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S-STEEL Design 2017

Introduction Manual

S-FRAME Software Inc. S-FRAME Software LLC S-FRAME Software (UK) Ltd.
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20171004 © Copyright 1992-2017 by S-FRAME® Software Inc.


S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Copyright Notice

This software documentation is Copyright © 2016 by S-FRAME Software Inc. (Richmond, Canada). All rights
reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated
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Disclaimer

Considerable time, effort and expense have gone into the development and documentation of S-FRAME. It has
been thoroughly tested. However, in using the product (including manuals), the user understands and accepts
that no warranty on the accuracy or reliability of the product is expressed or implied by the developers or
distributors. Users must understand the assumptions used in the product, know its limitations, and verify their
own results.

S-FRAME Software Inc. disclaims all warranties with regard to the software contained on diskette or in printed
form, including all warranties of merchantability and fitness; and any stated or expressed warranties are in lieu of
all obligations or liabilities of S-FRAME Software Inc. for damages, including, but not limited to special, indirect or
consequential damages arising out of or in connection with the performance of the software.

20171004 © Copyright 1992-2017 by S-FRAME® Software Inc.


S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Manual Setup and Conventions


Within the Manual there are screenshots and diagrams, emphasizing a certain step or results. In some cases, they
indicate the correct data entry for a specific dialog:

In other cases, they may show the expected output of a process:

Notes: This symbol is used to highlight ‘’Notes’’ on specific topics throughout this manual.

Good to Know: This symbol is used to highlight “Good to Know” facts throughout this manual.

Need to Know: This symbol is used to highlight “Need to Know” facts throughout this manual

Further Information: This symbol is used to highlight additional resources for specific topics.

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Contents

Getting Started .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1


Tutorial Examples........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Launching S-STEEL ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
AISC 360-16 LRFD Example .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Analysis Model ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Start .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
First Time Opening of Structure ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
Select Design Code .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Preliminary ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Design Model and Member Selection ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Select First: Then Edit ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Edit Length Factors ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Edit Bending Coefficients ................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Run First Code Check ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Render Structure ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
S-FRAME sections ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Run Code Check ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Code Check Results .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
Design Sections for Study ...................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Design Process ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Columns .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
Beams ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Braces ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Run First Design ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Design Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 23
Run First Re-Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 24
View Results ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 29
Picture Album ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 30
View Key Results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 30
AISC 360-16 ASD Example .......................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Analysis Model ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Start ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 34
First Time Opening of Structure .......................................................................................................................................................... 35
Select Design Code .................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Preliminary ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

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Defining Design Model ........................................................................................................................................................................... 36


Select First: Then Edit ......................................................................................................................................................................... 37
Make Continuous................................................................................................................................................................................. 37
Scratch Pad .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 37
Perform a Design ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Stand-alone use of the Scratch-Pad................................................................................................................................................... 44
Code Check.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 46
CAN/CSA S16-14 Example........................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Analysis Model ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Start ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 47
First Time Opening of Structure .......................................................................................................................................................... 48
Select Design Code .................................................................................................................................................................................. 48
Defining Design Model ........................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Select First: Then Edit ......................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Edit Length Factors ............................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Bending Coefficients .......................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Code Check.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Code Check Results .................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
Design with HSS section......................................................................................................................................................................... 55
Column.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55
Select HSS sections ................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Run First Design ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Design Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 57
EN 1993-1-1 Example .................................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Analysis Model ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Start ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 60
First Time Opening of Structure .......................................................................................................................................................... 60
Select Design Code .................................................................................................................................................................................. 61
Preliminary ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Design Model and Member Selection .............................................................................................................................................. 63
Select First: Then Edit ......................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Edit Length Factors ............................................................................................................................................................................. 64
Run First Code Check ............................................................................................................................................................................... 66
Code Check Results .................................................................................................................................................................................. 68
Design Sections for Study ...................................................................................................................................................................... 74
Inconsistent Data ................................................................................................................................................................................. 74

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Introduction Manual

Design Process ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 74


Columns .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 75
Beams ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Braces ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80
Run First Design ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 82
Design Results ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 83
Run First Re-Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................ 86
Making members continuous .............................................................................................................................................................. 93
Spreadsheets .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 97
BS 5950 Example ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 101
Analysis Model ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 101
Start ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 101
First Time Opening of Structure ....................................................................................................................................................... 102
Select Design Code ............................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Defining Design Model ........................................................................................................................................................................ 102
Iterative Design/Analysis .................................................................................................................................................................... 103
Scratch Pad ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 107

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Getting Started

Tutorial Examples Each example in the tutorial takes you through a problem, step-by-step. Screen
captures are included throughout the tutorials.
There are five tutorial examples:
1. AISC 360-16 LFRD. This tutorial consists of the code check and design of a
simple portal frame. The tutorial explores many of S-STEEL’s key features.
2. AISC 360-16 ASD. This tutorial illustrates the use of the Scratch-Pad feature for
the design of a continuous beam. In addition, the tutorial illustrates the use of
the Scratch-Pad as a stand-alone tool.
3. CAN/CSA S16-14. This shorter tutorial illustrates the code check process of a
column and the use of a code check override to quickly assign a suitable
section. In addition, the tutorial illustrates how easy it is to re-design the column
with a hollow structural shape.
4. EC3 Example. This tutorial consists of the code check and design of a simple
portal frame. The tutorial explores many of S-STEEL’s key features. The tutorial
is very similar to the LRFD 94 Example.
5. BS5950 Example. This tutorial example uses the same structure as the one in
the EC3 Example 1. The tutorial illustrates the use of a quicker approach for the
design of the portal frame. In addition, the tutorial investigates the use of the
Scratch-Pad feature for the fine tuning of the design of one of the beams.
It is highly recommended to follow all five of the tutorial examples regardless of the
design code that you would normally use. The focus of the tutorials is S-STEEL’s
features and not the specific details of the respective steel codes.
Launching S-STEEL In order to launch S-STEEL, you must already have S-FRAME running.

AISC 360-16 LRFD Example


The AISC 360-16 LFRD example is designed to illustrate the major concepts and features of S-STEEL. Before
starting this tutorial you should carry out the following procedure:
1. Launch Windows Explorer and navigate to the S-STEEL’s Tutorial folder. (C:\Users\Public\Documents\S-
FRAME Software\S-STEEL\Tutorial)
2. If this folder already contains any files named SSTUT1.*, then the tutorial may have already been used. If you
have previously run the tutorials the files may not contain the information needed at the start of the tutorial
so highlight and delete them.
3. Navigate to the Original folder (a sub-folder within Tutorial) and highlight the file SSTUT1.tel and then
choose the Copy option from the Windows Explorer tool bar.
4. Return to the Tutorial folder and choose Paste from the tool bar to place a copy of SSTUT1.tel into that folder.
You are now ready to start the tutorial itself.
If you accidentally take a wrong step while running through the tutorial, and can't recover, or if
you want to run the tutorial again, then follow the above steps. This will always ensure that you
are starting the tutorial with the correct information.
Never open the files in the Original folder within S-STEEL since this will change the files so that
the tutorial no longer works correctly.

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Analysis Model The LRFD example structure is a braced portal frame with three load cases:
• dead
• live
• wind
For simplicity, only one load combination is included. The combination factors are:
• dead 1.2
• live 1.6
• wind 0.8
For the purposes of this tutorial, the linear elastic static analysis option
was selected in S-FRAME. In general, if your version of S-FRAME supports
it, it is preferable to perform a P-Delta analysis for steel structures.
The figure below indicates the lengths of the different members.

Figure 1.

If you do not analyse the structure, then when you run S-STEEL you will
see a prompt telling you that the structure must be analysed.
For further details see “FIRST TIME OPENING OF STRUCTURE” in the
following chapters.

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Start Once you launch S-FRAME navigate to the folder and select the structure named
Sstut1.tel, as indicated below.

Figure 2.

If you check Preview Structure then S-FRAME draws a picture of the


structure so that you can check that you have made the correct choice.
S-SFRAME also shows the Structure Reference that you have defined,
which also serves to identify the structure.
Once you've selected Sstut1.tel choose Open File to open the structure.
First Time Opening If you have loaded this file, and you attempt to launch S-STEEL prior to analysing
of Structure the structure in S-FRAME, then you will be prompted to analyse the structure.

Figure 3.

Choose OK and perform a linear static analysis to the structure. The S-FRAME
analysis engine will be used to analyse the structure. Once the analysis is complete
the Graphical Results Window should be the currently active window. Click on the
Build Steel Model on the shortcuts bar to launch S-STEEL.

Figure 4.

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Select Design Code S-STEEL will launch, and the Code Input window should be active. The first thing
that S-STEEL needs to know is which design code is appropriate for the structure.
S-STEEL shows the Design Code dialog to allow you to specify these details.
1. Click Options > Design Code... menu selection and select AISC steel database
and the AISC 360-16 LRFD design code as indicated below.

Figure 5.

Once you have selected the correct Steel Database and Design Code choose OK
to proceed with the Worked Example.
Preliminary Once you've closed the Design Code dialog, S-STEEL displays the following
components of the application:
• title bar
• menu bar
• toolbar
• five windows (Code Input, Code Results, Design Input, Design Results, Steel
Spreadsheet)

Figure 6.

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Introduction Manual

By default S-STEEL displays the Section Shape Wire Frame of all members in the
structure. This is useful information, but for larger structures the display may
become rather cluttered. If the section Wire Frame is not currently displayed on your
screen, or you wish to switch it off at any time, you can do so by going to View >
Design Model and check or uncheck the wire frame view option as desired.

Figure 7.

Design Model and When we first open a structure in S-STEEL the information in the analysis model is
Member Selection augmented with additional information which turns it into a design model. We
then need to modify this default design model so that it accurately represents the
design details of the current structure.
We shall start off with length factors. By default S-STEEL gives every member Kx and
Ky factors of 1.0.
In Figure 8, we can see that there are two pairs of beams along the perimeter of the
structure which have no supporting column where the pairs are joined. These pairs
of beams from the analysis model form a single member for design purposes. We
need to tell S-STEEL to treat them as such in the design by amending the design
model accordingly.

Figure 8.

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

We also need to allow for the lateral restraint provided by the incoming rafter by
specifying an Ky of 1.0 and Kx of 2.0 for these beams.
An alternative would be to make the two beams continuous and set Ky
to 0.5 and Kx to1.0.
Except for the Eurocode, the x-axis refers to a section's strong axis; this
"steel code" convention differs from S-FRAME’s local member orientation
convention, where the member's strong axis is defined about the local y-
axis. For Eurocode only, both S-FRAME and S-STEEL use the same axis
convention.
Select First: Then The way that you make changes to the design model is consistent throughout S-
Edit STEEL:
• First –select the members you want to edit.
• Second –choose the appropriate Edit menu command, or tool from the toolbox.
• Third –make the choices you want in the Edit dialog, or ion the data bar above.
• Fourth –choose OK to confirm the modified details.
In our case we therefore need to select the four beams before we change their
design model details by choosing Edit > Length Factors.
To select a member individually, position the mouse pointer along the member and
click the primary mouse button1. To deselect a selected member, click it again. This
action toggles the selection status of a member. It has no effect on the selection
status of other members.
When a member is selected, S-STEEL draws it as a solid line. Select the members as
indicated in figure 8.
Edit Length Factors Choose Edit > Length Factors… S-STEEL shows the Edit Length Factors dialog.

Figure 9.

Change the Kx value to 2.0 and specify Lb/L = 1.0 for both top and bottom flanges,
as indicated above.

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S-STEEL Design
Introduction Manual

Click OK to confirm the data and return to the Code Input window.
Next we shall define length factors for the columns. However we must first deselect
the four beams, otherwise they would remain selected and the length factors that
we set for the columns would also be applied to them.
First, deselect the beams on the left hand side by clicking them with the primary
mouse button. We could do the same for the beams on the right hand side, but
instead we shall use an alternative technique which illustrates a different S-STEEL
feature.
Follow these steps:
1. Hold down CTRL key.
2. Position the cross cursor above and to the left of the selected members.
3. Hold down the left mouse button and drag, boxing the selected members as
indicated below.

