campus — without fear of sanction, unless the manner of expression substantially impairs the rights of others or, in the case of faculty
members, those views demonstrate that they are professionally ignorant, incompetent, or dishonest with regard to their discipline or fields of expertise.
5. Academic freedom gives both students and faculty the right to study and do research on the topics they choose and to draw what conclusions they
find consistent with their research, though it does not prevent others from judging whether their work is valuable and their conclusions sound. To protect
academic freedom, universities should oppose efforts by corporate or government sponsors to block dissemination of any research findings.
6. Academic freedom means that the political, religious, or philosophical beliefs of politicians, administrators, and members of the public cannot be
imposed on students or faculty.
7. Academic freedom gives faculty members and students the right to seek redress or request a hearing if they believe their rights have been violated.
8. Academic freedom protects faculty members and students from reprisals for disagreeing with administrative policies or proposals.
9. Academic freedom gives faculty members and students the right to challenge one another’s views, but not to penalize them for holding them.
10. Academic freedom protects a faculty member’s authority to assign grades to students, so long as the grades are not capricious or unjustly punitive.
More broadly, academic freedom encompasses both the individual and institutional right to maintain academic standards.
11. Academic freedom gives faculty members substantial latitude in deciding how to teach the courses for which they are responsible.
12. Academic freedom guarantees that serious charges against a faculty member will be heard before a committee of his or her peers. It provides faculty
members the right to due process, including the assumption that the burden of proof lies with those who brought the charges, that faculty have the right
to present counter-evidence and confront their accusers, and be assisted by an attorney in serious cases if they choose.

PART 2: What It Doesn’t Do

1. Academic freedom does not mean a faculty member can harass, threaten, intimidate, ridicule, or impose his or her views on students.
2. Student academic freedom does not deny faculty members the right to require students to master course material and the fundamentals of the
disciplines that faculty teach.
3. Neither academic freedom nor tenure protects an incompetent teacher from losing his or her job. Academic freedom thus does not grant an
unqualified guarantee of lifetime employment.
4. Academic freedom does not protect faculty members from colleague or student challenges to or disagreement with their educational philosophy and
5. Academic freedom does not protect faculty members from non-university penalties if they break the law.
6. Academic freedom does not give students or faculty the right to ignore college or university regulations, though it does give faculty and students the
right to criticize regulations they believe are unfair.
7. Academic freedom does not protect students or faculty from disciplinary action, but it does require that they receive fair treatment and due process.
8. Academic freedom does not protect faculty members from sanctions for professional misconduct, though sanctions require clear proof established
through due process.
9. Neither academic freedom nor tenure protects a faculty member from various sanctions — from denial of merit raises, to denial of sabbatical requests,
to the loss of desirable teaching and committee assignments — for poor performance, though such sanctions are regulated by local agreements and by
faculty handbooks. If minor, sanctions should be grievable; if major, they must be preceded by an appropriate hearing.
10. Neither academic freedom nor tenure protects a faculty member who repeatedly skips class or refuses to teach the classes or subject matter
11. Though briefly interrupting an invited speaker may be compatible with academic freedom, actually preventing a talk or a performance from continuing
is not.
12. Academic freedom does not protect a faculty member from investigations into allegations of scientific misconduct or violations of sound university
policies, nor from appropriate penalties should such charges be sustained in a hearing of record before an elected faculty body.
These points are mostly adapted from nearly 100 years of American Association of University Professors policy documents and reports. Since its 1915
founding, the AAUP has been the primary source of the documents outlining the basic principles of faculty rights and responsibilities. It is also the source
of perhaps the single best statement of student rights. Putting the principles above into practice, of course, requires a goodly amount of additional detail,
information the AAUP continues to provide and update.

Academic freedom is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles
of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political
groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.
Academic freedom is a contested issue and, therefore, has limitations in practice. In the United States, for example, according to the widely recognized
"1940 Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure" of the American Association of University Professors, teachers should be careful to avoid
controversial matters that are unrelated to the subject discussed. When they speak or write in public, they are free to express their opinions without fear
from institutional censorship or discipline, but they should show restraint and clearly indicate that they are not speaking for their
institution.[1] Academic tenure protects academic freedom by ensuring that teachers can be fired only for causes such as gross professional
incompetence or behavior that evokes condemnation from the academic community itself.[2]

5. Quality Philippine Education declining continuously education, as a teacher what is your intervention to result this issue.

Teacher Competencies

There currently is an abundant knowledge-base to inform us that in schools teachers play the critical role in student learning and achievement. Research

reveals that how teachers instruct and these interactions with students is the cornerstone around which to build effective schools. A summary of the

available studies accumulated over the past 40 years on a key education driver, teacher competencies offers practical strategies, practices, and rules to

guide teachers in ways to improve instruction that improves student performance and the quality of the work experience. Four groupings of these

competencies can help organize and simply for teachers what they need to master to maximize their performance: classroom management, instructional

delivery, formative assessment, and personal competencies. These four categories also provide the essential core around which decision makers can

construct teacher preparation, teacher hiring, teacher development, and teacher and school evaluations.

