Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 86

# AERODYNAMICS MIDTERM EXAM #1

## Basic Properties of Physics

1) What is power?

a) Ability to do power
b) Work done per unit of time
c) Energy due to motion
d) Mass times acceleration

## a) Total mass of air particles per unit of volume

b) Total mass of air particles at a given temperature
c) The volume of air at a given temperature
d) The volume of air particles

## a) A push or pull exerted on a body

b) F = m x a
c) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
d) A body at rest tends to stay at rest; a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon
by an outside force

a) 2116 lb/ft2
b) 29.92” Hg
c) 32.17 ft/sec3
d) 2116 ft2/lb

a) Pressure
b) Density
c) Temperature
d) Weight

## a) If the airplane is trimmed it is in equilibrium flight

b) If he doesn’t the instructor will yell at him
c) Trimming reduces pressure on the control stick and rudder thus making the plane easier to fly
d) Both b and c are correct

## a) A force vector which is always oriented parallel to relative wind

b) A force vector which is a result of pressure and friction distributed over an airfoil
c) A coefficient which depends solely on angle of attack and camber
d) A force vector which is always oriented perpendicular to relative wind
8) What must a pilot due to maintain constant altitude and indicated airspeed as aircraft weight decreases
due to fuel consumption?
a) Maintain constant true airspeed and reduce angle of attack
b) Increase true airspeed and reduce angle of attack
c) Increase true airspeed and increase angle of attack
d) Increase true airspeed and maintain constant angle of attack

a) Slugs
b) lbs/ft2
c) Ft - lbs
d) Lbs

## a) L/D maximum AOA

b) Minimum drag AOA
c) C LMAS AOA
d) Maximum velocity airspeed

11) In a constant altitude turn, what must the vertical component of lift be equal to?

a) Induced drag
b) Horizontal lift component
c) Weight
d) Thrust

12) What is the effect of an increase in AOA, at a constant TAS, on the moment about the aerodynamic
center (AC) of a positive cambered airfoil?

## a) The pitching moment about the AC increases

b) The pitching moment about the AC decrease
c) The pitching moment about the AC remains constant but will vary if g, S, or camber are
changed
d) No pitching moment about the AC is provided

KEY
1) b
2) a
3) c
4) b
5) c
6) c
7) b
8) a
9) d
10) c
11) c
12) c
AERODYNAMICS MIDTERM EXAM #2

## Basic Properties of Physics

1) What is a moment?

## a) A push or pull exerted on a body

b) A force acting over a distance to produce rotation about an axis
c) Mass per unit of volume
d) A force acting toward the center of the Earth

## a) Decreases until 25,000’ and then remains constant

b) Decreases until there are no molecules of air
c) Decrease until 36,000’ and then remains constant until 80,000’
d) Decreases until 0 degrees is reached

a) An increase
b) No affect
c) A decrease

## 4) Which one of the following causes a change in the speed of sound?

a) Density
b) Pressure
c) Temperature
d) Humidity

5) An aircraft is climbing vertically at a constant airspeed in equilibrium flight. Which of these is true?

## a) Thrust equals weight

b) Lift equals weight
c) Kinetic energy equals potential energy
d) Thrust equals weight plus drag

6) What is humidity?

## a) Mass per unit of volume?

b) Amount of water vapor in the air
c) Amount of oxygen in the air
d) A measure of air’s resistance to flow

7) What is the effect of runway temperature if the airfield static pressure remains constant and density
increases, according to the General Gas Law?

## a) Air temperature increases

b) Air temperature decreases
c) There is no effect

Airplane Terminology
8) What are the 5 major components of an airplane?

## a) Wings, fuselage, empennage, landing gear, engine

b) Wings, cockpit, empennage, flaps, engine
c) Fuselage, rudder, empennage, ailerons, engine
d) Fuselage, empennage, engine/transmission assembly, vertical stabilizer, rudder

## a) Vertical stabilizer, elevator, trim tabs

b) Horizontal stabilizer, rudder, fuselage
c) Rudder, elevator, and the aft part of the fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, and the aft part of the fuselage

## a) Aerodynamic center (AC)

b) Center of pressure (CP)
c) Center of gravity (CG)
d) Cockpit

11) Yaw is defined as the motion of the longitudinal axis about which axis?

a) Lateral axis
b) Longitudinal axis
c) Vertical Axis
d) Horizon

a) 35’ 3”
b) 33’ 5”
c) 53’ 3”
d) 34’ 4”

## a) On the leading edge

b) On the trailing edge
c) At the root
d) Both a and b

## 14) What control surfaces control roll?

a) Elevators
b) Rudder
c) Control stick
d) Ailerons

15) The apparent surface area of the wing from wing tip to wing tip is the:

a) Taper
b) Aspect ration
c) Wing area
d) Sweep angle
16) What is airspeed considered to be in the study of aerodynamics?

## a) A uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a solid

b) A non-uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a solid
c) A uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a fluid
d) A non-uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a fluid

## a) It is the actual aircraft velocity through an air mass

b) It is the result of correcting for errors in the instrument due to position or location
c) It is the result of correcting calibrated airspeed (CAS) for compressibility effects
d) It is the instrument indication for some given flight condition

18) An aircraft is stabilized in level flight at 600 knots TAS with a ground speed of 8 nautical miles per
minute. What is the wind component?

b) 120 knot tailwind
c) 120 knot crosswind
d) 120 knot downdraft

19) What component in the pitot-static system provides total pressure input?

## a) The density spring

b) The static pressure port
c) The barometric unit
d) The pitot tube

20) What change in mach number occurs as an aircraft descends at a constant 350 knots IAS?

## a) Mach number increases

b) Mach number decreases
c) Mach number remains the same
d) There is no mach number at this speed

## 21) What is the chord line of an airfoil?

a) A straight line extending from the upper surface to the lower surface of an airfoil
b) A straight line extending from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil
c) A straight line extending from the wing root to the wing tip
d) A diagonal line from the leading edge wing root to the trailing edge wing tip

22) What is the angle formed between the wing chord line and the longitudinal axis?

a) Angle of attack
b) Angle of incidence
c) Pitch angle
d) Sideslip angle

## 23) What is the aerodynamic force equation?

a) AF = qSC F
b) AF = qSC L
c) AF = qSC D
d) AF = qSC HAC C

24) What change in angle of attack is needed to maintain a constant amount of lift as aircraft TAS
decreases?

a) An increase
b) A decrease
c) No change
d) It is not possible to maintain a constant amount of lift as TAS decreases

25) What is the single largest factor in increasing an aircraft’s stall speed?

a) Increasing weight
b) Decreasing weight
c) Decreasing air density
d) Decreasing humidity

26) What two factors does the pilot control that affect the coefficient of lift?

## a) Velocity and density

b) Velocity and angle of attack
c) Angle of attack and density
d) Angle of attack and camber

27) Which of the following, when doubled, will cause the greatest increase in lift?

a) Velocity
b) Coefficient of lift
c) Density
d) Area

28) According to the lift equation (L = 1/2pV2SCL), upon what variables is lift directly dependent?

a) TAS, S, V
b) TAS, q, S
c) TAS, C, S, density
d) TAS, p, CL, S

## a) Lift, but less than a positively cambered airfoil

b) No form drag
c) No induced drag
d) No net aerodynamic force

30) What change in the coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) occurs at angles of attack greater than C LMAX ?

## a) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) increases

b) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) decreases
c) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) remains constant

## a) A cross-sectional area of the aircraft

b) A combination of an aircraft’s cross-sectional area presented to the relative wind and other
aircraft surfaces over which air flows
c) The airfoil surfaces which have the same texture
d) Aircraft surfaces where parasite drag values are equal

32) Vortices can cause one or both of the wings of a trailing plane to stall.

a) True
b) False

## a) The amount of power required to lift the weight of an aircraft

b) The amount of power needed to reduce drag
c) The amount of power required to produce thrust required
d) The amount of power required to start the aircraft’s engines

34) The amount of thrust that an aircraft’s engines are actually producing at a give throttle setting, velocity
and density is:

a) Thrust required
b) Thrust available
c) Power required
d) Thrust horsepower

## 35) As air density decreases, power available:

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains constant

a) True
b) False

## 37) As the throttle is retarded, thrust available:

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains constant

## 38) As air density decreases, thrust available:

a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Remains constant

## 39) The T-34c’s engines are limited by the Navy to:

a) 1350 SHP
b) 1015 SHP
c) 400 SHP
d) 425 SHP
40) Propeller efficiency (pe):

## a) Determines power required

b) Is the ability of the engine to turn engine output into thrust
c) Is a turboprop’s engine output
d) Is propeller output

a) L/D
b) L/D minimum
c) L/D maximum
d) TAS

## a) Power excess increases

b) Power excess decreases
c) Power excess remains constant

KEY

1) b
2) c
3) a
4) c
5) d
6) b
7) b
8) a
9) d
10) c
11) c
12) b
13) d
14) d
15) c
16) c
17) d
18) a
19) d
20) b
21) b
22) b
23) a
24) a
25) a
26) b
27) a
28) d
29) a
30) a
31) b
32) a
33) c
34) d
35) a
36) b
37) c
38) b
39) d
40) b
41) c
42) b
AERODYNAMICS MIDTERM EXAM #3

## a) The ability to do work

b) Work done per unit of time
c) Energy due to motion
d) Mass times acceleration

## a) Force per unit area

b) Mass per unit of volume
c) Mass times gravity
d) Mass times velocity squared

## 3) What is an example of an aircraft operating under Newton’s Law of Equilibrium?

a) An aircraft making a turn while maintaining constant true airspeed (TAS) and altitude
b) An aircraft maintaining straight and level flight at a constant TAS
c) An aircraft pulling out of a dive at a constant TAS
d) An aircraft accelerating in straight and level flight due to an increase in thrust

a) Increases
b) No change
c) Decreases

## 5) What would cause an increase in the density of air?

a) Increase in altitude
b) Decrease in pressure
c) Increase in temperature
d) Decrease in altitude

## 6) What property is the Greek letter p (Rho) used to represent?

a) Density
b) Temperature
c) Pressure
d) Viscosity

7) What affect does an increase in altitude have on the speed of sound and why?

## a) Increase due to decrease in temperature

b) Decrease due to decrease in density
c) Increase due to decrease in pressure
d) Decrease due to decrease in temperature

## 8) What atmospheric conditions would provide the greatest air density?

a) Hot temperature, low static pressure, low humidity
b) Hot temperature, low static pressure, high humidity
c) Cold temperature, low static pressure, high humidity
d) Cold temperature, high static pressure, low humidity

Airplane Terminology

## a) Wings, fuselage, empennage, landing gear, engine

b) Wings, cockpit, empennage, flaps, engine
c) Fuselage, rudder, empennage, ailerons, engine
d) Fuselage, empennage, engine/transmission assembly, vertical stabilizer, tail rudder

10) Pitch is defined as the motion of the longitudinal axis about which axis?

a) Longitudinal
b) Lateral
c) Vertical
d) The horizon

11) All motion or changes in an aircraft’s attitude occurs about which position?

## a) Aerodynamic center (AC)

b) Center of pressure (CP)
c) Center of gravity (CG)
d) The cockpit

a) Rudder
b) Elevators
c) Ailerons
d) Flaps

## a) Increase weight, improve structural stiffness, reduce wing tip vortices

b) Reduce weight, improve structural stiffness, reduce wing tip vortices
c) Reduce weight, remove structural stiffness, reduce wing tip vortices
d) Increase weight, improve structural stiffness, and increase wing tip vortices

a) Elevators
b) Rudder
c) Control stick
d) Ailerons

## a) The ratio of the wingspan to the tip of the chord (C T )

b) The ratio of the root chord (C 2 ) to the tip of the chord (C T )
c) The ratio of the wingspan to the average chord (c)
d) The ration of wingspan to the root chord (C 2 )

## 16) The fuselage construction of the T-34 is:

a) Full cantilever
b) Full monocoque
c) Semi-monocoque
d) Paper mache

## Basic Aerodynamic Principles

17) What four airflow properties must remain constant on an airfoil to have a steady airflow?