Figure 10.

Release the mouse button and then the CTRL key. Now all members should be
deselected. This process is called a Ctrl + Drag.
The reverse process, a Shift + Drag, selects all members which lie entirely within the
rectangle defined.
Now that the beams are deselected, let’s select the columns. This time instead of
making the selection on the screen, we shall use a menu command to select all the
columns together.

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Choose Select > Special… to see the Select Special… dialog.

Figure 11.

Ensure that the Verticals box is ticked as shown above.


Choose OK to confirm the selection. All the columns should be selected.
Now we’re ready to proceed to set the length factors. This time, though, instead of
using the Edit menu command we shall use one of the toolbox icons.
Each icon is a symbol representing a particular command. To find out the command
associated with an icon, position the pointer over the icon and you will see a
message in the status bar indicating the function of that icon.
Use this technique to find which of the icons relates to editing length factors. Once
you have found the icon select it.

Figure 12.

In the Edit Length Factors… dialog select the Braced at Lb/L options for both the
top and bottom flanges, leaving the factors Braced at Lb/L at the defaults of 1.00.

Figure 13.

Once your settings are as shown above choose OK to confirm them.

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Edit Bending Choose Edit Bending Coefficients… and select the Let S-STEEL calculate option.
Coefficients

Figure 14.

Once your settings are as shown above choose OK to confirm them.


Run First Code Check For the remaining members and the other commands of the Edit menu we shall
keep the initial defaults which S-STEEL created when you first opened the analysis
model. After you have finished this worked example you might find it useful to
explore each of the Edit menu options to find out the facilities that are available and
the default values that S-STEEL uses.
Now we're ready to code check the structure.
We could have done this first and then set our length factors – this is another feature
of S-STEEL – all design parameters, e.g. effective lengths, which you set are used in
both the Design and Code Check. This means that if you make changes in Design
Input, and move to Code Check input your changes will be shown there too.
Since the graphical display settings for each S-STEEL window are
independent, the section shape icons are again displayed. To remove
them select View > Analysis Model… and uncheck the Section Shapes
box. Once you have done this choose OK to return to the Code Check
Input window.
In order to distinguish between the top and bottom flanges (needed
when specifying unsupported flange lengths in the Length Factors dialog
box), the section shape icons show the top flanges of the members in a
different color.

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Render Structure Before proceeding any further, let's have S-STEEL render the sections in order to
better visualize the shapes and orientations. Choose View > Render... and select
the options as shown below. (Additionally, you can switch to ON the Render Model
shortcut in the Status Bar below).

Figure 15.

The structure will be rendered as shown below.

Figure 16.

After having reviewed the rendered structure, return to View > Render... and
uncheck the Render Model option (or switch to OFF the Render Model shortcut
from the Status Bar below).

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S-FRAME sections Let's now have a closer look at the sections that were used in the S-FRAME analysis.
To view the S-FRAME section specified for the columns, double click on one of the
columns. The section will be displayed as shown below.

Figure 17.

Click OK to return to close the dialog box, and repeat the procedure to view the
sections used for the beams and braces. These sections are repeated below.
• Columns : W14x48
• Beams : W18x50
• Braces : 2L5x5x.5 (Equal angles (back to back)
Run Code Check Now, make sure all members are selected and choose Run > Code Check…, or click
on the Code Check shortcut on the Shortcuts bar.
You will see the Load Cases dialog which allows you to choose the load cases that
are to be included in the code check process.

Figure 18.

Select Load Combination then choose OK to run the code check. While the code
check proceeds you will see a progress bar indicating the proportion of the code
check that has been completed and the time that has been taken so far.

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Code Check Results After a few seconds, when the code check is complete S-STEEL automatically
switches to the Code Check Results window to show the results of the checks that
have been performed.

Figure 19.

Initially, in the interests of clarity the Code Check Results window is configured
only to use color to indicate the value of the critical interaction ratio and also gives
the value of that interaction ratio at the centre of the member, to indicate the status
of the code check. In this configuration S-STEEL determines the critical interaction
ratio for any check that has been performed for the member. S-STEEL then color
codes the line representing the member in accordance with a legend given on the
screen. A typical example of this configuration is shown above.
Choose View > Pass/Fail Status to see the first of the other ways in which you can
overview the results.

Figure 20.

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S-STEEL now removes the colors on the members and represents the code check
status by showing a on members that pass all the code checks and a on
members that fail any code check. A typical example of this configuration is shown
above.
Whichever configuration you choose it is obvious that a number of the members
fail the code check. S-STEEL allows you to see the complete details of the code
checks for a single member or the entire structure immediately.
If you look at the results using the Color coding + Ratios, you will see that the
corner column at the back of the structure shows a critical interaction ratio of 8.188
We shall investigate the checks for this member in more detail. Click over the
column using the right mouse button. You will then see a popup menu of
commands that are appropriate to the Code Check Results window and the
location of the pointer.
From this popup menu choose the Code Details… option.
The menu of commands is always appropriate to the current window and
the location of the pointer.
You will immediately see the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window which shows
you the calculations for the current member.

Figure 21.

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From these calculations it is easy to see that the column has failed for a number of
checks, and that the biaxial bending and compression interaction check governs.
Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and return
to the Code Check Results window.
Now secondary click one of the failed interior pinned beams with a critical
interaction ratio of 7.227 and again choose Code Details… from the popup menu.
The calculations for the beam are shown below:

Figure 22.

This member's shear and bending capacity is exceeded by a factor over 2.0 and 6.0
respectively. In this instance, lateral torsional buckling is governing the member.
In order to understand why the Mnx resistance of this W18x50 section is so small it
would be useful if we could see its section properties. S-STEEL makes this possible
without having to leave Code Details Preview.
If necessary scroll to the top of the of the Code Details Preview window until you
can see the text S-FRAME section is W18x50 and then click on the underlined
section name.

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S-STEEL immediately shows the Section Properties dialog, showing the properties
for the code checked section.

Figure 23.

You can view the properties for any section of the same shape by
choosing it from the drop down list of sections. If you want to view the
section properties for a section of a different shape, then you should
choose the View > Section Properties… option from the menu when an
Input window is active.
From the section properties details we can see how small the Iy value is when
compared to the Ix value. It is therefore expected to have lateral torsional buckling
governing for long unsupported lengths of the flanges.
We shall take a moment to find out if this maximum resistance of the section is
sufficient to withstand the applied moment Mux of 264 k-ft. To do this choose the
Chart… button. Now S-STEEL displays the Section Capacity Chart dialog which
gives a graphical representation of the section capacity.

Figure 24.

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As we can see, with a maximum resistance of 379 k-ft the section exceeds the
required capacity of 264 k-ft comfortably. We can therefore choose either to brace
the member or change to a stronger section in order to increase the capacity to that
required.
If you click in the chart itself the unbraced length and capacity details will
be shown for that length of member. In this way you can easily determine
the section that you want to use, and the bracing that is necessary.
From the chart we can see that the resistance of the section begins to decline at an
effective length of around 7 ft, and tails off rapidly. We shall therefore consider the
option to increase the section size, rather than that of bracing the member.
1. Choose OK to close the Section Capacity Charts… dialog and return to the
Section Properties dialog.
2. Choose OK again to close the Section Properties dialog and return to the S-
STEEL Code Details Preview window.
3. Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and
return to the Code Check results window.
Design Sections for Switch to the Design Input window.
Study
We have already made all the changes to the design model that we require. We are
now going to allow S-STEEL to choose appropriate sections for us. We therefore
need to specify the type of section that is to be considered for each member of the
structure.
Design Process When S-STEEL creates the default design model it automatically creates design
model groups for each section size used in the analysis and places all the members
that use a particular analysis size into the corresponding design model group.
Furthermore for each design model group S-STEEL automatically selects all
sections with the same shape (I, C, L etc.) and type (W12, W14 etc... for I sections)
as the analysis model for consideration during the design process.
You can change the number of groups and / or the group names at any time, but
the sections that are to be considered during the design process must be consistent
within a group.
Making sensible choices to limit the sections that are to be considered
during the design will have a significant impact on the time S-STEEL takes
to perform the design, particularly for large structures.

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Columns First we shall select the sections that are to be considered for the columns. Select
the columns and choose Edit > Sections for Study… to see the Design Sections
for Study… dialog and start the selection process.

Figure 25.

As discussed above S-STEEL has automatically chosen the same shape as the
section used in the analysis (I) and all section names belonging to the same section
type (W14).
S-STEEL provides a three-tiered filtering process:
• Choose a section shape (this automatically selects all the section
types and all the section names for that shape).
• Deselect or select one or more section types corresponding to the
shape chosen.
• Deselect or select one or more section names corresponding to the
types chosen.
We could leave these automatic settings alone. Let's instead also select the W12
type. Some of these sections are clearly undesirable. We shall reduce the number of
sections that are to be considered in our worked example.
We can deselect section names manually, or alternatively we can use a powerful S-
STEEL tool that can filter the sections by considering their properties.
Choose Min/Max… to see the Min/Max Section constraints… dialog.

Figure 26.

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From the earlier part of this worked example we recall that a column of section size
W18x50 failed with a ratio of 8.261. In view of this we shall limit the design to
sections whose mass lies between 50 and 80 lb/ft.
Type 50 into the Minimum Mass box and 80 into the Maximum Mass box.
The Section Names list currently contains 37 sections.

Choose Filter and S-STEEL checks the existing sections, removing any that have a
mass less than 50 lb/ft or greater than 80 lb/ft. The Section Names list now contains
4 sections.
Choose OK to close the Min/Max Section Constraints… dialog and return to the
Edit Sections for Study dialog. If you scroll up and down the Section Name list you
will find that only the 4 sections selected in the Section Names list of the Min/Max
Section Constraints… dialog are checked.
If you look at the bottom of the dialog you will see the Selection Criteria list. This
controls the section that S-STEEL will propose as the optimal section for the group.
In order to understand how this feature works you need to understand the design
process that S-STEEL follows.
For each member of a group that is selected in the Design Input window, and
therefore involved in the design S-STEEL checks each of the Design Sections for
Study to determine whether or not it passes all the appropriate design checks. If
the section does pass the checks, then the section size is added to the list of
acceptable sections for that member – the Admissible List.
When the design of all members is complete S-STEEL examines the lists of
acceptable sections for each member in the group and generates a secondary list
of those sections that are acceptable for all members in the group. S-STEEL then
sorts this secondary list in accordance with the Selection Criteria that you specify
here and proposes the section at the top of the list as the optimal section to be
considered for a re-analysis of the structure. You can override this optimal section if
you so desire.
For now we shall leave the Selection Criteria as Least Weight. Finally we shall
change the name of this group to be more meaningful. Type Columns into the
Group Name field. Choose OK to confirm these settings and return to the Design
Input window.
Beams Now we shall proceed to choose the sections that we want to consider during the
design of the beams. Again we must remember to deselect the columns, so that
they are not included in our further actions.
To do this choose Select > Unselect All Members. All the members in the structure
are unselected. We must now select the beams before setting the sections that we
want S-STEEL to study. There are several ways to do this.

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We have already looked at:


• choosing individual members to select and deselect them,
• using Select > Special… to select particular categories of member
• using CTRL+DRAG to deselect members (and SHIFT+DRAG to select
members) which lie within a box created on the screen.
For this worked example we shall now look at another method of selecting a series
of members – selecting all the members that lie on a plane. Follow the below steps
using the diagram to assist you:
1. Activate the selection tool and choose the Three Joints approach
2. Click on three joints as shown in the screen capture below.

Figure 27.

Once you've clicked the third joint, S-STEEL selects all members which lie in the
plane defined by the co-ordinate locations of the three joints.
In a similar manner select the other side of the roof and then unselect the two
diagonal bracing members by choosing them individually.

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Figure 28.