What are teacher competencies? Competencies are the skills and knowledge that enable a teacher to be successful. To maximize student learning,

teachers must have expertise in a wide-ranging array of competencies in an especially complex environment where hundreds of critical decisions are

required each day (Jackson, 1990). Few jobs demand the integration of professional judgment and the proficient use of evidence-based competencies

as does teaching.

Why is this important? The transformational power of an effective teacher is something many of us have experienced. Intuitively, the link between

teaching and student academic achievement may seem obvious, but what is the evidence for it?

Research confirms this common perception of a link and reveals that of all factors under the control of a school, teachers are the most powerful influence

on student success (Babu & Mendro, 2003; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). What separates effective teachers from ineffective ones, and how can this

information be used to support better teaching? We can now begin to build a profile of exemplary classroom instruction derived from effectiveness

research (Wenglinsky, 2002; Hattie, 2009).

Which competencies make the biggest difference? An examination of the research on education practices that make a difference shows that four

classes of competencies yield the greatest results.

1. Instructional delivery

2. Classroom management

3. Formative assessment
4. Personal competencies (soft skills)

Further, the research indicates that these competencies can be used to organize the numerous specific skills and knowledge available for building

effective teacher development.

Instructional delivery: Research tells us what can be expected from a teacher employing instructional strategies and practices that are proven to lead

to increased mastery of lessons. Better learning happens in a dynamic setting in which teachers offer explicit active instruction than in situations in which

teachers do not actively guide instruction and instead turn control over content and pace of instruction to students (Hattie, 2009).

Is there a diverse set of practices that teachers can efficiently and effectively use to increase mastery of content for a variety of curricula? The structured

and systematic approach of explicit instruction emphasizes mastery of the lesson to ensure that students understand what has been taught, become

fluent in new material, and can generalize what they learn to novel situations they encounter in the future.

The following are hallmarks of an explicit approach for teachers (Archer & Hughes, 2011; Knight, 2012).

1. Teacher selects the learning area to be taught.

2. Teacher sets criteria for success.

3. Teacher informs students of criteria ahead of the lesson.

4. Teacher demonstrates to the students successful use of the knowledge/skills through modeling.

5. Teacher evaluates student acquisition.

6. Teacher provides remedial opportunities for acquiring the knowledge/skills, if necessary.

7. Teacher provides closure at the end of the lesson.

A common complaint of an explicit instruction approach is that it does not offer sufficient opportunities for students to build on acquired knowledge/skills

in creative and novel ways that help them to assimilate the material. The reality is that all effective instruction, regardless of philosophy, must aid

students in generalizing newly taught knowledge/skills in a context that is greater than a single lesson. An explicit model accomplishes the goal of

building toward “big ideas” by first emphasizing mastery of foundation skills such as reading and mathematics, and then systematically introducing

opportunities to integrate these critical skills in discovery-based lessons to maximize students’ experience of success.

Effective explicit instruction practices include these features.

1. Well-designed and planned instruction: Instruction that is well planned moves students from their current level of competency toward

explicit criteria for success.

o Instructional design with clear instructional objectives: The teacher should present these objectives to students for each lesson.

o Scope and sequencing: The teacher should teach the range of related skills and the order in which they should be learned.

2. Instruction that offers sufficient opportunities for successful acquisition:

o High rates of responding for each student to practice the skill: The teacher should provide sufficient opportunities for unpunished

errors and ample reinforcement for success.

o Sufficient quantity of instruction: The teacher should allocate enough time to teach a topic.

3. Teaching to mastery: Students need to learn the knowledge/skills to criteria that are verified by teachers or students’ peers.

4. Teaching foundation knowledge/skills that become the basis for teaching big ideas: Current lessons should be built on past knowledge

to increase fluency and maintain mastery of material. The teacher should relate lessons to complex issues and big ideas that provide deeper

meaning and give students better understanding of the content.

Classroom management: Classroom management is one of the most persistent areas of concern voiced by school administrators, the public, and

teachers (Evertson & Weinstein, 2013). Research consistently places classroom management among the top five issues that affect student


To put its in perspective, classroom management was associated with an increase of 20% in student achievement when classroom rules and

procedures were applied systematically (Hattie, 2005).

A good body of research highlights four important areas that classroom teachers should be proficient in to create a climate that maximizes learning and

induces a positive mood and tone.

1. Rules and procedures: Effective rules and procedures identify expectations and appropriate behavior for students. To be effective, these

practices must be observable and measurable.

o Schoolwide rules and procedures: Clearly stated rules identify, define, and operationalize acceptable behavior specific to a school.

These rules, applicable to all students, are designed to build pro-social behavior and reduce problem behavior in a school. They

distinguish appropriate from problem behavior as well as specify consequences for infractions.

o Classroom rules and procedures: Another set of clearly stated rules establishes acceptable behavior specific in a classroom. These

rules need to be consistent with schoolwide rules, but may be unique to meet the needs of an individual classroom.

