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Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods

Variate Jensen-Logistic Distribution

(2015) The Generalized Pascal Triangle and the Matrix Variate Jensen-Logistic

Distribution, Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, 44:13, 2738-2752, DOI:

10.1080/03610926.2013.791374

Article views: 54

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Communications in Statistics—Theory and Methods, 44: 2738–2752, 2015

Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 0361-0926 print / 1532-415X online

DOI: 10.1080/03610926.2013.791374

Variate Jensen-Logistic Distribution

Downloaded by [Centro de Investigaciones en Matemáticas, A.C,] at 08:27 07 March 2016

GONZÁLEZ-FARÍAS,2 AND N. BALAKRISHNAN3

1

Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellı́n, Medellı́n,

Colombia

2

Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas, Monterrey, México

3

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton,

Canada

This article defines the so called Generalized Matrix Variate Jensen-Logistic distri-

bution. The relevant applications of this class of distributions in Configuration Shape

Theory consist of a more efficient computation, supported by the corresponding in-

ference. This demands the solution of two important problems: (1) the development

of analytical and efficient formulae for their k-th derivatives and (2) the use of the

derivatives to transform the configuration density into a polynomial density under some

special matrix Kummer relation, indexed in this case by the Jensen-Logistic kernel. In

this article, we solve these problems by deriving a simple formula for the k-th deriva-

tive of the density function, avoiding the usual partition theory framework and using a

generalization of Pascal triangles. Then we apply the results by obtaining the associ-

ated Jensen-Logistic Kummer relations and the configuration polynomial density in the

setting of Statistical Shape Theory.

polynomials; Generalized Kummer relations.

1. Introduction

Matrix-variate distribution theory has played a key role in the development of Statistics for

the last sixty years. Main contributions may be grouped into two types: (a) improvements

in the computation of Jacobians and the integration theory through zonal polynomials

and invariant polynomials of matrix arguments (see Muirhead, 1982; Davis, 1981; and

the references therein), necessary to establish densities, and evident in numerous theorical

papers describing families of ditributions in those terms; and (b) efficient computation of

Address correspondence to Graciela González-Farı́as, Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas,

Monterrey, México; E-mail: gmfarias@gmail.com

2738

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2739

zonal polynomials, recently implemented by Koev and Edelman (2006) as an initial step

for building inference assosciated with a matix-variate distribution.

These advances have left the field with the following open problems. (1) Although

the computation of zonal polynomials is feasible, the matrix-variate densities of interest in

applications are represented by infinite series of polynomials, and as Koev and Edelman

(2006) observe, there is as yet no solution to the problem of convergence and truncation

of the series of zonal polynomials, and consequently a robust and trustworthy inference

cannot be constructed. Many theorical papers writen using zonal polynomials are awaiting

application. The few articles that have documented their inferential applications have done

so through approximations and asymptotic distributions, requiring at their very foundations

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idealized assumptions, often hard to sustain when modeling reality (see Muirhead, 1982).

(2) The problem becomes harder when more complex distributions are expanded in terms

of invariant polynomials (a generalization of the zonal polynomials; see Davis, 1981), since

there is to date no efficient computational method for them beyond the fifth order, and so

densities represented by products of infinite series of these polynomials cannot be computed

(see examples of such series in Davis, 1979; Chikuse and Davis, 1986, and the references

therein). (3) Finally, a somewhat specific but still non-trivial problem is that of obtaining

explicit formulae for the k-th derivative of the generating function of a distributional

model under consideration, a necessity for finding its exact distribution. Although a general

expression for the k−th derivative of the generator exists and can be written in terms of

partition theory (Caro-Lopera et al., 2009a), its computational implementation is costly,

and so in the case of many densities a simplification has been attempted. Among the few

cases that allow for such a simplification are the Kotz type, Pearson, and Jensen-Logistic

distributions; the first two have been studied and applied (see Caro-Lopera et al., 2009a;

Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014), but the last one is still awaiting its

study with a non-partitional approach.