Once all and only the beams are selected as shown above, follow these steps:
1. Choose the Edit Sections for Study icon.
2. Type Beams in the Group Name field.
3. Choose Min/Max…

Figure 29.

Recall that one of the beams failed in lateral torsional buckling by a factor of nearly
two. In the Max Mass field, type 100 and in the Min Iy cell, type 50 (the original
beam that was code checked had an Iy of 40).
4. Choose Filter.
You don't have to type a values for the Max Iy; S-STEEL does that
automatically.

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Figure 30.

Thirteen sections are found as indicated above.


5. Choose OK to close the Min / Max Section Constraints dialog returning the
selections to the Edit Sections for Study dialog.
6. Choose OK again to confirm the Sections for Study details and return to the
Design Input window.
Braces Follow these steps:
1. Choose Select > Deselect All Members,
2. Select a brace
3. Choose Select > In Same Group As
All braces should be selected.

Figure 31.

4. Choose the Edit > Sections for Study to show the Edit Sections for Study
dialog.

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5. Type Braces in the Group Name box and choose Min/Max…


Since all of the original braces passed the code check we shall make the maximum
size of the sections to be considered in the design the same size as the sections
that were used in the code check.
6. Type in values to make Max ds and Max bs both 6 in, Max t=0.5 in.
7. Choose Filter

Figure 32.

8. Choose OK to close the Min / Max Section Constraints dialog returning the
selections to the Edit Sections for Study dialog.
9. Choose OK again to confirm the Sections for Study details and return to the
Design Input window.
Run First Design Now that we have defined our design model, and we have selected the sections
that we want to study during the design we are ready to proceed with the design.
You can choose the scope of the design, ranging from the design of a
single member to the design of the entire structure. Only the members
that are selected in the Design Input window will be included in the
design process.

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For this worked example we are going to design the entire structure, we therefore
need to select all the members.
1. Choose Select > All Members to select the entire structure,
2. Choose Run > Design… this will start the design process, first you will see the
Load Cases dialog.

Figure 33.

This allows you to select the load cases and combinations that are to be involved in
the design process.
Select Load Combination 1 as shown above then choose OK to proceed with the
design. While the design proceeds you will see a progress bar indicating the
proportion of the design that has been completed and the time that has been taken
so far.
Design Results After a few seconds, when the design is complete S-STEEL automatically switches
to the Design Results window to show the results of the design process.

Figure 34.

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Initially, in the interests of clarity the Design Results window is configured to show:
• the section size proposed by S-STEEL,
• the admissible section list icon for the member,
• color coding to indicate the status of the design for each section.
(In this configuration S-STEEL determines the critical interaction ratio for any check
that has been performed for the proposed section. S-STEEL then color codes the
line representing the member in accordance with a legend given on the screen).
A typical example of this configuration is shown above.
Once you have completed this worked example you might like to spend some time
investigating the various options that are available for displaying the results,
making a note of those that you find particularly useful.
The admissible list icon indicates whether the list is empty or not-empty.
The section name is the one that S-STEEL proposes for re-analysis. Where
possible, members in the same group have the same section assigned to
them.
You can leave the proposed section as it is or change it to meet a particular
preference or requirement.
In our example S-STEEL has proposed the following sections for each group:
• Columns W14x61
• Beams W16x100
• Braces 2L5x5x0.3125
In this worked example, we shall accept the sections proposed byS-STEEL as they
are.
Run First Re-Analysis Now that we have designed the structure we have arrived at a set of sections that
are substantially different to those that we code checked earlier. However the forces
and moments in the structure are based on an analysis that used these initial
sections, and not those that we have just designed. It is therefore imperative that
we re-analyse the structure to check whether any significant force redistribution
occurs, and then at least check out the sections again under the new force regime.
To perform a re-analysis choose Run > Re-analyse…
S-STEEL then performs the following steps:
1. Updates the S-FRAME Property and Connectivity spreadsheets,
2. Runs the S-FRAME analysis engine to obtain an updated set of analysis results,
3. Performs a code check on all members for all load combinations.

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As a rule, do not attempt to re-analyse a structure by choosing the File >


Go to S-FRAME… command and then running the analysis from S-
FRAME. If you do you will be prompted to save the new design data to S-
FRAME. If you say Yes, the Property and Connectivity spreadsheets will
be updated automatically, however when you return to S-STEEL, your
input data will have to be validated, and some details may be lost if you
accept the option to make your design and analysis models consistent.
The data loss is not a S-STEEL flaw but rather an integrity check to ensure
that design and analysis are consistent, or that you are aware of, and take
responsibility for that inconsistency.
When S-STEEL has finished the code checks it will activate the Code Check Results
window. Choose View > Color Coding + Ratios to add the utilization ratios to the
display. The resulting display is shown below.

Figure 35.

You'll notice that some braces have a governing utilisation ratio of 1.0.

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Let’s view the Code Details for this member (right click over the member and
choose Code Details… from the popup menu).

Figure 36.

At this stage, we could switch to the Design Input window and perform a Design
in order to find a suitable column section.
However, as the current section is adequate, we may be tempted to simply assign
the next size up in order to be on the safe side.
S-STEEL allows the user to quickly override sections directly from the Code Check
Results window. When viewing the Code Details for a particular member, simply
click on the S-FRAME section name.
S-STEEL will then show the Section Properties dialog box. Use the Next/Previous
buttons to change the section to the desired one. In our case, simply click on
Previous to display the 2L6x6x0.5 section.

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Click OK to accept this section. S-STEEL will then prompt you with the following
message box.

Figure 37.

Click Yes to override the current S-FRAME section with the new one. S-STEEL will
then prompt you with the following message box.

Figure 38.

As the current brace is part of the larger group of braces, click Yes to assign the
override section to the other members of the group.
S-STEEL will then return to the Code Details window having updated the results to
reflect the override section.

Figure 39.

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Page down to view the rest of the results. It is shown that the new section is
adequate.
Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and return
to the Code Check results window. Notice how the brace is now color coded in
green, reflected the status of the member with the new override section. Repeat this
procedure for the beams with marginal failure.

Figure 40.

If many members in a structure have their S-FRAME sections changed


with user overrides, or if the change in section size is significant, the
structure may need to be re-analyzed to account for the redistribution of
forces. In such cases, choose the Run > Re-Analyze option from the Code
Check Results window. S-STEEL will update the analysis model and have
S-FRAME update the analysis results.
However, as the change in section size is quite minor, let's accept the
current results.

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View Results At this stage, we could view Code Details for all the members.
Alternatively, S-STEEL offers a condensed report for the governing results.
We can also include various views of the structure in these reports. Let’s include the
current Code Check Results window. However, let’s first render the sections by
choosing the View > Render... command. Apply the settings as shown below.

Figure 41.

Click OK to return to the Code Check Results window. The structure will be
rendered as shown below.

Figure 42.

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Picture Album Let’s now add this view to the Picture Album. Choose the View > Picture Album...
command.

Figure 43.

Enter a name and description and click on the Add button. Click OK to return to the
Code Check Results window.
View Key Results We are now ready to view the condensed report for the governing results. First,
select all the members. Next, select the File>Print Key Results... command.

Figure 44.

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Click on the Picture Album check box followed by the Details button. This brings
up the following dialog box.

Figure 45.

In order to add a picture to the Key Results report, select an item from the Picture
Album list box locate at the top left of the dialog box. The picture then be displayed.
Next, click on the button with the arrow pointing to the right to transfer the current
picture to the Report list box.

Figure 46.

Finally, click OK to return to the previous screen.

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Let's accept the default settings. S-STEEL will generate a brief report that includes
the pertinent results. The first part of the report shows a table indicating the
governing members in each of the three groups. The governing load
case/combination and governing code clause and utilisation ratios are included.
The second part of the report shows the code details for these governing members.
The third part of the report shows a table indicating the governing load
case/combination and code clause for each member in the structure. The table is
sorted by decreasing code utilisation ratios for each of the groups.
Finally, the last part shows a table of quantities.

Figure 47.

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Figure 48.

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AISC 360-16 ASD Example


This tutorial illustrates the use of the Scratch-Pad feature for the design of a continuous beam. In addition, the
tutorial illustrates the use of the Scratch-Pad as a stand-alone tool.
Before starting this tutorial you should carry out the following procedure:
1. Launch Windows Explorer and navigate to the S-STEEL’s Tutorial folder. (C:\Users\Public\Documents\S-
FRAME Software\S-STEEL\Tutorial)
2. If this folder already contains any files named SSTUT2.*, then the tutorial may have already been used. If you
have previously run the tutorials the files may not contain the information needed at the start of the tutorial
so highlight and delete them.
3. Navigate to the Original folder (a sub-folder within Tutorial) and highlight the file SSTUT2.tel and then
choose the Copy option from the Windows Explorer tool bar.
4. Return to the Tutorial folder and choose Paste from the tool bar to place a copy of SSTUT2.tel into that folder.
You are now ready to start the tutorial itself.
If you accidentally take a wrong step while running through the tutorial, and can't recover, or if
you want to run the tutorial again, then follow the above steps. This will always ensure that you
are starting the tutorial with the correct information.
Never open the files in the Original folder within S-STEEL since this will change the files so that
the tutorial no longer works correctly.
Analysis Model The example structure is a 2 span continuous beam. The first span is 30 ft long and
the second span is 40 ft long. Lateral support is provided at the ends and midpoint
of each span.
If you want to review the input and results for the structure, load S-FRAME prior to
running the example, and choose the structure sstut2.tel and then run the analysis.
When you've finished reviewing the structure details and the results choose Run >
Steel Design… to launch S-STEEL.
If you do not analyse the structure, then when you run S-STEEL you will
see a prompt telling you that the structure must be analysed.
Start Once you launch S-FRAME navigate to the folder and select the structure named
Sstut2.tel, as indicated below.

Figure 49.

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If you check Preview Structure then S-FRAME draws a picture of the


structure so that you can check that you have made the correct choice.
S-SFRAME also shows the Structure Reference that you have defined,
which also serves to identify the structure.
Once you've selected Sstut2.tel choose Open File to open the structure.
First Time Opening If you have loaded this file, and you attempt to launch S-STEEL prior to analysing
of Structure the structure in S-FRAME, then you will be prompted to analyse the structure.

Figure 50.

Choose OK and perform a linear static analysis to the structure. The S-FRAME
analysis engine will be used to analyse the structure. Once the analysis is complete
the Graphical Results Window should be the currently active window. Click on the
Build Steel Model on the shortcuts bar to launch S-STEEL.

Figure 51.

Select Design Code S-STEEL will launch, and the Code Input window should be active. The first thing
that S-STEEL needs to know is which design code is appropriate for the structure.
S-STEEL shows the Design Code dialog to allow you to specify these details.
2. Click Options > Design Code... menu selection and select AISC steel database
and the AISC 360-16 ASD design code as indicated below.

Figure 52.

Once you have selected the correct Steel Database and Design Code choose OK to
proceed with the Worked Example.

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Preliminary Once you've closed the Design Code dialog, S-STEEL displays the following
components of the application:
• title bar,
• menu bar,
• toolbar,
• five windows (Code Input, Code Results, Design Input, Design Results, Steel
Spreadsheet)

Figure 53.

Defining Design For any S-STEEL model we need to remember that a default design model has been
Model created when we opened our S-FRAME structure into S-STEEL for the first time. We
shall tailor our model to meet our specific requirements now.
The continuous beam was modelled with three analysis members in S-FRAME. In S-
STEEL, we can combine the three individual analysis beams into a single design
member by choosing the Edit > Make Continuous command.
When making some members continuous, all other members must be
deselected.

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Select First: Then The way that you make changes to the design model is consistent throughout S-
Edit STEEL:
• First –select the members you want to edit.
• Second –choose the appropriate Edit menu command, or tool from the toolbox.
• Third –make the choices you want in the Edit dialog.
• Fourth –choose OK to confirm the modified details.
In our case we therefore need to select the four beams before we change their
design model details by choosing Edit > Make Continuous command.
To select a member individually, position the mouse pointer along the member and
click the primary mouse button. To deselect a selected member, click it again. This
action toggles the selection status of a member. It has no effect on the selection
status of other members. When a member is selected, S-STEEL draws it as a solid
line.
Make Continuous Following the Edit > Make Continuous command, the structure should be
displayed as in the figure below.

