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SECOND EDITION Architectural
4 Design for the vehicle
David Adler CI/SFb 12
UDC 656.1
The section on bikeways was written by Michael Littlewood, and that on service
stations is based on the chapter in the previous edition written by the late John

KEY POINTS: 9 Service stations

• Commercial vehicles are getting larger and heavier 10 References and Bibliography
• More separate provision for bicyles is being made
• More consideration is being given to the needs of pedestrians
• Better facilities for disabled people including wheelchair
users and people with visual impairment are becoming 1 VEHICLES
1.01 Scope
This section deals with data on:
1 Vehicles • Cycles
2 Roads in general • Motor-cycles and scooters
3 Roads in residential areas • Automobiles: cars and small vans up to 2½ tonnes unladen
4 Roads in industrial parks weight
5 Road design details • Commercial vehicles up to 10 tonnes unladen weight
6 Bikeways and bicycle parking • Public Service Vehicles (PSVs): buses and coaches
7 Car parking • ‘Juggernauts’, large commercial vehicles maximum 40t. This
8 Loading/unloading class includes those with draw-bar trailers (see 4.1).

4.1 Dimensions, weights and turning circoles of typical road vehicles:

600 2250 600



bicycle motor bicycle

4500 1700 950

3050 1410 950

0.6 t
1.2 t

small car (Mini) family saloon

5350 1900 1000

2.1 t

large car (Rolls Royce)

2000 1000

2.2 t

large American car

4-2 Design for the vehicle

5900 2000

2000 1000

typical British hearse (Daimler, Mercedes)
in London area, Cockney funerals sometimes have elaborate floral arrangements up to 900 mm

6900 2000

2000 1000

American hearse (Cadillac)

6000 2240

4400 1780
4.8 t

2.5 t


2 tonne van (long wheelbase for laundry etc) 1 tonne van, rear engine (smaller vans as cars)

8000 2290


8.3 t

fire appliance, medium size

7400 2290

10.8 t


dustcart, medium capacity

Design for the vehicle 4-3


2740 24 t

three-axle tipper or skip lorry; if under 5.64 m outer axle spread, 20.1 t

6300 2500

16.2 t

2640 max

tipper, same size for two-axle skip lorries and truck mixers


16.2 t




12.1 t


brewer’s dray (three axle, 400 mm wheels for low height loading)


16.2 t
3580 max


16 tonne rigid
4-4 Design for the vehicle

15000 2500

32.5 t


five axle articulated with refrigerated body

15000 2500

32.5 t



four axle articulated with wide spread trailer axles

15000 2500


tractor with twin steer front bogie

15000 2500
4220 max

ISO container


three axle tractor; second steered axle as part of rear bogie with wide spread trailer
axles, suitable for unevenly laden containers

15000 2500

38 t



three axle tractor, typical TIR continental outfit

18000 2500
38t (total)


two axle truck, three axle drawbar trailer, typical European vehicle
Design for the vehicle 4-5

1.02 Dimensions A particular example is the standard container, which is used on

The dimensions of some examples of each class are given in 4.1. lorries, ships, railways or even as a storage unit in the open, 4.2. As
In any specific case, the manufacturer’s data should be this system was first developed in the USA, the standard
consulted. dimensions are imperial, but the German railways developed a
parallel version.
1.03 Unit construction
In the field of the larger commercial vehicles, unit construction is 1.04 Turning circles
now almost universally employed. In this system a given chassis Apart from the physical dimensions, it is necessary to know the
can be fitted with a variety of body shells for specific purposes and critical characteristics of the vehicle in motion, particularly when
loads, mainly of standard dimensions. The body can be changed at manoeuvring while parking or preparing to load. These character-
will, permitting one body to be loaded while the chassis is on the istics are complicated, and usually the manufacturer will quote
road with another body delivering goods elsewhere. solely the diameter of the turning circle, either between kerbs or
between walls.
end Manoeuvring diagrams have been published for various vehicles
elevation side elevations
for the following operations:
2.43 6.09 9.14 12.19

• Turning through 90°
• Causing the vehicle to face in the opposite direction by means
over-height of a 360° turn in forward gear
• Ditto in reverse gear
2.43 6.09 9.14 12.19 • Causing the vehicle to face in the opposite direction by means
of both the forward and reverse gears (three-point turn), in
standard height • Ditto in Y-form
• Ditto in a forward side turn
2.43 6.09 12.19 • Ditto in a reverse side turn.
4.3 shows the 90° turns for some of the common vehicles. The
other diagrams will be needed for the design of turn-rounds in cul-
ISO Container sizes de-sacs, etc. The use of the published turning circle sizes is not
sufficient for the following additional factors:
2.6 6 9 12
• The distance required for the driver to turn the steering wheel
2.6 from straight ahead to full lock depends on the speed, which for
the purposes of 4.3 is between 8 and 16 km/h.
DB (German Railways) Container sizes
• The radius of turn differs between a right-hand and a left-hand
4.2 Dimensions of standard containers turn.

350 mm 650 mm overhang 5420 600 mm

overhang 2690 overhang 4000

5000 3920
12000 3270 9000



a private car
2500 c refuse collection vehicle
b pantechnicon

750 mm overhang 730 mm overhang 3810 220 mm overhang



e fire appliance

d medium commercialvehicle
f largest commercial vehicles
4.3 Geometric characteristics of typical vehicles turning through 90°
4-6 Design for the vehicle