## a) Viscosity, temperature, pressure, density

b) Velocity, temperature, pressure, density
c) Lift, weight, thrust, drag
d) Friction, viscosity, density, lift

## 18) What is the continuity equation for an incompressible airflow?

a) F = m x a
b) A 1 V 1 = A 2 V 2
c) H T = q + P 3
d) q = 1/2pV2

## Lift and Stalls

19) What is the angle of the chord line of an airfoil and the relative wind?

a) Angle of attack
b) Angle of incidence
c) Pitch angle
d) Slideslip angle

20) What is the static pressure distribution about a positively cambered airfoil at zero angle of attack in
level flight?

a) The static pressure distribution is equal over all portions of the airfoil
b) The static pressure distribution is less over the upper surface of the airfoil
c) The static pressure distribution is less over the lower surface of the airfoil
d) The static pressure over the upper surface is equal to atmospheric static pressure

## 21) What is the aerodynamic lift equation?

a) L = qSC F
b) L = qSC L
c) L = qSC D
d) L = qSC MAC C

22) What must a pilot do to accelerate an aircraft, yet maintain constant altitude?

## a) Add thrust and decrease lift as TAS increases

b) Add thrust and increase angle of attack as TAS increases
c) Add thrust and decrease angle of attack as TAS increases
d) Reduce thrust and increase angle of attack as TAS increases
23) What is the cause of a stall if an aircraft rolls into a 60 degree angle of bank turn and pulls 3 g’s at 200
knots?

## a) Excessive angle of bank

c) Excessive airspeed
d) Excessive angle of attack

24) According to the lift equation, in a slow speed situation such as landing, angle of attack will be:

## a) Smaller than at cruising speed because we need less lift

b) Larger than at cruising speed in order to maintain the same lift at slower velocities
c) Dependent upon drag
d) None of the above

25) How do you compute Aerodynamic Surface Area (Wing Surface Area)?

## a) Divide the wingspan by average chord

b) Multiply wingspan by average chord
c) Squaring average chord
d) Squaring the wingspan

26) What type of airflow and associated energy levels comprise the boundary layer?

## a) The boundary layer has high energy laminar flow

b) The boundary layer has low energy turbulent flow
c) The boundary layer is comprised of both laminar and turbulent airflow with
the laminar airflow having the highest energy level
d) The boundary layer is comprised of both laminar and turbulent airflow with
the turbulent airflow having the highest energy level

## a) Fixed slots and regulated slots

b) Fixed slots and automatic slots
c) Broken slots and fixed slots
d) Intermittent slots and fixed slots

## a) Parallel to the chord line

b) Parallel to the thrust vector
c) Perpendicular to the lift vector
d) Parallel to the centerline of the fuselage

29) Airfoil efficiency at various angles of attack is expressed by the ratio of:

## a) Lift to dynamic pressure

b) Lift to drag
c) Lift to weight
d) Lift to velocity

a) True
b) False

## 31) Parasite drag always decreases with increases in velocity.

a) True
b) False

32) L/D Maximum AOA is equivalent to all but which of the following.

## a) Minimum drag AOA

b) AOA where parasite drag equals induced drag
c) Maximum lift AOA
d) Wing’s most efficient AOA

33) What change in induced drag occurs as airfoil angle of attack increases in a stall?

## a) Induced drag increases as lift decrease

b) Induced drag decreases as lift increases
c) Induced drag remains constant as lift decreases

## 34) Vortices may instantly change the direction of the:

a) Crosswind
c) Relative wind
d) None of the above

35) Small planes have nothing to worry about when operating within 3 rotor diameters of a hovering
helicopter.

a) True
b) False

## a) The amount of thrust that is required to overcome drag

b) The amount of thrust needed to reduce drag
c) The amount of thrust needed to maintain constant speed when flying into a headwind
d) The amount of thrust needed to lift the weight of the plane

## a) Multiply trust required by drag

b) Multiply thrust required by velocity
c) Divide thrust required by drag
d) Divide thrust required by velocity

## 38) As the throttle is retarded, thrust available:

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains constant

## a) Propeller efficiency (p.e.)

b) Thrust horsepower (THP)
c) Shaft horsepower (SHP)
d) Horsepower

## 40) Thrust horsepower refers to:

a) Engine output
b) Propeller output
c) The torque produced by the engine
d) None of the above

## a) 490 KIAS at sea level

b) 390 KIAS at sea level
c) 190 KIAS at sea level
d) 90 KIAS at sea level

42) If a plane is in equilibrium flight at zero angle of attack, an increase in weight requires:

## a) Decrease in thrust required

b) Increase in thrust required
c) Decrease in power required
d) Decrease in power available

## 43) With an increase in altitude, the power required curve shifts:

a) Up and right
b) Down and right
c) Up and left
d) Right only

KEY

1) b
2) b
3) b
4) c
5) d
6) a
7) d
8) d
9) a
10) b
11) c
12) c
13) b
14) d
15) c
16) c
17) b
18) b
19) a
20) b
21) b
22) c
23) d
24) b
25) b
26) c
27) b
28) c
29) b
30) b
31) a
32) c
33) a
34) c
35) b
36) a
37) b
38) a
39) a
40) b
41) c
42) b
43) a
AERODYNAMICS MIDTERM EXAM #4

1) What is power?

a) Ability to do work
b) Work done per unit of time
c) Energy due to motion
d) Mass times acceleration

## a) Lift and thrust

b) Lift and drag
c) Lift, drag and thrust
d) Lift, drag, weight and thrust

## a) Potential and kinetic

b) Potential and dynamic
c) Kinetic and dynamic
d) Dynamic and static

a) Direct
b) Independent
c) Inverse

## 5) What is the standard day temperature of air?

a) 500o R
b) -30o C
c) 59o C
d) 59o F

6) What force relationship must exist for an aircraft to maintain equilibrium flight?

## a) Lift must equal weight

b) The sum of all the forces and moments action about the center of gravity must equal zero
c) Thrust must equal weight
d) Thrust must equal drag

## a) An increase in air temperature

b) An increase in altitude
c) A decrease in altitude
d) A decrease in static pressure where temperature is constant

## 8) What equation expresses the General Gas Law?

a) P = pKT
b) p = P/RT
c) P = pT
d) RP = pT
Airplane Terminology

## a) Wings, fuselage, empennage, landing gear and engine

b) Wings, rudder, fuselage, ailerons and engine
c) Rudder, elevator and the aft part of the fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer and the aft part of the fuselage

## a) Vertical stabilizer, elevator and trim tabs

b) Horizontal stabilizer, rudder and fuselage
c) Rudder, elevator, and the aft part of the fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer and the aft part of the fuselage

11) Roll is defined as the movement of the lateral axis about which axis?

a) Lateral
b) Longitudinal
c) Vertical
d) Horizon

## 12) Where do all the changes in aircraft attitude take place?

a) Aerodynamic center
b) Center of pressure
c) Center of lift
d) Center of gravity

13) The wingspan includes the area within the fuselage area?

a) True
b) False

14) Dihedral angle can be seen looking at the aircraft head on. The wings will angle down slightly.

a) True
b) False

## a) On the leading edge

b) On the trailing edge
c) At the root
d) Both a and b are correct

## 16) A cord is:

a) An infinitely long straight line drawn through the leading ad trailing edges of an airfoil
b) The wings center line
c) A measure of the length of the wing
d) The average distance from the wing root to the wingtip

## Basic Aerodynamic Principles

17) What is Bernoulli’s equation?

a) M = V/Va
b) H T = q + P 3
c) H T = q - P 3
d) A 1 V 1 = A 2 V 2

18) According to the continuity equation for incompressible airflow, what is the relationship between area,
airflow velocity and mass airflow?

a) Airflow velocity increases as stream tube area increases, to maintain a constant mass airflow
b) Airflow velocity increases as stream tube area decreases, to maintain a constant mass airflow
c) Airflow velocity remains constant as stream tube area decreases, to maintain a constant mass
airflow
d) Airflow velocity decreases as stream tube area decreases, to maintain a constant mass airflow

## a) It subtracts static pressure from total pressure to compute dynamic pressure

b) It subtracts pressure from dynamic pressure to compute indicated airspeed
c) It subtracts pressure from dynamic pressure to compute true airspeed
d) It adds pressure to dynamic pressure in order to compute total pressure

## a) A uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a solid

b) A non-uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a solid
c) A uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a fluid
d) A non- uniform mixture of gases with the properties of a fluid

21) When will the value on the aircraft indicate airspeed indicator equal the aircraft true airspeed?

a) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is less than static pressure at sea level
b) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is greater than static pressure at sea level
c) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is equal to static pressure at sea level
d) When air density at aircraft altitude is equal to air density at sea level, on a standard day

22) What airspeed, when corrected for compressibility effects, results in equivalent airspeed?

a) Indicated airspeed
b) True airspeed
c) Ground airspeed
d) Calibrated airspeed

23) What type of correction must you apply to indicated airspeed (IAS) to calculate true airspeed (TAS)?

a) Temperature correction
b) Density correction
c) Pressure correction
d) Viscosity correction

24) An aircraft is climbing at a constant 350 knots IAS. What change in Mach number occurs as altitude
increases?

## a) Mach number increases

b) Mach number decreases
c) Mach number remains constant
d) There is no Mach number at this airspeed

## Lift and Stalls

25) What is the angle formed between the aircraft’s longitudinal axis and the wing chord line?

a) Angle of attack
b) Angle of incidence
c) Pitch angle
d) Sideslip angle

26) What airfoil angle of attack setting is required zero net lift on a positively cambered airfoil?

## a) Positive angle of attack

b) Negative angle of attack
c) Zero angle of attack

## 27) What variables determine the amount of lift produced by an airfoil?

a) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil surface area (S) and aircraft weight (w)
b) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil surface area (S) and total drag (D T )
c) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil coefficient of lift (C L ) and coefficient of total drag (D T )
d) True airspeed (TAS), air density (p), airfoil surface area (S), airfoil angle of attack and camber

28) What happens to an aircraft’s minimum flying speed as it burns off fuel?

## a) Stall speed decreases

b) Stall speed increases
c) Stall speed remains constant

## a) That component of AF that is perpendicular to RW

b) Perpendicular to drag
c) Perpendicular to flight path
d) All of the above

a) True
b) False

a) True
b) False

## a) An increase in lift caused by an increase in AOA

b) A decrease in lift caused by an increase in AOA
c) Excessive AOA
d) Both b and c
33) Why do we want the wing root to stall first?

a) To maintain aileron effectiveness during the first stages of a stall and to provide an
aerodynamic warning
b) To maintain aileron effectiveness during the first stages of a stall and return the plane to
straight and level flight
c) To provide an aerodynamic warning
d) To give a geometric twist to the angle of incidence

## a) Will not effect D P and increase D i

b) Will not effect D i and increase D P
c) Will increase D P and increase D i
d) Will increase D i and not affect D P

35) Why will a wing with high aspect ratio have less induced drag?

## a) The wing is very thin

b) The effect of the wingtip vortices is reduced
c) The angle of incidence at the root is more than the angle of incidence at the tip
d) It is designed to fly at higher speeds

## a) Directly with velocity squared

b) Inversely with velocity squared
c) Inversely with velocity
d) Directly with velocity cubed

37) What is the relationship between induced drag and aspect ration?

a) Directly proportional
b) Inversely proportional
c) No relationship

## a) Form, interference, leakage

b) Induced, form, interference
c) Form, interference, skin friction
d) Form, skin friction, leakage

## a) Smooth the exposed surfaces of an airplane

b) Change the AOA
c) Friction can not be reduced

40) Vortices can cause one or more of the wings of a trailing airplane to stall.

a) True
b) False
41) Why does the greatest vortex strength occur when the generating airplane is heavy, slow and clean?

a) Because speed is the most significant factor in the strength of wing tip vortices
b) Because surface area is the most significant factor in the strength of wing tip vortices
c) Because weight is the most significant factor in the strength of wing tip vortices
d) Because weight is the least significant factor in the strength of wing tip vortices

## a) The amount of power needed to lift the weight of the airplane

b) The amount of power needed to reduce drag
c) The amount of power needed to produce thrust required
d) The amount of power needed to start the aircraft engine

## 43) Thrust horsepower depends only on thrust and velocity.

a) True
b) False

44) The amount of power the aircraft’s engine is actually producing at a given throttle setting, velocity
and density is:

a) Power horsepower
b) Thrust horsepower
c) Power available
d) Power required

## a) Determines power required

b) The ability of the engine to turn engine output into thrust
c) Is a turboprop’s output
d) Is propeller output

## a) 490 KIAS at sea level

b) 390 KIAS at sea level
c) 190 KIAS at sea level
d) 90 KIAS at sea level

## 47) If thrust available is greater than thrust required at a particular velocity:

a) Thrust decreases
b) Thrust excess occurs
c) The plane will stall

48) For a turbojet, max power excess occurs at a velocity greater than:

a) L/D
b) L/D minimum
c) L/D maximum
d) TAS
49) With an increase in altitude:

## a) Thrust excess increases

b) Thrust excess decreases
c) Thrust excess remains constant

KEY

1) b
2) d
3) a
4) c
5) d
6) b
7) c
8) b
9) a
10) d
11) b
12) d
13) a
14) b
15) d
16) a
17) b
18) b
19) a
20) c
21) d
22) d
23) b
24) a
25) b
26) a
27) d
28) a
29) d
30) b
31) b
32) d
33) a
34) c
35) b
36) c
37) b
38) c
39) a
40) a
41) c
42) c
43) a
44) c
45) b
46) c
47) b
48) c
49) b
AERODYNAMICS EXAM #5
Basic Properties of Physics

1) What is a moment?