It seems that the second problem is still an impossible one, and more than 30 years

after Davis proposed the invariant polynomials, an efficient computational construction of

them is unavailable. Solutions to the first problem may be attempted through numerical

and analytical approches. Trying a numerical solution, like that proposed by Koev and

Edelman (2006), is computationally quite involved and would involve the typical trade-off

between the convergence and truncation of the series. On the other hand, the analytical

route has succesfully solved the problem in specific contexts, using polynomial densities

via generalized Kummer matrix relations. Recent studies on Shape Theory, such as the one

in Caro-Lopera and Dı́az-Garcı́a (2012), have shown that the densities in infinite series

are highly unstable, and do not reach the required global maximum as they exceed the

capacity of the algorithms, which cannot handle the required number of truncations of the

series (over 120), while the use of polynomial densities allows the exact estimation of these

parameters. Other treatments of these ideas have been discussed by in Caro-Lopera et al.,

(2008) and Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera (2008).

Finally, the third problem depends exclusively on the function to derive, and cannot be

generalized to any function by a theory other than that of partitions, already implemented.

The introduction of a new matrix distribution should generally address three issues:

(1) to solve the problem of integration in the domain of the matrix variate; (2) to find a

polynomial density under some transformational approach and conditions for the parame-

ters, to ensure the feasibility of inference over exact distributions; and (3) to find an easily

computable formula for the k−th derivative.

Accordingly, the rest of this article is organized as follows. In Sec. 2, we derive

a new family of elliptical distributions that generalizes the Jensen-Logistic density, and

2740 Caro-Lopera et al.

obtain its general k−th derivative in the simplest possible way using a mathematical tech-

nique based on the Pascal triangle. Then, in Sec. 3, the corresponding Kummer relation

is obtained through the use of the general derivative, setting the distribution in the do-

main of polynomial densities, and avoiding the open problem regarding their computation

via a series of zonal polynomials. Finally, in Sec. 4, the above-mentioned Kummer re-

lation is applied in the context of Shape Theory by deriving the configuration density

under a Generalized Jensen-Logistic sample. It turns out to be a simple polynomial ex-

pression, a very uncommon situation in the complicated set of distributions expressed

in terms of zonal polynomials that facilitates the handling of inferential problems in the

future.

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derivatives

In the last two decades, the matrix variate distribution theory based on non-Gaussian

distributions has been studied by a number of authors, in an attempt to extend the well-

known Gaussian procedures to the classes of elliptical distributions; see, for example, Fang

and Anderson (1990), Fang and Zhang (1990), and Gupta and Varga (1993).

Constantine (1963), five decades ago, described the matrix variate distribution based on

the normal in the setting of zonal polynomials of A.T. James. The extensions for elliptical

models were not immediate, because the generalization requires the integration of non-

exponential kernels and such procedures usually cannot be inherited from the Gaussian

case. The best compilation of the matrix variate distribution theory based on normality is in

Muirhead (1982). It is easy to see that most of the results depend critically on the integral

(a)κ m (a)

etr(−XZ)|X|a−(m+1)/2 Cκ (XY)(dX) = Cκ (YZ−1 ), (1)

X>0 |Z|a

where Z is a complex symmetric m×m matrix with (Z) > 0 and Y is an m×m symmetric

matrix. If we want to translate the procedures of Muirhead (1982), written in terms of zonal

polynomials, to distributions of the elliptical class, we see that the classical literature on

elliptical densities is not expressed in terms of such polynomials. The first issue we have

to consider is to solve the problems relating to the integral in (1).

As in the Gaussian case, the generalizations that we pursue can be found in the general

integral derived by Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a):

h(tr XZ)|X|a−(m+1)/2 Cκ (XY)(dX)

X>0

∞

m (a)

= |Z|−a (a)κ Cκ (YZ−1 ) h(w)w ma+k−1 dw. (2)

(ma + k) 0

Note that the result in (1) is trivially obtained from (2) by taking h(y) = e−y .

This integral can now be used in different and very general contexts such as the

Statistical Shape Theory under elliptical models (see, for example, Caro-Lopera et al.,

2009a, 2009b, Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera 2010, 2013, 2014 and Caro-Lopera and Dı́az-

Garcı́a, 2012), and new generalizations of relations based on elliptical kernels, such as the

Kummer relations (see Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera, 2008).

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2741

From the structure of (2), new approaches can be developed based on Taylor expansions

of the generator functions of the elliptical models. Therefore, it is important to provide

closed expressions for the k-th derivatives of the generator function.

For the main elliptical distributions, such as Kotz, Pearson, Bessel, and Jensen-Logistic,

this is not a trivial problem. In fact, the general derivative of the generator function stays

in the context of partition functions. Explicit formulae for the above-mentioned elliptical

families of distributions can be seen in Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a). However, only a few

families, such as some classes of Kotz distributions, have a simple form for the general

derivative, thus facilitating inferential procedures.

