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Hot Water Supply

• Hot water supply – requirements & parameters


• Hot water supply system classification
• Basic working mechanism
• Types of Hot Water Supply System
• Typical toilet layout
• Solar Water Heater (SWH)

Ar. Raghunandan A
DYPCOA
HOT WATER SUPPLY

Where do we use Hot Water?

• Bathing / Washing Up
• Cooking / Washing Dishes
• Washing Clothes
• Cleaning / Sanitizing
• Space Heating
• Industrial Purposes

Note: Our scope will be restricted to the Residential/Domestic use only


HOT WATER SUPPLY

How large is the requirement ?

• Demand grows with more number of appliances in a house


using hot water.
• Percentage grows with the type. A shower is preferred over
a Tub bath for energy conservation.
• Also depends on the number of occupants.
Energy Consumption?
Water heating is the number 1 energy user
2nd will be the refrigerator.
3rd Television or (if you have it) a big screen LCD TV and the bigger the
screen the more energy it uses.
4th Perhaps kitchen appliances: Mixer, Microwave, water filtration,
exhaust fan, etc.
5th Pumps
HOT WATER SUPPLY

Expectations from hot water? Deciding Factor for hot water


system?
• No Scalding / Burning • Required Consumption
• Adequate Temperature • Peak Demand
• Adequate Flow • Type of Installation
• Minimal Losses of Heat/Energy • Required Storage capacity
• No Bacteria Propagation • Method of heating water
• Low Lifecycle Costs (Capital + • Insulation of pipe work
Energy)
• Further planning
• Adjustable
Demand/Temperature
• Instant?
HOT WATER SUPPLY

Hot water parameters?

•Domestic hot water in 40°C to 60°C range.


•For Bathing, approximately 41°C to 44°C range.
•Tepid bath 29.5°C
•Scalding 65°C

Mixing of Hot & Cold water

Temp. 75 70 65 60 55 50
% Hot 51 55 60 66 73 82.5
HOT WATER SUPPLY

Hot water parameters- Rate of Flow

Maximum allowable flow rates allowed by UPC-I

• Shower heads: 9.5 lpm

• Washbasins and kitchen faucets: 8 lpm


HOT WATER SUPPLY

Typical Hot Water Event

Water Heater Temperature


Temperature

Useful Hot Water


Temperature

Delivery Use Cool Down

Time
COMPONENTS OF HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
A water heating system has:

1. A heat energy source:


may be (1) fuel combustion, (2) electrical conversion, (3) solar energy,
and/or (4) recovered waste heat from such sources as flue gases,
ventilation and air-conditioning system, refrigeration cycles, and process
waste discharge.
2. Heat transfer equipment,
is either direct or indirect. For direct equipment, heat is derived from
combustion of fuel or direct con-version of electrical energy into heat
and is applied within the water-heating equipment. For indirect heat
transfer equipment, heat energy is developed from remote heat sources,
such as boilers,
3. A distribution system,
transport the hot water produced by the water-heating equipment to
terminal hot-water usage devices.
4. Terminal hot-water usage devices.
plumbing fixtures and equipment requiring hot water
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Basic Schematic Diagram


Energy
Fixture or
Hot Appliance
Water Cold
Water
Mixed
Temperature
Water

Water Drain
Heater

Indoor
Boundary

Energy/Fuel Water
Sewer
Source Source
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

A.Vented B. Unvented C. Instantaneous

A.1Direct A.2 Indirect B.1Direct B.2 Indirect


Storage Tank Tank-less

No cistern required

Energy Source

Electric Immersion Gas/coal/oil Boiler Solar

Heat Recovered from A.C. Cogeneration Refrigeration


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Vented Direct Hot Water Supply System


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Vented Indirect Hot Water Supply System


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Direct vs. Indirect Hot Water Supply System


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Vented Indirect Hot Water Supply System - Calorifier


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Unvented Direct Hot Water Supply System


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Unvented Indirect Hot Water Supply System


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

C. Instantaneous

•Small in size
•Outer cover is made up of
Chromium Plated brass or PVC
•The inner body is provided with
heating coils/immersion rod