• The path traversed by the rear wheels is different from that by 2.02
the front wheels. In a commercial vehicle travelling at slow This chapter will generally deal only with roads and facilities
speed, the rear wheels follow a smaller arc to the front wheels, within development sites, such as industrial parks and housing
the amount depending largely on the distance between the axles. estates. Public roads are not normally the concern of the architect,
The divergence between the arcs of the wheels on the same side but Table I gives the recommended carriageway widths for most
of the vehicle is termed the ‘cut in’, and value of this determines road types.
the total track width of the turning vehicle, always greater than
when on the straight. 2.03 Definitions
• While few vehicles have a measurable side overhang of the
Carriageway: the area of road surface dedicated to vehicles
body beyond the wheel track, many have considerable overhang
Carriageway width: the distance between the kerbs forming the
at front and rear. This is important at the front: the extra width
carriageway edges
beyond the wheel tracks described by the body is known as
Dual carriageway: a road with a central reservation, each
‘cut-out’. Allowance should be made for front and rear
separate carriageway carrying traffic in the reverse direction
overhang when designing turn-rounds, etc. by having no
lane: a width of carriageway capable of carrying a single line of
vertical obstructions within 1.2 m of the carriageway edge.
vehicles, usually delineated with white-painted dashed lines on
the carriageway surface
Lane width: since the maximum vehicle width permitted is
2.5 m, and the minimum clearance between parallel vehicles is
2.01 Hierarchy 0.5 m, the minimum lane width is 3 m. However, vehicles
The broad hierarchy of roads is: travelling at speed require greater clearance and large vehicles
need greater widths on curves, so faster roads have wider lanes
• Motorways and trunk roads
Cycle track or cycle path: a completely separated right-of-way
• Distributors (primary, district and local)
primarily for the use of bicycles
• Access roads.
Cycle lane: a portion of a roadway which has been designated by
striping, signing, and pavement markings for preferential or
exclusive use by cyclists
Table I Recommended carriageway widths
Shared roadway: a right-of-way designated by signs or
permanent markings as a bicycle route, but which is also shared
Road type Recommended carriageway width (m)
with pedestrians and motorists
between kerbs or edge lines Footway: an area of road devoted solely for the use of
pedestrians, including those in wheelchairs or with prams, and
Primary distributor One-way, four lanes 14.6
Overall width for divided carriageway, 14.6 running alongside the vehicular carriageway. In Britain the
two lanes each way with central refuges footway is also called the ‘pavement’, in the USA the
Two-way, four lanes total, no refuges 13.5
One-way, three lanes 11
Two-way, three lanes (recommended only 9 Footpath: a facility for pedestrians not forming part of a road.
for tidal flow)
One-way, two lanes 7.3 Footway and footpath recomendations will be found in Chapter 6.
District distributor One-way, two lanes 7.3
One-way, two lanes if the proportion of 6.75
heavy commercial traffic is fairly low
Two-way, two lanes 7.3 3 ROADS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS
Local distributor Two-way, two lanes 7.3 3.01 Environmental areas
and access road in
industrial district
This section focuses mainly on roads in residential areas and in
housing estates. However, the principles are the same in industrial
Local distributor Two-way, two lanes 6.75
and access road in Minimum two-way, two lane back 5
and business areas, only the details will differ.
commercial district service road used occasionally by heavy An ‘environmental area’ is surrounded by distributor roads from
vehicles which access to the properties within is gained solely via the
Local distributor in Two-way, two lanes used by heavy 6 access roads within it. The access road network is designed with
residential district vehicles minimum the following in mind:
Access road in see text and 4.5
residential district • Road access to within 25 m (or 15 m in certain cases) of each
Where all vehicles are required to be 5.5 house
able to pass each other
Where a wide car can pass a 4.8 • Road access to all private garages, whether within curtilages or
pantechnicon in garage courts; and to all parking areas
Where two wide cars can pass each
other, but a pantechnicon can only pass a
• Through traffic from one distributor road to another, or to
another part of the same road (avoiding a traffic blockage) is
Where a single track only is provided, as either impossible, or severly discouraged
for a one-way system, or where passing
places are used
• Necessary tradesmen, e.g. ‘milk-rounds’, calling at all or most
for all vehicles 3
properties in sequence, are not unreasonably diverted
for cars only (drives) 2.75 • In general, traffic is not allowed to proceed too fast, but
Rural roads One-way, four lanes 14.6 visibility at all times is at least the stopping distance for the
One-way, three lanes 11 possible (not the legal) speed limit.
Two-way, three lanes 10
4.4 illustrates typical access road layouts.
One-way, two lanes 7.3
Two-way, two lanes 7.3
Motorway slip road 6 3.02 Types of access road
Minimum for two-way, two lanes 5.5
Minimum at junctions 4.5
Access roads in residential areas are of three types:
Single-track between passing places 3.5
Overall at passing place 6 • Major access roads (or transitional). These are short lengths of
road connecting a distributor road with the minor access road
Design for the vehicle 4-7

with only one footway. Occasionally a single track ‘car way’

2.75 m wide is used for access to about 50 dwellings, in
conjunction with a separate footpath system.
• Shared private drives, mews courts, garage courts and housing
squares. Generally these facilities serve up to 20 dwellings, and
are designed for joint pedestrian/vehicle use with hard surfaces,
no upstand kerbs and no footways. Access to them from the
a b c
collector roads is marked by some device such as a short ramp
or rough surface material, with the purpose of slowing down the

3.03 Designed controls

Conventionally roads were designed so that cars could be parked
on both sides, and two cars could still pass. This encouraged use by
vehicles trying to avoid congestion on main roads, with excessive
d e f speed and consequent nuisance and danger to the inhabitants. 4.5
4.4 a and b are through roads, so tortuous as todiscourage through shows the characteristics of the various carriageway widths.
trafic; c and d are non-through systems, but avoid the need for While legal penalties can apply to misuse of these roads, these
hammer-head turnrounds; e is a cul-de-sac system, but will have require enforcement resources which are rarely available. It is
substantial traffic at the entrance; f is to be preferred on this therefore the designer’s responsibility to build-in the discourage-
count, although both systems post problems for the ‘milk round’ ment required. Closures, narrowing and speed humps are now used
in existing roads; but these have unwanted side-effects such as
complications for ambulances, fire engines and even local buses.
network, the latter at a T-junction. They are normally 6 m wide, In new developments it should be possible to avoid these measures
have no direct access to property along their length, and serve and still provide sufficient restraints.
from 200 to 400 dwellings. 4.6 to 4.8 show typical arrangements of humps. The slowing
• Minor access or collector roads. These form the backbone of effect of various ramps is detailed in 4.9. 4.10 and 4.11 give the
the network, will serve up to 200 dwellings and be 5.5 m wide Department of Transport requirements for hump dimensions.

5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5

all vehicles can two cars can pass

pass each other

lorry & cycle

can pass

4.8 4.1 3

car & lorry can two cars can car & cycle
just pass just pass could pass

4.5 Characteristics of various carriageway widths on two-way roads

4-8 Design for the vehicle

There are considerable disadvantages to the use of humps.