First, we propose the class of distributions that will be the baseline for the paper.

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Jensen-Logistic distribution with parameters M : p × n, > 0 : p × p, > 0 : n × n,

m ∈ N, if its pdf is

f (X) = , (3)

||n/2 ||p/2 {1 + etr[−(X − M) −1 (X − M)−1 ]}m

pn/2 ∞ pn 2 −1

e−z

where c = (pn/2) 0 z (1+e−z )m

dz < 0.

For m = 2, we have the matrix variate symmetric Jensen-Logistic distribution.

This family belongs to the class of elliptically contoured distributions, with generator

function h(y), which has recently been studied under a general approach involving a series

of zonal polynomials (see Muirhead, 1982) and the derivatives h(k) (y); see, for example

Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a).

Thus, in this context and in order to facilitate some applications, we will propose a

new distribution and study its derivatives. In general, this is not a trivial problem, since the

derivations are set in terms of partition theory, a rather cumbersome approach.

The required derivatives have a closed form expression and were given in the following

result due to Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a).

Lemma 2.1 Let f (t) = s(t)r(g(t)), where s(·), r(·) and g(·) have derivatives of all orders.

k

If w (k) denotes ddtwk , then

k

k

f (k) = s (m) [r(g(t))](k−m) , (4)

m=0

m

where

k! k

k

[r(g(t))](k) = k r( i=1 νi ) (g (i) )νi ,

νi

ν

κ=(k νk ,(k−1)νk−1 ,···,3ν3 ,2ν2 ,1 1 ) i=1 νi !(i!) i=1

(5)

of k.

Note that the function f admits a Taylor expansion. Therefore, the above expressions

always exist for all k.

2742 Caro-Lopera et al.

Jensen-Logistic distribution avoiding the above mentioned partitional approach, and setting

the result in a simple way by using a generalization of the Pascal triangles.

We start with the classical matrix variate symmetric Jensen-Logistic distribution known

in the literature, the case of m = 2, and show that the general results can be obtained by

extending it.

i. The solution via partition theory. Consider the generator function of (3) when

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h(k) =

k−m

k

(k − m)! k−m

νi + 1 ! e−(1+ i=1 νi )y

k i=1

m

k−m k−m k−m .

m=0 κ∈Pk−m (−1)m+ i=1 (1+i)νi i=1 νi !(i!)νi (1 + e−y )2+ i=1 νi

(7)

Here, the summation is over all the ordered partitions κ of k −m. For simplification

in the notation we use h(k) instead of h(k) (y).

ii. The new approach. A natural way to avoid the partitional formula in (7), is as

follows.

Write the generator function in (6) as

where

1

H (y) = . (9)

1 + e−y

Then, the k-th derivative of h(y) can be written as

k

h =h· 1+

(k) i

bi H , (10)

i=1

for certain coefficients bi . The formula for the coefficients bi needs to be established.

For example, the first five cases give

h(1) = h · (1 − 2H ) ,

h(2) = h · 1 − 6H + 6H 2 ,

h(3) = h · 1 − 14H + 36H 2 − 24H 3 ,

h(4) = h · 1 − 30H + 150H 2 − 240H 3 + 120H 4 ,

h(5) = h · 1 − 62H + 540H 2 − 1560H 3 + 1800H 4 − 720H 5 .

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2743

The coefficient of H k is (−1)k (k + 1)!, but the remaining ones do not seem to have

a simple recursion formula.

iii. An alternate solution. Based on an idea similar to one above and recalling that

the objective of the above-mentioned procedure is to avoid the partitional formula

given by (7) and simplify the computation, we propose the following procedure.

First, write (6) as

−2 −2

h(y) = e−y 1 + e−y = ey 1 + ey .

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H (y) = ey , (11)

then

k

h(k) = (1 + H )−k h 1 + ci H i . (13)

i=1

h(0) = (1 + H )0 h [1] ,

h(1) = (1 + H )−1 h [1 − H ] ,

h(2) = (1 + H )−2 h 1 − 4H + H 2 ,

h(3) = (1 + H )−3 h 1 − 11H + 11H 2 − H 3 ,

h(4) = (1 + H )−4 h 1 − 26H + 66H 2 − 26H 3 + H 4 ,

h(5) = (1 + H )−5 h 1 − 57H + 302H 2 − 302H 3 + 57H 4 − H 5 .