Figure 54.

Scratch Pad Although we could the design of the continuous beam directly in S-STEEL, this
example will explore the use of an alternate approach.
The Scratch Pad is a tool which allows you to refine a design interactively. Click on
the selected member with the secondary mouse button (right click). You will then
see a popup menu with various options. Choose Send To Scratch Pad…

Figure 55.

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The Scratch Pad opens for the combined beam that we have selected.

Figure 56.

A close look at the layout of the Scratch Pad shows us that its columns relate to
individual design cases that are to be checked.
The top block of cells relate to the strength checks that are to be performed for the
member. The second block of cells relate to the buckling checks for the member.
The third block of cells relate to the details that are to be retrieved from the S-STEEL
analysis and design models for the member.

Figure 57.

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Before we can decide the number of design cases that we want to use, and the
details that are to be recovered for each design case we must first look at the forces
and moments on the member.
Choose Force Diagrams… to see the Force Diagrams for Member… dialog.

Figure 58.

Lateral support is provided at the ends and midpoint of each span.


Therefore, let’s look at 4 segments along the beam:
• from 0 to 15 ft
• from 15 ft to 30 ft
• from 30 ft to 50 ft
• from 50 ft to the right side support at 70 ft
Choose Ok to close the Force Diagrams dialog and return to the Scratch Pad.
We now need to enter the conditions to be considered into the Recover Details
part of the dialog. The completed dialog is shown below.
Ensure that the boxes at the top of the first four design case columns are ticked, and
that the details for these columns are as shown below and then choose Recover
Forces.

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The details for the member are recovered from the analysis and design models as
shown below.

3
Figure 59.

If the box at the top of a particular Design Case column is not ticked, then
Recover Forces will have no effect on that column. This enables you to
maintain the current settings for a particular design case should you need
to while maintaining the flexibility of automatically updating other
columns.
You can widen individual columns by grabbing the column grid line
using the primary mouse button and dragging left or right to increase /
decrease the column width.
Examine the forces recovered by the Scratch Pad. As you will see from the above
display the Scratch Pad has also examined the forces and moments along the
member in order to determine the appropriate values for the factor Cb for each
design case as part of the recover process. We can now check the suitability of the
section specified in S-FRAME (W21x57).

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Choose Run > Code Check. You will immediately see the Scratch Pad Code Details
Preview dialog for the code checked section.

Figure 60.

The current section is shown to be failing code clauses in all four design cases.
Choose File > Exit to close the Scratch Pad Code Details Preview and return to
the main Scratch Pad window.
Perform a Design The Scratch Pad gives us the possibility of refining the design and achieving a
suitable section. We shall investigate this option now.
As the current section is a W21x57, the default sections considered by the Scratch
Pad for design are all the sections within the W21 series. We can expand on the list
of sections by choosing Edit>Design Sections... command.

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Click on W24 section type in order to add the corresponding sections for
consideration during design. Click OK to confirm the data and return to the Scratch-
Pad.

Figure 61.

We are now ready to perform a design. Choose Run > Design to perform the design.
Once this has completed you will see a list of admissible sections.

Figure 62.

The W21x131 is shown to be the least weight admissible section.

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Click on Code Details... button to view the code results.

Figure 63.

Close the Code Details window, and Choose Cancel to close the Admissible /
Inadmissible Sections dialog and return to the main Scratch Pad window.

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Stand-alone use of In this example, we transferred over a member from S-STEEL to the Scratch-Pad.
the Scratch-Pad The Scratch-Pad can also be used as a stand-alone tool to quickly code check or
design a member without having to create an analysis model.
We will now explore this option for the code check of a 12 ft long, TS20x12x.625
column subjected to both axial loads and bending moments. First, we must add a
new worksheet by choosing the Edit > Insert Worksheet... command.

Figure 64.

This will create a blank worksheet "Sheet 2" as shown below. For our example, let’s
specify two loading cases. The first load case has an compressive load of 500 kips as
well as a strong axis moment, Mx of 200 k-ft and a weak axis moment, My of 100 k-
ft. The second load case has a compressive load of 400 kips and a strong axis
moment, Mx of 300 k-ft. The 12 ft long column is assumed supported against weak
axis buckling at mid height. However, the flanges are assumed unsupported over
the entire length of the column.

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The corresponding input is shown in the figure below.

Figure 65.

Now, let’s assign the TS20x12x.5 section for code check. Choose the Edit > Code
Check Section... command. This brings up the following screen.

Figure 66.

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Now, click on the hollow section icon, and select the desired section from the drop-
down list. Click OK to accept it and return to the Scratch-Pad.

Figure 67.

Code Check Now, choose the Run > Code Check command to perform the code check. You will
immediately see the Scratch Pad Code Details Preview dialog for the code
checked section.

Figure 68.

The section is shown to be inadequate. Scroll down to view the rest of the results.
Choose File > Exit to close the Scratch-Pad (choosing No to the option to save the
Scratch-Pad information) and you are returned to the main S-STEEL window.
Close S-STEEL to finish this tutorial.

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CAN/CSA S16-14 Example


This tutorial illustrates the code check process of a column and the use of a code check override to quickly assign
a suitable section. In addition, the tutorial illustrates how easy it is to re-design the column with a hollow structural
shape.
Before starting this tutorial you should carry out the following procedure:
1. Launch Windows Explorer and navigate to the S-STEEL’s Tutorial folder. (C:\Users\Public\Documents\S-
FRAME Software\S-STEEL\Tutorial)
2. If this folder already contains any files named SSTUT3.*, then the tutorial may have already been used. If you
have previously run the tutorials the files may not contain the information needed at the start of the tutorial
so highlight and delete them.
3. Navigate to the Original folder (a sub-folder within Tutorial) and highlight the file SSTUT3.tel and then
choose the Copy option from the Windows Explorer tool bar.
4. Return to the Tutorial folder and choose Paste from the tool bar to place a copy of SSTUT2.tel into that folder.
You are now ready to start the tutorial itself.
If you accidentally take a wrong step while running through the tutorial, and can't recover, or if
you want to run the tutorial again, then follow the above steps. This will always ensure that you
are starting the tutorial with the correct information.
Never open the files in the Original folder within S-STEEL since this will change the files so that
the tutorial no longer works correctly.
Analysis Model The example structure is a column with a loaded cantilever. The column is 8.0 m
long and is actually supported at mid-height in the weak direction.
If you want to review the input and results for the structure, load S-FRAME prior to
running the example, and choose the structure sstut3.tel and then run the analysis.
When you've finished reviewing the structure details and the results choose Run >
Steel Design… to launch S-STEEL.
If you do not analyse the structure, then when you run S-STEEL you will
see a prompt telling you that the structure must be analysed.
Start Once you launch S-FRAME navigate to the folder and select the structure named
Sstut3.tel, as indicated below.

Figure 69.

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If you check Preview Structure then S-FRAME draws a picture of the


structure so that you can check that you have made the correct choice.
S-SFRAME also shows the Structure Reference that you have defined,
which also serves to identify the structure.
Once you've selected Sstut3.tel choose Open File to open the structure.
First Time Opening If you have loaded this file, and you attempt to launch S-STEEL prior to analysing
of Structure the structure in S-FRAME, then you will be prompted to analyse the structure.

Figure 70.

Choose OK and perform a linear static analysis to the structure. The S-FRAME
analysis engine will be used to analyse the structure. Once the analysis is complete
the Graphical Results Window should be the currently active window. Click on the
Build Steel Model on the shortcuts bar to launch S-STEEL.

Figure 71.

Select Design Code S-STEEL will launch, and the Code Input window should be active. The first thing
that S-STEEL needs to know is which design code is appropriate for the structure.
S-STEEL shows the Design Code dialog to allow you to specify these details.
Click Options > Design Code... menu selection and select CISC steel database and
the CAN/CSA S16-14 design code as indicated below.

Figure 72.

Once you have selected the correct Steel Database and Design Code choose OK to
proceed with the Worked Example.

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Defining Design Now we're ready to code check the structure. Switch to and maximize the Code
Model Check Input window.
For any S-STEEL model we need to remember that a default design model has been
created when we opened our S-FRAME structure into S-STEEL for the first time. We
shall tailor our model to meet our specific requirements now. Our first step is to
define the column's length factors.
Select First: Then The way that you make changes to the design model is consistent throughout S-
Edit STEEL:
• First –select the members you want to edit.
• Second –choose the appropriate Edit menu command, or tool from the toolbox.
• Third –make the choices you want in the Edit dialog, or ion the data bar above.
• Fourth –choose OK to confirm the modified details.
In our case we therefore need to select the four beams before we change their
design model details by choosing Edit > Length Factors.
To select a member individually, position the mouse pointer along the member and
click the primary mouse button1. To deselect a selected member, click it again. This
action toggles the selection status of a member. It has no effect on the selection
status of other members. When a member is selected, S-STEEL draws it as a solid
line.
Edit Length Factors Choose Edit > Length Factors… and select the Braced at Lu/L options for both
the top and bottom flanges, leaving the factors Braced at Lu/L at the defaults of
1.00. This indicates to the program that both flanges are assumed unsupported in
between both ends.
In order to account for the mid-height support in the weak direction, set Ky=0.5.
Click OK to confirm the data and return to the Code Check Input window.

Figure 73.

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Except for the Eurocode, the x-axis refers to a section's strong axis; this
"steel code" convention differs from S-FRAME’s local member orientation
convention, where the member's strong axis is defined about the local y-
axis. For Eurocode only, both S-FRAME and S-STEEL use the same axis
convention.
In some cases, the mid-height support might also be considered to
provide lateral support to one of the flanges. In such cases, the Lu/L of
the corresponding flange would also be set to 0.5.
Bending Choose Edit > Bending Coefficients… and select the Let S-STEEL calculate
Coefficients option.

Figure 74.

Click OK to confirm the data and return to the Code Check Input window. We are
now ready to perform a code check the column.
Code Check Now to perform the code check. Choose Run > Code Check… You will see the Load
Cases dialog which allows you to choose the load cases that are to be included in
the code check process. In our case, there is only one load case.

Figure 75.

Select Load Case 1 and then choose OK to run the code check.

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Code Check Results When the code check is complete S-STEEL automatically switches to the Code
Check Results window to show the results of the checks that have been performed.

Figure 76.

Initially, in the interests of clarity the Code Check Results window is configured
only to use color coding to indicate the status of the design. In this configuration S-
STEEL determines the critical interaction ratio for any check that has been
performed for the member. S-STEEL then color codes the line representing the
member in accordance with a legend given on the screen. A typical example of this
configuration is shown above.
We shall investigate the checks for the column in more detail. Click over the column
using the secondary mouse button (right click). You will then see a popup menu of
commands that are appropriate to the Code Check Results window and the
location of the pointer. From this popup menu choose the Code Details… option.
The menu of commands is always appropriate to the current window and
the location of the pointer.

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You will immediately see the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window which shows
you the calculations for the current member.
The following figure is a closup look at the code details.

Figure 77.

The first clause indicates that weak axis buckling governs (KL/ry =64). If strong axis
buckling governed, S-STEEL would display the value for KL/rx instead.
The compressive resistance, Cr, is the weak compressive resistance, calculated at
1439 kN. The moment resistance, Mr, is the strong bending resistance, calculated at
484 kNm with the bending coefficient, w2 calculated at 1.75. Recall that we
requested S-STEEL to calculate the bending coefficients rather than set them to 1.0.

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The column is under-utilized with a ratio of 0.678. At this stage, we could switch to
the Design Input window and optimize the section. However, as the current section
is already adequate, we may be tempted to simply assign the previous section size.
S-STEEL allows the user to quickly override sections directly from the Code Check
Results window. When viewing the Code Details for a particular member, simply
click on the S-FRAME section name as shown in the following figure.