## a) A push or pull exerted on a body

b) A force acting over a distance to produce rotation about an axis
c) Mass per unit volume
d) A force acting toward the center of the Earth

2) What force relationship must exist for an aircraft to maintain equilibrium flight?

## a) Lift must equal weight

b) The sum of all forces and moments acting about the center of gravity (CG) must equal zero
c) Thrust must equal weight
d) Thrust must equal drag

a) Increases
b) No affect
c) Decreases

## a) Mass per unit volume

b) Average molecular energy of air molecules
c) Weight of a column of air over a given area
d) Air's resistance to flow

## a) Static pressure increases

b) Static pressure decreases
c) Static pressure remains constant

a) Pressure
b) Density
c) Temperature
d) Weight

## a) Warm, high pressure, dry air

b) Warm, low pressure, moist air
c) Cold, low pressure, moist air
d) Cold, high pressure, dry air

8) According to the General Gas Law, an increase in temperature has what affect on density?

a) Density decreases
b) Density increases
c) Density remains constant
Airplane Terminology

## a) Wings, fuselage, empennage, landing gear, engine

b) Wings, cockpit, empennage, flaps, engine
c) Fuselage, rudder, empennage, ailerons, engine
d) Fuselage, rudder, ailerons, elevator, engine

10) Roll is defined as the movement of the lateral axis about which axis?

a) Lateral
b) Longitudinal
c) Vertical
d) Horizon

11) Pitch is defined as the movement of the longitudinal axis about which axis?

a) Lateral
b) Longitudinal
c) Vertical
d) Horizon

12) Yaw is defined as the movement of the longitudinal axis about which axis?

a) Lateral
b) Longitudinal
c) Vertical
d) Horizon

## a) The Goodyear blimp

b) H-57
c) F/A-18
d) Hot air balloon

a) 35' 3"
b) 33' 5"
c) 53' 3"
d) 34' 3"

## a) The ratio of the wingspan to the tip chord (C T )

b) The ratio of the root chord (C R ) to the tip chord (C T )
c) The ratio of the wingspan to the average chord (c)
d) The ratio of the wingspan to the root chord (C R )

## 16) A glider has a low aspect ratio (AR) wing.

a) True
b) False
Basic Aerodynamic Principles

17) What for airflow properties must remain constant at a give point on an airfoil to have a steady airflow?

## a) Viscosity, temperature, pressure, density

b) Velocity, temperature, pressure, density
c) Lift, thrust, drag, weight
d) Friction, viscosity, density, lift

18) According to the continuity equation for incompressible airflow, what is the relationship between area, airflow
velocity, and mass airflow?

a) Airflow velocity increases as stream tube area increases, to maintain constant mass airflow
b) Airflow velocity increases as stream tube area decreases, to maintain constant mass airflow
c) Airflow velocity remains constant as stream tube area decreases, to maintain constant mass airflow
d) Airflow velocity decreases as stream tube area decreases, to maintain constant mass airflow

19) For a given altitude, what are the properties of the input provided by the static pressure port to the pitot-static
system?

a) The static pressure value will vary with changes in the aircraft true airspeed (TAS)
b) The static pressure value will vary with changes in the aircraft angle of attack (AOA)
c) The static pressure value will vary with changes in the aircraft weight
d) The static pressure value will vary with changes in atmospheric abient static pressure and altitude

20) What must a pilot do to maintain a constant indicated airspeed (IAS) during a climb?

## a) Increase true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

b) Decrease true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases
c) Keep true airspeed (TAS) constant as altitude increases
d) Keep ground speed (GAS) constant as altitude increases

21) When will the value on the aircraft's indicated airspeed indicator equal the aircraft's true airspeed?

a) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is less than static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
b) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is greater than static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
c) When the static pressure at aircraft altitude is equal to static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
d) When the air density at aircraft altitude is equal to air density at sea level, on a standard day

## 22) What is the primary factor in determining calibrated airspeed?

b) Density
c) Instrument error
d) Tailwind

23) What will be the result of an increases in the dynamic pressure within a closed system, according to Bernoulli's
equation?

## a) A decrease in the static pressure

b) An increase in the total pressure
c) An increasing potential energy per unit of volume
d) A decrease in total energy per unit of volume

24) What change in indicated airspeed and dynamic pressure will occur when an aircraft accelerates to a greater true
airspeed at a constant altitude?
a) Indicated airspeed will increase
b) Indicated airspeed will decrease
c) Indicated airspeed will remain constant
d) Dynamic pressure will remain constant

## Lift and Stalls

25) What kind of airfoil has a mean camber line that is coincident with the chord line?

## a) A positively cambered airfoil

b) A negatively cambered airfoil
c) A symmetrical airfoil
d) A non-symmetrical airfoil

26) The net aerodynamic forces can be resolved into what two component forces?

## a) Lift and drag

b) Weight and drag
c) Thrust and drag
d) Dynamic and static pressure

27) What must you do to remain in formation as your aircraft takes on fuel (increasing weight) from the tanker that
is maintaining a constant altitude and true airspeed?

## a) Maintain a constant AOA and TAS

b) Decrease AOA and increase TAS
c) Increase AOA and maintain constant TAS
d) Increase AOA and TAS

KEY

1) b
2) b
3) a
4) c
5) b
6) c
7) d
8) a
9) a
10) b
11) a
12) c
13) c
14) b
15) c
16) b
17) b
18) b
19) d
20) b
21) c
22) c
23) a
24) a
25) c
26) a
27) c
AERODYNAMICS EXAM #6

## 1) How does an increase in altitude affect static pressure?

a) Increases
b) Remains the same
c) Decreases

a) Direct
b) Independent
c) Inverse

a) Pressure
b) Density
c) Temperature
d) Weight

## a) Warm, high pressure, dry air

b) Warm, low pressure, moist air
c) Cold, low pressure, moist air
d) Cold, high pressure, dry air

5) What is a moment?

## a) A push or pull exerted on a body

b) A force acting over a surface to produce rotation about an axis
c) Mass per unit of volume
d) A force acting toward the center of the Earth

## a) Thrust equals weight

b) Lift equals weight
c) Kinetic energy equals potential energy
d) Thrust equals weight plus drag

## 7) What is the relationship between air temperature and altitude?

a) Air temperature decrease from sea level to 25 K and then remains constant until 80 K
b) Air temperature decrease from sea level to 36 K and then remains constant until 80 K
c) Air temperature decrease as altitude increases until air temperature stabilizes at 0 degrees C
d) Air temperature decreases at a linear rate until 80 K

8) A vector is:

## a) A quantity that represents only magnitude

b) The quantity that represents magnitude and direction
c) The distance and direction of a body’s movement
d) The speed and direction of a body’s movement
9) What are the three major components that comprise the empennage?

## a) Vertical stabilizer, elevators, trim tabs

b) Horizontal stabilizer, rudder, fuselage
c) Rudder, elevator, and the aft part of the fuselage
d) Horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, and the aft part of the fuselage

10) Pitch is defined as the movement of the longitudinal axis about which axis?

a) Longitudinal
b) Lateral
c) Vertical
d) Horizontal

11) Roll is defined as the movement of the lateral axis about which axis?

a) Longitudinal
b) Lateral
c) Vertical
d) Horizontal

a) 35’ 3”
b) 33’ 5”
c) 53’ 3”
d) 34’ 3”

## a) The chord that measures the wing tip

b) The chord that measures the length of the wing
c) The chord at the wing centerline
d) The width of the wing

14) The angle between a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge and a line parallel to the lateral axis is:

a) Wing area
b) Taper angle
c) Aspect angle
d) Sweep angle

## 15) A negative dihedral angle is called:

a) Sweep angle
b) Aspect angle
c) Anhedral angle
d) Spanwise angle

16) There is an inverse relationship between aspect ratio and wing loading.

a) True
b) False

a) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must increase
b) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must remain constant over time
c) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must decrease

a) True
b) False

a) True
b) False

## a) Energy per unit volume

b) Kinetic energy per unit volume
c) Potential energy per unit volume
d) Weight per unit volume

## 21) The sum of static pressure and dynamic pressure equals:

a) Total pressure
b) Dynamic pressure
c) Kinetic pressure
d) Continuity pressure

22) The instrument indication for the dynamic pressure the airplane is creating during flight is called:

## a) Knots of indicated air speed

b) Indicated air speed
c) Air speed
d) Calibrated air speed

23) A pilot is flying under standard day conditions at sea level. His/her true air speed will:

## a) Equal indicated air speed

b) Be greater than indicated air speed
c) Be less than indicated air speed

24) If true air speed is corrected for the movement of the air mass, one gets:

## a) Calibrated air speed

b) Equivalent air speed
c) Ground speed
d) Indicated air speed

25) Flight path, relative wind, and angle of attack should be inferred from pitch attitude.

a) True
b) False

26) The T-34c AOA indicator is calibrated so that the airplane stalls between:
a) 29.0 and 29.5 units of AOA
b) 28.5 and 29.0 units of AOA
c) 28.5 and 29.5 units of AOA
d) 29.5 and 30.0 units of AOA

## 27) An increase in altitude will cause stall speed to:

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) Remain the same

28) Power-on stall speed will be _____ than power-off stall speed.

a) More
b) Less
c) The same

29) The primary purpose of high lift devices is to _____ takeoff and landing speeds by _____ stall speed.

a) Increase; reduce
b) Increase; increase
c) Reduce; reduce
d) Reduce; increase

## 30) Boundary layer devices (BLC)

a) Hurries the separation of the boundary layer as AOA increases beyond the normal stall setting
b) Delays the separation of the boundary layer as AOA increases beyond the normal stall setting
c) Hurries the separation of the boundary layer as AOA decreases beyond the normal stall setting

## 31) Using flaps _____ the stalling AOA.

a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Does not change

32) The primary reason for a root first stall pattern is to maintain aileron effectiveness until the wing has
fully stalled

a) True
b) False

## a) Stall speed decreases and IAS increases

b) Stall speed increases and IAS decreases
c) Stall speed increases and IAS increases
d) Stall speed decreases and IAS decreases

34) A _____ wing produces an even stall and therefore provides little warning of a stall.

## a) Highly swept wing

b) Swept wing
c) Elliptical wing
d) Moderate taper wing
35) When an airfoil is at an angle of attack that produces no net lift, the airfoil is also not producing:

b) Form drag
c) Parasite drag
d) Induced drag

## a) Parallel to the chord line

b) Parallel to the thrust vector
c) Perpendicular to the lift vector
d) Parallel to the centerline of the fuselage

37) Minimum total drag occurs where parasite drag equals induced drag.

a) True
b) False

a) True
b) False

## a) Form, interference, leakage

b) Induced, form, interference
c) Form, interference, skin friction
d) Form, skin friction, leakage

40) What change in the coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) occurs at angles of attack greater than C LMAX ?

## a) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) increases

b) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) decreases
c) Coefficient of total drag (C Dt ) remains constant

41) It is less difficult for airplanes with shorter wingspans (compared to the vortex generating plane) to
counter the imposed roll.

a) True
b) False

42) Small planes have nothing to worry about when operating within three rotor diameters of any hovering
helicopter.

a) True
b) False

## a) The amount of thrust required to overcome drag

b) The amount of thrust needed to reduce drag
c) The amount of thrust needed to maintain a constant air speed when flying into a headwind
d) The amount of thrust needed to lift the weight of the airplane
44) Thrust horsepower depends only on thrust and velocity.

a) True
b) False

## 45) As the throttle is retarded, thrust available:

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains constant

## 46) As air density decreases, thrust available:

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains constant

a) 550 SHP
b) 1015 SHP
c) 400 SHP
d) 425 SHP

## a) Determines power required

b) Is the ability if the engine to turn engine output into thrust
c) Is a turboprop's engine output
d) Is propeller output

a) L / D
b) L / D minimum
c) L / D max
d) TAS

## a) Power excess increases

b) Power excess decreases
c) Power excess remains constant

KEY

1) c
2) c
3) c
4) d
5) b
6) d
7) b
8) b
9) d
10) b
11) a
12) b
13) c
14) d
15) c
16) a
17) b
18) b
19) a
20) c
21) a
22) b
23) a
24) c
25) b
26) a
27) a
28) b
29) c
30) b
31) b
32) a
33) c
34) c
35) d
36) c
37) b
38) b
39) c
40) a
41) b
42) b
43) a
44) a
45) a
46) a
47) d
48) b
49) c
50) b
AERODYNAMICS EXAM #7

## 1) How does an increase in altitude affect static pressure?

a) Increase
b) Remains the same
c) Decreases

a) P = pKT
b) P = p*RT
c) P = pT
d) RP = pT

## 3) If altitude is held constant, a decrease in temperature has what affect on density?

a) Increases
b) Remains constant
c) Decrease

4) What affect does an increase in altitude have on the speed of sound and why?