Vehicles, such as delivery vans, that are continuously using roads
3000 – 5000 length footway with humps find that maintenance costs on tyres, wheels and
suspensions are significantly increased. Buses and ambulances
parking find that their passengers experience discomfort and even danger.
An alternative slowing device to the hump is the ‘chicane’,
max 1000
examples of which are shown in 4.12.
Once garages and visitors’ parking spaces are provided,
min height
50 mm ramp length kerbside parking may be discouraged by constructing one-way
– 70 mm roads with minimum carriageway widths. However, occasional
access by large furniture vans (and, unfortunately, fire appliances)
max 1000 will be necessary; and regular visits by refuse collection vehicles
have to be as trouble-free as possible. For example, local
authorities dislike cul-de-sacs with end turning areas permanently
obstructed by parked cars, and may well insist on residents
bringing their refuse to the entrance of the road.
Refuse vehicles and delivery vans blocking narrow roads cause
annoyance to other residents trying to pass; consider having at
4.6 Cushion hump least two routes of access/egress for most parts of the area.

3000 – 5000 length footway


max 1000 length 5000 – 15000 footway


max 1200
50 – 100 mm
ramp length ramp length
max 1000

4.7 Double cushion humps 4.8 Flat top hump used as a pedestrian crossing

flat top

(1 in 10)
(1 in 7) (1 in 10)

(1 in 7½)
(1 in 5) 40 m
mm 10%
100 40 m
90 14%
60 m
(1 in 4) (1 in 6) 13%
height of 70 60 m
20% xt
vertical 60 ne e
50 17%
40 m
e to asur
shift (1 in 3½) n c m e
40 40 m a
28% ist ming
30 x.d l
20 60 m ma fic-ca
28% f
10 tra
60 m
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 mm
length of ramp

4.9 Results of research into ramp dimensions for 85 percentile speed of 32 kph (20 mph)
Design for the vehicle 4-9


100 mm max
These must provide for use by the largest vehicles, but otherwise
(constant profile across width)
pose the same problems as roads in housing estates. Layout should
segment of circle discourage traffic using the roads as a cut-through, and should also
road ensure that the speed of the legitimate traffic is kept low. This is
h surface not a simple matter, as corner radii cannot be too sharp when heavy
vehicles constitute a substantial proportion of the traffic.
3.7 m


5.01 Visibility and stopping distance

It is an axiom of road design that the driver should be able to see
a distance at least as far as the distance he or she needs to stop in.
200 If the object seen is also a moving vehicle, the sight distance must
allow both vehicles to stop before colliding.
4 . 1 3 gives the design stopping distances for speeds up to
110 km/h (approx 70 mph). These distances are about 2 1/4 times the
4.10 Dimensions of round toproad hump from the Highways
stopping distances given in the Highway Code for vehicles with
(Road Hump) Regulations 1990
good brakes in ideal conditions. This is to allow for reduced brake
performance, poor weather conditions and impaired visibility.
h = 50 mm min When emerging from a side road onto a through road the driver
100 mm max
must be able to see a vehicle on the through road a distance of that
(constant profile across width)
vehicle’s stopping distance. When crossing a footway the driver
2.5 m minimum should be able to see 2.4 m along it. Where small children are to be
expected this visibility should be to within 600 mm of the ground;
but where there are no small children (such as in industrial areas)
1050 mm will be sufficient. 4.14 and 4.15 indicate the areas that
must be free of obstruction, and Table II gives some recommended
0.6m minimum
standards in residential areas.
5.02 Curves
As mentioned in Section 1.04, when a vehicle travels round a
curve the road width it occupies is greater than the track width on
150 min the straight. Table III combined with 4.16 indicates the magnitude
300 max of this – the width of carriageway should be increased on curves to

4.11 Dimensions of flat-top hump from the same source

2.000 1050


4.14 Required heights for unobstructed visibility


chicane with chicane with 400 400 400 400

inadequate 'racing line'
lateral shift prevented 1.800 1.800
('racing line' by divided X = 2.4m X = 2.4 m
possible) carriageway Y = stopping distance. car entering road Y = 2.4 m car crossing footway

4.12 Chicane types of traffic slowing device 4.15 Required distances for unobstructed visibility

speed in km/h (mph in brackets)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
(6) (12) (19) (25) (31) (37) (44) (50) (56) (62) (68)

10 20 30 50 70 90 115 140 170 200 230

stopping distance in metres

4.13 Design stopping distances

4-10 Design for the vehicle

Table II Recommended standards in junction design

Junction type Radius Minimum Opposite Sightlines (m)

(m) junction
Road A Road B R spacing (m) X Y

Local distributor Any other road 10 80 40 5 60 in 30 mph zone

80 in 40 mph zone road
100 in 50 mph zone B
Minor access road Major access road 6 2.4 40
Minor access road Minor access road 6 25 8 2.4 40

Minor access road entrance to mews or 4.2 25 8 2.4 40

garage court X
Single track road entrance to mews or 8 & 5 25 8 Junctions must be road A
garage court Offset intervisible
Mews or garage court entrance to mews or 4.2 2.4 10
garage court

Table III Outside turning radius of front axle (m)

Minimum radius 15 30 45 60 75–400 400+


10.45 3.92 4.57 3.44 3.89 2.96 3.19 2.80 2.95 2.73 2.84 2.68 2.77 2.53 2.54 Pantechnicon
9.62 3.27 3.87 2.94 3.33 2.66 2.85 2.58 2.71 2.53 2.63 2.50 2.58 2.42 2.43 Refuse vehicle
7.91 3.15 3.88 2.67 3.06 2.42 2.61 2.34 2.47 2.30 2.40 2.27 2.35 2.19 2.20 Fire appliance
5.78 2.38 2.73 1.96 2.10 1.84 1.91 1.80 1.85 1.78 1.81 1.76 1.78 1.73 1.74 Private car

X = Maximum width of wheel path

Y = Maximum width of wheel path plus overhang




4.16 Widening on bends; dimensions X and Y are given in Table III

Design for the vehicle 4-11

5.03 Corners
Since the internal radius of turn of a large commercial vehicle is
about 8 m, it will be seen that a kerb radius of 10 m will be needed .4
for such vehicles to maintain a constant distance from the kerb 6R 4.5 6
while turning the corner, also allowing some spare for the distance
6 6 10

covered while turning the steering wheel. A kerb radius of 10 m in

all cases would mean large areas of carriageway at junctions, and
would be inappropriate in scale in many places, particularly in 7.4 R
5R 6R
residential areas. Where traffic volumes are low there is no reason 9.5
why the occasional large vehicle should not encroach on the
opposite side of the road, provided that clear visibility is 4.5
maintained so that vehicles affected by the manoeuvre can take
avoiding action in time. 4.17 illustrates the effects of using radii of
10, 6 and 4 m.
9R 4.5
5.04 Turn-round areas
Where conventional arrangements are used in turn-round areas in 9R
mews courts and housing squares, the minimum standards in 4.18
can be employed. Some local authorities require more generous
minimum standards for their refuse collection and fire-fighting
vehicles. In cases of doubt, use the specimen vehicle track 10 R
diagrams in 4.3.