2. Proactive classroom management: These are the practices that teachers and administrators can employ to teach and build acceptable

behavior that is positive and helpful, promotes social acceptance, and leads to greater success in school. The key to proactive classroom

management is active teacher supervision. The practice elements that constitute active supervision require staff to observe and interact with

students regularly. The goal is to build a positive teacher-student relationship by providing timely and frequent positive feedback for

appropriate behavior, and to swiftly and consistently respond to inappropriate behaviors.

3. Effective classroom instruction: The key to maintaining a desirable classroom climate is to provide students with quality instructional

delivery aligned to the skill level of each student. This enables students to experience success and keeps them attentive.

4. Behavior reduction: These practices, designed to reduce problem and unacceptable behavior, are employed in the event the first three

strategies fail. Behavior reduction strategies include giving students corrective feedback at the time of an infraction, minimizing reinforcement

of a student’s unacceptable behavior, and guiding students in how to behave appropriately.

Formative assessment: Effective ongoing assessment, referred to in education literature as formative assessment and progress monitoring, is

indispensable in promoting teacher and student success. It is frequently listed at the top of interventions for school improvement (Walberg, 1999).

Feedback, a core component of formative assessment, is recognized as an essential tool for improving performance in sports, business, and education.

Hattie (2009) identified feedback as the single most powerful educational tool available for improving student performance, with a medium to large effect

size ranging from 0.66 to 0.94.

Formative assessment consists of a range of formal and informal diagnostic testing procedures, conducted by teachers throughout the learning process,

for modifying teaching and adapting activities to improve student attainment. Systemic interventions such as Response to Intervention (RtI) and Data-

Based Decision Making depend heavily on the use of formative assessment (Hattie, 2009; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001).

The following are the practice elements of formative assessment (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986).

1. Assessment: (Effect size 0.26) Assessing a student’s performance throughout a lesson offers a teacher insight into who is succeeding and

who is falling behind. It is important that teachers collect and maintain data gained through both informal and formal assessments.

2. Data display: (Effect size 0.70) Displaying the data in the form of a graphic has a surprisingly powerful effect on formative assessment’s

usefulness as a tool.

3. Data analysis following defined rules: (Effect size 0.90) Formative assessment is most valuable when teachers use evidence-based

research and their own professional judgment to develop specific remedial interventions, before it is too late, for those falling behind.

Personable competencies (soft skills): An inspiring teacher can affect students profoundly by stimulating their interest in learning. It is equally true

that most students have encountered teachers who were uninspiring and for whom they performed poorly. Unfortunately, effective and ineffective

teachers have no readily discernable personality differences. Some of the very best teachers are affable, but many ineffective instructors can be

personable and caring. Conversely, some of the best teachers appear as stern taskmasters, but whose influence is enormous in motivating students to

accomplish things they never thought possible.

What soft skills do successful teachers have in common? Typically, the finest teachers display enthusiasm and excitement for the subjects they teach.

More than just generating excitement, they provide a road map for students to reach the goals set before them. The best teachers are proficient in the

technical competencies of teaching: instructional delivery, formative assessment, and classroom management. Equally significant, they are fluent in a

multilayered set of social skills that students recognize and respond to, which leads to greater learning (Attakorn, Tayut, Pisitthawat, & Kanokorn, 2014).

These skills must be defined as clear behaviors that teachers can master for use in classrooms.

Indispensable soft skills include:

1. Establishing high but achievable expectations

2. Encouraging a love for learning

3. Listening to others

4. Being flexible and capable of adjusting to novel situations

5. Showing empathy

6. Being culturally sensitive

7. Embedding and encouraging higher order thinking along with teaching foundation skills

8. Having a positive regard for students

What does research tell us about personal competencies? Quantitative studies provide an overall range of effect sizes from 0.72 to 0.87 for effective

teacher-student relations. Better teacher-student relations promote increased student academic performance and improve classroom climate by

reducing disruptive student behavior (Cornelius-White, 2007; Marzano, Marzano & Pickering, 2003).


There is abundant research to support the notion that teachers play the critical role in improving student achievement in schools. What teachers do in

the classroom is crucial in this process. The breadth of high-quality research accumulated over the past 40 years offers educators a clear picture of how

to maximize teacher competency in four critical categories: instructional delivery, classroom management, formative assessment, and personal

competencies. There is now ample evidence to recommend these competencies as the core around which to build teacher preparation, teacher hiring,

teacher development, and teacher and school evaluations.