## a) Increase due to a decrease in temperature

b) Decrease due to a decrease in density
c) Increase due to a decrease in pressure
d) Decrease due to a decrease in temperature

## a) Force per unit of area

b) Mass per unit of volume
c) Mass times gravity
d) Mass times velocity squared

6) Mass is:

## a) The quantity of molecular material that comprises an object

b) The amount of space occupied by an object
c) The force acting on a body as it moves
d) The rate of doing work per unit of time

## 7) Temperature is the measure of the average potential energy of air particles.

a) True
b) False

8) The layer of air that remains at a constant -56.5 degrees Celsius is the:

a) Boundary layer
b) Isothermal layer
c) Cold layer
d) Stable layer

## 9) What are the three major components that comprise an epennage?

a) Vertical Stabilizer, elevator, trim tabs
b) Horizontal stabilizer, rudder, fuselage
c) Rudder, elevator, aft part of the fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, the aft part of the fuselage

10) All motion or changes in an aircraft's attitude occurs about which position?

## a) Aerodynamic center (AC)

b) Center of pressure (CP)
c) Center of gravity (CG)
d) The cockpit

11) The wingspan includes the area within the fuselage area.

a) True
b) False

## 12) The wings of the T-34 are tapered to:

a) Increase weight, improve structural stiffness, and reduce wing tip vortices
b) Decrease weight, improve structural stiffness, and reduce wing tip vortices
c) Increase weight, remove structural stiffness, and reduce wing tip vortices
d) Increase weight, improve structural stiffness, and increase wing tip vortices

## a) The ratio of the wingspan to the tip chord (C T )

b) The ratio of the root chord (C R ) to the tip chord (C T )
c) The ration of the wingspan to the average chord (c)
d) The ratio of the wingspan to the root chord (C R )

14) The angle between a line drawn 25% aft of the leading edge, and a line parallel to the lateral axis is the:

a) Wing area
b) Taper angle
c) Aspect angle
d) Sweep angle

## 15) A negative dihedral is called:

a) Sweep angle
b) Taper angle
c) Anhedral angle
d) Spanwise angle

16) What four airflow properties must remain constant at a given point on an airfoil to have a steady airflow?

## a) Viscosity, temperature, pressure, density

b) Velocity, temperature, pressure, density
c) Lift, weight, thrust, drag
d) Friction, viscosity, density, lift

## a) It subtracts static pressure from total pressure to compute dynamic pressure

b) It subtracts pressure from dynamic pressure to compute IAS
c) It subtracts pressure from dynamic pressure to compute TAS
d) It adds/subtracts pressure and dynamic to compute total pressure

18) What type of correction must you apply to an indicated airspeed (IAS) to calculate true airspeed (TAS)?

a) Temperature correction
b) Density correction
c) Pressure correction
d) Viscosity correction

## a) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must increase

b) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must remain constant
c) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must decrease

## 20) In a steady airflow, particles dross streamlines.

a) True
b) False

21) The instrument indication for the dynamic pressure the airplane is creating during flight is:

## a) Knots indicated airspeed (KIAS)

b) Indicated airspeed (IAS)
c) Airspeed
d) Calibrated airspeed

22) A pilot is flying under standard day conditions at sea level. His/her true airspeed will:

## a) Equal indicated airspeed

b) Be greater than indicated airspeed
c) Be less than indicated airspeed

23) How does an increase in angle of attack affect the dynamic pressure and static pressure on the upper surface of
an airfoil?

## a) The dynamic pressure decreases

b) The static pressure increases
c) The dynamic pressure increase and the static pressure remains constant
d) The dynamic pressure remains constant

## 24) What variables determine the amount of lift produced by an airfoil?

a) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil surface area (S), and aircraft weight (w)
b) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil surface area (S), and aircraft total drag (D T )
c) True airspeed (TAS), airfoil coefficient of lift (C L ), and coefficient of total drag (D T )
d) True airspeed (TAS), air density (p), airfoil surface area (S), airfoil angle of attack, and airfoil camber

25) What must a pilot do to maintain a constant altitude and indicated airspeed as aircraft weight decreases due to
fuel consumption?

## a) Maintain a constant true airspeed and reduce angle of attack

b) Increase true airspeed and reduce angle of attack
c) Increase true airspeed and increase angle of attack
d) Increase true airspeed and maintain a constant angle of attack
26) Maximum lift will be attained at what point?

a) L / D maximum AOA
b) Minimum drag AOA
c) C LMAX AOA
d) Maximum velocity airspeed

## a) The airflow layer which is perpendicular to the aircraft's flight path

b) The airflow layer which demonstrates no retardation due to the airfoil's surface
c) The airflow layer which is parallel to the relative wind
d) The airflow layer which shows local airflow retardation caused by viscosity

## a) C L increases and lift decreases

b) C L increases and lift increases
c) C L decreases and lift increases
d) C L decreases and lift decreases

## 29) Using flaps _____ the stalling AOA.

a) Increases
b) Decrease
c) Does not change

30) Raising flaps from 100% to 50% reduces drag significantly without a large loss of lift.

a) True
b) False

## a) Stall speed decreases and IAS increases

b) Stall speed increases and IAS decreases
c) Stall speed increases and IAS increases
d) Stall speed decreases and IAS decreases

32) A _____ wing produces an even stall and therefore provides little warning of a stall.

## a) Highly tapered wing

b) Swept wing
c) Elliptical wing
d) Moderate taper wing

## a) Parasite drag is constant in level flight

b) Parasite drag equals induced drag at the 1 G stall speed
c) Induced drag is predominant at high velocities and low angles of attack
d) Parasite drag increases with the square of velocity

34) When an airfoil is at an angle of attack that produces no net lift, it is also not producing:
a) Skin friction drag
b) Form drag
c) Parasite drag
d) Induced drag

35) Minimum total drag occurs where parasite drag equals induced drag.

a) True
b) False

36) If an aircraft is flying at L / D maximum AOA changes its velocity, total drag will:

a) Increase
b) Remain the same
c) Decrease

37) What change in induced drag occurs as airfoil angle of attack increases in a stall?

## a) Induced drag increases as lift decreases

b) Induced drag decreases as lift decreases
c) Induced drag remains constant as lift decreases

## a) The cross-sectional area of the aircraft

b) A combination of aircraft cross-sectional area presented to the relative wind and other aircraft surfaces
over which air flows.
c) The airfoil surfaces which have the same texture
d) Aircraft surfaces where parasite drag values are equal

39) Vortices can cause one or more of the wings of a trailing airplane to stall.

a) True
b) False

40) It is lees difficult for an aircraft with short wingspans (compared to the vortex generating aircraft) to counter the
imposed roll.

a) True
b) False

## a) Multiply thrust required by drag

b) Multiply thrust required by velocity
c) Divide thrust required by drag
d) Divide thrust required by velocity

a) True
b) False

## a) Determines power required

b) Is the ability of the engine to turn engine output into thrust
c) Is a turboprop's engine output
d) Is propeller output

## 44) Thrust horsepower refers to:

a) Engine output
b) Propeller output
c) The torque produced by the engine
d) None of the above

45) For a turbojet, max power excess occurs at a velocity greater than:

a) L / D
b) L / D minimum
c) L / D max
d) TAS

46) If a plane is in equilibrium flight at a constant angle of attack, an increase in weight requires:

## a) A decrease in thrust required

b) An increase in thrust required
c) A decrease in power required
d) A decrease in power available

KEY

1) c
2) b
3) a
4) d
5) b
6) a
7) b
8) b
9) d
10) c
11) a
12) b
13) c
14) d
15) c
16) b
17) a
18) b
19) b
20) b
21) b
22) a
23) c
24) d
25) a
26) c
27) d
28) d
29) b
30) a
31) c
32) c
33) d
34) d
35) a
36) a
37) b
38) b
39) a
40) b
41) b
42) a
43) b
44) b
45) c
46) b
AERODYNAMICS EXAM #8

## a) Lift and thrust

b) Lift and drag
c) Lift, drag, weight
d) Lift, weight, thrust, drag

## a) The ability to do work

b) Work done per unit of time
c) Energy due to motion
d) Mass times acceleration

3) What force relationship must exist for an aircraft to maintain equilibrium flight?

## a) Lift must equal weight

b) The sum of all forces and moments acting about the center of gravity (CG) must equal zero
c) Thrust must equal weight
d) Thrust must equal drag

a) 2116 lbs/ft
b) 29.92" Hg
c) 32.17 ft/sec
d) 2116 ft/lbs

## a) Decreases until 25K' and then remains constant

b) Decreases until there are no molecules of air
c) Decreases until 36K' and then remains constant
d) Decreases until 0 degrees is reached

a) True
b) False

## 7) Air viscosity increases as temperature:

a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Remains constant

## 8) High density altitude will:

a) Decrease the power produced by an engine and increase the thrust produced by the propeller or jet
b) Increase the power produced by an engine and increase the thrust produced by the propeller or jet
c) Decrease the power produced by an engine and decrease the thrust produced by the propeller or jet
d) Increase the power produced by an engine and decrease the thrust produced by the propeller or jet
Airplane Terminology

## a) Wings, fuselage, engine, empennage, landing gear

b) Wings, cockpit, empennage, flaps, engine
c) Fuselage, rudder, empennage, ailerons, engine
d) Fuselage, empennage, engine, vertical stabilizer, rudder

## a) Aerodynamic center (AC)

b) Center of pressure (CP)
c) Center of gravity (CG)
d) The cockpit

## 11) The fuselage construction of the T-34 is:

a) Full cantilever
b) Full monocoque
c) Semi-monocoque
d) Paper mache

## 12) The T-34 uses a dihedral wing to improve:

a) Visibility
b) Maneuverability
c) Appearance
d) Lateral stability

## a) On the leading edge

b) On the trailing edge
c) At the root
d) Both a and b

## 14) What control surfaces control roll?

a) Elevators
b) Rudder
c) Control stick
d) Ailerons

15) The apparent surface area of a wing from wing tip to wing tip is the:

a) Taper
b) Aspect ration
c) Wing area
d) Sweep angle

## 16) There is an inverse relationship aspect ration and wing area.

a) True
b) False
Basic Aerodynamic Principles

17) An aircraft is stabilized in level flight at six nautical miles per second ground speed with a tailwind of 100 knots.
What is the aircraft's true airspeed?

a) 460 knots
b) 360 knots
c) 260 knots
d) 160 knots

18) For a given altitude, what are the properties of the input provided by the static pressure port in the pitot-static
system?

a) The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft true airspeed (TAS)
b) The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft angle of attack (AOA)
c) The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft weight
d) The static pressure value will vary with changes in atmospheric abient static pressure and altitude

19) When will the value on the aircraft indicated airspeed (IAS) indicator equal the aircraft true airspeed (TAS)?

a) When static pressure at aircraft altitude is less than static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
b) When static pressure at aircraft altitude is greater than static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
c) When static pressure at aircraft altitude equals static pressure at sea level, on a standard day
d) When static pressure at aircraft altitude equals density at sea level, on a standard day

20) An aircraft is climbing at a constant 350 KIAS. What change occurs in Mach number as altitude increases?

## a) Mach number increases

b) Mach number decreases
c) Mach number remains constant
d) There is no Mach number at this speed

21) Two identical aircraft are stabilized in level flight. Aircraft 1 is maintaining Mach 2 at 40,000 feet. Aircraft 2 is
maintaining Mach 2 at sea level. What can be said about their respective indicated and true airspeeds?

## a) Both aircraft are maintaining the same indicated airspeed (IAS)

b) Both aircraft are maintaining the same true airspeed (TAS)
c) The aircraft flying at sea level is maintaining a greater IAS and TAS than the aircraft at 40,000 feet
d) The aircraft flying at 40,000 feet is maintaining a greater IAS and TAS than the aircraft at sea level

22) What will the result of an increase in the dynamic pressure within a closed system, according to Bernoulli's
equation?