5.05 Gradients
Acceptable gradients are hard to define. What would be quite local 6.75 distributor
normal in the Peak district would be considered horrendous in
Lincolnshire. Consider the likelihood of snow and icy conditions 4.18 Typical recommended dimensions for use in urban areas

in winter, when anything greater than about 12 per cent becomes

no obstruction no obstruction impassable without snow tyres or chains. Most general-purpose
roads are now constructed to 7 per cent or less. Ramps to lorry

loading bays and car parking garages are limited to 10 per cent.


Some car parks in basements or multi-storey have gradients up to

15 per cent (and occasionally beyond). These steep gradients


require vertical transition curves at each end to avoid damage to

vehicles. Also, steep gradients either up or down should be avoided
obstruction no obstruction
close to the back of pavement line or road edge, as it is difficult to
see clearly, or to take preventative action if needed.

5.06 Verges
Where there is no footway, a soft verge of 1 m width should be
provided for the accommodation of services (water, gas, elec-
no obstruction
tricity, communications, etc.) and to allow for vehicular




obstruction considerable
to through obstruction obstructed 6.01
road For definitions see Section 2.02.

6.02 Gradients
Cyclists will avoid steep gradients. Studies show that if gradients
exceed 5 per cent there will be a sharp drop in the length of uphill
grade that cyclists will tolerate. 4.19 illustrates commonly


accepted maximum uphill grades based on length of grade;

downhill gradients of 6.5 per cent are acceptable.


difficulty in turning 6.03 Width

obstruction to both roads
& obstruction to Factors to consider when determining widths for bikeways must
both roads include:

• The dimensions of the cyclist and the bicycle

4.17 Junction design; the effect of kerb radius on traffic vlow at • Manoeuvring space required for balancing
the T-junction of two 5.5 m wide roads • Additional clearance required to avoid obstacles.
4-12 Design for the vehicle

max gradients %


50 100 150 200

length of slope (m)

3000 min
4.19 Acceptable gradients for bikeways

4.22 Cycle path shared with pedestrians

2400 min


1500 min 2400 min

4.20 Single-track cycle path 4.23 Cycle lane on all-purpose roadway

A width of 2.75 m is recommended for single-track bikeways, 6.04 Surfacings

although 1.8 m, 4.20, is acceptable. For two-way traffic 3.6 m is A separate bikeway should have a smooth non-stick surface and
advisable. 4 . 2 1 shows a two-way right-of-way based on US have a thickness capable of supporting maintenance vehicles.
practice. There should be no obstruction within 1.2 m of the edge Asphalt, concrete, gravel and stabilised earth are materials
of the riding surface, as this could be a danger. If the path is commonly used.
alongside a wall or fence, ensure that a line is painted on the
surface at least 300 mm from it.
In almost all cases two-way travel will occur on cycle paths 6.05 Drainage
regardless of design intentions; appropriate widths should be Surfaces should have a crossfall of at least 2 per cent to provide
provided. 4.22 illustrates a typical path where cycles share with positive drainage. Drainage grilles should have their slots diagonal
pedestrians, and 4.23 a cycle lane on the near side of an all-purpose to the route of the cyclist and be designed and located to minimise
road. danger.
3000 min


1200 min 3000 min 1200 min

graded paved graded

4.21 Two-way bicyle path on separated right of way

Design for the vehicle 4-13


700 ± 50 550 min

0 m
700 ± 50

250 min

800 min crs 500 min



4.26 It is important that arrays of Sheffield stands make best

use of space. Attempts at closer spacing than shown will not
succeed due to blocking of some positions by carelessly parked
4.24 Basic Sheffield parking stand


12 mm H.S.
50 mm rod or tube
50 mm

100 mm

1800 mm
minimum spacing
950 900

4.27 An arrangement in an angle between two walls

6.06 Cycle parking

This should be located as close to destinations as possible without
interfering with pedestrian traffic; and where visual supervision,
lighting and shelter from inclement weather can be achieved. It is
750 mm essential to provide facilities for securely locking the bicycle frame
and the front wheel wheel to something immoveable. The
favourite is the Sheffield stand 4.24 or in certain situations, wall
bars 4.25. The groove in the concrete paving slab illustrated in the
previous edition of this book is to be deplored: it provides no
security, and can easily damage the wheel. In extreme cases,
lockers large enough to contain a bicycle can be provided. 4.26 to
4.29, show arrangements where larger numbers of cycles are
4.25 Wall bar, suitable for smallparking spaces where short-term expected. See Section 7 for suggested scale of cycle parking
parking is required provision.
4-14 Design for the vehicle


200 550
4.28 Circular array with a capacity for 32 cycles


4.30 A domestic garage of minimum dimensions

2800 – 3200

4.29 Circular array with a capacity for 24 cycles 4900

550 – 950
A clear parking policy for each area is an essential. Many facilities
now provide little or no parking in order to discourage the use of
private transport. This is only effective if it is clearly impossible to 2300
park on the adjacent roads, and if there is adequate public transport
available. Consider also the needs of disabled people. 4.31 A more generous garage permitting passenger access
There are no statutory requirements and few guidelines for the
scale of parking provision. Table IV gives recommendations, but
each specific case should be examined to determine expected
requirements. Some planning authorities now restrict parking
provision for cars in order to give a measure of restraint to 3300
Table IV also includes recommendations for the scale of bicycle
parking. These are quite generous so as to encourage greater use of
bicycles. However, account should be taken of the local conditions line of galvanised
– in places such as Cambridge where there are substantially more barrel over
bicycles than average, greater provision should be made.

800 min
7.02 Domestic garages
The domestic garage is the basic provision for residential areas.

This can be: stirrup

• Within the envelope of the house or block of flats
• A separate detached building or
• One of a number in a garage court.

4.30 to 4.36 show a number of typical arrangements.