Education reform in the Philippines aims for better quality and more access
The Philippine education system has evolved over hundreds of years of colonial occupation, first by Spain and then by the US, through martial law and
the people’s power revolution that brought democracy to the sprawling archipelago. The education sector’s development has mirrored the changes in the
country’s administration. Today the focus is on expanding access and ensuring more Filipinos receive a decent basic education, as a means of reducing
poverty and improving national competitiveness. The World Bank notes that in other countries such initiatives have brought “large economic benefits”.
The K-12 reform was introduced in 2016 and funding was increased, easing concerns that its implementation would be hindered by limited resources
and winning over new President Rodrigo Duterte, who was initially sceptical about the plan.
Despite these successes and President Duterte’s commitment to socio-economic issues as his policy priorities, the education system continues to
struggle with deep inequalities. Quality also remains a concern. Addressing these problems will require a continued commitment to increased funding for
education, and an efficient mechanism to ensure the money is spent in the most effective manner.System
The Philippines has a vibrant and diverse education system, with the government, assisted by the private sector, providing a wide range of education
from early years up to college and university across the archipelago. The Department of Education (DepEd) oversees the provision of basic education.
The private sector includes kindergartens, international schools and religious schools. In 2015/16 there were 14.9m children enrolled at primary school
and 6.01m at secondary level.

Today’s system has been shaped by the Philippines’ colonial and post-war history. Under the Spanish, education was largely provided by missionaries
and the study of religion was compulsory, but most Filipinos were not included. It was only in the 19th century that they were able to attend the
universities that had been established two centuries earlier, and it was only when the US took control of the Philippines in 1898 that consideration was
given to non-religious education, English-language teaching and free primary school education for all.
The country was ill-prepared for the sudden expansion of education and did not have enough teachers to meet the new demand, so the colonial
authorities established a teacher-training school and brought in 1000 teachers from the US to provide training. An emphasis on vocational and adult
education was introduced in the early 20th century, while bilingual teaching – with maths, science and literature taught in English – was introduced under
Ferdinand Marcos in 1974. The commitment to a bilingual education and universal access was enshrined in the 1987 constitution.

K-12 Implementation
Three years since the Enhanced Basic Education Act (EBEA, known as the K-12 law) was signed, the Philippines has finally embarked on its most
ground-breaking change to the schooling system in decades, the K-12 reform.
K-12 extends compulsory schooling to grades 11 and 12, adding two years to secondary school, and makes secondary education compulsory. Prior to
its implementation, the Philippines was the only country in Asia, and one of only a few in the world, to have a basic education system of just 10 years.
The EBEA also mandated kindergarten as the start of compulsory formal education, while the Kindergarten Act of 2012 made pre-school free. In August
2016, 1.5m Filipino children attended 11th grade, with senior school students choosing between four tracks through the system: academic, technical-
vocational, sports or the arts. Much of the opposition to the initiative, which triggered five separate petitions to the Supreme Court, centred on whether
the country’s teachers, schools and administration were in a position to implement the reform. President Duterte expressed scepticism about the
programme before he was elected, but changed his mind in May 2016 after a delegation from DepEd told him that the change was necessary, as Filipino
students were falling behind their neighbours.
Indeed, increased spending on basic education – including an expanded Alternative Learning System (ALS) – is a centrepiece of the new president’s 10-
point socio-economic agenda. President Duterte insists that the development of the Philippines’ human capital is a priority of his administration. Building
on existing programmes, the education secretary, Leonor Briones, said that the Duterte administration’s education policy intends to ensure that the
country provides a quality education that is accessible to all and relevant to the needs of the nation. Filipinos should also find education “truly liberating”
through the development of critical thinking skills and an appreciation of culture and the arts.

10-Point Plan
The shift to K-12 began under President Duterte’s predecessor, Benigno Aquino III, who approached education as an investment in Filipinos, and
offered a 10-point plan for improving education as part of his election campaign. As well as K-12, the 10 fixes included pre-schooling for all, technical-
vocational training as an alternative in senior high school, working with local governments to build new schools, proficiency in science and maths, and
working with private schools as “essential partners” in basic education. The plan is to expand the Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in
Private Education, supporting as many as 1m students at private high schools through the Education Service Contracting Scheme.

Education For All

In 2015 the Education for All (EFA) initiative included provisions to ensure all Filipinos were able to achieve what UNESCO calls “functional literacy”, the
ability to read, write and do calculations at a level that is sufficient for the country in which a particular person lives. Further supporting the K-12 reform,
the government set four key objectives for the EFA initiative: providing education options for all out-of-school adults and young people; eliminating drop-
outs and repetition during the first three years of school; encouraging the completion of a full cycle of basic schooling to a satisfactory level at every
grade by all Filipino children; and committing to the attainment of basic education competencies for everyone.
In fact, recognition of the need to move towards K-12 was evident much earlier. In 2005 the government promised, under the Basic Education Reform
Agenda, to remove all hurdles limiting access to and delivery of basic education, whether regulatory, structural, financial or institutional. The policy
involved five key thrusts: school-based management; the development of teacher education; national learning strategies; quality assurance and
accountability; and changes to the administration of DepEd, using the latest technology to ensure more effective use of resources, whether staff or

