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Relative Atomic Mass

Relative Mass

The relative mass of an object is the comparison of the mass of the object to the
mass of a standard object.

Relative Atomic Mass

Relative Atomic Mass

The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the average mass of


one atom of the element when compared with 1/12 of the mass of
an atom of carbon-12, which taken as 12 units.
1. The mass of an atom when compared to another is known as the relative
atomic mass (Ar).
2. The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the average mass of one atom
of the element when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12,
which taken as 12 units.
3. 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 is named as 1 atomic mass unit
(amu).
4. The mass of one carbon atom is 12 amu.
5. 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 is named as 1 atomic mass unit
(amu).
6. The mass of one carbon atom is 12 amu.

Example 1

The mass of a sodium atom is 23 times greater than 1/12 of the mass of carbon-
12 atom. What is the relative atomic mass of sodium?

Answer:
23
Example 2:
The mass of element A is twice of the mass of carbon, therefore its relative
atomic mass is __________. (Relative atomic mass of carbon = 12)
Answer:
Relative Atomic Mass of Element A = 2 x 12 = 24

Example 3:
An atom of element X is 13 times heavier than one atom of helium. Calculate the
relative atomic mass of X.( Ar: He = 4 )

Answer:
Relative Atomic Mass of X = 13 x 4 = 52

Example 4:
How many times that the mass of 2 bromine atoms are greater than 4 neon
atoms? (Ar: Ne = 20; Br = 80 )

Answer:
2(80) / 4(20) =2
The mass of 2 bromine atoms is 2 times greater than the
mass of 4 neon atoms.
Example 5
4 atoms of element L have the same mass as 1 tellurium atom. Find the relative
atomic mass of L. (Ar: Te = 128 )

Answer:
4L = 1(128)
L = 128/4 =32

The relative atomic mass of L = 32


Relative Molecular Mass
The relative molecular mass (Mr) of an element is the average mass of one
molecule of the element/compound when compared with the mass of an atom of
carbon-12, which taken as 12 units.
The relative molecular mass of a molecule is equal to the sum of the relative
atomic mass of all the atoms in the molecule.

Example
Find the relative molecular mass of carbon dioxide.
[ JAR: C = 12; O = 16 ]
Answer:
The formula of carbon dioxide = CO2

Relative molecular mass of CO2 = 1 x 12 + 2 x 16 = 44


Example
What is the relative molecular mass of aluminium sulphate [ Al2(SO4)3]?
( Ar: O = 16, S = 32; Al = 27 )
Answer:
Relative molecular mass of Al2(SO4)3
= 2 x 27 + 3( 32 + 4 x 16) = 342
Example:
Given that the formula of a compound is KXO3 and its relative molecular mass is
167. Find the relative atomic mass of element X? (Ar: O = 16; K = 39 )
Answer
Let’s say the relative atomic mass of element X = m

The relative moleculaar mass of KXO3


= 39 + m + 3(16) = 167
m = 167 – 39 – 3(16) = 80

relative atomic mass of element X = 80


Example:
The general formula of a hydrocarbon is CnH2n and the relative molecular mass
of the hydrocarbon is 84. Find the value of n.
Answer:
Relative molecular mass of CnH2n
= n(12) + 2n(1) = 84
14n = 84
n = 84/14 = 6
Example:

The general formula of a hydrocarbon is CnH2n and the relative molecular mass of
the hydrocarbon is 84. Find the value of n.

Answer:

Relative molecular mass of C H n 2n

= n(12) + 2n(1) = 84
Hence
14n = 84
n = 84/14 = 6
Concept of Mole
1. A mole is defined as the amount of substance which contains the Avogadro
Number of particles.
2. The Avogadro Number (or Avogadro Constant) is defined as the number of
atoms in 12 g of the carbon-12 isotope, which is equal to 6.02 x 1023.
1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23