The symmetry in the coefficients of the polynomial inside the brackets suggest to

collect them in the following Pascal-type triangle (with alternating signs, starting

with +). For example the first nine cases are as follows:

1

1 1

1 4 1

1 11 11 1

1 26 66 26 1

1 57 302 302 57 1

1 120 1191 2416 1191 120 1

1 247 4293 15619 15619 4293 247 1

1 502 14608 88234 156190 88234 14608 502 1

1 1013 47840 455192 1310354 1310354 455192 47840 1013 1

Now, the question is whether we are able to build the triangle as in the classical

Pascal array. Fortunately, the answer is yes, and this can be explained by looking

at the binomial array type of (12). For example, every element of the 10th line can

be obtained from the two coefficients above in the 9th line, namely,

1013 = 9 · 1 + 2 · 502

47840 = 8 · 502 + 3 · 14608

2744 Caro-Lopera et al.

1310354 = 6 · 88234 + 5 · 156190

1310354 = 5 · 156190 + 6 · 88234

455192 = 4 · 88234 + 7 · 14608

47840 = 3 · 14608 + 8 · 502

1013 = 2 · 502 + 9 · 1

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So, by using the same classical induction proof in Pascal’s triangles, we can

establish the following result.

Lemma 2.2 If aji is the coefficient cj of H j in the i-th derivative of h according to (13),

then:

⎡ ⎤

k

h(k) = (1 + H )−k h ⎣1 + −ajk−1 (k + 1 − j ) + ajk−1

+1 (j + 1) H

j⎦

, (14)

j =1

r

with a−1 = ak+1

r

= 0 and a0r = akr = 1, for every r = 1, 2, . . ..

Proof. We already saw that the result holds for k = 1, 2. Now, let us assume that

⎡ ⎤

k

h(k) = (1 + H )−k h ⎣1 + −ajk−1 (k + 1 − j ) + ajk−1

+1 (j + 1) H

j⎦

j =1

⎡ ⎤

k

= (1 + H )−k h ⎣1 + cj H j ⎦ .

j =1

⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫

d ⎨ ⎬

k

h(k+1) = (1 + H )−k−2 H ⎣1 + cj H j ⎦

dy ⎩ j =1

⎭

⎛ ⎞

k

= (−k − 2)(1 + H )−k−3 H ⎝H + cj H j +1 ⎠

j =1

⎛ ⎞

k

+(1 + H )−k−2 ⎝H + (j + 1)cj H j +1 ⎠

j =1

⎡ ⎛ ⎞

k

= (1 + H )−k−1 h ⎣(−k − 2) ⎝H + cj H j +1 ⎠

j =1

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2745

⎛ ⎞⎤

k

+(1 + H ) ⎝1 + (j + 1)cj H j ⎠⎦

j =1

⎡

k

= (1 + H ) −k−1

h ⎣(−k − 2)H + (−k − 2)cj H j +1

j =1

⎤

k

k

+1 + (j + 1)cj H j + H + (j + 1)cj H j +1 ⎦

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j =1 j =1

k+1

= (1 + H )−k−1 h (−k − 2)H + (−k − 2)cr−1 H r

r=2

k+1

k+1

+1 + (r + 1)cr H + H +

r

rcr−1 H r

r=1 r=2

k+1

= (1 + H )−k−1 h 1 + (−k − 2)cr−1 H r

r=1

k+1

k+1

+ (r + 1)cr H + r

rcr−1 H r

r=1 r=1

k+1

−k−1

= (1 + H ) h 1+ (−(k + 2 − r)cr−1 + (r + 1)cr ) H r

.

r=1

Finally, by inspection of the recurrences we can obtain the corresponding formula for

the binomial coefficient type in terms of k and j, as follows.

is given by

⎡ ! ⎤

k j +1

k + 2

h(k) = (1 + ey )−k h · ⎣1 + (−1)j (−1)j +1−n n1+k ejy ⎦ . (15)

j =1 n=1

j + 1 − n

Proof. The proof follows from (14), i.e., just by verifying that

−1 + (j + 1)cj ,

k−1

2746 Caro-Lopera et al.

The extension for any m ∈ N is straightforward, we just need to apply the same procedure

as described for the case m = 2.