World Bank Assessment

In June 2016 the World Bank published its assessment on the Philippines reform of basic education, “Assessing Basic Education Service Delivery”,
noting that reforms were now backed with a substantial increase in funding, after years of underinvestment exacerbated by average population growth in
excess of 2%.
The World Bank estimates that public spending increased by 60% in real terms between 2010 and 2015, helping finance infrastructure improvements
and provide the means to hire more teachers. As a result, between 2010 and 2013 the student-to-teacher ratio in public high schools fell from 38:1 to
29:1, while the student-to-classroom ratio dropped from 64:1 to 47:1. However, “despite impressive recent increases, the Philippines still spends less on
education than many neighbouring and middle-income countries,” the study noted. “Recent analysis has confirmed the need for more spending to meet
national education norms and standards.”
The World Bank study was commissioned by DepEd to assess how the public budget was being used, in order for funds to be allocated more efficiently
and effectively. It tracked 80% of the government’s national education budget, as well as spending by local authorities, in the last quarter of 2014.
In a separate report looking at the EFA initiative, UNESCO noted that even though the largest portion of the Philippine budget had consistently been
devoted to education, in percentage terms this fell short of international standards, with the state spending only 2.6% of GDP on the sector in 2011.
That figure has risen over the past few years to an expected 3.5% in 2017, but the Philippines continues to spend far less on education as a proportion
of GDP than many of its neighbours. Both Vietnam and South Korea, which have some of the world’s best-performing schools according to international
benchmarks, spend 5% of GDP on education.

Early Encouragement
DepEd itself assessed the implementation of K-12 at a January 2017 conference with stakeholders including government officials, school administrators
and teachers.
Among the encouraging news, it found that the situation in kindergartens had improved, with a more localised curriculum, the construction of clean, safe
and child-friendly classrooms, and closer cooperation with the community. Children were developing a love of reading, while teachers’ skills had been
enhanced via use of technology and the adoption of more effective teaching strategies.
For grades one to six, best practice included a curriculum more suited to the needs of Christian and Muslim pupils, closer cooperation with indigenous
communities, the provision of self-paced learning materials, catch-up programmes at all levels and the introduction of Learning Action Cell sessions for
teachers’ professional development. DepEd noted that in schools that had adopted these practices enrolment rose and the drop-out rate fell. Minority
groups were also more confident, with Muslim children having the opportunity to learn Arabic.
Junior high schools also focused on programmes to reduce the drop-out rate and nurture continued learning, including the use of ALS through a virtual
classroom, a basic literacy programme for adults, and scholarships for adult learners and students with special needs. Schools reported increased
enrolment and participation, along with rising community awareness. Teacher competency also improved with training in new learning strategies focused
on real-world application.
In senior high schools, where the full roll-out of grade 12 is now taking place, DepEd said that the policy has been largely successful, noting the transfer
of junior high school teachers to fill vacancies, and improved cooperation both between local and national government, and with the private sector on the
provision of facilities, including classrooms and dormitories for pupils living in remote areas. A large percentage of those enrolled in private schools
received vouchers, with scholarships also available.

Raising Standards
Much of the official discussion on K-12 centres on the need to raise standards, improve teacher quality and encourage completion of basic schooling.
The drop-out rate has remained high, and data from the “Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey” produced by the Philippine Statistics
Authority, shows that around 4m children and young people were out of school in 2013, while as of April 2016, 16.6m Filipinos – or 39% of the workforce
– had not completed basic education. The World Bank noted continuing problems with access and inequality. The report found that only 53% of the
poorest 20% of households sent their children to high school, while 81% of the wealthiest families did so. To address the problem, the government aims
to incentivise attendance, extend school feeding programmes and expand programmes under the ALS, a “second chance” designed to ensure more
Filipinos complete their basic education. President Duterte has indicated that an enhanced ALS – better targeted with wider coverage, more partnerships
and approaches that meet learners’ needs – will be one of his administration’s major legacies.

Regional Inequalities
The World Bank also found differences in allocations to education in different regions at the level of both national and local government. While both have
responsibility for funding education, the World Bank estimates the local contribution, which is funded by property taxes, has been declining since 2006.
Currently, more than 90% of school funding originates from the national government, with the proposed allocation to DepEd at P569.1bn ($12bn) in
2017, compared with P431.5bn ($9.1bn) in 2016. Most goes towards teachers’ salaries, but a significant amount funds financial assistance programmes
for children from low-income families. Regional disparities in funding levels do not necessarily correspond directly with outcomes. The report found that
although city schools received higher funding, their pupils tended to do less well in national tests than their rural peers. The report cited insufficient
infrastructure to cope with the larger student bodies at urban schools and higher rates of teacher absences as reasons for this.
“Many schools, particularly in urban areas, have insufficient and poor quality facilities and a shortage of teachers,” the report said. “Operational funding
still falls short of the amounts that schools need to pay bills, undertake basic repairs, and provide the day-to-day materials their students need. And there
is rarely anything left over to fund school-level initiatives to improve student learning achievement.”