Example:
1 mol of atoms = 6.02 x 1023 atoms
½ mol of atoms = 3.01 x 1023 atoms
¼ mol of atoms = 1.505 x 1023 atoms.
Note:
The particles in a material can be atoms, molecules or ions.
Therefore
1 mol potassium atom = 6.02 x 1023 potassium atom
1 mol carbon dioxide molecules = 6.02 x 1023 of carbon dioxide molecules.
1 mol sulphate ions = 6.02 x 1023 sulphate ions.
Example:
Find the number of atoms in:
1. 2 mol ferum
2. 3.6 mol zink
3. 2.8 mol zink
4. ¼ mol ferum
Answer:
1. 2 mol iron = 2 x 6.02 x 1023 = 1.204 x 1024 iron atoms
2. 3.6 mol zink = 3.6 x 6.02 x 1023 = 2.167 x 1024 zink atoms
3. 2.8 mol zink = 2.8 x 6.02 x 1023 = 1.686 x 1024 zink atoms
4. ¼ mol iron = ¼ x 6.02 x 1023 = 1.505 x 1023 iron atoms.
Mole and mol

1. Mole is the unit of amount of substance.


2. “mol” is the symbol of mole.
Number of Mole and Number of Particles
Number of Mole and Number of Particles
1. We have just learn that, mole is a quantity, and it is equal to 6.02 x 1023. The
number 6.02 x 1023 is called the Avogadro constant.
2. Therefore, if we are given the number of mole of substance, and asked to find
the number of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) in it, we multiply the
number of mole by the Avogadro constant.
3. Likewise, if we are given the number of particles, and asked to find the number
of mole of the particles, we divide the number of particles by the Avogadro
constant.

Example
Which contains more atoms, 1 mol of helium or 1 mol of uranium? Which has a
greater mass? [ RAM: He=4; U=238 ]
Answer:
1 mol of helium and 1 mol of uranium has equal number of
atoms.

The mass of one Uranium atom ss greater than the mass


of one helium atom.
Example
Find the number of atoms in 2.5 mol of gold.
Answer:
Number of atoms
= Number of mole x Avogadro constant
= 2.5 x 6.02 x 10 = 1.505 x 10
23 24

Example
How many moles of magnesium that contain 2.76 x 1023 of magnesium atom?
Answer:
Number of mole
= Number of atoms ÷ Avogadro constant
= 2.76 x 10 ÷ 6.02 x 10
23 23

= 0.46 mol
Number of Mole of Atoms and Number of Mole
of Molecules
Number of Mole of Atoms and Number of Mole of
Molecules
1. All molecules contain more than one atom.
2. For example, in a carbon dioxide molecule (CO2), there are 3 atoms – 1
carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms.
3. Therefore, in 5 carbon dioxide molecules, there will be 15 atoms – 5 carbon
atom and 10 oxygen atoms.
4. Similarly, in 1 mole carbon dioxide molecules, there will be 3 mole atoms – 1
mole carbon atoms and 2 mole oxygen atoms, and in 3 mole carbon dioxide
molecules, there will be 9 mole atoms – 3 mole carbon atoms and 6 mole
oxygen atoms, so on and so forth.
Example:
1. How many hydrogen molecules can be made with 20 mol of hydrogen atoms?
2. How many hydrogen atoms are there in 20 mol of hydrogen molecules?
Answer:
a.
Each hydrogen molecules (H ) consist of 2 hydrogen
2

atoms.
Therefore, 20 mol of hydrogen atoms can make 10 mole
of hydrogen molecules.

b. Number of mole of hydrogen atoms in 20 mole of


hydrogen molecules
= 2 x 20 mole = 40 mole.
Example:
1. Find the number of carbon atom in 0.75 mol of carbon dioxide.
2. Find the number of oxygen atom in 0.75 mol of carbon dioxide.
Answer:
a.
Each carbon dioxide molecules (CO ) consist of 1 carbon
2

atom and 2 oxygen molecules.


Therefore, 0.75 mole of carbon dioxide contain 0.75 mole
carbon atoms.

b.
Number of mole of oxygen atoms in 0.75 mole of carbon
dioxide
= 2 x 0.75 mole = 1.50 moles.
Number of Mole and Mass of a Substance
Molar Mass

1. The mass of one mole of atoms is its relative atomic mass in grams, and is
called a molar mass.
2. A Molar mass is the mass of a substance containing the Avogadro Constant of
particles.
Relative Mass of 1 mol
Element Molar Mass
atomic mass of particle

Hydrogen 1 1g 1 g mol-1

Carbon 12 12 g 12 g mol-1

Oxygen 16 16 g 16 g mol-1

Copper 64 27 g 27 g mol-1

Iron 56 56 g 56 g mol-1
Example

1. The relative atomic mass of copper is 64, therefore the mass of 1 mole copper
is 64g
2. The RAM of sodium is 23, therefore the mass of 2 mole sodium is 46g
3. The RAM of nitrogen is 14, therefore the mass of 2.5 mole l nitrogen is 35g
4. The RAM of calcium is 20, therefore the mass of 0.3 mole calcium is 6g
Conclusion
Note:

The relationship between the mass of a substance and the number of mole of the
particles in the substance can be summarised by using the following equation:
n= m Molar Mass
If you are given the mass of substance and asked to find the number of mole of
the substance (or vice versa), the problem can be solved by using this equation.

