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Think back on the last trip you took to a big city.

How would you describe the city


in terms of the size of the human population? Many would describe a big city as
crowded with a very densely packed population.
Cities were not always so
crowded. It wasn't until around
300 years ago that the
population size began to rise due
to urbanization, which is the
shift from rural to urban living
and the increased concentration
of the human population in
densely populated cities. In fact,
in the mid-1800s, only around
2% of the entire human
population lived in cities. By the
1950s, the percentage of the
human population living in urban
areas was up to around 29%,
and by 2009, that number had reached 50%. This number is expected to increase
rapidly, and by 2050, it is predicted that over 70% of the human population will live
in urban areas.
Although people often think of a city as a busy and productive place, many
problems have arisen in cities due to the rapid population growth rates. One major
problem is the lack of adequate housing. As more people move to cities, the amount
of housing available decreases. The increased demand for housing can often lead
to overestimated real estate costs. As a result, many people end up living in cheaper
neighborhoods and rundown areas or becoming homeless.
In many cities, the lack of adequate housing has led to the creation of slums and
shantytowns. The term slums is often used to describe areas with multifamily
tenements that are inadequate in size and function. However, the most extreme
result of the lack of adequate housing is people becoming homeless. In 2011, it was
estimated that nearly 100 million people worldwide were homeless.
In addition to a lack of adequate housing, insufficient sewage systems are also
another major problem faced by growing cities. Many cities built their sewage
systems to handle a certain population size, and as the population increases, the
systems are overloaded and cannot properly function. This insufficient sewage
systems often leads to water pollution. When water sources are polluted with human
waste, it can lead to outbreaks of diseases, such as dysentery, typhoid and cholera.
It can also cause economic problems for people because if the water is
contaminated, people may be forced to purchase bottled water.
Retrieved from:
Cunningham, Margaret. Urban Population Growth and Compact Development. Study.com. https://study.com/academy/lesson/urban-population-growth-and-compact-development.html
When water on the earth is warmed by the sun, it evaporates into the air. We call this
evaporation.
Once water has evaporated, it condenses in the form of clouds. This is called condensation.
When the air becomes saturated with water, precipitation will occur.
MAIN IDEA:
TOPIC SENTENCE:
One way to conserve water is to turn off the water when you brush your teeth.
Another way to use less water is to place a bucket in the shower when you bathe and use that
water to water your plants (Make sure there is no soap or shampoo in the water.)
Finally, turn off the water when you aren’t using it.
MAIN IDEA:
TOPIC SENTENCE:
The crust is the outer layer of the Earth.
Just under the Earth’s crust, you will find the upper and lower mantle.
In the Earth’s center is the core.
MAIN IDEA:
TOPIC SENTENCE:
Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy
diet.
First, fruits and vegetables are packed with the vitamins
and minerals you need to keep your body functioning
smoothly.
In addition, they give you the carbohydrates you need
for energy.
Fruits and vegetables have lots of fiber to help your
digestive system work properly.
Finally, many scientists believe that the nutrients in
fruits and vegetables can help fight diseases.
If you eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, you’ll be on
the road to better health.

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