Allocation Of Funds
More effective targeting of funds to the areas of greatest need is therefore a priority alongside an overall increase in budget allocations. Briones told the
Education Summit in November 2016 there is “a need for a drastic improvement in absorptive capacity”. The Duterte administration is planning to
introduce a series of financial management reforms to improve education outcomes, including: enhanced leadership supervision and oversight over
finance, administration and procurement; the creation of an education programme delivery unit to monitor budget execution and intervene to ensure
funds move smoothly to where they are needed; a financial management information system to track budget spending in real time; and a more proactive
approach to spending.

Teaching Standards
In recent years DepEd has introduced a number of measures to improve the standard of teaching, revising professional benchmarks and providing more
on-the-job training. It has also made a concerted effort to attract the brightest and the best by raising compensation and making the selection process
more competitive. In the past, teaching was poorly paid and often seen as the fall-back course for university applicants who did not get onto their
preferred course. Studies found teacher knowledge in both elementary and high school was low, and that the professional development programmes
were insufficient.
Civil society is also helping. Non-profit organisation Philippine Business for Education launched the Scholarships in Teacher Education Programme to
Upgrade Teacher Quality in the Philippines (STEPUP), which is funded by Australian Aid, in 2015. The idea is to encourage the country’s best-
performing college graduates and professionals to join the profession, with the aim of producing 1000 high-quality teachers for the public school system
by 2019. Accepting candidates up to the age of 45, STEPUP covers full tuition fees and offers a range of benefits for participants. In return, successful
applicants must work with DepEd for three years. The organisation offers a similar scheme to encourage the best high school seniors to pursue degrees
in education, majoring in subjects including maths and English. The Philippines has not participated in an international survey of school performance
since a 2003 study showed only one-third of children in elementary and secondary school were able to reach the lowest international benchmark in
maths. It also revealed stark differences in performance between children from low-and high-income families. While that makes it hard to get a sense of
how well the country’s children are doing relative to their peers in region, results in national tests remain patchy. At elementary school, the average score
rose to 69.97% in 2013/14, but slipped back to 69.1% in 2014/15. The government targeted a score of 77% in 2016. A similar trend is evident at the
secondary level, where the average score edged up to 53.77% in 2013/14 before dropping back to 49.48% in 2014/15. In 2016 the target was 65%.
National results also show that pupils in urban schools do not perform as well as those in rural areas, according to the World Bank. The average score in
the 2014 grade six exam was 66% in city schools and 75% in those outside urban areas, even though the former tended to have larger revenues.

Meeting National Needs

The government insists that the education system must be more appropriate to the needs of the country, including its economy. The aim is to improve
students’ abilities in science and technology, and nurture critical thinking, creativity and entrepreneurial spirit, as well as to encourage them to support
the wider community, especially those on the margins. Sex education, along with awareness of the issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and the
dangers of drugs (from grade four), will be strengthened, and there will be a special emphasis on the environment, climate change and disaster
preparedness in a country that has frequently endured earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. To achieve these goals, the government is
overhauling the curriculum to establish a “spiral” approach, which is designed to challenge and stimulate pupils so that they develop critical thinking
skills. DepEd consulted industry during the development of the new curriculum, although the final design was the work of DepEd alone. Those learning
science under the spiral approach, for example, learn general science, biology, chemistry and physics on a per quarter basis. The basics are taught in
grade seven, with more complicated theories added as pupils progress through subsequent grades.
Higher Education
The Philippines is one of the few countries where the number of private higher education institutions and students enrolled there is greater than in the
state sector. Leading private universities, such as the University of Santo Tomas, were established hundreds of years before their public sector
counterparts – although Filipinos were not allowed to attend until the 19th century – while the University of the Philippines, the archipelago’s leading
state university, was set up in 1908, when the country was under US control.
National government spending on the tertiary education segment has risen in recent years, but at 12.2% of the sector budget, spending remains below
the international benchmark of 15-20%. The 2017 allocation reflects a government decision to scrap tuition fees at all state universities and colleges.
However, students will still need to pay their living expenses with grants and other forms of aid available to those from low-income families.
“In the short term, this will incrementally improve enrolment rates, and will help free up financial resources for other college expenses and needs of the
students,” Patricia Licuanan, chair of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), said in a statement after the budget was passed in December.
“From a wider perspective, this amount will eventually increase the available income of families.”
The Philippine higher education system is managed by CHED and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The country’s
228 state universities and colleges, which had 1.88m students in the 2015/16 academic year, are operated and subsidised by the government, with each
university run by a board of regents and a board of trustees supervised by the chair of CHED. Local government units can also establish local
universities. The state universities and colleges have a total of 454 satellite campuses, according to CHED.
The 1706 private universities and colleges, which have a total of 2.22m students, are generally much smaller, are governed under the Corporation Code
and can be non-profit religious institutions or for-profit secular colleges. The greatest density of higher education institutions is in the south of the largest
island of Luzon, including Manila. In 2015/16, 26% of students (1.07m) were enrolled in business-related courses, followed by 19% (791,000) studying
education and teaching, and 13% (517,000) on courses in engineering and technology.