Explicitly, we want to obtain the k-th derivative of the generator function of (3)

given by

−m −m

h(y) = e−y 1 + e−y = e(m−1)y 1 + ey .

Consider as before

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H (y) = ey , (16)

then

k

−k

h (k)

= (1 + H ) h (m − 1) + k

ci H i

; (18)

i=1

h(0) = (1 + H )0 h · [1]

h(1) = (1 + H )−1 h · [(m − 1) − H ]

h(2) = (1 + H )−2 h · (m − 1)2 − (3m − 2)H + H 2

h(3) = (1 + H )−3 h · (m − 1)3 − (6m2 − 8m + 3)H + (7m − 3)H 2 − H 3

h(4) = (1 + H )−4 h · (m − 1)4 − (10m3 − 20m2 + 15m − 4)H

+(25m2 − 20m + 6)H 2 − (15m − 4)H 3 + H 4

h(5) = (1 + H )−5 h · (m − 1)5 − (15m4 − 40m3 + 45m2 − 24m + 5)H

+(65m3 − 75m2 + 46m − 10)H 2 − (90m2 − 34m + 10)H 3

+(31m − 5)H 4 − H 5 .

Motivated by the symmetry of the case m = 2 (classical Jensen-Logistic), and their ar-

rangement into a Pascal-type triangle, we try to collect the polynomial coefficients of the

brackets under the same class of arrays.

1

(m − 1) 1

(m − 1)2 3m − 2 1

(m − 1)3 6m2 − 8m + 3 7m − 3 1

(m − 1)4 10m3 − 20m2 + 15m − 4 25m2 − 20m + 6 15m − 4 1

(m − 1)5 15m4 − 40m3 + 45m2 − 24m + 5 65m3 − 75m2 + 46m − 10 90m2 − 34m + 10 31m − 5 1

In the general case, we have the same rule for constructing the coefficients of a given line

in terms of the preceding one: for example, every element of the 6th line (corresponding

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2747

to the 5th derivative) can be obtained from the two coefficients above, in the 5th line. Note

that the first and last terms of any row i > 1 are clearly (m − 1)i and 1, respectively (which

can be proved very easily by mathematical induction). Thus, we have

65m3 − 75m2 + 46m − 10 = 4 · (10m3 − 20m2 + 15m − 4) + (m + 1) · (25m2 − 20m + 6)

90m2 − 34m + 10 = 3 · (25m2 − 20m + 6) + (m + 2) · (15m − 4)

31m − 5 = 2 · (15m − 4) + (m + 3) · (1).

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So again, by using the same classical induction proof as in Pascal’s triangles, we can prove analogous

to Lemma 2.2, the following result.

−m

Lemma 2.3 If aji is the coefficient cj of H j in the i-th derivative of h(y) = e−y 1 + e−y

according to (18), then

⎡ ⎤

k

h(k) = (1 + H )−k · h · ⎣(m − 1)k + −ajk−1 (k + 1 − j ) + ajk−1

+1 (m + j − 1) H

j⎦

, (19)

j =1

r

with a−1 = ak+1

r

= 0, a0r = (m − 1)r and akr = 1, for every r = 1, 2, . . ..

Finally, we can obtain, as in Theorem 2.1, the corresponding formula for the binomial

coefficient in terms of k and m, as follows.

−m

Theorem 2.2 The i-th derivative of the generator function h(y) = e−y 1 + e−y of the

Generalized Matrix Variate Jensen-Logistic distribution is

⎡ ! ⎤

k j +1

k + 2

h(k) = (1 + ey )−k · h · ⎣1 + (−1)j (−1)j +1−m m1+k ejy ⎦ . (20)

j =1 m=1

j + 1 − m

The above procedures motivated us to study Pascal triangle arrays as a possible source

of solutions in generating functions of certain polynomials. However, the kernels from

other classical elliptical distributions (see Gupta and Varga, 1993) are not suitable for

simplification via Pascal triangles, and some like the general Kotz distribution should

definitively be expressed in terms of partition theory. Only some specific functions allow

for simplification, such as those of the Kotz-type I and the Pearson distributions (see Caro-

Lopera et al., 2009a and Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera, 2012, 2013, 2014). An interesting

problem that can be addressed in the future is to determine what new structures for Pascal

triangles could be proposed to obtain the generating function by integration, and this would

be useful in widening the classes of matrix distributions with desirable properties.