7.03 Car parks

Once the scale of provision has been decided, the form will depend 4.32 Garage for a driver who is a wheelchair user (for an
on the size and shape of the available area, and also on the type of ambulant disabled driver, a width of 2.8 m is adequate)
Design for the vehicle 4-15

Table IV Parking and loading/unloading requirements

Type of building Car parking provision Loading/unloading provision Cycle parking

Normal housing Residents: one garage space for each occupancy, Refuse collection vehicle within 25 m of each disposal
(preferably within the curtilage) point (dustbin position). Some authorities require
vehicle within 15 m. Where communal containers
Visitors: where houses are served directly from a road,
(paladins) are used, maximum distance 9 m
driveways provide a minimum of one car space within
curtilage of each Furniture removal vehicle as near as possible, not
further than 25 m
Where visitors cannot park within curtilage, one off-street
space per four dwellings

Minimum-cost Space should be provided, if not laid out, to allow for one As above
housing resident’s or visitor’s parking space per dwelling,
provided public transport is available

Old people’s One garage space per two dwellings As above


Sheltered housing Resident and non-resident staff: one car space per two As above, plus provision for special passenger vehicle
members present at peak period with tail lift, etc

Visitors: use empty staff places, but provide one Minimum provision for daily loading/unloading 50 m 2
additional place per five dwellings

Shops Staff: one car space (preferably in enclosed yard behind See diagrams of loading bays. 1 per 200 m2 with
shop) for each 100 m2 gross floor area General minima as follows: minimum of 4
Gross floor space not Minimum space
or, if known, one space per managerial staff plus one for
exceeding: required:
every four other staff
500 m 2 50 m 2
Customers: one space for each 25 m2 gross floor area. In 1000 100
superstores with gross floor area exceeding 2000 m 2000 150
allow one space per 10 m2. (Not appropriate when goods
each additional
sold are obviously bulky, e.g. carpets, boats) 2
1000 m 50 m 2

Banks Staff: one space for each managerial or executive staff, Minimum 25 m 2 2
plus one per four others
Customers: one space per 10 m of net public floor space
in banking hall
2 2
Offices Staff: one space for each 25 m of gross floor area, or General minima: 1 per 200 m with
one space for each managerial and executive staff, plus Gross floor space not Minimum space minimum of 4
one space per four others exceeding: required:
2 2
100 m 50 m
Visitors: 10% of staff parking provision
500 100
1000 150

each additional
1000 m 2 25 m 2
2 2
Production buildings Staff: one car space per 50 m of gross floor area See loading bay diagram. Provision to be 1 per 500 m with
(factories) commensurate with expected traffic minimum of 4
Visitors: 10% of staff parking provision
General minima as follows:
Gross floor space not Minimum space
exceeding: required:
100 m 2
70 m
250 140
Storage buildings Staff: one space per each 200 m2 of gross floor space 500 170 1 per 1000 m2 with
(warehouses) 1000 200 minimum of 4
2000 300

each additional
1000 m 2 50 m 2

Hotels, motels and Resident staff: one space per household General minima as follows: 1 per 10 beds with
public houses Gross floor space not Minimum space minimum of 4
Non-resident staff: one space for each three staff
exceeding: required:
members employed at peak period
500 m 2
140 m
Resident guests: one space per bedroom 1000 170
2 2000 200
Bar customers: one space for each 4 m of net public
space in bars each additional
1000 m 2 25
Occasional diners: no additional provision required

If conferences are held in the hotel, space required should

be assessed separately at one space for each five seats
Restaurants and Resident staff: one space per household General minima as follows: 1 per 25 m with
cafés Dining floor space not Minimum space minimum of 4
Non-resident staff: one space per three members
exceeding: required:
employed at peak period
100 m 2 50 m

Diners: one space for each two seats in dining area 250 75
(For transport cafés. the space should be a lorry space of 500 100
45 m2, and the arrangement should be such that vehicles
can enter and leave without reversing)
Licensed clubs Resident staff: one space per household Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 25 m with
minimum of 4
Non-resident staff: one space for each three members
employed at peak period

Performers: one space for each solo performer and/or

group expected at peak
Patrons: one space per two seats, or one space per 4 m
net public floor space
4-16 Design for the vehicle

Table IV (continued)

Type of building Car parking provision Loading/unloading provision Cycle parking

Dance halls and Staff: one space per three members at peak period Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 25 m2 with
discotheques minimum of 4
Performers: three spaces
Patrons: one space per 10 m of net public floor space

Cinemas Staff: one space per three members at peak period Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 100 seats with
minimum of 4
Patrons: one space per 5 seats Space required within site by main entrance for two
cars to pick up and set down patrons

Theatres Staff: one space per three members at peak period Minimum 100 m 2 1 per 100 seats with
2 minimum of 4
Performers: one space per 10 m of gross dressing room Space required within site by main entrance for two
accommodation cars to pick up and set down patrons

Patrons: one space for each three seats

Swimming baths Staff: one space for every two members normally present M i n i m u m 50m 2 1 per 4 staff

Patrons: one space per 10 m2 pool area

Sports facilities and Staff: one space per three members normally present Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 4 staff
playing fields
Players: one space for each two players able to use the
facility simultaneously, provided public transport is
reasonably close. Otherwise two spaces for each three

Spectators: provide only if more than three times the

number of players

Marinas Staff: one space per three members normally present Minimum 50 m 1 per 4 staff

Boat-users: two spaces for each three mooring-berths. (If

other facilities are included, eg restaurant, shop etc,
provide additional spaces at 50% normal provision for
each additional facility)

Community centres Staff: one space for each three members normally present Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 4 staff
and assembly halls
Patrons: one space for every five seats for which the
building is licensed

Places of worship Worshippers: one space per ten seats in space for worship Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 60 seats
minimum 4
Space provided within site close to main entrance for
two cars to set down and pick up worshippers

2 2
Museums and public Staff: one space per two members normally on duty Minimum 50 m 1 per 300 m
art galleries 2 minimum 4
Visitors: one space per 30 m of public display space

Public libraries Staff: one space per three members normally on duty Minimum 50 m 1 per 300 m2
minimum 4
Borrowers: one space for each 500 adult ticket holders If used as a base for a mobile library, provide another
with a minimum of three spaces. If there are separate 50 m to park this
reference facilities, provide additional spaces at one for
each ten seats