Quality Of Instruction
Despite the size of the higher education sector, the quality of instruction remains low, according to the Asian Development Bank (ADB). In professional
board examinations, for instance, median pass rates between 2005 and 2015 ranged from 34% to 43%. The ADB also noted a “worrisome
preponderance” within both the state and private sector of institutions with a pass rate of zero, “indicative of a large number of low-quality higher
education institutions.”
“CHED has instituted a vertical/horizontal typology approach to assess the quality of higher educational institutions,” Caroline Marian Enriquez, president
of Our Lady of Fatima University, told OBG. “However, given that the current university landscape is composed of over 2000 institutions of very uneven
quality, some of the standards may be too stringent or not applicable to the core competencies of certain institutions.”
The government has been trying to rationalise the state sector by putting a halt to the establishment of new course programmes by state universities and
local colleges that do not meet the standards set by CHED, by encouraging rationalisation and hopefully reducing course duplication. It is also trying to
raise standards through the introduction of quality institutional sustainability assessment.
“For the government to truly improve the quality assurance system of education, it should provide strong data on the performance of schools. Once
analysis is provided on the 10 best- or worst-performing schools, the market will be able to decide based on this information,” Chito Salazar, president
and CEO of Phinma Education, told OBG PHILIPPINE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK: In addition, the government has enhanced the Philippine
Qualifications Framework (PQF) to put it in line with the ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework and ensure academic programmes meet
international standards. “The PQF can significantly reduce jobs-skills mismatch. It can also boost international confidence among Filipino workers by
making them more competitive and employable,” Senator Joel Villanueva, a former TESDA director-general, said in August 2016 (see analysis). The
government is committed to creating a system that is more aligned to 21st century needs, positioning higher education as an accelerator for innovation
and inclusive development. It is encouraging cooperation between academia and industry, supporting the professional development of teaching and
research staff who want to complete their doctorate, and promoting research cooperation between institutions and across borders. Already, courses in
subjects including meteorology, business analytics and naval architecture have been developed with industry, and a degree in health informatics is
under development.

Research Partnerships
Research and development (R&D) has also been a focus in areas such as food security, the environment and natural disasters, biodiversity and health
systems in order to support the Duterte administration’s socio-economic objectives. As part of the push for reform, the government is keen to encourage
increased private investment and internationalisation in higher education.
Some institutions already partner with overseas universities on select courses, while the Philippine-California Advanced Research Institute (PCARI) was
initiated in 2013 by the scientific community and academics to boost the country’s research capacity by supporting post-doctoral scholars and R&D
proposals with the potential to address the Philippines’ developmental issues.
The PCARI’s R&D projects involve 15 private institutions working with partners at the University of California, and include work on traffic management in
urban areas, the development of affordable solar energy systems for remote areas, and improving local capacity to design and develop medical devices.

The Philippines has embarked on education reforms that it considers crucial to its economic development, bringing its school system into line with
international standards and seeking to open up its higher education sector to more people, while supporting R&D that will raise its academic profile and
bring lasting benefits to the country.
The government had to overcome substantial opposition to introduce K-12, a sign of its determination to bring lasting change, but sustained funding to
support the increased demand on resources will be crucial if these bold reforms are to be a success.
echnology policy
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There are several approaches to defining the substance and scope of technology policy.
According to the American scientist and policy advisor Lewis M. Branscomb, technology policy concerns the "public means for nurturing those
capabilities and optimizing their applications in the service of national goals and interests". [1] Branscomb defines technology in this context as "the
aggregation of capabilities, facilities, skills, knowledge, and organization required to successfully create a useful service or product". [1]
Other scholars differentiate between technology policy and science policy, suggesting that the former is about "the support, enhancement and
development of technology", while the latter focuses on "the development of science and the training of scientists".[2] Rigas Arvanitis, at the Institut de
Recherche pour le développement (IRD) in France, suggests that "science and technology policy covers all the public sector measures designed for the
creation, funding, support and mobilisation of scientific and technological resources". [3]
Technology policy is a form of 'active industrial policy', and effectively argues, based on the empirical facts of technological development as observed
across various societies, industries and time periods, that markets rarely decide industrial fortunes in and of their own and state-intervention or support is
required to overcome standard cases of market-failure (which may include, for example, under-funding of Research & Development in highly competitive
Technology policy may be more broadly defined. Michael G. Pollitt offers a multidisciplinary approach with social science and humanities perspective on
"Good" policy.[5]

Technological determinism[edit]