The Kummer matrix relation, first derived by Herz (1955) and studied in the context of zonal

polynomials by Constantine (1963), has been extremely useful in statistical applications,

since in some special distributions, involving infinite series of zonal polynomials, it avoids

the problem in the computation of the series (Koev and Edelman, 2006) and turns them into

2748 Caro-Lopera et al.

simple low-degree polynomials (see Caro-Lopera and Dı́az-Garcı́a, 2012). This famous

relation states that

For the Gaussian kernel, as expected, a general relation applies to any elliptical model.

Recently, Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera (2008) obtained a general relation, which is sum-

marized next.

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Lemma 3.1 If the generator function f (y) of a given matrix variate elliptical model admits

a Taylor expansion, then the generalized Kummer relation is given by

(t) (t)

1 P1 f (0) : a; c; X = 1 P1 f (tr(X)) : c − a; c; −X , (22)

where X > 0, (c) > (m − 1)/2 and a is arbitrary (or at least (a) > (m − 1)/2, if

the integral representation of 1 F0 is used; see Herz (1955, p. 485) or Muirhead (1982,

Corollary 7.3.5).

matrix argument, which was defined by Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a) as

∞

f (t, tr(X)) (a)τ

1 P1 (f (t, tr(X)) : a; c; X) = Cτ (X), (23)

t=0

t! τ

(c)τ

where τ denotes the summation over all partitions τ , τ = (t1 , · · · , tm ), t1 ≥ t2 · · · ≥ tm >

0, of t, Cτ (X) is the zonal polynomial of X corresponding to τ , the function f (t, tr(X)) is

independent of τ and the generalized hypergeometric coefficient (b)τ is given by

m

1

(β)τ = β − (i − 1) ,

i=1

2 ti

where

Then, Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera (2008) applied Lemma 3.1 to the classical Jensen-

Logistic distribution (m = 2), obtaining the Jensen-Logistic Kummer relation by setting

and computing the k-th derivative using (7). Then f (t) (tr(X)) is given by

t t−m t−m

t (t − m)! i=1 νi + 1 ! exp(−(1 + i=1 νi ) tr(X))

t−m t−m t−m ,

m=0

m κ∈P (−1) m+

t−m

i=1 (1+i)ν i νi !(i!) [1 + etr(−X)]2+ i=1 νi

ν i

i=1

and so

⎛ t−m ⎞

t

t (t − m)! νi + 1 !

1 P1

⎝ t−m

i=1

t−m t−m : a; c; X⎠

m=0

m κ∈Pt−m (−1)m+ i=1 (1+i)νi

i=1 νi !(i!)νi 22+ i=1 νi

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2749

= 1 P1 f (t) (tr X) : c − a; c; −X .

Even though the above expression is a polynomial, under certain special values of a and

c, the computation of the coefficients is not easy given the indexation with lexicographically

ordered partitions implicated in the summation. This is where the simplification of the

derivative of the generator obtained in the previous section becomes useful.

We can now improve and generalize that result by using the simple derivative given in

Theorem 2.2, as follows.

−m Kummer relation associated with the gen-

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(k) (k)

1 P1 h (0) : a; c; X = 1 P1 h (tr(X)) : c − a; c; −X , (24)

where X > 0, (c) > (m − 1)/2 and a is arbitrary (or at least (a) > (m − 1)/2), if the

integral representation of 1 F0 is used (see Herz, 1955, p. 485; Muirhead, 1982, Corollary

7.3.5)), where

⎡ !⎤

k j +1

k + 2

h(k) (0) = 2−k−m · ⎣1 + (−1)j (−1)j +1−m m1+k ⎦

j =1 m=1

j + 1 − m

and

⎡ ! ⎤

k j +1

k + 2

· ⎣1 + (−1)j (−1)j +1−m m1+k etr(j X)⎦ .

j =1 m=1

j + 1 − m

would allow for inference with exact polynomial distributions.

The main advantage of the generalized Kummer relations lies in the fact that if c − a is

a negative integer, the series in the right hand side of (24) ends and it is a polynomial.