Example:
Find the number of mol of atoms in 4.6g sodium [Relative atomic mass: Na=23]
Answer:
Number of mole, [n = frac{{4.6}}{{23}} = 0.2mol]
Example
How many moles of each substance are there in 191 g NaOH [Relative atomic
mass: Na=23, O=16, H=1]
Answer:
Relative Formula Mass of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40
Number of mole of 191g NaOH,
[n = frac{{191}}{{40}} = 4.775mol]
Question
What is the mass of 7.12 mol NaI. [Relative atomic gas: Iodine = 131; Sodium = 23]

Answer:
The relative formula mass of NaI = 23 + 131 = 154.

The mass of 7.12 mol NaI


= Number of mole x Relative Foemula Mass of NaI
= 7.12 x 154
= 1096.48g
Number of Mole and Volume of Gas
Molar Volume of Gas

1. Equal amount of gas occupies same volume of space.


2. Molar volume of a gas is defined as the volume occupied by one mol the gas
at certain condition
3. At room temperature(25ºC) and pressure (1 atm), one mole of any gas
occupies a volume of 24 dm³ (24 000 cm³ )
4. At standard temperature(0ºC) and pressure (1 atm) one mole of any gas
occupies a volume of 22.4 dm³ (22400cm³).

Number of mole of gasses Volume at s.t.p. (dm3)

1 mol of O2 gas 1 x 22.4 = 22.4

1 mol of H2 gas 1 x 22.4 = 22.4

2 mol of He gas 2 x 22.4 = 44.8

3.5 mol of N2 gas 3.5 x 22.4 = 78.4

Number of mole of gasses Volume at r.t.p. (dm3)

1 mol of O2 gas 1 x 24 = 24

1 mol of H2 gas 1 x 24 = 24

2 mol of He gas 2 x 24 = 48

3.5 mol of N2 gas 3.5 x 24 = 84


Example: What volume (at room temperature and pressure r.t.p.) would 2 moles
of oxygen gas occupy? (Molar Gas Volume at r.t.p. = 24
dm³) Answer: Volume of gas = 2 x 24 = 48 dm³
Example: A sample of ozone gas has a volume of 960cm³ at room temperature
and pressure. Find the number of mole of the ozone. [Molar volume at r.t.p. =
Number of mole = 960 cm / 24000
24.0dm³]Answer: 3

cm =0.04 mol
3

Volume of Gas, Mass of Substance and Number of


Particles
Figure below shows the relationship between the number of mole of particles in a
substance with the mass, number of particles and volume of gas.

Example

Find the number of particle in 1200cm³ of nitrogen gas at room temperature.


(Molar Gas Volume at r.t.p. = 24 dm³)

Answer:
Number of mole of nitrogen gas
= 1200 cm / 24000 cm
3 3

=0.05 mol
Number of nitrogen molecules = 0.05 mol × 6.02 × 1
0 = 3.01 × 1 0
23 22

Example

Example:

A gas jar containing 200cm³ of oxygen gas at s.t.p. Find the mass of the oxygen
gas. [Relative atomic mass: Oxygen = 16; Molar volume of gas at s.t.p. = 22.4
dm³]
Answer:
Number of mole of oxygen gas,
n = 200 cm / 22400 cm
3 3

= 1 112 mol
Relative molecular mass of oxygen
= 2×16 = 32
Mass of oxygen
= 1 112 × 32 gmol -1

=0.286g
Chemical Formulae
1. Each element is represented by its own chemical symbol.
2. In an element, the chemical formula represents the atoms in the molecule.
3. The chemical formula tells us:
1. the types of atoms or ions in the compound,
2. the number of atoms or ions in the compound,
4. For example, the chemical formula for ethene is C2H4. This shows that ethene
is the result of the combination of the elements carbon and hydrogen, and
there are 2 carbon atoms and 4 hydrogen atoms in each molecule of ethene.
5. Generally, chemical formula can be divided into
1. Empirical formula
2. Molecular formula
6. The empirical formula of a substance is the chemical formula that gives the
simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in the substance.
7. The molecular formula of a substance is the chemical formula that gives the
actual number of atoms of each element in the substance.
Empirical Formula
1. The empirical formula of a substance is the chemical formula that gives the
simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in the substance.
2. Empirical = information gained by means of observation, experience, or
experiment.
Example:
Chemical Substances Molecular Empirical
Formula Formula