Hospitals Staff: one space for each doctor and surgeon, plus one General minima as follows: 1 per 12 beds
space for each three others Gross floor space not Minimum space
exceeding: required:
Outpatients and visitors: one space for each three beds
1000 m 2 200 m 2
2000 300
4000 400
6000 500

every additional
2000 m 2 100 m

Health centres, Staff: one space per doctor etc Sufficient for requirements specified, including if 4
surgeries, clinics necessary space for special vehicle for non-ambulant
one space per two members of staff other than doctors
etc employed at peak period

Patients: two spaces per consulting room

Special schools, Staff: one space for each two members normally present Minimum 30 m 2 1 per 6 staff
day-care centres and
Attenders: in many cases these will be transported to the Accommodation for special passenger vehicle
adult training
centre. For certain centres for the physically handicapped,
centres Space provided within the site for cars and/or buses to
allow one space for special or adapted self-drive vehicle
set down and pick up
per four attenders

Nursery and primary Staff: one space per two members normally present Minimum 30 m 2 1 per 6 staff
Visitors: two spaces

Hard surface play area used for parking on open days etc.

Secondary schools Staff: one space per two members normally present Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 6 staff
1 per 3 students
Visitors: schools with up to 1000 pupils – four spaces, Space provided within site for school buses to set
larger schools – eight spaces. down and pick up

Hard surface play area used for parking on occasion

Design for the vehicle 4-17

Table IV (continued)

Type of building Car parking provision Loading/unloading provision Cycle parking

Sixth form colleges Staff: one space per two members normally present Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 6 staff
1 per 3 students
Visitors: colleges with up to 1000 pupils – five spaces,
larger schools – ten

Hard surface play area used for parking on occasion

Further education Staff: one space for each member normally present Minimum 50 m 2 1 per 6 staff
colleges and 1 per 3 students
Students and visitors: one space for each three students
retraining centres
normally present

5000 2800






4.33 A garage for two cars

4.34 A garage of minimum length
but width sufficient for a 4.35 A garage with a
workbench workbench at the end

2000 min

1700 for 5 cars

4.36 Cross-section through a garage showing


raised storage area

2800 clear zone

4.37 Basic parking dimensions. Standard European parking bay or stall 4.8 × 2.4, b echelon parking at 45° (other angles
allow 24 m2 per car, including half the clear zone but no access gangways can be used): 22.1 m2 per car or 19.2 m2
where interlocking in adjacent rows
1800 against kerb
2400 against wall

12000 for 5 cars

end bay with straight in access

30500 for 5 cars 4800


clear zone clear zone


a in-line parking 20.1 m 2 per car against kerb, 23.8 m 2 against wall c head-on parking, 18.8 m 2 per car
4-18 Design for the vehicle

4.38 Basic parking dimensions. Large European parking or American bay or stall 20000 for 5 cars
5.8 × 2.8, allow 33 m2 per car, including half the clear zone but no access

2000 against kerb
2800 against wall

clear zone

b echelon parking at 45° (other angles

35000 m for 5 cars 5800 can be used): 32.0 m2 per car or 28.0 m2
7000 where interlocking in adjacent rows

14000 for 5 cars

clear zone


a in-line parking 27.0 m2 per car against kerb, 32.6 m2per car against wall clear zone

c head-on parking, 26.5 m2 per car

4.39 Types of multi-storey car parks

vehicle expected. 4 . 3 7 and 4 . 3 8 give examples of various attendants. In practice, this rarely shows any advantage over
arrangements, but again, these should be taken purely as a guide. conventional types.
This type of car park assumes that vehicles arrive and leave in a Wherever public or private parking facilities are provided,
random fashion. In some situations, such as sporting events, a appropriate arrangements for disabled people, whether drivers or
dense arrangement can be adopted which means that all vehicles passengers, should be made. Disabled parking bays should be as
have to leave approximately in the sequence in which they close as possible to the place that the user needs to go, and
arrived. preferably under visual supervision to discourage misuse by
4.39 shows various types of multi-storey garage. No dimensions others. Bays should be at least 800 mm wider than standard, to
are shown as these vary with the site. An additional type, not permit manoevring of wheelchairs for transfer, and any kerbs
illustrated, incorporates a mechanical stacking system operated by should be ramped.
Design for the vehicle 4-19


4.40 to 4.45 show requirements for loading, unloading and parking
large vehicles.

6.5 m
overall length for 5 vehicles = L
canopy over
if not under

20 m
a deck

500 min

Y crs

allow 3.3 m

Y crs
run for each
vehicle 8000

draw forward
outside swept
before vehicle length = 15000
radius = 11400
turning = X
1.2 m high platform
overall width required = W

X Y W L Area per
draw centres o/a width o/a length vehicle (m )

forward for 5 in out

1 5.0 27.4 22.5 123
2 4.4 28.4 20.1 114
3 4.0 29.4 18.5 109
4 3.7 30.4 17.3 105
5 3.4 31.4 16.1 101
6 3.0 32.4 14.5 94

33 50°
4.40 Lorry parking and loading bays: head-on for the largest 00 5700

4.42 Minimal loading docks appropriate for limited number of

vehicles per day, extremely high land costs or other physical

overall length for 5 vehicles = L

9.01 Types of service station

dr There are three main types:
tu aw
in fo
g rw
= ar
X d
50 in
• Petrol company owned and operated (’co-co’). There are only a
m few of these.
• Dealer-owned and operated. The petrol company may finance
the construction, extension or improvement in their house style,


3200 hi
in return for a agreement that only their petrol is sold. The


ng dealer may be free to sell products such as lubricating oils from


15 other companies. About 75 per cent of all service stations are of
0 this type.
• Company owned but dealer operated.
overall width required =W
The two company-owned types account for less than a quarter of
all stations, but for nearly half of all petrol sales.
X Y W L Area per
Petrol companies set great store by their visual image:
draw centres o/a width o/a length vehicle (m )
motivation is totally commercial, and all design decisions are so
forward for 5
gross net* influenced.