•These are also called tank-less geysers, as the geyser doesn’t have hot water
storage capacity.
•Hot water has to be collected in buckets or tubs for utilization.
•Hot water from outlet is connected to hot water tap, from there it is
collected in vessel.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

C. Instantaneous
•Cold water Inlet is always from
below/bottom.
•Water gets heated when it
comes in contact with the
electric coil.
•Heater water outlet can be at
bottom or top.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Domestic Water heaters (Direct with Storage)


•Long cylindrical (drum) body, bigger than
tank-less geyser.
•They are available for different capacity
15 ltrs-90 ltr.
•Outer body can be made of MS Sheet
and inner body/layer is made of thick
copper sheet. The space between outer
and inner layer is filled with dense
insulators.
•Electric heating coil is placed inside the
inner body. Surface area of heating coils is
dependent on the capacity of geyser.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Domestic Water heaters (Direct with Storage)

•These geysers have Thermostat


control.
• the temperature of hot water is pre-
determined/pre-programed.When water
is heated to the preprogrammed temp.,
the energy source is automatically shut-off.
As the temp of water drops, the energy
source id turned on.
•This helps in terms of energy saving.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Domestic Water heaters (Direct with Storage)

•For localized system, the length of hot water distribution pipe should be
kept short, to minimize heat-loss
HOT WATER SUPPLY

Water heaters Fixing Location

Outside bathroom Inside bathroom

Horizontal – Saves headroom


Typical Toilet Layout - Plan
Typical Toilet Layout - Elevation
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Solar Water Heater


A solar water heater consists of a collector to
collect solar energy and an insulated storage
tank to store hot water.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
Solar Water Heater –
Flat Plate Collector
The solar energy incident on the
absorber panel coated with selected
coating transfers the heat to the riser
pipes(Fluid flow pipe) underneath the
absorber panel.

The water passing through the risers


get heated up and is delivered the
storage tank.

The re-circulation of the same water


through absorber panel in the
collector raises the temperature to 80
deg C (Maximum) in a sunny day.

The total system with solar collector,


storage tank and pipelines is called
solar hot water system.
Solar Water Heater

Flat Plate Collector (in combination


with boiler)
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Solar Water Heater- Evacuated Tube Collector

Evacuated Tube Collector is made of double layer boro-


silicate glass tubes evacuated for providing insulation.
The outer wall of the inner tube is coated with selective
absorbing material. This helps absorption of solar
radiation and transfers the heat to the water which
flows through the inner tube.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Salient Features of Solar Water Heating System (SWH system)

• Around 60 deg. – 80 deg. C temperature can be attained depending on solar


radiation, weather conditions and solar collector system efficiency

• Can be installed on roof-tops, building terrace and open ground where there is no
shading, south orientation (south orientation of solar collectors are for all locations
that are north of equator) of collectors and over-head tank above SWH system.

• SWH system generates hot water on clear sunny days (maximum), partially clouded
(moderate) but not in rainy or heavy overcast day

• Only soft and potable water must be used


HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Salient Features of Solar Water Heating System (SWH system)

• Stainless Steel is used for small tanks whereas Mild Steel tanks with
anticorrosion coating inside are used for large tanks

• Solar water heaters (SWHs) of 100-300 lts. capacity are suited for domestic
application. Larger systems can be used in restaurants, guest houses, hotels,
hospitals, industries etc.

• Fuel Savings : A 100 lts. capacity SWH can replace an electric geyser for residential
use and saves 1500 units of electricity annually.

• Though the initial investment for a solar water heater is high compared to
available conventional alternatives, the return on investment has become
increasingly attractive with the increase in prices of conventional energy. The pay
back period depends on the site of installation, utilization pattern and fuel
replaced.
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS-
Questions for Journal
Q1. Differentiate between the following in detail, with sketches.
a) Direct & Indirect hot water supply
b) Vented and unvented hot water supply
c) Storage tank and Tank-less(instantaneous) system

Q2. Explain the components and types of solar water heating system, with sketches.