Figure 78.

S-STEEL will then show the Section Properties dialog box. Use the Next/Previous
buttons to change the section to the desired one. In our case, simply click on Next
twice to display the W310x67 section. Click OK to accept this section. S-STEEL will
then prompt you with the following message box.

Figure 79.

Click Yes to override the current S-FRAME section with the new one. S-STEEL will
then prompt you with the following message box.

Figure 80.

For the current structure, the column does not belong to a larger group. Therefore,
this prompt is not relevant here. Click either button to proceed.
For other structures, the current member is often part of a larger group,
say all columns in a given storey of a building. In such cases, you would
normally want the override section to be assigned to all the members of
the group.

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S-STEEL will then return to the Code Details window having updated the results to
reflect the override section.

Figure 81.

Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and return
to the Code Check results window. Notice how the column is now color coded in
yellow, reflected the status of the member with the new override section.
If many members in a structure have their S-FRAME sections changed
with user overrides, or if the change in section size is significant, the
structure may need to be re-analyzed to account for the redistribution of
forces. In such cases, choose the Run > Re-Anayze option from the Code
Check Results window. S-STEEL will update the analysis model and have
S-FRAME update the analysis results.

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Design with HSS Choose Window > Design Input to view the Design Input window, and select the
section column.
We will now perform a design with HSS sections. Although our initial column
section was a W310, you may change your mind and investigate other options in
Design.
When S-STEEL creates the default design model it automatically creates design
model groups for each section size used in the analysis and places all the members
that use a particular analysis size into the corresponding design model group.
Furthermore for each design model group S-STEEL automatically selects all
sections with the same shape (I, C, L etc.) and type (W460, W310, W250 for I
sections) as the analysis model for consideration during the design process.
You can change the number of groups and / or the group names at any time, but
the sections that are to be considered during the design process must be consistent
within a group.
Making sensible choices to limit the sections that are to be considered
during the design will have a significant impact on the time S-STEEL takes
to perform the design, particularly for large structures.
Column Having already selected the column, choose Edit > Sections for Study… to see the
Design Sections for Study… dialog and start the selection process.

Figure 82.

As discussed above S-STEEL has automatically chosen the same shape as the
section used in the analysis (I) and all section names belonging to the same section
type (W310).
S-STEEL provides a three-tiered filtering process:
• Choose a section shape (this automatically selects all the section
types and all the section names for that shape).
• Deselect or select one or more section types corresponding to the
shape chosen.
• Deselect or select one or more section names corresponding to the
types chosen.

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We could leave these automatic settings alone, but then S-STEEL would have to
study sections that we know in advance would be inappropriate. We can deselect
section names manually, or alternatively we can use a powerful S-STEEL tool that
can filter the sections by considering their properties.
Select HSS sections Choose the HSS section shape, remove the circular section type (CHS), and rename
the group to "Column" as shown below.

Figure 83.

If you look at the bottom of the dialog you will see the Selection Criteria list. This
controls the section that S-STEEL will propose as the optimal section for the group.
In order to understand how this feature works you need to understand the design
process that S-STEEL follows.
For each member of a group that is selected in the Design Input window, and
therefore involved in the design S-STEEL checks each of the Design Sections for
Study to determine whether or not it passes all the appropriate design checks. If
the section does pass the checks, then the section size is added to the list of
acceptable sections for that member – the Admissible List.
When the design of all members is complete S-STEEL examines the lists of
acceptable sections for each member in the group and generates a secondary list
of those sections that are acceptable for all members in the group. S-STEEL then
sorts this secondary list in accordance with the Selection Criteria that you specify
here and proposes the section at the top of the list as the optimal section to be
considered for a re-analysis of the structure. You can override this optimal section if
you so desire.
For now we shall leave the Selection Criteria as Least Weight.
Choose OK to confirm these settings and return to the Design Input window.
Run First Design Now that we have defined our design model, and we have selected the sections
that we want to study during the design we are ready to proceed with the design.

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You can choose the scope of the design, ranging from the design of a
single member to the design of the entire structure. Only the members
that are selected in the Design Input window will be included in the
design process.
For this simple worked example we are going to design the column (which is
already selected).
Choose Run > Design… this will start the design process, first you will see the Load
Cases dialog.

Figure 84.

Select Load Case 1 and then choose OK to run the design.


Design Results When the design is complete S-STEEL automatically switches to the Design Results
window to show the results of the design process.

Figure 85.

The design has yielded the HSS 254x152x8 as the proposed Admissible section.

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Initially, in the interests of clarity the Design Results window is configured to show:
• the section size proposed by S-STEEL,
• the admissible section list icon for the member,
• color coding to indicate the status of the design for each section.
(In this configuration S-STEEL determines the critical interaction ratio for any check
that has been performed for the proposed section. S-STEEL then color codes the
line representing the member in accordance with a legend given on the screen).
A typical example of this configuration is shown above.
We shall investigate the checks for the column in more detail. Click over the column
using the secondary mouse button (right click). From the popup menu choose the
Admissible/InAdmissible Sections… option.

Figure 86.

Click on the Code Details... button to view the detailed results for the currently
selected section.
Code Details can be viewed for any of the studied sections.

Figure 87.

This ends the current worked example.

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EN 1993-1-1 Example
The first EC3 example is designed to illustrate the major concepts and features of S-STEEL.
Before starting this tutorial you should carry out the following procedure:
5. Launch Windows Explorer and navigate to the S-STEEL’s Tutorial folder. (C:\Users\Public\Documents\S-
FRAME Software\S-STEEL\Tutorial)
6. If this folder already contains any files named SSTUT4.*, then the tutorial may have already been used. If you
have previously run the tutorials the files may not contain the information needed at the start of the tutorial
so highlight and delete them.
7. Navigate to the Original folder (a sub-folder within Tutorial) and highlight the file SSTUT4.tel and then
choose the Copy option from the Windows Explorer tool bar.
8. Return to the Tutorial folder and choose Paste from the tool bar to place a copy of SSTUT4.tel into that folder.
You are now ready to start the tutorial itself.
If you accidentally take a wrong step while running through the tutorial, and can't recover, or if
you want to run the tutorial again, then follow the above steps. This will always ensure that you
are starting the tutorial with the correct information.
Never open the files in the Original folder within S-STEEL since this will change the files so that
the tutorial no longer works correctly.
Analysis Model The LEC3 example structure is a braced portal frame with three load cases:
• dead
• live
• wind
For simplicity, only one load combination is included. The combination factors are:
• dead 1.2
• live 1.2
• wind 1.2
The figure below indicates the lengths of the different members.

Figure 88.

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Start Once you launch S-FRAME navigate to the folder and select the structure named
Sstut1.tel, as indicated below.

Figure 89.

If you check Preview Structure then S-FRAME draws a picture of the


structure so that you can check that you have made the correct choice.
First Time Opening If you have loaded this file, and you attempt to launch S-STEEL prior to analysing
of Structure the structure in S-FRAME, then you will be prompted to analyse the structure.

Figure 90.

Choose OK and perform a linear static analysis to the structure. The S-FRAME
analysis engine will be used to analyse the structure. Once the analysis is complete
the Graphical Results Window should be the currently active window. Click on the
Build Steel Model on the shortcuts bar to launch S-STEEL.

Figure 91.

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Select Design Code S-STEEL will launch, and the Code Input window should be active. The first thing
that S-STEEL needs to know is which design code is appropriate for the structure.
S-STEEL shows the Design Code dialog to allow you to specify these details.
3. Click Options > Design Code... menu selection and select British steel
database and the EC3 2005 UK Annex design code as indicated below.

Figure 92.

Once you have selected the correct Steel Database and Design Code choose OK
to proceed with the Worked Example.
Preliminary Once you've closed the Design Code dialog, S-STEEL displays the following
components of the application:
• title bar,
• menu bar,
• toolbar,
• five windows (Code Input, Code Results, Design Input, Design Results, Steel
Spreadsheet)

Figure 93.

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By default S-STEEL displays the orientation of all the members in the structure. This
is useful information, but for larger structures the display may become rather
cluttered. To demonstrate the feature we shall switch it off.
Choose View > Design Model… You will see the View Design Model dialog.

Figure 94.

Ensure that the View Section Shapes Icons box is not checked, and for the sake of
this example ensure that the other settings are as shown above.
Once your settings are correct choose OK to confirm these and return to the Design
Input screen, which is redisplayed so that the orientation information is no longer
displayed.

Figure 95.

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Design Model and When we first open a S-FRAME structure in S-STEEL the information in the analysis
Member Selection model is augmented with additional information which turns it into a design
model. We then need to modify this default design model so that it accurately
represents the design details of the current structure.
We shall start off with length factors. By default S-STEEL gives every member
Lcr(y)/L and Lcr(z)/L factors of 1.0.
From Figure 88, we can see that there are two pairs of beams along the perimeter
of the structure which have no supporting column where the pairs are joined. These
pairs of beams from the analysis model form a single member for design purposes.
We need to tell S-STEEL to treat them as such in the design by amending the design
model accordingly.
We also need to allow for the lateral restraint provided by the incoming rafter by
specifying an Lcr(z)/L of 1.0 and Lcr(y)/L of 2.0 for these beams.
An alternative would be to make the two beams continuous and set
Lcr(y)/L to 1.0 and Lcr(z)/L to 0.5. This approach is adopted later in this
tutorial.
Select First: Then The way that you make changes to the design model is consistent throughout S-
Edit STEEL:
• First –select the members you want to edit.
• Second –choose the appropriate Edit menu command, or tool from the toolbox.
• Third –make the choices you want in the Edit dialog, or ion the data bar above.
• Fourth –choose OK to confirm the modified details.
In our case we therefore need to select the four beams before we change their
design model details by choosing Edit > Length Factors.
To select a member individually, position the mouse pointer along the member and
click the primary mouse button1. To deselect a selected member, click it again. This
action toggles the selection status of a member. It has no effect on the selection
status of other members.
When a member is selected, S-STEEL draws it as a solid line. Select the members as
indicated below.

Figure 96.

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Edit Length Factors Choose Edit > Length Factors… S-STEEL shows the Edit Length Factors dialog.

Figure 97.

Leave the Lcr(z)/L value at 1.0 as indicated to allow for minor axis strut buckling
over the full length of the individual beams but change the Lcr(y)/L value to 2.0 to
model major axis strut buckling over the length of both beams together.
Click OK to confirm the data and return to the Code Input window.
Next we shall define length factors for the columns. However we must first deselect
the four beams, otherwise they would remain selected and the length factors that
we set for the columns would also be applied to them.
First, deselect the beams on the left hand side by clicking them with the primary
mouse button. We could do the same for the beams on the right hand side, but
instead we shall use an alternative technique which illustrates a different S-STEEL
feature.
Follow these steps:
4. Hold down CTRL key.
5. Position the cross cursor above and to the left of the selected members.
6. Hold down the left mouse button and drag, boxing the selected members as
indicated below.

Figure 98.

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Release the mouse button and then the CTRL key. Now all members should be
deselected. This process is called a Ctrl + Drag.
The reverse process, a Shift + Drag, selects all members which lie entirely within the
rectangle defined.
Now that the beams are deselected, let’s select the columns. This time instead of
making the selection on the screen, we shall use a menu command to select all the
columns together.
Choose Select > Special… to see the Select Special… dialog.

Figure 99.

Ensure that the Verticals box is ticked as shown above.


Choose OK to confirm the selection and return to the Design Input window. All the
columns should be selected. However we only want to set length factors for the
external columns so deselect the interior (pinned) columns individually. When you
have finished the Design Input window should look like that below.

Figure 100.

Now we're ready to proceed to set the length factors. This time, though, instead of
using the menu command we shall use one of the toolbar icons.

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Each icon is a symbol representing a particular command. To find out the command
associated with an icon position the pointer over the icon and you will see a
message in the status bar indicating the function of that icon.
Use this technique to find which of the icons relates to editing length factors. Once
you have found the icon select it.
In the Edit Length Factors… dialog select the Braced at Ly/L options for both the
top and bottom flanges, leaving the factors Braced at Ly/L at the defaults of 1.00.