4 4.8 18.4 39.5 145 113

5 4.5 19.1 37.8 144 111 9.02 Petrol pumps
6 4.2 19.8 36.1 144 108 A pump is capable of dispensing up to 700 litres per hour to an
7 3.9 20.5 34.4 141 105
8 3.6 21.2 32.7 139 101
unbroken queue of customers if it gives a choice of products.
9 3.4 21.9 31.6 138 100 Single-product pumps have a slower output potential because
10 3.2 22.6 30.5 138 98 customers have to manoeuvre to the pump they require. When
11 3.1 23.4 29.9 140 99
12 3.0 24.1 29.3 141 99 calculating the number of pumps that will be required to service
the expected trade, allow for pump down-time and maintenance
* Excluding the empty triangles at each end.
averaging 10 per cent.
4.41 Lorry parking and loading bays: diagonal (45°) for the The range of available products has changed radically since the
largest vehicles previous edition of this book. Of leaded petrol, only 4–star is now
4-20 Design for the vehicle

safety kerb

safety kerb

loading depth of load
accumulation &
sorting area
depends on type of
loads & throughput
3000 min

white line

4.44 Ramp on a sharp curve, such as access to a shopping


centre loading dock. Maximum gradients 10 per cent on

straight, 7 per cent on inner kerb

loading &

floor slab

end height of
vehicle opening
height 4750
80° 4500

12500 min 4000 3000 min

effective opening basement level

4.43 Finger dock, where manoeuvring depth is limited and side 4.45 Headroom criteria for covered loading docks
loading is required as well as end loading. Very fast turnround
times are possible although capacityis small

6.0 (min) 7.5 (recommended)

to allow car to pass to next pump

GLC area: I
6000 preferred
GLC area:
max access at
4300 (min)
90° to road
preferred other places:
other places: consult LA
7500 (min)
consult LA
(car manoeuverability)

Pedestrians and drivers whether access to site

must have uninterrupted ‘IN & OUT’ or both depends
view of each other on planning authority

4.46 Layout of petrol filling station. Petrol outlets such as service hoses, tank filler pipes,
ventpipes, etc, have normally to be more than 4.3 m from the property boundary, 4.3 m from
electrical equipment where sparking is possible, and 2 m froma ny flame or non-flameproof
electrical appliance
Design for the vehicle 4-21

canopy support

1200 rec
125 – 225

300 600
1100 min
min min

4.41 Pump island. A kiosk is not advisable on the island unless electrical equipment such as
heater and cash register can be more than 1.2 m from the pump

top of pump
4267 4267 housing or 1219,
which ever
3048 3048
is greater

forecourt level DIV 1 ZONE
pump housing 229 any lighting
fitting below this
height to be
Div 1 Std.

4.48 Elevation of forecourt showing classification of areas: Division 1 – where a dangerous

atmosphere is likely in normal conditions, and where only flameproof electrical fittings to
CP1003 Part 1:1964 and BS 1259: 1958 can be used, Division 2 – where a dangerous
atmosphere is likely only in very abnormal conditions, and where only non-sparking electrical
fittings to CP1003 part 3: 1967 (sections 2 and 3) can be used

Table V Approximate sizes of petrol storage tanks 1524 from site boundary unless solid
wall 1524 beyond vent in every direction
Capacity (litres) Diameter (mm) Overall length (mm)

min 1524
2 270 1 370 1 750
from window
2 730 1 370 2 060
3 410 1 370 2 600 or other
4 550 1 370 3 350 opening
5 680 1 530 3 430
6 820 1 830 2 900
9 100 1 830 3 800
11 370 2 000 4 040
13 640 2 130 4 120 vent
22 730 2 290 5 950
min 3650

available, and there are now at least two types of lead-free petrol
as well as diesel sold by most stations. There is reason to believe fall 5%

that further changes may be coming, so a flexible design approach

is needed. cover 700 min
As much as 90 per cent of one day’s sales may occur in the peak
4000 max

period hour, which will vary from station to station. To meet this in entry to basement
factor, an efficient circulation pattern with no inbuilt delays or
obstructions is essential, 4.46. The lanes between the pump islands
should be sufficiently wide (7.5 m) to allow waiting cars to move
past cars being served. A pump island is shown in 4.47.
The requirements of the Department of Transport’s Model Code
4.49 Installation of petrol storage tank
of Principles (see References and Bibliography) with regard to the
safety zoning of forecourts are given in 4.48.
are required in vehicle areas. Common sizes of tanks are given in
Most service stations are now designed for both self- and
Table V. Tanks may be compartmented to hold the different
attendant service. There are as yet few stations provided with
automatic dispensing and charging, although the number is
Choice of size is based on 4½ days forecast of sales plus one
expected to increase.
road tanker load (25 000 litres), e.g. for a station selling 45 460
litres per week:
9.03 Petrol storage
Tanks may be sited on or off the forecourt and vehicle 4½ days supply 29 500
manoeuvring space, but siting should allow for daily lifting of the Tanker load 25 000
inspection covers to check stocks by dipstick. Heavy-duty covers Total 54 500 litres
4-22 Design for the vehicle


a b gl

4.50 Methods of installing inspection covers to prevent water

ingress: 3a raising above general level
b surrounding with a sunken channel

900 mm
65 mm dip valve
65 mm vent pipe 65 mm fill pipe

bund wall
tank installed with 4.52 Petrol interceptor chamber
enclosing a
fall of 50 mm/m gate valve
volume equal to in direction of arrow
tank capacity 50 mm filter

Criteria affecting the installation of tanks are given in 4.49+ Note

450 the interdependence of tank diameter, depth and distance of the
pump. More details are given in the Model Code of Principles.
oil-resistant check valve spring loaded to The 4.0 m maximum suction lift is to prevent gravitation and
render suit pressure head exerted by evaporation of the petrol. Petroleum regulations do not require
40 mm plug cock fuel tank
encasement of the tank, but it is advisable, particularly beneath
for removal of sediment
wheel loads (up to 11.5 tonnes) and to protect tanks against
4.51 Installation of an above-ground tank for diesel oil, corrosive ground water. Encasement in sand in a brick pit is hardly
kerosene, etc less expensive than mass concrete, but the tank is easier to remove.

showroom and waiting room

trolley on rails test tune beam rails

movable to other bays equipment setter

work bench

wheel alignment


hose reels over

water (shared by two bays) consumable spares
1.500m hiqh if lift is store plugs, bulbs,
oil used facilities must nuts, bolts etc
also be provided, for
oil pit at lower level
adjacent bay

adjacent bay

gear oil
pit or preferably
air twol level lift

freeing static wheel
device balancer

600 1100 1900 1100 600

4.53 ‘One-stop’ service bay for note: all servicing included except
lubrication and mechanical services plan brake tester and dynometer
Design for the vehicle 4-23