## a) A decrease in static pressure

b) An increase in total pressure
c) An increase in potential energy per unit volume
d) A decrease in total energy per unit volume

23) What type of correction must you apply to indicated airspeed (IAS) to calculate true airspeed (TAS)?

a) Temperature correction
b) Density correction
c) Pressure correction
d) Viscosity correction

a) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must increase
b) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must remain constant
c) Static pressure, density, temperature, and velocity must decrease

## Lift and Stalls

25) What is the static pressure distribution about a positively cambered airfoil at zero angle of attack in level flight?

a) The static pressure distribution is equal over all portions of the airfoil
b) The static pressure distribution is less over the upper surface of the airfoil
c) The static pressure distribution is less over the lower surface of the airfoil

26) What airfoil angle of attack setting is required to produce zero net lift on a positively cambered airfoil?

a) Positive
b) Negative
c) Zero angle of attack

27) What aerodynamic force component is always perpendicular to the relative wind?

a) Weight
b) Lift
c) Thrust
d) Drag

28) What must a pilot do to accelerate an aircraft, yet maintain a constant altitude?

## a) Add thrust and decrease lift as true airspeed increases

b) Add thrust and increase angle of attack as true airspeed increases
c) Add thrust and decrease angle of attack as true airspeed increases
d) Reduce thrust and increase angle of attack as true airspeed increases

29) How do you compute the Aerodynamic Surface Area (Wing Surface Area)?

## a) Divide the wingspan by average chord

b) Multiply wingspan by average chord
c) Square the average chord
d) Square the wingspan

## a) An increase in lift caused by an increase in AOA

b) A decrease in lift caused by an increase in AOA
c) Excessive AOA
d) Both b and c

## a) Fixed slots and regulated slots

b) Fixed slots and automatic slots
c) Broken slots and fixed slots
d) Intermittent slots and fixed slots

32) Stall speed is the minimum _____ required to maintain level flight at C LMAX AOA.
a) Indicated airspeed
b) Calibrated airspeed
c) True airspeed
d) Equivalent airspeed

a) True
b) False

## Drag and Wake Turbulence

35) When flying at the velocity for L / D maximum in straight and level flight:

## a) Induced drag exceeds parasite drag

b) Parasite drag exceeds induced drag
c) Parasite drag equals induced drag
d) Induced drag and parasite drag will vary on the type of airplane

KEY

1) d
2) b
3) b
4) b
5) c
6) b
7) a
8) c
9) a
10) c
11) c
12) d
13) d
14) d
15) c
16) a
17) c
18) d
19) d
20) a
21) c
22) a
23) b
24) b
25) b
26) b
27) b
28) c
29) b
30) c
31) b
32) c
33) b
34) c
35) c
AERODYNAMICS 2 EXAM #1

## a) The aircraft operates at a stall speed and stalling angle of attack

b) The aircraft operates at an angle of attack, velocity, and power setting that maximizes total drag per
pound of fuel consumed
c) The aircraft operates at an angle of attack, velocity, and power setting that minimizes flying time per
pound of fuel consumed
d) The aircraft operates at an angle of attack, velocity, and power setting that maximizes velocity per pound
of fuel consumed

2) What change, if any, in engine thrust available (Ta) is necessary to maintain a constant altitude in the region of
reverse command as angle of attack increases and true airspeed decreases?

## a) An increase in thrust available

b) A decrease in thrust available
c) No change is necessary

## a) The aircraft is flying at stall speed and stalling angle of attack

b) The aircraft operates at an angle of attack, velocity, and power setting that maximizes flying time per
pound of fuel consumed
c) The aircraft operates at an angle of attack, velocity, and power setting that maximizes velocity per pound
of fuel consumed

4) What change, if any, in thrust available (Ta) occurs with an increase in aircraft weight?

## a) Thrust available increases

b) Thrust available decreases
c) Thrust available is not affect by aircraft weight

5) The tower tells you to launch your T-34 immediately and climb to 15,000 feet MSL as quickly as possible. How
would you comply with this?

## a) Execute a maximum angle of climb profile into the wind

b) Execute a maximum rate of climb profile into the wind
c) Execute a maximum rate of climb profile and disregard the wind
d) Execute a maximum power, C LMAX AOA, and climb into the wind

6) Operation of propeller driven aircraft at increased altitudes will _____ range and _____ endurance due to the
effects of _____.

## a) Increase, increase, density

b) Not affect, decrease, density
c) Increase, increase, temperature
d) Increase, not affect, temperature

7) An airplane is gliding at its minimum glide angle at an airspeed of 100 kts. If the plane speeds up to 110 kts, what
will happen to the resultant glide path?

a) Become steeper
b) Remain the same
c) Become more shallow
d) Cause an increase in gliding distance because of a faster descent
8) Two aircraft are identical except for weight, and they are gliding for maximum distance. Both aircraft will be
gliding at:

a) L/D max, same airspeed, and will glide the same distance
b) Same AOA, same airspeed, and will glide the same distance
c) Same AOA, different airspeeds, and will glide different distances
d) L/D max AOA, different airspeeds, and the same distance

9) You are flying in your turboprop aircraft and you lose your engines. To give yourself maximum time aloft you
want to fly max glide endurance. How, if at all, can you increase glide endurance?

## a) Turn into the wind to increase lift

b) Fly L/D max AOA
c) Jettison cargo and fuel
d) It is not possible

## 10) Max operating ceiling for the T-34c is:

a) 14,000'
b) 18,000'
c) 25,000'
d) 27,000'

11) The altitude where excess power permits only a 100 f.p.m. climb rate is called the:

a) Cruising ceiling
b) Combat ceiling
c) Service ceiling

12) What control surface controls the pitching moment around the airplane's CG?

## a) The ailerons attached to the trailing edges of the wing

b) The elevator, attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer
c) The spoilers attached to the wing's upper surface
d) The rudder, attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer

13) Trimming reduces the force required to hold control surfaces in a position necessary to maintain a desired flight
attitude.

a) True
b) False

14) The right aileron trim tab of the T-34 is set by:

## a) The pilot after takeoff

b) The manufacturer
c) Maintenance
d) Gremlins

## a) Power decreases and slower airspeeds

b) Power increases and slower airspeeds
c) Power reductions and faster airspeeds
d) Power increases and faster airspeeds
16) The control surfaces are balanced around the:

b) Hingeline
d) Trimline

## a) Aft of the hingeline

b) In front of the hingeline
c) On the hingeline

18) Trim tabs provide artificial feel by creating or enhancing control feedback under various conditions.

a) True
b) False

19) The initial tendency of an object to move toward or away from its original equilibrium position is called:

a) Dynamic stability
b) Static stability
c) Divergent oscillation

## 20) The relationship between stability and instability is:

a) Inverse
b) Equal
c) Independent

21) If a component's aerodynamic center is in front of the airplane's CG, the component will be a _____ contributor
to longitudinal static stability.

a) Negative
b) Positive
c) Neutral

## a) Straight wings, swept wing design, vertical stabilizer

b) Vertical stabilizer only
c) Straight wing design only
d) Fuselage only

23) A _____ mounted wing is a positive contribution, and a _____ mounted wing is a negative contributor to lateral
static stability.

a) Low, high
b) Low, center
c) High, center
d) High, center

## a) Strong lateral stability, and strong lateral stability

b) Strong lateral stability, and weak lateral stability
c) Weak lateral stability, and strong lateral stability
d) Weak lateral stability, and weak lateral stability

## a) Rely on his instinct and make the appropriate corrections

b) Rely on the inherent stability of the aircraft and release the controls
c) Kiss his/her *%& goodbye

26) During spin recovery, the control stick should be forward of neutral. If it is even slightly aft of neutral:

## a) A progressive spin will result

b) Spin recovery may take as many as 6 turns
c) Your instructor will yell at you

## 27) Autorotation is:

a) An aggravated stall
b) A combination of roll and yaw that propagates itself and progressively gets worse due to asymmetric
stalling conditions on the wings
c) A combination of roll and yaw that propagates itself and progressively gets worse due to symmetric
stalling conditions on the wings

28) Pitch attitude will have a direct impact on the speed an aircraft stalls.

a) True
b) False

29) In a stall the increased AOA on the down-wing decreases CL generated by that wing. The down-going wing also
has:

## a) A higher CD due to its increased AOA

b) A lower CD due to its increased AOA
c) No change in CD

## a) A higher AOA, less lift, and more drag

b) A lower AOA, less lift, and more drag
c) A higher AOA, more lift, and more drag
d) A lower AOA and more lift

## 31) In an erect (normal) spin, what type of G's are experienced?

a) Positive
b) Negative
c) Transverse

32) How does the configuration of the empennage and the placement of the horizontal control surfaces affect spin
recovery?

a) The horizontal stabilizer deflects the relative wind towards or away from the vertical stabilzer
b) The horizontal control surface has no impact on the vertical components of the empennage
c) The empennage has no impact on spin recovery

a) Multiply lift by weight
b) Divide lift by weight
d) Subtract lift from weight

34) What velocity and angle of attack will result in the minimum radius turn and maximum rate of turn?

## a) Redline airspeed and C LMAX AOA

b) Redline airspeed and C LMIN AOA
c) Maneuver airspeed and C LMAX AOA
d) Maneuver airspeed and L/D max AOA

35) If you create 16,000 lbs. of lift in your T-34 and it weighs 4000 lbs., you will experience:

a) 4.5 G's
b) 4 G's
c) 6 G's

36) If your aircraft's limit load is 12, how many G's could you pull before there is a possibility of overstress?

a) 4
b) 8
c) 12
d) 18

37) What change in limit load will occur during an hour long air combat maneuvering flight?

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) Remains constant

a) True
b) False

## a) Decreases with increasing altitude

b) Is measured in IAS
c) If exceeded could result in wing flutter
d) All of the above

## a) 1.0 times the load limit

b) Within the safe flight envelope
c) Greater than the maximum G limits for the aircraft
d) The same as the limit load

## 41) Maneuvering airspeed for the T-34 is:

a) 130 KIAS
b) 135 KIAS
c) 195 KIAS
d) 280 KIAS

42) What type of strength concerns the cumulative effect of repeat or cyclical loads during service?

a) Static
b) Accelerated
c) Fatigue
d) Brute

43) What affect will an increase in aircraft weight, for a constant amount of lift, have on maneuvering load factor?

## a) Maneuvering load factor will increase

b) Maneuvering load factor will decrease
c) Maneuvering load factor will remain constant
d) Weight has no affect on maneuvering load factor

a) Parasite
b) Form
c) Skin friction
d) Induced

## 45) What affect will headwinds have on your TAS on takeoff?

a) Increase
b) Headwinds have no affect on TAS
c) Decrease
d) Explode

46) What effect will an increase in weight have on your takeoff IAS?

a) Decrease
b) Increase
c) No effect

47) What factors determine the minimum takeoff distance for an aircraft with uniform acceleration?

## a) Weight, velocity, thrust, drag, rolling friction

b) Weight, velocity, thrust drag, pressure
c) Weight, velocity, thrust drag, acceleration
d) Drag, friction, weight, velocity, temperature

48) What effect does an increase in airfield air density have on runway distance required for takeoff?

a) Increases
b) Decrease
c) Remains constant

49) What is the effect of an increase in altitude and abient temperature on landing performance?

## a) Landing distance increases because density decreases

b) Landing distance increases because density increases
c) Landing distance decreases because density decreases
d) Landing distance decreases because density increases
50) What change in the aircraft's total lift force occurs in ground effect?

## a) Total lift increases

b) Total lift decreases
c) Total lift remains constant

KEY

1) d
2) a
3) b
4) c
5) c
6) c
7) c
8) d
9) c
10) c
11) c
12) b
13) a
14) c
15) b
16) b
17) c
18) a
19) b
20) a
21) a
22) a
23) c
24) b
25) b
26) a
27) b
28) a
29) a
30) d
31) a
32) a
33) b
34) c
35) b
36) b
37) a
38) b
39) d
40) c
41) b
42) c
43) b
44) d
45) b
46) b
47) a
48) b
49) a
50) c
AERODYNAMICS 2 EXAM #2

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) Not effected

## 2) In the region of reverse command, what is the result of decreasing velocity?

a) D P increases
b) D P exceeds D l
c) D T decreases
d) D T exceeds D P

3) What is the effect, if any, of a decrease in air density on the maximum angle of attack of climb of an
aircraft?

## a) Maximum angle of attack of climb increases

b) Maximum angle of attack of climb decreases
c) Maximum angle of attack of climb is not affected

4) What change in aircraft thrust available (Ta) occurs with an increase in aircraft altitude?