Technological determinism presumes that a society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values.[6] The term is believed
to have been coined by Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929), an American sociologist and economist. The most radical technological determinist in the United
States in the 20th century was most likely Clarence Ayres who was a follower of Thorstein Veblen and John Dewey. William Ogburn was also known for
his radical technological determinism.
Viewed through the lens of Science policy, public policy can directly affect the funding of capital equipment, intellectual infrastructure for industrial
research, by providing tax incentives, direct funding or indirect support to those organizations who fund, and conduct, research. Vannevar Bush, director
of the office of scientific research and development for the U.S. government in July 1945, wrote "Science is a proper concern of government"[7] Vannevar
Bush directed the forerunner of the National Science Foundation, and his writings directly inspired researchers to invent the hyperlink and the computer
mouse. The DARPA initiative to support computing was the impetus for the Internet Protocol stack. In the same way that scientific consortiums
like CERN for high-energy physics have a commitment to public knowledge, access to this public knowledge in physics led directly to CERN's
sponsorship of development of the World Wide Web and standard Internet access for all.
The first major elaboration of a technological determinist view of socioeconomic development came from the German philosopher and economist Karl
Marx, whose theoretical framework was grounded in the perspective that changes in technology, and specifically productive technology, are the primary
influence on human social relations and organizational structure, and that social relations and cultural practices ultimately revolve around the
technological and economic base of a given society. Marx's position has become embedded in contemporary society, where the idea that fast-changing
technologies alter human lives is all-pervasive.[8] Although many authors attribute a technologically determined view of human history to Marx's insights,
not all Marxists are technological determinists, and some authors question the extent to which Marx himself was a determinist. Furthermore, there are
multiple forms of technological determinism.[9] On the subject of technology as a means to liberation or enslavement, a question arising from a
technological determinist perspective, David E. Cooper wrote in the Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 38:7-18 (1995), "people myopically
impressed by the world as an object of beauty or worship die out. Those who are myopically impressed by it as a source of energy do not: they even
prosper." [10]

Technology policy and economics[edit]

Technology policy takes an 'evolutionary approach' to technical change, and hereby relates to evolutionary growth theory, developed by Luigi Pasinetti,
J.S. Metcalfe, Pier Paolo Saviotti, and Koen Frenken and others, building on the early work of David Ricardo.[11][12] J.S. Metcalfe noted in 1995 that
"much of the traditional economic theory of technology policy is concerned with so-called 'market failures' which prevent the attainment of Pareto
equilibria by violating one or other of die conditions for perfect competition". [13]
In contrast to the evolutionary paradigm, classic political science teaches technology as a static 'black box'. Similarly Neoclassical economics treats
technology as a residual, or exogenous factor, to explain otherwise inexplicable growth (for example, shocks in supply that boost production, affecting
the equilibrium price level in an economy). In the United States, the creation of the U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy responded to the need
policy approaches wherein not all technologies were treated as identical based on their social or economic variables. Technology policy is distinct
from science studies but both have been influenced by Thomas Samuel Kuhn. Research in the technology policy domain recognizes the importance of,
amongst others, Vannevar Bush, Moses Abramovitz, William J. Abernathy and James M. Utterback.
Technology policy approaches Science as the pursuit of verifiable or falsifiable hypotheses, while science studies has a post-modern view whereby
science is not thought to get at an objective reality. Technology policy is rarely post-modern. Its goal is the improvement of policy and organizations
based on an evolutionary view, and understanding, of the underlying scientific and technological constraints involved in economic development, but also
their potential. For example, some clean coal technologies via carbon sequestration and the allocation of electromagnetic spectrum by auction are ideas
that emerged from technology policy schools. The Dominant design paradigm, developed by William J. Abernathy and James M. Utterback, is an idea
with significant implications for innovation, market structure and competitive dynamics both within and between nations that emerged from empirical
research in Technology management, a domain of Technology Policy.


Education and Training

Cooperative (co-op) Training

The GI Bill is available to use with cooperative training. Cooperative training consists of individuals attending school part-time and work part-time. VA

may provide educational assistance for pursuit of a program of education offered by an approved Institution of Higher Learning (IHL). The training must

be full-time and consist of phases of school instruction alternated with training in a business or industrial establishment.

Available Benefit

The payment amount varies depending on the GI Bill program you are utilizing and the type of school you are attending. Payments are issued monthly

and vary depending on which VA education benefit you are using.

The Post-9/11 GI Bill

Under this program, the benefit pays either the actual net costs for public in-state tuition and fees if the program is at a public IHL or, if the program is at

a private or foreign IHL, the lesser of the national Maximum or the actual net costs for in-state tuition and fees. Monthly housing allowance (MHA) is paid

based on the location of the school. Up to $1000 per year is available for books and supplies.

All Other GI Bill Programs

VA pays a monthly rate that varies depending on which GI Bill program you are entitled to and how long your qualifying military service was

A technological system is defined as a system that takes an input, changes it according to the system's use, and then produces an outcome. It is
made up of components that work together to transform, transport, store, or control energy, materials, and information. For example, your clock with
moving hands is made up of gears, a battery, and the hands that are moved by the gears. They all work together to change the input, the battery power,
into time, the moving of the hands at a set pace.
Another aspect of a technological system is that it works on its own once it is given an appropriate input. You don't have to do anything for the system to