4.54 Service pits for private vehicles

dispenser for
Side 3 grades of
wall engine oil
metal metal
grille floor grille floor

track pit track track pit track


recommended handrail
distance to side
2300 1900 1900 1900 1900

plan at ground level


1900 1900 1900 1900

950 950 950 950
450 x 150
duct to oil store


quarry tiles

waste oil
disposal unit non-slip
waste oil tank

Plan below ground level


oil reels

dispenser for 3 grades

water of engine oil

457 × 152 RSJ

used as track
upstand edge
acts as guide metal grille floor

white glazed


400 cupboard

waste oil lower level to

disposal unit facilitate easy
movement about the pit
cross section
4-24 Design for the vehicle

water oil dispenser

600 × 400 mounting

steel angle movable
plate containing grease under vehicle
edging vehicle jack
and gear oil lighting

waste oil
disposal unit
longitudinal section


The tanks must be held down during concreting, preferably by water and will float to the top and evaporate through the exhaust
strapping them down to the concrete base. They must be pressure manifold. The three chambers give it three channels in which to do
tested by the controlling authority both before and after this. The chamber is situated between the last surface water
encasement. collecting inspection chamber and the sewer, and in a place where
Petrol must not escape from inspection chambers above or the local authority silt collection vehicle can reach it. Vents must
below ground, and rainwater should not percolate into them. The be brought above ground before being connected to the manifold
three alternatives are: and main vent stack.
Local authorities usually require the chamber to have a 275-litre
• Raising the cover above the general surface level, 4.50a
capacity, but some permit the use of smaller preformed plastic
• Surrounding the cover with a channel, 4.50b
chambers. A brick chamber should not be internally rendered, as
• Using a sealed cover.
the render tends to fall off and block the pipes.
Tanks may be required for various fuels other than petrol,
particularly in rural areas. These are usually rectangular tanks 9.04 Vehicle servicing
above ground, 4.51. The controlling authority may require a The Conditions of Appointment of authorised examiners for the
‘bund’ wall around the tank to contain spillage of the entire DoT test (under section 45 of the Road Traffic Act 1988) include
contents in the event of a leak. The normal size of above-ground appendices ‘Requirements for premises and equipment’. These are
tanks is about 2700 litres, very detailed, and the latest version should be consulted as the
Interceptor chambers are used to ensure that no petrol enters the regulations are increasingly stringent with the aim of reducing the
main or rainwater drainage systems, 4.52. Petrol is lighter than number of testing stations.

white glazed
wall tiles
lighting tools edging of
steel angles

edging of MS angle guide

steel angles


lighting 300
200 space for tools

100 white glazed 300

5200 – 6700
wall tiles
duck boards
on floor of pit
plan duck boards
on floor of pit
cross section

5200 to 6700
1700 1200 1700
lighting tools lighting

steps up
gulley or sump

floor of pit
laid to falls

tools lighting tools

1200 1700 1200
plan 4.55 Service pits for commercial vehicles
Design for the vehicle 4-25

power unit containing

water and detergent
concrete floor laid to falls vacuum cleaner unit tanks and pumps water supply

900 × 450 where possible
space should
grille panels be provided for
leathering off
etc of similar
size to the
3600 to 4600

wash bay and

3000 101 × 76 RSJ over drained well

spray arch
water storage

tank over if
required by
local water

mud and grease gulley authority

800 6400 average 800

5500 to 8000

centre support water storage

101 × 76 RSJ over tank if
spray vacuum cleaner unit
extension pieces


glazed wall
3000 by fitting
2500 may be

to spray arch

increased to


power unit

300 500

mud and grease gulley

longitudinal section

water storage 9.05 Other facilities

tank if required Depending on size and nature of business, a service station may
101 × 76
RSJ over need all or some of the following:
(fixed by
builder) • Office, essential for most, to keep the safe for takings, DoT test
certificate blanks, etc.
• Toilets, obligatory under the Workplace Directive. These may

be shared with customers
• Staff rest room
unit • Shop, to sell motor accessories, confectionery, and possibly
grille many other goods. Counters need space for self-service console
unit and cash register. Shop should be at least 3 m wide, and at least
25 m2 in area excluding goods storage
glazed • Security design and detailing should ensure clear visibility from
cross section wall the road of any parts liable to forced entry.
50 fall tiles

4.56 Small washing bay with spray arch for automatic operation


At least three servicing bays are needed to be economically ASCE, Bicycle transportation, a civil engineer’s notebook for
viable, and they each require a space 9 m × 4 m, 4.53. bicycle facilities, 1980
Hoists are preferable to pits except for heavy commercial Avon County Council, Draft cycle parking standards, 1991
vehicles because of fire risk and drainage problems. They do Cheshire County Council, Design aid, housing: roads
require a minimum headroom of 4.8 m, whereas pits, 4.54 and CTC, Technical note, cycle parking
4.55, only need 3.3 m. Department of Transport/Welsh Office, Local Transport Note
An extract vent system in the servicing area may not draw air 1/89: Making way for cyclists, planning design and legal aspects
from less than 1.2 m above floor level, to avoid drawing petrol of providing for cyclists, Annex A, HMSO 1989
fumes into the system and through fan motors. All equipment Department of Transport/Welsh Office, Statutory Instrument 1990
should be approved non-sparking apparatus. No 703 The Highways (Road Hump) Regulations 1990, HMSO
An automatic car wash layout is shown in 4.56. 1990
4-26 Design for the vehicle

Health and Safety Executive, Petrol filling stations: construction Departments of the Environment and Transport, Residential roads
and operation, HMSO 1990 and footpaths: layout considerations. Design Bulletin 32, second
Vehicle Inspectorate, MOT Testing scheme, conditions of appoint- edition. HMSO April 1992.
ment of authorised examiners and designated councils, class III Devon County Council, Traffic calming guidelines, December
and IV vehicles, rev Sept 1995 1973
M. Hudson, The Bicycle Planning Book Open Books/Friends of Essex County Council, A design guide for residential areas
the Earth, 1978 Lancashire County Council, Car parking standards, 1976
J. McCluskey, Road Form and Townscape, Architectural Press, York City Council, Cycle parking standards, 1989
Sustrans, Making Ways for the Bicycle, A Guide to Traffic-Free
Path Construction, Sustrans Ltd, 1994
Edited by DAVlD ADLER BSc DIC DEng MICE Civil Engineering Consultant

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