## a) Thrust available increases as static pressure decreases with altitude

b) Thrust available decreases as density decreases with altitude
c) Thrust available decreases due to the reduction in temperature at altitude
d) Thrust available will remain constant

5) You are flying a T-34 at max endurance when you receive instructions to climb as fast as possible from
5,000 ft. to 20,000 ft. MSL. What must you do with the throttle setting and angle of attack to comply?

a) Select maximum power and increase AOA to establish a maximum excess power condition
b) Select maximum power and decrease AOA to establish a maximum excess power condition
c) Select maximum power and keep AOA at endurance setting to establish a maximum excess
power condition
d) Select maximum power and L/D max AOA to establish a maximum excess thrust condition

## a) Most distance per pound of fuel is obtained

b) Fuel flow is minimum
c) Airspeed is minimum
d) AOA is minimum

## a) The same airspeed for maximum rate of climb

b) The same for jets and props
c) Greater than the airspeed for maximum range
d) Less than the airspeed for maximum rate of climb

8) For a given weight, the minimum thrust to maintain level flight for a turboprop occurs at an airspeed:

## a) Equal to L/D maximum

b) Less than L/D maximum
c) Equal to CL maximum
d) Where CD is zero

9) While flying maximum endurance in a T-34 at 10,000 feet, you receive a radio transmission telling you
to climb to 15,000 feet ASAP. What should you do to AOA and power to achieve this?

## a) Decrease AOA, increase power

b) Decrease AOA, decrease power
c) Increase AOA, increase power
d) Maintain AOA, increase power

## 10) If you have thrust, you have power (thrust horsepower).

a) True
b) False

11) Another T-34c wants to race you to 10,000 feet from takeoff. What climb profile should you use?

a) From the thrust curve, use L/D max AOA and airspeed
b) From the power curve, use L/D max AOA and airspeed
c) Fly max power excess at L/D max
d) Both b and c

## 12) The ailerons control:

a) Pitch
b) Roll
c) Yaw

13) For trimming, trim tabs are _____ moved in the opposite direction as the control surface.

a) Sometimes
b) Never
c) Always

## a) Only once after takeoff

b) Frequently during flight because they are sensitive to power and airspeed changes
c) Never

## 15) Power changes take precedence at low speed.

a) True
b) False

16) Which form of balancing is used to balance the forces that act at the aerodynamic center?

a) Mass balance
b) Aerodynamic balance
c) Control-free balance

17) Mass balance requires that weights be placed inside control surfaces of the T-34 in the areas forward of
the hingeline to locate the CG on the hingeline.

a) True
b) False

## 18) A servo trim tab is found on the T-34’s:

a) Aileron
b) Rudder
c) Elevator

19) The position with respect to time or motion of an object after disturbance is called:

a) Dynamic stability
b) Static stability
c) Divergent oscillation

## a) Strengthen stability and use larger control surfaces

b) Weaken stability and use larger control surfaces
c) Weaken stability and use smaller control surfaces

21) The neutral point defines the farthest aft CG position without negative stability.

a) True
b) False

## 22) Which of the following has a negative effect on directional stability?

a) Straight wings
b) Swept wings
c) Fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer

## 23) Swept wings are laterally stabilizing.

a) True
b) False

24) Phugoid oscillations are long period oscillations (20-100 seconds) of altitude and airspeed while
maintaining a nearly constant angle of attack.

a) True
b) False

25) The T-34c is not subject to pilot induced oscillations since it does not have strong longitudinal static
stability.

a) True
b) False

26) In a spin, if you apply opposite rudder but hold full back stick you will:

## a) Enter a progressive spin

b) Enter a flat spin
c) Enter an inverted spin
27) What factors make up a spin?

## a) An incomplete stall, roll and drag

b) A complete stall, yaw and roll
c) A rolling moment

28) The higher the pitch attitude, the _____ the vertical component of thrust, and the _____ the stall speed.

a) Greater, higher
b) Greater, lower
c) Lesser, higher
d) Lesser, lower

29) In a stall, the greater lift on the up-going wing results in:

## a) A continued rolling motion of the airplane

b) A continued yawing motion of the airplane
c) Discontinuing the rolling motion of the airplane
d) Discontinuing the yawing motion of the airplane

30) The turn needle is the only reliable indicator of spin direction.

a) True
b) False

## 31) In an inverted spin, what type of G’s are experienced?

a) Positive
b) Negative
c) Transverse

32) The spin recovery technique in the T-34 is forward stick and opposite rudder.

a) True
b) False

## 33) What is the maximum aircraft limit load factor?

a) The maximum load factor that can be sustained without over-stressing the aircraft
b) The load factor at which structural failure occurs
c) The airspeed at which structural failure occurs
d) The maximum amount of weapons the wing can hold

34) What flight regime will produce sufficient aerodynamic force to cause the airplane structure to flex,
resulting in wing flutter, aileron reversal, or wing divergence?

## a) Flight at red-line airspeed

b) Flight at a velocity greater than red-line airspeed
c) Flight at a velocity greater than maneuver airspeed
d) Flight at a velocity greater than Vmin

## 35) If you increase airspeed, your red-line airspeed will:

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) Remain constant
36) What values are plotted on the to axes of the Vg/Vn diagram?

## a) TAS and G’s

b) IAS and weight
c) G’s and “n” factor

37) Which of the following should you increase to decrease the size of the V-n diagram?

a) Altitude
b) Weight
d) All of the above

38) Exceeding limit load at maneuver airspeed will always cause structural damage.

a) True
b) False

## a) Never occur above maneuver speed

b) At a constant airspeed will always occur before over-stress
c) Are always above the positive load limit
d) None of the above

a) True
b) False

## 41) In a standard rate turn, you will turn 360o in:

a) 60 seconds
b) 90 seconds
c) 120 seconds
d) 180 seconds

42) What is the structural deformation which occurs as a function of time because the part is subjected to
constant stress that causes plastic strain?

a) Yield stress
b) Ultimate stress
c) Aerodynamic stress
d) Creep damage

43) What will cause both limit load factor and ultimate load to decrease?

a) An increase in altitude
b) A decrease in altitude
c) An increase in gross weight
d) A decrease in gross weight

44) Which of the following factors has the greatest affect on takeoff distance?
a) Velocity
b) Weight
c) Rolling friction
d) Density

## 45) What is the safest way to stop after touchdown?

a) Aerodynamic braking
b) Friction braking
c) Crash into a wall
d) Both a and b

46) Two identical aircraft prepare for takeoff. The first aircraft will be departing from NAS Oceana, VA
(sea level). The other from Colorado Springs (6930 feet). Which aircraft will have a longer takeoff roll
and why?

## a) Colorado Springs: lower air density causes an increase in takeoff TAS

b) NAS Oceana: higher air density causes an increase in takeoff TAS
c) Colorado Springs: lower air density causes an increase in takeoff IAS
d) NAS Oceana: lower air density causes an increase in takeoff IAS

## 47) When is rolling friction greatest during takeoff?

a) At the beginning
b) At the half way point
c) At the 2/3 point
d) At the point of liftoff

48) What runway wind component reduces the aircraft takeoff distance requirement?

b) Tailwind
c) Crosswind
d) Calm wind conditions

## a) Runway surface condition, weight, headwind

b) Runway length, thrust, tailwind
c) Runway surface condition, tire type, temperature
d) Runway surface condition, tire type, degree of brake application

50) What change in power setting is required in the final phase of the field approach to maintain the desired
flight path as the airplane nears the ground?

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) No change

KEY

1) b
2) d
3) b
4) b
5) b
6) b
7) d
8) a
9) a
10) b
11) d
12) b
13) c
14) b
15) a
16) b
17) a
18) a
19) a
20) b
21) a
22) c
23) a
24) a
25) a
26) a
27) b
28) b
29) a
30) a
31) b
32) a
33) a
34) b
35) b
36) d
37) d
38) b
39) d
40) b
41) c
42) d
43) c
44) b
45) d
46) a
47) a
48) a
49) d
50) b
AERODYNAMICS 2 EXAM #3

## 1) What is the effect of a headwind on the maximum range of an airplane?

a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) No change

2) The throttle linkage on your jet breaks and the engine goes to max thrust output. To achieve the greatest altitude
for glide prior to fuel exhaustion, you should clime at what angle of attack?

a) Max range
b) Max angle of climb
c) Minimum excess thrust horsepower
d) Max rate of climb

3) What change, if any, in the maximum glide range occurs as excess aircraft weight is jettisoned and a constant lift
to drag ratio (L/D) is maintained?

## a) Max glide range increases

b) Max glide range decreases
c) Max glide range remains constant

4) What change in maximum turbojet thrust available (Ta) occurs with an increase in true airspeed at a constant
altitude?

## a) Turbojet thrust available significantly increases

b) Turbojet thrust available significantly decreases
c) Turbojet thrust available remains relatively constant

5) You are flying a T-34c at maximum rate of climb and receive instructions to level off and go to maximum
endurance. What must you do?

## a) Reduce velocity and increase AOA to stabilize at L/D max

b) Reduce velocity and increase AOA to stabilize at C LMAX
c) Reduce velocity and increase AOA to a point greater than L/D max
d) Reduce velocity and increase AOA to stabilize at V min

## a) Will decrease with an increase in weight

b) Will decrease with an increase in altitude
c) Will be greater with a tailwind
d) Will increase with an increase in weight

7) You are flying a T-34c at 150 KIAS into a 50 knot headwind. Your engine suddenly quits. You have enough
altitude to set up a glide and make it back to Whiting Field. Which of the following is true?

a) A 50 knot headwind will increase your AOA giving you more lift and therefore longer glide range
b) L/D max increases
c) Your rate of descent will decrease due to the increased lift from the headwind

8) Minimum fuel flow for a propeller aircraft is located at the point where:

a) Tr is minimum
b) Tr = THP
c) THPr is minimum
d) Tr = 0

9) Two identical aircraft of equal weight, one powered by turbojet, the other by turboprop, are lined up on parallel
runways. Both will fly their maximum rate of climb performance. Compare AOA and TAS.

a) AOA and TAS are the same because rate of climb is on the THP curves
b) AOA for the prop is lower; TAS for the jet is higher
c) AOA for the prop is higher; TAS for the jet is higher
d) AOA for the prop is higher; TAS for the jet is lower

a) True
b) False

## 11) Max endurance torque for the T-34c is:

a) 240 ft-lbs
b) 420 ft-lbs
c) 580 ft-lbs

12) When a pilot pushes the stick to the right, what happens?

## a) The elevator moves right

b) The left aileron rises, the right aileron lowers
c) The right aileron rises, the left aileron lowers
d) The airplane yaws right

13) You are taking off in your T-34 and you adjust the aileron trim. During flight you will:

## a) Have to adjust it every now and then

b) Probably not need to touch it again
c) Turn it off

## 14) In the T-34, rudder trim compensates for:

a) Downwash
b) High AOA
c) Prop wash and torque

## a) Down at slower speeds and up at higher speeds

b) Up at slower speeds and down at higher speeds

16) For aerodynamic balance, the T-34c uses _____ on the elevator and rudder, and a(n) _____ on the ailerons.

## a) Overhang, shielding horn

b) Shielding horn, overhang
c) Flaps, flaps

17) The T-34 uses what form of control system to move the control surfaces?

## a) Conventional, reversible controls

b) Power-boosted controls
c) Full-power controls

## 18) An anti-servo trim tab is located on the T-34's:

a) Aileron
b) Rudder
c) Elevator

19) If an object has an initial tendency toward its original equilibrium position after a disturbance, it posses:

## a) Positive dynamic stability

b) Positive static stability
c) Neutral static stability

20) Stability of the longitudinal axis around the lateral axis (pitch) is called:

a) Longitudinal pitch
b) Longitudinal stability
c) Directional stability
d) Lateral stability

21) The neutral point (NP) can be thought of as the aerodynamic center for the entire airplane.

a) True
b) False

22) Which will be the greatest positive contributor to the directional static stability?

a) Straight wings
b) Swept wings
c) Fuselage
d) Vertical stabilizer

23) When in a lateral side-slip, the vertical senses an angle of attack, so it _____.

a) Produces drag
b) Produces lift

## 24) Phugoid oscillations begins when:

a) An upward gust strikes the airplane causing the plane to gain altitude and lose airspeed
b) A downward gust strikes the airplane causing the airplane to gain altitude and lose airspeed
c) An upward gust strikes the airplane causing the plane to gain altitude and gain airspeed

25) If the relative wind is above the thrust line, the up-going propeller blade on the _____ side creates more thrust
since it has a greater AOA with the relative wind. This will yaw the nose to the _____.

a) Left; right
b) Right; right
c) Left; left
d) Right; left

## 26) AOA in an inverted spin will be:

a) Pegged at 30 units
b) Indicated between 2 and 3 units
c) Pegged in the direction of the spin

## a) Slower than a heavier airplane, but will have a faster recovery

b) Faster than a heavier airplane, and will recover faster
c) Slower than a heavier airplane, and will recover slower
d) Faster than a heavier airplane, but will recover slower

28) Slower stall speeds make the spin recovery entry slower with:

a) More oscillations
b) Fewer oscillations
c) No change in oscillations

## a) A continued rolling motion of the airplane

b) Discontinued yawing motion in the direction of the roll
c) Discontinued rolling motion of the airplane
d) A continued yawing motion in the direction of the roll

30) In an erect (normal) spin, which of the following would NOT be characteristic of the cockpit indicators?