Figure 101.

Once your settings are as shown above choose OK to confirm them and return to
the Design Input window.
Run First Code Check For the remaining members and the other commands of the Edit menu we shall
keep the initial defaults which S-STEEL created when you first opened the analysis
model. After you have finished this worked example you might find it useful to
explore each of the Edit menu options to find out the facilities that are available and
the default values that S-STEEL uses.
Now we're ready to code check the structure. Switch to and maximize the Code
Check Input window.
We could have done this first and then set our length factors – this is another feature
of S-STEEL – all design parameters, e.g. effective lengths, which you set are used in
both the Design and Code Check. This means that if you make changes in Design
Input, and move to Code Check input your changes will be shown there too.
Since the graphical display settings for each S-STEEL window are
independent, the section shape icons are again displayed. To remove
them select View > Analysis Model… and uncheck the Section Shapes
box. Once you have done this choose OK to return to the Code Check
Input window.

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Now we shall take a look at the sections which were used in the analysis model and
which have been involved in the S-FRAME analysis. Follow these steps:
1. Choose Select > All Members
2. Choose View > Analysis Model… to see the View Analysis Model… dialog.

Figure 102.

3. Select the option to display Supports and the Section Names for Selected
Objects.
4. Once your settings are as shown above choose OK to confirm your selections
and return to the Code Check Input window.
Now S-STEEL displays the supports and the names of the sections used in the
analysis along each member:

Figure 103.

• Columns: 457 152 52 UB


• Beams: 457 191 74 UB
• Braces: 2 – 120 120 15 Equal angles (back to back)

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Now to perform the code check. Choose Run > Code Check… You will see the Load
Cases dialog which allows you to choose the load cases that are to be included in
the code check process.

Figure 104.

Select Load Combination 1 and then choose OK to run the code check.
Code Check Results After a few seconds, when the code check is complete S-STEEL automatically
switches to the Code Check Results window to show the results of the checks that
have been performed.

Figure 105.

Initially, in the interests of clarity the Code Check Results window is configured
only to use color coding to indicate the status of the design. In this configuration S-
STEEL determines the critical interaction ratio for any check that has been
performed for the member. S-STEEL then color codes the line representing the
member in accordance with a legend given on the screen. A typical example of this
configuration is shown above.
Choose View > Pass/Fail Status to see the first of the other ways in which you can
overview the results.

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S-STEEL now removes the colors on the members and represents the code check
status by showing a on members that pass all the code checks and a on
members that fail any code check. A typical example of this configuration is shown
below.

Figure 106.

To see the final configuration choose View > color Coding+Ratios. S-STEEL again
uses color to indicate the value of the critical interaction ratio and also gives the
value of that interaction ratio at the centre of the member.
Whichever configuration you choose it is obvious that although some members
pass the code checks the majority fail. S-STEEL allows you to see the complete
details of the code checks for a single member immediately.
If you look at the results using the current configuration you will see that the corner
column at the back of the structure shows a critical interaction ratio of 1.569. We
shall investigate the checks for this member in more detail. Click over the column
using the right mouse button. You will then see a popup menu of commands that
are appropriate to the Code Check Results window and the location of the pointer.
From this popup menu choose the Code Details… option.
The menu of commands is always appropriate to the current window and
the location of the pointer.
You will immediately see the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window which shows
you the calculations for the current member.

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The S-STEEL Code Details Preview window shows an exact


representation of the calculations that have been performed. Extra
details (this feature is not available for all codes) may be viewed by
choosing the Options: Settings... menu selection while in the Preview
window...

Figure 107.

Figure 108.

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From these calculations it is easy to see that the column has failed:
• with a lateral torsional buckling ratio of 0.866
• with a compression local capacity ratio of 0.518
• Biaxial Bending and Axial Force stability interaction of 1.569
Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and return
to the Code Check Results window.
Now secondary click one of the failed interior pinned beams with a critical
interaction ratio of 1.629 and again choose Code Details… from the popup menu.

Figure 109.

From the calculations we can see that for the critical Lateral Torsional Buckling
condition this member's My,Ed of 281 kNm, is almost double its Mb,Rd of 173 kNm.
In order to understand why the Mb,Rd resistance of this 457 191 74 UB section is so
small it would be useful if we could see its section properties. S-STEEL makes this
possible without having to leave Code Details Preview.
If necessary scroll to the top of the first page of the Code Details Preview window
until you can see the text S-FRAME section is 457 191 74 UB and then click on the
underlined section name.

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S-STEEL immediately shows the Section Properties dialog, showing the properties
for the code checked section.

Figure 110.

You can view the properties for any section of the same shape by
choosing it from the drop down list of sections. If you want to view the
section properties for a section of a different shape, then you should
choose the View > Section Properties… option from the menu when
the Design Input window is active.
From the section properties details we can see how small the Iz value is when
compared to the Iy value. Since the calculations have shown us that the lateral
torsional buckling check is critical for the design it is obvious that the Iz value is
governing the check rather than the Iy value.
We shall take a moment to find out if this maximum resistance of the section is
sufficient to withstand the applied moment My,Ed of 281 kNm To do this choose
the Chart… button. Now S-STEEL displays the Section Capacity Chart dialog
which gives a graphical representation of the section capacity.

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Figure 111.

As we can see, with a maximum resistance of 454 kNm the section exceeds the
required capacity of 281 kNm comfortably. We can therefore choose either to brace
the member or change to a stronger section in order to increase the My,Ed capacity
to that required.
If you click in the chart itself the unbraced length and capacity details will
be shown for that length of member. In this way you can easily determine
the section that you want to use, and the bracing that is necessary. For
instance the screen capture above confirms a resistance of 172.6 kNm
with an effective length of 7.6 m and C1=1.131, compared to the code
detail calculated resistance of 173 kNm with an effective length of 7.67 m.
From the chart we can see that the resistance of the section begins to decline at an
effective length of around 1.7 metres, and tails off rapidly. We shall therefore
consider the option to increase the section size, rather than that of bracing the
member.
Choose OK to close the Section Capacity Charts… dialog and return to the Section
Properties dialog.
Choose OK again to close the Section Properties dialog and return to the S-STEEL
Code Details Preview window.
Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code Details Preview window and return
to the Code Check results window.

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Design Sections for Choose Window > Design Input to view the Design Input window, you will note
Study that the external columns that we selected before remain selected. Now select the
two interior columns so that all the columns are selected.
Inconsistent Data As an aside choose Edit > Length Factors… you will see the Edit Length Factors…
dialog.

Figure 112.

You will see that none of the radio buttons are selected and that both the Braced
at Ly/L fields contain question marks (?) rather than values. S-STEEL does this to
indicate that the selected members have differing details for these items. For items
where there is no disagreement (for instance the Effective Lengths for
Compression Capacity Calcs) S-STEEL shows the values themselves.
If you do not make a setting for a field where the data item disagrees, then the
details for each member will be maintained when you choose OK. You can override
a disagreement by making a particular choice or entering a specific value. If you do
this then the settings that you make will be imposed on all the selected members
in the normal manner.
To continue with the worked example choose Cancel to close the Edit Length
Factors… dialog and return to the Design Input window.
Design Process We have already made all the changes to the design model that we require. We are
now going to allow S-STEEL to choose appropriate sections for us. We therefore
need to specify the type of section that is to be considered for each member of the
structure.
When S-STEEL creates the default design model it automatically creates design
model groups for each section size used in the analysis and places all the members
that use a particular analysis size into the corresponding design model group.
Furthermore for each design model group S-STEEL automatically selects all
sections with the same shape (I, C, L etc.)and type (UB, UC, RJ for I sections) as the
analysis model for consideration during the design process.

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You can change the number of groups and / or the group names at any time, but
the sections that are to be considered during the design process must be consistent
within a group.
Making sensible choices to limit the sections that are to be considered
during the design will have a significant impact on the time S-STEEL takes
to perform the design, particularly for large structures.
Columns First we shall select the sections that are to be considered for the columns. All the
columns are already selected so choose Edit > Sections for Study… to see the
Design Sections for Study… dialog and start the selection process.

Figure 113.

As discussed above S-STEEL has automatically chosen the same shape as the
section used in the analysis (I) and all section names belonging to the same section
type (Universal Beams).
S-STEEL provides a three-tiered filtering process:
• Choose a section shape (this automatically selects all the section
types and all the section names for that shape).
• Deselect or select one or more section types corresponding to the
shape chosen.
• Deselect or select one or more section names corresponding to the
types chosen.
We could leave these automatic settings alone, but then S-STEEL would have to
study sections that we know in advance would be inappropriate. We shall reduce
the number of sections that are to be considered in our worked example.
We can deselect section names manually, or alternatively we can use a powerful S-
STEEL tool that can filter the sections by considering their properties.

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Choose Min/Max… to see the Min/Max Section constraints… dialog.


From the earlier part of this worked example we recall that a column of section size
457 152 52 UB failed the overall buckling check with a ratio of 1.569. In view of this
we shall limit the design to sections whose mass lies between 60 and 140 kg/m.
Type 60 into the Minimum Mass box and 140 into the Maximum Mass box.
The Section Names list currently contains 80 sections.

Choose Filter and S-STEEL checks the existing sections, removing any that have a
mass less than 60 kg/m or greater than 140 kg/m.
The Section Names list now contains 23 sections.

Figure 114.

The filtering process uses the actual values stored in the database for the
items involved in the filter process. In this case (for the Mass filter) for
example the section 406 178 60 UB is not included in the Section Names
list since its true mass is 59.75 kg/m.
Choose OK to close the Min/Max Section Constraints… dialog and return to the
Edit Sections for Study dialog. If you scroll up and down the Section Name list you
will find that only the twenty two sections selected in the Section Names list of the
Min/Max Section Constraints… dialog are checked.
For the sake of thoroughness scroll down the Section Name list adding the
sections, 686 254 140 UB, 686 254 152 UB and 686 254 170 UB, by selecting each
of their names.

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Figure 115.

If you look at the bottom of the dialog you will see the Selection Criteria list. This
controls the section that S-STEEL will propose as the optimal section for the group.
In order to understand how this feature works you need to understand the design
process that S-STEEL follows.
For each member of a group that is selected in the Design Input window, and
therefore involved in the design S-STEEL checks each of the Design Sections for
Study to determine whether or not it passes all the appropriate design checks. If
the section does pass the checks, then the section size is added to the list of
acceptable sections for that member – the Admissible List.
When the design of all members is complete S-STEEL examines the lists of
acceptable sections for each member in the group and generates a secondary list
of those sections that are acceptable for all members in the group. S-STEEL then
sorts this secondary list in accordance with the Selection Criteria that you specify
here and proposes the section at the top of the list as the optimal section to be
considered for a re-analysis of the structure. You can override this optimal section if
you so desire.
For now we shall leave the Selection Criteria as Least Weight.
Finally we shall change the name of this group to be more meaningful. Type
Columns into the Group Name field.

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Figure 116.

When the dialog looks as shown above choose OK to confirm these settings and
return to the Design Input window.
Beams Now we shall proceed to choose the sections that we want to consider during the
design of the beams. Again we must remember to deselect the columns, so that
they are not included in our further actions.
To do this choose Select > Unselect All Members. All the members in the structure
are deselected. We must now select the beams before setting the sections that we
want S-STEEL to study. There are several ways to do this.
We have already looked at:
• choosing individual members to select and deselect them,
• using Select > Special… to select particular categories of member
• using CTRL+DRAG to deselect members (and SHIFT+DRAG to select
members) which lie within a box created on the screen.
For this worked example we shall now look at another method of selecting a series
of members – selecting all the members that lie on a plane. Follow the below steps
using the diagram to assist you:
1. Activate the selection tool and choose the Two Members approach
2. Click on Two members as shown in the screen capture below.

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Figure 117.