Glucose C6H12O6 CH2O

Water H2O H2O


Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2

Benzene C6H6 CH

Butane C4H8 CH2


Finding Empirical Formula

Steps to determine the empirical formula of a compound STEP 1: Find the mass
STEP 2: Find the mole STEP 3: Find the simplest ratio
Example: In a chemical reaction, 4.23g of iron reacts completely with 1.80g of
oxygen gas, producing iron oxide. Calculate the empirical formula of iron oxide.
[Relative atomic mass: Iron = 56; Oxygen = 16] Answer:

Element Fe O
Mass 4.23g 1.80g
Number of 4.23 56 1.80 16
mole =0.0755 =0.1125
Simple ratio 0.0755 0.1125
0.0755 =1 0.0755
=1.5
Ratio in round 2 3
number
The empirical formula of iron oxide = Fe O 2 3

Example: Determine the empirical formula of a compound which has a


percentage of composition Mg: 20.2%, S: 26.6%, O: 53.2%. [Relative atomic
mass: Mg = 24; S = 32; O = 16] Answer
Element Mg S O

Percentage 20.2% 26.6% 53.2%

Mass in 100g 20.2g 26.6g 53.2g

Number of 20.2 24 26.6 32 53.2 16


mole =0.8417mol =0.8313mol =3.325mol
Simple ratio 0.8417 0.8313 0.8313 3.325 0.8313
0.8313 =1 =1 =4
The empirical formula of the compound is MgSO4
Example: From an experiment, a scientist found that a hydrocarbon contains
85.7% of carbon according to its mass. Find the empirical formula of the
hydrocarbon. [Relative atomic mass: Carbon = 12; Hydrogen = 1] Answer:

Element C H
Percentage 85.7% 14.3%
Mass in 85.7g 14.3g
100g
Number of 85.7 12 14.3 1
mole =7.142mol =14.3mol
Simple ratio 7.142 7.142 14.3 7.142
=1 =2
The empirical formula of the hydrocarbon = CH 2

Molecular Formula
1. The molecular formula of a substance is the chemical formula that gives the
actual number of atoms of each element in the substance.
2. A molecular formula is the same as or a multiple of the empirical formula.
3. For example, the empirical of carbon dioxide is CO2 and the molecular formula is also CO2.
4. Whereas, the empirical formula of ethane is CH3 while the molecular formula of ethane
is C2H6.

Finding Molecular Formula


Example
Given that the empirical formula of benzene is CH and its relative molecular mass is 78.
Find the molecular formula of benzene. [Relative Atomic Mass: Carbon: 12; Hydrogen: 1]

Answer:
Let’s say the molecular formula of benzene is C H . n n
The relative molecular mass of C H n n

= n(12) + n(1)
= 13n

13n = 78
n = 78/13 = 6

Therefore, the molecular formula of benzene


= CH
6 6

Example:

What is the mass of metal X that can combine with 14.4g of oxygen to form X
oxide with molecular formula X2O3. (RAM: O = 16; X = 56 )
Answer:
Number of mole of oxygen = 14.4 16 =0.9 mol
From the molecular formula, we learn that the ratio of element X to oxygen
X:O = 2:3 Therefore, the number of mole of X =0.9× 2 3 =0.6 mol
Number of mole, n = mass Molar mass 0.6= mass 56* mass=33.6g
The mass of element X = 33.6g *Molar mass of a substance
= Relative atomic mass of the substance

Percentage of Composition of a Compound


1. To find the percentage of composition of a substance means to find the
percentage of mass of each element in the molecule of the substance to the
mass of the molecule.
2. The percentage of mass of an element can be determined by the following
equation:
3. Percentage of mass of an element =
Sum of the Relative Atomic Mass of the Element Relative Molecular Mass of t
he substance ×100%
Example

Calculate the percentage of composition of DDT (C14H9Cl5). [Relative atomic mass:


Carbon = 14; Hydrogen = 1; Chlorine = 35.5]
Answer:
Relative molecular mass of DDT =14(12)+9(1)+5(35.5)
=354.5
Percentage of carbon = 14(12) 354.5 ×100%=47.4%
Percentage of hydrogen = 9(1) 354.5 ×100%=2.5%
Percentage of chlorine = 5(35.5) 354.5 ×100%=50.0%
Chemical Formula of Ionic Compounds
Formula of Ions
1. Ionic compounds made up of positive ions and negative ions.
2. To write the formula of an ionic compound, we need to know the symbol and
charge of the ions in the compound.
Positive ions that you need to know in SPM form 4 chemistry:

Ion Symbol Ion Symbol

Potassium K + Calcium Ca 2+

Sodium Na + Magnesium Mg 2+

Lithium Li + Zinc Zn 2+

Hydrogen H + Barium Ba 2+

Argentums(I) Ag + Iron (II) Fe 2+

Mercury(I) Hg + Tin (II) Sn 2+

Ammonium NH + Lead(II) Pb 2+
4

Aluminium Al3+ Copper(II) Cu 2+

Iron (III) Fe3+ Manganese(II) Mn 2+

Negative ions that you need to know in SPM form 4 Chemistry

Sulphate Carbonate Nitrate Hydroxide


SO 4
2-
CO 3
2-
NO 3

OH–

Fluoride Chloride Bromide Iodide Oxide

F –
Cl –
Br –
I –
O 2-

Negative ions that you need to know in SPM form 5 Chemistry

Phosphate PO43-

Ethanoat CH3COO–

Manganate(VII) MnO4–

Dichromate(VI) Cr2O72-

Thiosulphate S2O32-

Chemical Formlula of Ionic Compounds


2 Requirements to form the formula of an ionic compound
1. Have at least 2 types of ions that contain opposite charge.
2. The amount of positive charge/charges must be equal to the amount of
negative charge/charges in the compound.

Example 1 – If the Charge of the Positive Ions = Charge of Negative


Ions Write the formula of each of the following compound
1. Potassium bromide
2. Sodium chloride
Answer: a. Potassium bromide

b. Sodium chloride
Example 2 – If the Charge of the Positive Ions ≠ Charge of Negative Ions
Write the formula of each of the following compound
1. Calcium iodide
2. Sodium oxide
Answer:
a. Calcium iodide

b. Sodium oxide

Example 3 – If there is more than 1 element in the ion


Write the formula of each of the compound
1. Ammonium sulphate
2. Zinc nitrate
Answer: a. Ammonium sulphate

b. Zinc nitrate
Example 4 – Formulae of Acid
Write the formula of the following acid
1. Hydrochloric acid
2. Sulphuric acid
3. Nitric acid
4. Ethanoic acid
5. Phosphoric acid
6. Carbonic acid
Answer: a. Hydrochloric acid

b. Sulphuric acid

c. Nitric acid

d. Ethanoic acid

e. Phosphoric acid
f. Carbonic acid

Formula of Molecule
In SPM, you need to know the formulae of the following molecules

Fluorine F 2 Hydrogen chloride HCl


Chlorine Cl 2 Hydrogen bromide HBr
Bromine Br 2 Hydrogen iodide HI
Iodine I 2 Nitric oxide NO
Carbon CO NO
2 Nitrogen dioxide 2
dioxide

water HO 2 Nitrous oxide NO


2

Ammonia NH 3 Tetrachloromethane CCl 4

Sulphur SO HF
3 Hydrogen sulphide 2
trioxide

Sulphur SO C6H12O6
2 Glucose 2
dioxide

Chemical Equation
Writing Chemical Equations
A Balance Equation
According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, atoms cannot be created or
eliminated in the process of chemistry reaction. Therefore, the amount of atom of
each element before reaction must be equal after reaction.

Example:
Balance the following chemical equations:

1. Mg + O2 → MgO
2. CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O
3. Na + H2O → NaOH + H2
4. Li + Cl2 → LiCl
Answer:
a.
2Mg + O →
2 2MgO
b.
CuO + H → 2 Cu + H O
2

c.
2Na + 2H O →
2 2NaOH + H 2

d.
2Li + Cl → 2 2LiCl
Writing a Balance Equation

Example:
Lead(II) nitrate aqueous react with potassium iodide aqueous to produce lead(II)
iodide precipitate and potassium nitrate aqueous.

Answer:

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