## a) Altimeter rapidly decreasing

b) Airspeed of 80-100 kts
c) AOA of 30 units
d) Turn needle pegged in the direction opposite direction of the spin

## a) It will aggravate the spin

b) Not much since the wing is stalled
c) It will bring the aircraft out of the stall

32) During a spin, what conditions exist on the up-going wing verses the down-going wing?

a) The up-going wing has more lift, AOA, and total drag than the down-going wing
b) The up-going wing has more lift but less AOA and total drag than the down-going wing
c) The up-going wing and down-going wing have the exact same conditions

## 33) What is aircraft ultimate load factor?

a) The maximum load factor that can be sustained without over-stressing the aircraft
b) The maximum load factor that the aircraft structure is designed to support
c) The maximum weight of the aircraft
d) The maximum cargo capacity of the aircraft

34) What effect will an increase in aircraft weight, for a constant amount of maximum lift, have on the limit load
factor and maneuver airspeed?

## a) Limit load and maneuver airspeed will increase

b) Limit load and maneuver airspeed will decrease
c) Limit load will decrease and maneuver airspeed will increase
d) Limit load and maneuver airspeed will not be affected
35) What is the relationship between weight and allowable G's?

a) Direct
b) Inverse
c) Independent

36) Wing divergence, wing flutter, and aileron reversal are all aeroelastic effects that are associated with flight in
what region?

## a) Flight above the ultimate load

b) Flight beyond red-line airspeed
c) Flight above the limit load
d) Flight to the left of the accelerated stall line

## a) Pulling an excessive number of G's will always result in a stall

b) Flying too slow will result in a stall
c) Turbulent air may over-stress the aircraft
d) Turbulent air may cause a stall

a) True
b) False

## 39) The Vg/Vn diagram shrinks in the landing configuration.

a) True*
b) False

40) Which of the following might occur if an aircraft exceeds the red-line airspeed?

a) Spiral divergence
b) Directional divergence
c) Wing divergence
d) Stall

41) Wing flutter, aileron reversal, and wing divergence are all examples of what redline airspeed problem?

a) Overstress
b) Elastic limit
c) Aeroelastic effect

42) What are the most critical factors that increase the rate of creep damage?

## a) High stress and density

b) High stress and temperature
c) High strength and pressure
d) High strenght and attitude

## 43) Upon what factors is the airplane flight Vn diagram contingent?

c) Configuration, altitude, gross weight

## a) Gross weight of aircraft

b) Runway construction
c) Actual weight on the wheels
d) Temperature

## a) Sea level on an ice covered runway

b) Summer day in Pensacola on an asphalt runway
c) Landing during a storm

## 46) Frictional braking is considered the most _____ form of braking.

a) Effective
b) Dangerous
c) Efficient
d) Useless

47) What force is the most out of balance during the takeoff roll?

a) Drag
b) Rolling friction
c) Lift
d) Thrust

48) Which runway would you use when runway 9 has a headwind of 20 knots and a crosswind of 2 knots, while
runway 13 has a headwind of 10 knots and a crosswind of 10 knots?

## a) Runway 9 because takeoff TAS is lower

b) Runway 13 because after takeoff the headwind will be 22 knots
c) Runway 9 because takeoff ground speed is lower
d) Runway 9 because takeoff IAS is lower

49) What is the effect of ground effect on an airplane's induced drag and thrust requirements?

## a) Induced drag increases and thrust required increases

b) Induced drag increases and thrust required decreases
c) Induced drag decreases and thrust required increases
d) Induced drag decreases and thrust required decreases

50) What change in aircraft vertical lift force occurs during ground effect?

## a) Effective lift increases

b) Vertical lift decreases
c) Vertical lift remains constant

KEY

1) b
2) d
3) c
4) c
5) c
6) d
7) d
8) c
9) c
10) a
11) b
12) c
13) b
14) c
15) b
16) b
17) a
18) b
19) b
20) b
21) a
22) d
23) b
24) a
25) a
26) b
27) b
28) b
29) d
30) d
31) b
32) b
33) b
34) c
35) b
36) b
37) c
38) b
39) a
40) c
41) c
42) b
43) c
44) c
45) b
46) a
47) d
48) c
49) d
50) a
AERODYNAMICS 2 EXAM #4

1) What factor must be maximized for an airplane to fly a maximum angle of climb profile?

## a) Thrust required (Tr)

b) Thrust excess (Te)
c) Power excess (Pe)
d) Angle of attack (AOA)

2) Which of the following is true for a jet fling a max endurance angle of attack and maintaining a constant altitude?

## a) Thrust required is a minimum

b) A headwind will increase endurance
c) C L is maximum
d) Y X is maximum

3) What is the effect, if any, of an increase in cruise altitude (from sea level to 15,000 feet) on the maximum range
of an airplane?

## a) Max range increases

b) Max range decrease
c) Max range will not change

4) What change in maximum fixed pitch propeller thrust available occurs with an increase in true airspeed at a
constant altitude?

a) Propeller thrust available increases due to an increase in propeller efficiency at higher velocities
b) Propeller thrust available decreases due to a decrease in propeller efficiency at higher velocities
c) Propeller thrust available will remain relatively constant

5) A propeller airplane executing a maximum glide range profile stabilizes at 95 KTAS. If the pilot decides to slow
to 90 KTAS by increasing AOA, what will be the affect on the glide path angle?

## a) The glide path angle will be steeper

b) The glide path angle will be more shallow
c) The glide path angle will not be affected

## a) Increase of parasite drag with increased velocities

b) Increase of induced drag with decreased velocities
c) Decrease of wingtip vortices with higher angle of attack
d) Increase of the lift to drag ratio with decreasing velocities

7) The AOA where the lift to drag ratio is maximum is the AOA for:

## a) Max range for a prop

b) Max range for a jet
c) Max endurance for a prop
d) Max lift and minimum drag

8) The difference between turboprop thrust available and thrust required (Ta - Tr) determines thrust excess. Thrust
excess:

## a) Goes to zero at the maximum level of flight

b) Is at a maximum at a velocity less than L/D max
c) Is at a maximum at an AOA greater than L/D max
d) All of the above

## 9) Increasing weight in a prop driven aircraft will:

a) Result in an increase in the TAS and decrease in the angle of attack for maximum range
b) Result in a decrease of the TAS for maximum range
c) Have no effect on the TAS at which the aircraft will fly for maximum
d) Result in the aircraft flying at a greater TAS and the same AOA for maximum range

10) You are flying along at you max range airspeed in your trusty T-34c at 500 feet over the bay when suddenly the
engine stops. You should:

a) Establish a glide into the wind to increase your total time aloft
b) Glide for maximum range by maintaining your current AOA
c) Tell your instructor to jump out to reduce weight and increasing glide distance
d) Glide for maximum range by increasing your AOA

11) For an aircraft to glide at a constant angle of attack L/D max, as the aircraft is descending:

## a) IAS must increase

b) TAS must increase
c) IAS must be constant
d) TAS must be constant

12) What control surface controls the pitching moment around the airplane's CG?

## a) The ailerons on the trailing edge of the wing

b) The elevator on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer
c) The spoilers on the upper surface of the wing
d) The rudder attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer

13) The right aileron trim tab of the T-34 is set by:

## a) The pilot after takeoff

b) The manufacturer
c) Maintenance

## a) Down at slower speed and up at higher speed

b) Up at slower speed and down at higher speed

15) Mass balancing requires that weights be placed inside control surfaces of the T-34 in the aeras forward of the
hidgeline to locate the CG on the hindgeline.

a) True
b) False

## 16) A neutral trim tab is found on the T-34's:

a) Aileron
b) Rudder
c) Elevator
17) The bobweight on the T-34's elevator increases the force required to pull the stick _____ during maneuvering
flight.

a) Forward
b) Aft
c) Right
d) Left

18) The down-spring on the T-34's elevator increases the force required to pull the stick _____ at low airspeeds.

a) Forward
b) Aft
c) Right
d) Left

19) If an object does not have positive static stability, it cannot have positive dynamic stability.

a) True
b) False

## a) Wing sweep, horizontal stabilizer, neutral point location

b) Straight wings, wing sweep, fuselage
c) Neutral point location only

21) When an airplane yaws, its momentum keeps it moving along its original flight path for a short time. This is
called:

a) Slip angle
b) Sideslip
c) Sweep

22) There is an inverse relationship between tail size and moment arm length.

a) True
b) False

## a) Positive directional static stability

b) Negative directional static stability
c) Neutral directional static stability

24) You are flying along and apply pressure to the rudder. You realize that your plane has begun to roll in the same
direction as it is yawing. What kind of roll are you experiencing?

a) Dutch roll
b) Proverse roll
d) Cinnamon roll

25) If the relative wind is below the thrust line, the down-going propeller blade on the _____ side creates more
thrust since it has a larger AOA with the relative wind. This will yaw the nose to the _____.

a) Right; right
b) Left; left
c) Right; left
d) Left; right

## a) An aggravated stall that results in autorotation

b) A roll and yaw that propagates itself
c) A rolling moment

27) The weight in the wing tanks causes a large portion of the weight of the airplane to be away from the CG. This
creates a large moment of inertia for the spin to overcome.

a) True
b) False

28) In a stall, the greater lift on the up-going wing results in:

## a) A continued rolling motion of the airplane

b) A continued yawing motion of the airplane
c) Discontinued rolling motion of the airplane
d) Discontinued yawing motion of the airplane

29) The turn needle is the only reliable indicator of spin direction.

a) True
b) False

## a) Full rudder in the same direction as the spin

b) Full rudder in the opposite direction of the spin
c) No rudder because it has no effect on stopping the spin

31) In a spin, if you apply opposite rudder but hold full back stick, you will:

## a) Enter a progressive spin

b) Enter a flat spin
c) Enter an inverted spin

## 32) Where is the maneuvering point depicted on the Vn diagram?

a) The point where the load factor scale and the velocity scale intersect
b) The point where the redline and the ultimate load factor intersect
c) The point where the accelerated stall line and the ultimate load factor intersect
d) The point where the accelerated stall line and the limit load factor line intersect

33) What precaution should be taken to ensure that the aircraft limit load will not be exceeded by turbulent air
during flight?

## a) Operate the aircraft at redline airspeed

b) Operate the aircraft at maneuver airspeed
c) Operate the aircraft significantly below maneuver airspeed
d) Operate the aircraft at the minimum TAS required to maintain equilibrium level flight (Vmin)
34) Maximum allowable negative G's for the T-34c is:

a) -2.3
b) -2.7
c) -3.2

35) How, if at all, will the redline airspeed of a subsonic aircraft change?

## a) It will decrease if the aircraft's gross weight increases

b) It decreases in the landing configuration
c) It increases as altitude increases
d) It never changes

## a) It is possible to pull twice the G limit before structural damage occurs

b) Turn radius is at its maximum
c) Structural damage would occur before a stall
d) None of the above

## a) Weight the wing must support for flight

b) Number of G's divided by the weight
d) Lift / weight

38) If you exceed the operating limits of your aircraft in flight, you should always:

## a) Visually inspect the aircraft prior to landing

b) Inspect the aircraft for major damages upon landing
c) Report overstress and any resultant damage on the aircraft discrepancy report
d) All of the above

39) What parts of the Vg/Vn diagram will be affected by an increase in weight?