Once you've clicked the second member, S-STEEL selects all members which lie in
the plane defined by the co-ordinate locations of the two members.
In a similar manner select the other side of the roof and then deselect the two
diagonal bracing members by choosing them individually.

Figure 118.

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Once all and only the beams are selected as shown above follow these steps:
1. Choose the Edit Sections for Study icon.
2. Type Beams in the Group Name field.
3. Choose Min/Max…
Recall that one of the beams failed in lateral torsional buckling by a factor of nearly
two. In the Max Mass field, type 180 and in the Min Iy cell, type 20 (the original
beam that was code checked had an Iz of 16.7).
Choose Filter.
You don't have to type a values for the Max Iz; S-STEEL does that
automatically.

Figure 119.

Twenty-one sections are found as indicated above.


Choose OK to close the Min / Max Section Constraints dialog returning the
selections to the Edit Sections for Study dialog. Choose OK again to confirm the
Sections for Study details and return to the Design Input window.
Braces Follow these steps:
1. Choose Select > Deselect All Members,
2. Select a brace.
3. Choose Select > In Same Group As

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All braces should be selected.

Figure 120.

Choose Edit > Sections for Study… to show the Edit Sections for Study… dialog.

Figure 121.

Since the selected sections are back to back angles and the design code
is EC3 an additional area is included in the dialog to enable you to specify
the end conditions and the connector spacing.
Type Braces in the Group Name box and set the Connector Spacing/L to 0.15.
Choose Min/Max…

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Since some of the original braces did not pass the code check we shall make the
minimum size of the sections to be considered in the design the same size as the
sections that were used in the code check.
Type in values to make Min ds and Min bs both 120 mm.
Choose Filter

Figure 122.

Nineteen sections are found as indicated above.


Choose OK to close the Min / Max Section Constraints dialog returning the
selections to the Edit Sections for Study dialog.
Choose OK again to confirm the Sections for Study details and return to the Design
Input window.
Run First Design Now that we have defined our design model, and we have selected the sections
that we want to study during the design we are ready to proceed with the design.
You can choose the scope of the design, ranging from the design of a
single member to the design of the entire structure. Only the members
that are selected in the Design Input window will be included in the
design process.
For this worked example we are going to design the entire structure, we therefore
need to select all the members.
Choose Select > All Members to select the entire structure
Choose Run > Design… this will start the design process, first you will see the Load
Cases dialog.

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This allows you to select the load cases and combinations that are to be involved in
the design process.

Figure 123.

Select Load Combination 1 as shown above then choose OK to proceed with the
design. While the design proceeds you will see a progress bar indicating the
proportion of the design that has been completed and the time that has been taken
so far.
Design Results After a few seconds, when the design is complete S-STEEL automatically switches
to the Design Results window to show the results of the design process.

Figure 124.

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Initially, in the interests of clarity the Design Results window is configured to show:
• the section size proposed by S-STEEL,
• the admissible section list icon for the member,
• color coding to indicate the status of the design for each section. (In this
configuration S-STEEL determines the critical interaction ratio for any check
that has been performed for the proposed section. S-STEEL then color codes
the line representing the member in accordance with a legend given on the
screen).
A typical example of this configuration is shown above.
You can choose the information that is included graphically in the Design Results
window. Choose View > Design Results… to see the available options. You will see
the View Design Results… dialog.

Figure 125.

Choose the option to show color Coding + Ratios as indicated above and then
choose OK.
S-STEEL now augments the display by adding the critical interaction ratios. As you
will see from the following diagram the display starts to become a little cluttered at
this point.

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Figure 126.

Once you have completed this worked example you might like to spend some time
investigating the various options that are available for displaying the results,
making a note of those that you find particularly useful.
The admissible list icon indicates whether the list is empty or not-empty.
The section name is the one that S-STEEL proposes for re-analysis. Where
possible, members in the same group have the same section assigned to
them.
You can leave the proposed section as it is or change it to meet a particular
preference or requirement.
In our example S-STEEL has proposed the following sections for each group:
• Columns: 406 191 67 UB
• Beams: 533 210 101 UB
• Braces: 2 – 150 150 10 Equal angles (back to back)
These sections can be seen most clearly using the No color coding option shown
below.

Figure 127.

In this worked example, we shall accept the sections proposed by S-STEEL as they
are.

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Run First Re-Analysis Now that we have designed the structure we have arrived at a set of sections that
are substantially different to those that we code checked earlier. However the forces
and moments in the structure are based on an analysis that used these initial
sections, and not those that we have just designed. It is therefore imperative that
we re-analyse the structure to check whether any significant force redistribution
occurs, and then at least check out the sections again under the new force regime.
To perform a re-analysis choose Run > Re-analyse…
S-STEEL then performs the following steps:
1. Updates the S-FRAME Property and Connectivity spreadsheets,
2. Runs the S-FRAME analysis engine to obtain an updated set of analysis results,
3. Performs a code check on all members for all load cases and load combinations.
As a rule, do not attempt to re-analyse a structure by choosing the File >
Go to S-FRAME… command and then running the analysis from S-
FRAME. If you do you will lose the ’Sections for Study’ Min/Max filtered
data. All other steel design data will be stored in S-FRAME’s TEL file.
When S-STEEL has finished the code checks it will activate the Code Check Results
window. You will see that all members have passed the code checks.
Choose View > color Coding + Ratios to add the critical interaction ratios to the
display. The resulting display is shown below.

Figure 128.

Looking back at the design we can see that S-STEEL has chosen a 406 191 67 UB
for the columns, and from the Code Check Results display we can see that the
critical interaction ratio for the column group is 0.929. This occurs for the second
column in from the left at the back of the structure.

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We shall take a look at the calculations for this column. Secondary mouse click (right
click) over the column and then select Code Details… from the popup menu. The
calculations for the column are displayed as represented below.

Figure 129.

The calculations are fine, but perhaps it might be preferable to use a 533 210 82 UB
instead. What effect would such a change have on the calculations? We can find out
without ever having to leave the S-STEEL Code Details Preview.
If necessary scroll to the top of the first page of the S-STEEL Code Details Preview
and then select the name of the current section 457 191 67 UB. You will
immediately see the Section Properties dialog for the current size of beam.

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Now choose the Next button to move through the different sections until the
details for a 533 210 82 UB are displayed as shown below.

Figure 130.

Now choose OK, to see a prompt:

Figure 131.

We do want to override the current section so respond Yes to this prompt. You will
immediately see a second prompt:

Figure 132.

This time you are being asked whether all other S-FRAME sections in the same
group are to be set to this override section size. Normally you would probably select
the Yes option since part of the reason for including members in a group is to
constrain them to have the same section size. However, for this worked example we
want to look at a different method of setting override sections so choose No. You
will then be returned to the S-STEEL Code Details Preview which will now show
the calculations for the new beam.

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As expected the new section is fine. Choose File > Exit to close the S-STEEL Code
Details Preview and return to the Code Check Results window. Note that the
critical interaction ratio is updated to that for the imposed section.

Figure 133.

If you observe the display closely you will see that the interaction ratio is only
updated for the single column. This is because the override section has only been
applied to that column as requested.
We shall now look at an alternative method of imposing the 533 210 82 UB section
to the other columns in the group using the S-STEEL Override Sections facility.
First we recollect that options on the Edit menu relate to all the selected sections.
We only want to override the size of the remaining (unchanged) columns in the
group, so only these columns should be selected. A process for achieving this is
given below, but you may find one of the alternative methods of achieving the same
end more to your liking:
• deselect all the members in the structure,
• select the column for which we have just overridden the size,
• select all the members in the same group,
• deselect the column with the changed size.

Figure 134.

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Once all the other columns are selected choose Edit > Override Sections… to see
the User Section Override… dialog.

Figure 135.

The lines in the table for the columns that were selected on entry should
all be highlighted.
On completion of the worked example you might like to return to this
dialog and investigate the different options that are available for
selecting members and assigning Override sections.
We want to increase the section size for the highlighted columns. Therefore choose
Next Size Up (from steel table) as the Assign Section option.
Now choose Assign. The User Section Override… dialog is reconfigured to show
the Override Section 457 191 74 UB for all the selected columns.

Figure 136.

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Continue to choose Assign until the Override Section 533 210 82 UB is shown for
all the columns then choose OK to return to the Code Check Results window.

Figure 137.

Now we shall take a look at the S-FRAME sections.


Choose View > Analysis Model…, check the S-FRAME Sections box and then
choose OK. The screen will be refreshed to show the current S-FRAME section
names. You will notice that these section names not updated. This is because the
overriding sections have not yet been included in the S-FRAME analysis model, and
have not yet been re-analysed.
Choose Run > Re-Analyse… You will then see the Code Check Results window
incorporating the latest analysis results and section sizes. As expected all the
members pass the code checks - redistribution of forces has not been critical.

Figure 138.

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Secondary mouse click (right click) the beam indicated above and then choose
Code Details…. and observe the calculations. A representation of the calculations
for this beam is given below:

Figure 139.

Note that all the bending moment and shear force diagrams show the length of the
member as 4.57m. In fact the member that we want to design at this point is made
up of two separate members that were included in the analysis. S-STEEL provides
the facility to enable you to make several members from the analysis model into a
single member for design. We shall look at this feature now.

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Making members Exit Code Details and then switch to the Design Input window and then ensure
continuous that the two beams shown below (and only these two) are selected,

Figure 140.

Choose Edit > Make Continuous and S-STEEL makes the two members into a
single one for design purposes. Deselect this combined member by clicking on it
then select the two beams on the other side as shown in the screen capture below.

Figure 141.

Make these two beams continuous as before.

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At the start of this worked example we selected the four original beams and set
values for their compression effective lengths assuming that each beam was half
the total length for major axis compression. These values have been maintained by
S-STEEL when it has combined the members. The settings that we made previously
are therefore no longer applicable, and so we need to alter them.
Ensure that the beams which we have just made continuous on both sides of the
building are selected.
Choose Edit > Length Factors… and set the values shown below.

Figure 142.

In this case we are allowing for the incoming rafter providing restraint at
the mid-point of the continuous beam for:
• weak axis strut buckling
• lateral torsional buckling of the
• continuous beam top flange.
Once the settings are correct choose OK to return to the Design Input window.

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Having changed the lengths of these beams by combining them, we have made
them significantly different to the other beams in our structure. The changes that
we have made mean that we need to do a redesign. With the continuous beams
being significantly different to the others we shall move them into a group of their
own. We recollect that we assigned the beams to the group Beams in the Sections
for Study dialog so choose this option now.
Rather than the Sections for Study dialog we see the warning message.

Figure 143.

We do not want to change all members in the group, just the two that are selected
so choose No.
Before we can add these members to another group, we must remove them from
the existing one. To do this choose Edit > Groups Remove From.
Now choose Edit > Sections For Study… The sections already investigated are
chosen, simply give the new group name Beams 2 as shown below.

Figure 144.

Choose OK to return to the Design Input window.

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Now we need to design these two beams. Since the rest of the structure is relatively
independent of these beams we shall only design them, and not the entire
structure. This will use the S-STEEL feature where the design is only performed for
the members that are selected in the Design Input window.
Choose Run > Design… and then ensure that only Combination 1 is selected from
the list of available load cases and combinations before choosing OK. The design is
performed and you are returned to the Design Results window which will show the
sizes below.

Figure 145.

As suspected the size of the beams have not changed and remains as 533 210 82
UB. Since the sizes have not changed this will have no effect on the load distribution
around the structure. It serves no purpose to Choose Run > Re-analyse as the
following prompt will appear if this is attempted.

Figure 146.

To finish off this example, we shall look at a final facility of S-STEEL – the ability to
use the Spreadsheet window to review the design for the structure, and to obtain
further useful information.

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Spreadsheets Choose Window > Spreadsheet to activate the Spreadsheet window.

Figure 147.