## a) Accelerated stall lines, limit load and redline airspeed

b) Accelerated stall lines, IAS and redline airspeed
d) Wing changes have no affect on the Vg/Vn diagram

40) How much greater than the limit load factor is the ultimate load factor?

a) 1.0
b) 1.5
c) 2.0
d) 2.5

41) What is the relationship between structural strength and weight in aircraft design?

d) Aircraft weight and structural strength are not related

42) What occurs in flight at G's above the lines of maximum lift capability?
a) Overstress
b) Structural damage
c) Structural failure
d) Stall

## a) Limit airspeed, limit load factor, maximum lift capability

b) Limit airspeed, ultimate load factor, maximum lift capability
c) Maneuver airspeed, limit load factor, maximum lift capability
d) Maneuver airspeed, ultimate load factor, maximum lift capability

a) Effective
b) Fun
c) Efficient
d) Useless

## a) High, hot, light, humid

b) High, hot, heavy, dry
c) High, hot, heavy, humid
d) High, hot, light, dry

46) On landing, when an aircraft is within one wingspan of the ground, total lift is increased, thus causing the
aircraft to float down the runway.

a) True
b) False

47) What is the effect of an increase in weight on takeoff speed and why?

a) Takeoff speed decreases because a lower dynamic pressure is necessary to produce the lift needed to get
the airplane airborne
b) Takeoff speed decreases because a higher dynamic pressure is necessary to produce the lift needed to get
the airplane airborne
c) Takeoff speed increases because a higher dynamic pressure is necessary to produce the lift needed to get
the airplane airborne
d) Takeoff speed increases because a lower dynamic pressure is necessary to produce the lift needed to get
the airplane airborne

48) What factors determine the minimum landing distance for an aircraft with uniform deceleration?

## a) Weight, velocity, thrust, drag, rolling friction

b) Weight, velocity, thrust, drag, pressure
c) Weight, velocity, thrust, acceleration

49) What change in the aircraft vertical lift force occurs in ground effect?

## a) Effective lift increases

b) Vertical lift decreases
c) Vertical lift remains constant
50) What change in the aircraft total lift force occurs in ground effect?

## a) Total lift increases

b) Total lift decreases
c) Total lift remains constant

KEY

1) b
2) a
3) a
4) b
5) a
6) b
7) a
8) d
9) d
10) b
11) d
12) b
13) c
14) b
15) a
16) c
17) b
18) b
19) a
20) a
21) b
22) a
23) b
24) b
25) c
26) a
27) a
28) a
29) b
30) a
31) d
32) b
33) a
34) a
35) b
36) d
37) d
38) d
39) c
40) b
41) a
42) d
43) a
44) c
45) c
46) a
47) c
48) a
49) a
50) c
AERODYNAMICS 2 EXAM #5

## a) Maximum angle of climb increases

b) Maximum rate of climb increases
c) Maximum angle of climb and rate of climb decrease
d) Maximum angle of climb and rate of climb will not be affected

2) On a weekend cross-country in your T-34, you decide to go to Maine to pick up live lobster. The lobsters add 200
pounds of weight to you airplane. What will be the effect on your rate of climb and why?

a) Increase, because the heavier the airplane, the better the rate of climb
b) Decrease, because the heavier the airplane, the more THP required, decreasing THP excess
c) Decrease, because the heavier the airplane, the less THP is required
d) Increase, because the heavier the airplane, the less THP is required

3) What does the thrust required curve (Tr) on the thrust graph represent?

a) The amount of thrust necessary to equal aircraft total lift in equilibrium flight
b) The amount of thrust necessary to equal aircraft total drag in equilibrium level flight
c) The amount of thrust the engine produces in equilibrium flight

4) What change in L/D max AOA and velocity values depicted on a thrust curve occur when the thrust data is
converted into power data?

a) L/D max AOA and velocity increase because of the effect of a force acting over a distance
b) L/D max AOA and velocity decrease because of the effect of converting work value to power value
c) L/D max AOA and velocity values remain constant because no change has been made to the aircraft or
the operating environment

5) What change in angle of attack is required to go from maximum glide range to a maximum glide endurance
profile?

## a) Increase the AOA to a value greater than C LMAX

b) Increase the AOA to a value greater than L/D max
c) Decrease the AOA to a value greater than L/D max, which equates to minimum induced drag
d) Keep AOA at L/D max, which equates to minimum total drag

6) A fully loaded airplane will glide faster than a lighter loaded airplane of the same type. What will the minimum
angle of glide for the heavier airplane be?

## a) The same as the lighter airplane

b) Dependent upon altitude
c) Greater than the lighter airplane
d) Less than the lighter airplane

7) In order to clear obstacles on the field boundary after a short takeoff, a pilot should climb at:

## a) Max rate of climb

b) Max angle of climb
c) Airspeed where THPa - THPr is greatest
d) Maximum vertical velocity

8) Which of the following is true about a prop aircraft climbing at full throttle to clear a mountain peak. The aircraft
should:
a) Climb at an angle of climb that is the same airspeed as max rate of climb
b) Climb at CL max to obtain the greatest lift and the steepest angle of climb
c) Climb at max angle of climb that would be the same as max range airspeed
d) Climb at max angle of climb that is obtained where the greatest excess thrust exists

## 9) Increasing weight in a prop driven aircraft?

a) Result in an increase in the TAS and decrease in the AOA for max range
b) Result in a decrease of TAS for max range
c) Have no effect on the TAS at which the aircraft will fly for max range
d) Result in a greater TAS and the same AOA for max range

10) An increase in altitude will increase glide endurance but have no affect on glide range.

a) True
b) False

11) You are flying your T-34 at max range airspeed at 500 feet over the bay when suddenly your engine stops. You
should:

a) Establish a glide into the wind to increase your total time aloft
b) Glide for max range by maintaining your present AOA
c) Tell your instructor to bail out to reduce weight and give you a better chance at making it back
d) Glide for max range by increasing your AOA

## 12) The ailerons control:

a) Pitch
b) Roll
c) Yaw

13) Trimming reduces the force required to hold the control surfaces in a position to maintain flight attitude.

a) True
b) False

## a) Once after takeoff

b) Frequently during flight because they are sensitive to power and airspeed changes
c) Never

## 15) Power changes take precedence at low speed.

a) True
b) False

16) For aerodynamic balance, the T-34 uses _____ on the elevator and rudder, and _____ on the ailerons.

## a) An overhang, shielding horn

b) Shielding horn, an overhang
c) Flaps, flaps

## 17) The T-34's control CG's are located:

a) Aft of the hindgeline
b) Forward of the hindgeline
c) On the hidgeline

18) The bobweight on the T-34's elevator increases the force required to pull the stick _____ during maneuvering
flight.

a) Forward
b) Aft
c) Right
d) Left

19) Static stability does not ensure dynamic stability, but static instability ensures dynamic instability.

a) True
b) False

20) Which of the following are negative contributors to longitudinal static stability?

## a) Wing sweep, horizontal stabilizer, neutral point location

b) Straight wings and fuselage
c) Neutral point location only

21) Directional static stability is stability of the longitudinal axis around the:

a) Horizontal axis
b) Vertical axis
c) Lateral axis

22) Which type of wing has the greatest positive contributors to lateral static stability?

a) Swept
b) Dihedral
c) Low mounted wings

## a) Strong directional stability and weak lateral stability

b) Weak directional stability and strong lateral stability
c) Strong directional stability and strong lateral stability
d) Weak directional stability and weak lateral stability

24) The tendency of an airplane to yaw away from the direction of aileron roll input is called:

a) Proverse yaw
c) Pilot induced oscillation

25) The T-34 is not subject to pilot induced oscillations since it does not have strong longitudinal static stability.

a) True
b) False

## 26) Autorotation is:

a) An aggravated stall
b) A combination of roll and yaw that propagates itself and progressively gets worse due to an asymmetric
stalled condition on the wings
c) A combination of roll and yaw that propagates itself and progressively gets worse due to a symmetric
stalled condition on the wings

27) The higher the pitch attitude the _____ the vertical component of thrust, and the _____ the stall speed.

a) Greater, higher
b) Greater, lower
c) Lesser, higher
d) Lesser, lower

## a) A higher AOA, less lift, and more drag

b) A lower AOA, less lift, and more drag
c) A higher AOA, more lift, and more drag
d) A lower AOA, and more lift

29) In an inverted spin, which of the following would not be characteristic of the cockpit indicators?

## a) Altimeter rapidly decreasing

b) Airspeed 80-100 knots
c) AOA 2-3 units
d) Turn needle pegged in the same direction of the spin

30) How does the configuration of the empennage and placement of the horizontal control surfaces affect spin
recovery?

a) The horizontal control surface deflects the relative wind towards or away from the vertical stabilizer
b) The horizontal control surface has no effect on the vertical components of the empennage
c) The empennage has on effect on spin recovery

31) Forward stick and opposite rudder are the procedures for spin recovery in the T-34.

a) True
b) False

## 32) AOA in an inverted spin will be:

a) Pegged at 30 units
b) Indicated between 2 and 3 units
c) Pegged in the direction of the spin

33) What will occur if excessive AOA is applied while operating at maneuver airspeed?

## a) The aircraft will exceed its ultimate load factor

b) The aircraft will be overstressed
c) The aircraft will stall before an overstress occurs
d) The aircraft will experience aileron reversal due to aeroelastic effects

34) In turbulence, if you fly below maneuver airspeed, you might stall the airplane; if above maneuver airspeed you
might:

a) Exceed redline
b) Experience aeroelastic effects
c) Overstress the airplane

35) If an aircraft increases angle of bank in a turn, what change in total lift and power-on TAS (Vso) is necessary to
maintain a constant altitude?

## a) An increase in total lift and true stall speed

b) A decrease in total lift and true stall speed
c) An increase in total lift as true stall speed decreases
d) No change is required

36) What is the primary danger in flying above maneuver airspeed and below redline airspeed in turbulent air?

a) Overstress
b) Stall
c) Aileron reversal
d) Spiral divergence

a) True
b) False

## a) IAS and load factor

c) IAS and altitude
d) G limits and altitude

## a) Turbulent air and requires the use of opposite ailerons

b) Gust loads imposing different angles of attack on the wing
c) Pulling high G forces
d) Exceeding the Vmax of the aircraft

40) What airspeed is the best trade-off between getting the smallest radius of turn while achieving the best turn rate?

## a) Minimum straight and level airspeed

b) Maneuver airspeed
c) Max straight and level airspeed
d) Redline airspeed

41) What happens to typical aircraft metal at low values of applied stress?

a) The metal incurs no permanent deformation and the material does not return to the original unstressed
shape when the stress is released
b) The metal incurs no permanent deformation and the material does return to the original unstressed shape
when the stress is released
c) The metal incurs permanent deformation and the material does not return to the original unstressed shape
when the stress is released
d) The metal incurs permanent deformation and the material does return to the original unstressed shape
when the stress is released

42) What is the effect of an increased velocity on the maximum attainable load factor?
a) Maximum attainable load factor increases
b) Maximum attainable load factor decreases
c) Maximum attainable load factor is not affected

42) In what region must an airplane be operated to prevent structural damage and ensure that the anticipated service
life is obtained?

a) Altitude regime
b) Weight windows
c) Safe flight envelope
d) Manila envelope

a) Increased
b) Not affected
c) Decreased
d) Disappears

## 45) What kind of winds are best for landing?

a) Tailwind
b) Crosswind
c) No wind

46) Which of the following situations would give you the shortest runway requirements on takeoff?

## a) Sea level, 10 knot crosswind, 30o F

b) Sea level, 10 knot crosswind, 90o F
c) 4000 ft altitude, no wind, 80o F
d) 4000 ft altitude, no wind, 88% humidity

## a) Takeoff velocity increases, thrust and net acceleration force increase

b) Takeoff velocity increases, thrust and net acceleration force decrease
c) Takeoff velocity decreases, thrust and net acceleration force increase
d) Takeoff velocity decreases, thrust and net acceleration force decrease

48) What effect does an increase in aircraft weight have on runway length requirement for landing?

## a) Required runway length increases

b) Required runway length decreases
c) Required runway length remains constant

## a) Runway surface condition, weight, headwind

b) Runway length, thrust, tailwind
c) Runway surface condition, tire type, temperature
d) Runway surface condition, tire type, degree of brake application

50) What change in power setting is required in the final phase of field approach to maintain the desired flight path
as the airplane nears the ground?
a) Increase
b) Decrease
c) No change is required

KEY

1) c
2) b
3) b
4) c
5) b
6) a
7) b
8) d
9) d
10) b
11) b
12) b
13) a
14) b
15) a
16) b
17) c
18) b
19) a
20) b
21) b
22) b
23) a
24) b
25) a
26) b
27) b
28) a
29) b
30) a
31) a
32) b
33) c
34) c
35) a
36) a
37) a
38) a
39) d
40) b
41) b
42) a
43) c
44) c
45) d
46) a
47) b
48) a
49) d
50) b