Initially the display is for all members in the structure, and the spreadsheet is
configured to show the data for those members.
Take a moment to scroll around this manifestation of the spreadsheet and take in
the full scope of the information which is presented in a logical and precise manner.
As you can see every aspect of the structure is covered, from the details of the
design model, to the effective results of the designs and code checks that have been
performed. The Spreadsheet allows you to view the information for the structure
using a number of different standard views. Alternatively you can also tailor many
of these standard views so that the spreadsheet just displays the information in
which you are interested. The Member Data view is one that you can tailor.

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Choose the Ellipsis button (...) to the side of the box which currently shows Member
Data. You will see the Hide Columns (Member Data) dialog.

Figure 148.

Using this dialog you can choose which of the columns in the spreadsheet view are
to be hidden, ensure that the boxes shown below are ticked.

Figure 149.

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Now choose OK and the spreadsheet is configured to remove the ticked columns.

Figure 150.

Finally we shall look at another of the standard spreadsheet views that are available
- the Quantities view.
Choose the box that currently shows Member Data, and note the views that are
available. From the list of views select Quantities, and then select the implement
button ( ).
The Spreadsheet is configured to show you a list of quantities.

Figure 151.

You can print any spreadsheet view directly to your printer by choosing the Printer
( ) button. A sample of a typical quantities print is shown on the following page.

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Figure 152.

Choose File > Exit and you are returned to the Spreadsheet window.
This ends the first worked example. You can now either close S-STEEL or continue
with EC3 example 2 which illustrates different features of the program on the same
structure.

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BS 5950 Example
This example assumes that you are familiar with selecting members, S-STEEL menu options etc. If you are not sure
about these, then you are strongly advised to run the EC3 Example before continuing with this example.
This structure has exactly the same geometry and loading as the EC3 Example. In this example we shall consider a
quicker way of determining the appropriate sections for the frame.
Before starting this tutorial you should carry out the following procedure:
9. Launch Windows Explorer and navigate to the S-STEEL’s Tutorial folder. (C:\Users\Public\Documents\S-
FRAME Software\S-STEEL\Tutorial)
10. If this folder already contains any files named SSTUT5.*, then the tutorial may have already been used. If you
have previously run the tutorials the files may not contain the information needed at the start of the tutorial
so highlight and delete them.
11. Navigate to the Original folder (a sub-folder within Tutorial) and highlight the file SSTUT5.tel and then
choose the Copy option from the Windows Explorer tool bar.
12. Return to the Tutorial folder and choose Paste from the tool bar to place a copy of SSTUT5.tel into that folder.
You are now ready to start the tutorial itself.
If you accidentally take a wrong step while running through the tutorial, and can't recover, or if
you want to run the tutorial again, then follow the above steps. This will always ensure that you
are starting the tutorial with the correct information.
Never open the files in the Original folder within S-STEEL since this will change the files so that
the tutorial no longer works correctly.
Analysis Model The analysis model is identical to that used in EC3 example.
If you want to review the input and results for the portal frame, load S-FRAME prior
to running the example, and choose the structure sstut5.tel and then run the
analysis. When you've finished reviewing the structure details and the results
choose Run > Steel Design… to launch S-STEEL.
Start Once you launch S-FRAME navigate to the folder and select the structure named
Sstut1.tel, as indicated below.

Figure 153.

If you check Preview Structure then S-FRAME draws a picture of the


structure so that you can check that you have made the correct choice.

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First Time Opening If you have loaded this file, and you attempt to launch S-STEEL prior to analysing
of Structure the structure in S-FRAME, then you will be prompted to analyse the structure.

Figure 154.

Choose OK and perform a linear static analysis to the structure. The S-FRAME
analysis engine will be used to analyse the structure. Once the analysis is complete
the Graphical Results Window should be the currently active window. Click on the
Build Steel Model on the shortcuts bar to launch S-STEEL.

Figure 155.

Select Design Code S-STEEL will launch, and the Code Input window should be active. The first thing
that S-STEEL needs to know is which design code is appropriate for the structure.
S-STEEL shows the Design Code dialog to allow you to specify these details.
4. Click Options > Design Code... menu selection and select British steel database
and the BS 5950 (1990) design code as indicated below.

Figure 156.

Once you have selected the correct Steel Database and Design Code choose OK to
proceed with the Worked Example.
Defining Design For any S-STEEL model we need to remember that a default design model has been
Model created when we opened our S-FRAME structure into S-STEEL for the first time. We
shall tailor our model to meet our specific requirements now.
If necessary go to View > Design Model to remove the section shape icons and
then select all the vertical members.

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Choose Edit > Length Factors… and switch off the automatic calculation of the
effective lengths by S-STEEL, choosing instead the default Braced at Le/L factors of
1.00.

Figure 157.

Now deselect all the columns and then select just the brace members, choose Edit
> Sections for Study… and set the connector spacing to 0.15 as in EC3 Example.

Figure 158.

Iterative In this worked example we shall look at a rapid approach to determining a set of
Design/Analysis sections which are adequate. To do this we shall make use of the S-STEEL iterative
design feature.
In the changes that we have made to the design model so far you will notice that
we have not filtered out any of the sections. During the design therefore S-STEEL
will be free to consider all sections of the appropriate types.

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To start the design process follow these steps:


1. Choose Select > All Members.
2. Choose Run > Iteration Design / Analysis… You will see the Run
Design/Analysis Iterations… dialog.

Figure 159.

3. Set the Total Iterations - 3 and Load Combination 1 as shown above and then
choose OK to start the iterative design process.
S-STEEL then:
• Designs the selected members,
• Assigns the default proposed sections to the designed members.
• Re-analyses the structure using the S-FRAME analysis engine.
• Designs the selected members again under the new forces and moments that
apply.
• S-STEEL now realizes that there is no difference between the section sizes
designed in Design Iteration 1 and those designed in Design Iteration 2. Thus
the analysis and the design are matched and the iteration process can stop. S-
STEEL tells you this with an appropriate message.

Figure 160.

• S-STEEL then performs a code check.

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All the members are code checked and the Code Check Results window is
activated to show the results.

Figure 161.

Choose View > Color Coding to turn off the display of the interaction ratios. Then
choose View > Analysis Model… and choose the S-FRAME Sections option (View
> Analysis Model) as shown below.

Figure 162.

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Choose OK and the Code Check Results window will show the current sections as
shown below.

Figure 163.

The chosen sections are:


• Columns: 457 191 82 UB
• Beams: 610 229 113 UB
• Braces: 150 150 15 Equal angles (back to back)
Looking at the supporting beams where there are no columns, we can see that
these have been designed as separate members. As we have seen in EC3 Example,
these can be combined into single members and then designed. We shall look at a
feature in S-STEEL which allows us to do this interactively - the Scratch Pad.
First perform the following steps:
1. Choose Window > Design Input,
2. Unselect all the members,
3. Select two members which make up one of the supporting beams,
4. Choose Edit > Make Continuous. The screen now appears as shown below.

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Figure 164.

Scratch Pad The Scratch Pad is a tool which allows you to refine a design interactively. Click on
the selected member with the secondary mouse button (right click). You will then
see a popup menu with various options. Choose Send To Scratch Pad…

Figure 165.

The Scratch Pad opens for the combined beam that we have selected.

Figure 166.

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A close look at the layout of the Scratch Pad shows us that its columns relate to
individual design cases that are to be checked.

Figure 167.

The top block of cells relate to the strength checks that are to be performed for the
member. The second block of cells relate to the buckling checks for the member.
The third block of cells relate to the details that are to be retrieved from the S-STEEL
analysis and design models for the member.

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Figure 168.

Before we can decide the number of design cases that we want to use, and the
details that are to be recovered for each design case we must first look at the forces
and moments on the member.
Choose Force Diagrams… to see the Force Diagrams for Member… dialog.

Figure 169.

The dialog is automatically configured to show the details for the first
combination that you have defined in your analysis model. You can
choose an alternative load case or combination from the drop down list
or use the and buttons to increment forwards or backwards
through the list of load cases and combinations.
From the forces and moments given above it is obvious that the critical part of the
member for lateral torsional buckling is the right hand half. Also there is a shear
condition to be checked at the left hand end of the member.
Choose Cancel to close the Force Diagrams dialog and return to the Scratch Pad.

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We now need to enter the conditions to be considered into the Recover Details
part of the dialog. The completed dialog is shown below.

Figure 170.

If the box at the top of a particular Design Case column is not ticked, then
Recover Forces will have no effect on that column.
This enables you to maintain the current settings for a particular design
case should you need to while maintaining the flexibility of automatically
updating other columns.
You can widen individual columns by grabbing the column grid line
using the primary mouse button and dragging left or right to increase /
decrease the column width.
Ensure that the boxes at the top of the first two design case columns are ticked, and
that the details for these columns are as shown above and then choose Recover
Forces. The details for the member are recovered from the analysis and design
models as shown below.

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Figure 171.

As you can see the values that are recovered are those that check:
• major axis buckling over the complete length,
• minor axis buckling over the half length,
• lateral torsional buckling over the right hand half,
• strength at the position of the maximum positive strong axis moment (+
coincident shear),
• strength at the maximum strong axis shear position (+ coincident moment).
As you will see from the above display the Scratch Pad has also examined the forces
and moments along the member in order to determine the appropriate values for
the factors m and n for each design case as part of the recover process. We can now
check the suitability of the section.
Choose Run > Code Check. You will immediately see the Scratch Pad Code Details
Preview dialog for the code checked section.

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A representation of the printed calculations is given below:

Figure 172.

As we can see the beam is failing for both load cases. As well as performing the shear
strength check at the point of maximum strong axis shear on the member the
Scratch Pad has also performed buckling checks over the full length of the member.

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Choose File > Exit to close the Scratch Pad Code Details Preview and return to
the main Scratch Pad window.
Here we can see the cause of our problems. The Scratch Pad has automatically set
the distances for the buckling checks to be the entire length of the member and
then Recover Forces has set the lengths to be checked as the full length of the
member (9.14 m).
These settings have been chosen since they are generally most appropriate where
there is direct correlation between a single analysis member and design member. It
also ensures that you as the designer and not the software decide whether buckling
checks are required. For our particular case these are not appropriate but we still
need the the program to search the whole length of the member for the maximum
shear. This is easily solved since we can quickly clear the superfluous information so
that the buckling checks are not performed.
Select the top cell of the Buckling Check part of the Scratch Pad for design case 2.
Holding the primary mouse button (left mouse button) down now, drag the pointer
down until all the rows relating to buckling lengths are highlighted. Then release
the primary mouse button, and click over the highlighted cells with the secondary
mouse button (right click). You will see apopup menu of options.
Choose Clear Contents and the selected cells will be cleared.

Figure 173.

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S-STEEL Design
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Now clear all the forces and moments in the strength check rows for design case 2
other than the major axis shear force by setting them to zero and edit the effective
length for design case 1 (4.57m).
Choose Run > Code Check.

Figure 174.

You will immediately see the Scratch Pad Code Details Preview dialog for the code
checked section. A representation of the printed calculations is below:

Figure 175.

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As we can see the section that we have code checked is adequate. However if you
look closely at the Scratch Pad spreadsheet you will see that for Design Case 1 a
value of n of 0.91 has been calculated. This value is based on the moments along
the member and on the loading that is applied to it.
In S-STEEL itself conservative values of 1.00 are always used for these factors. The
Scratch Pad therefore gives us the possibility of refining the design and achieving
a smaller section. We shall investigate this option now.
The value of n is already calculated for us, so we simply have to design rather than
code check our member.
Exit the Code Details and choose Run > Design to perform the design. Once this
has completed you will see a list of admissible sections.

Figure 176.

We can see that with the calculated value of n, the section size reduces to a 533 210
82 UB. If we wished we could assign this size to the member, or to all members in
the group.
For this example we shall not impose this section back into the model, since we
have not placed this beam in its own group, and we do not want to change the
remaining beams to this new size. Therefore simply choose Cancel to close the
Admissible / Inadmissible Sections dialog and return to the main Scratch Pad
window.
Choose File > Exit to close the Scratch Pad (choosing No to the option to save the
Scratch Pad information) and you are returned to the main S-STEEL window.
Close S-STEEL to finish this tutorial.

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