Thus, if we have a density written in terms of series of zonal polynomials as in the left

hand side of (24), which has important implications in their their computability (see Koev

and Edelman, 2006), then it can be turned into a polynomial density. This allows one to

develop inference on exact distributions which can now be computed efficiently. In fact,

in the context of statistical shape theory of planar images, there are formulas available for

those polynomials; see Caro-Lopera et al., (2007). See also Caro-Lopera et al (2009a) for

the main aspects of statistical shape theory under elliptical models.

As a summary, we start from the fact that two figures X : N × K and X1 : N × K

have the same configuration , if X1 = XE + 1N e , for some translation e : K × 1 and a

nonsingular E : K × K. Therefore, the configuration or shape of an image summarized

in a matrix X : N × K of K landmarks in N dimensions, is all geometric information left

after filtering various kinds of noise in the image such as rotation, scaling, translation and

uniform shear.

2750 Caro-Lopera et al.

The final configuration matrix N − 1 × KU, which contains the configuration coor-

dinates of the original N × K landmark matrix X, can be obtained through the following

transformational process:

LX = Y = UE, (25)

Y = (Y1 | Y2 ) ; here, Y1 is a K × K nonsingular matrix and Y2 a q × K matrix, with

q = N − K − 1 ≥ 1. Observe that E = Y1 and U have the form U = (I | V ) , where

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V = Y2 Y−11 .

The first work in statistical shape theory of Goodall and Mardia (1993) considered that

X has an isotropic matrix Gaussian distribution, with a mean μX ,

X ∼ NN×K (μX , σ 2 IN ⊗ IK ),

and so, under (25), the distribution of configuration matrix U can be obtained.

Caro-Lopera et al., (2009a,b) generalized this approach by assuming that X has a

general elliptically contoured distribution, that is,

and then, obtained an expression for the configuration or affine distribution in terms of an

infinite series of zonal polynomials.

Unfortunately, this family of distributions inherits all the problems about the rela-

tionship between convergence and truncation of a series, when trying to estimate the

distributional parameters of form and dispersion (see Koev and Edelman, 2006). However,

when the the generalized Kummer relation in (22) is applied, the computation is solved

analytically and the following polynomial configuration density is obtained, as derived in

Caro-Lopera et al., (2008).

Lemma 4.1 If Y ∼ EN−1×K (μN−1×K , N−1×N−1 ⊗ IK , h), > 0, K is even (odd) and N

is odd (even), respectively, then the polynomial expression of the non isotropic noncentral

configuration density is given by

N −1 K K

A × 1 P1 f (t) (tr(X)) : − − ; ; −X , (26)

2 2 2

and it is a polynomial of degree K N−1 2

− K2 in the latent roots of

where

2 N−1

πK /2

K

A= K N−1

2

K ,

|| 2 |U −1 U| 2 K 2

Pascal Triangle and Jensen Logistic Distribution 2751

via

∞ −1 r ∞

tr μ μ

h(2t+r) (y)y 2 +t−1 dy.

K(N−1)

g(t, X) = K(N−1) (28)

r=0

r! 2

+t 0

The particular result for the Generalized Jensen-Logistic distribution is easily obtained

by applying Theorem 2.2 in h(2t+r) (y). This density has a remarkable characteristic: if K is

even (odd) and N isodd (even), then the Jensen-Logistic configuration density is a poly-

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− K

2

in the latent roots of (27). Thus, the inference is extremely

simple to develop as can be seen in other models like the Kotz-type; see Caro-Lopera

et al., (2009b).Lastly, we stress that according to comparative studies performed recently

by Dı́az-Garcı́a and Caro-Lopera (2012), the optimal estimation of the configuration and

its dispersion can only be obtained through polynomial densities, since no analytical re-

lation among convergence, truncation and the optimum exists; as a matter of fact, these

studies show that the algorithms available to perform the computation of series of zonal

polynomials do not tolerate the truncation necessary to approach the solution obtained by

polynomials. As an example, for the digit 3 database, with 13 landmarks (Dryden and

Mardia, 1998), the configuration density is simply a grade 10 polynomial, while the corre-

sponding distribution in series requires a polynomial of a grade much greater than 120 to

begin the approximation in the way obtained by the grade 10 polynomial; unfortunately,

the maximum is not reached because the algorithms do not support major truncation. It is

important to note that the computational cost with series is very high, since it is necessary

to calculate all the zonal polynomials indexed by two part partitions of all integers from

0–120 or more, demanding modifications to the complex algorithms of Koev and Edelman

(2006), while the density proposed here is a simple polynomial of grade 10 that can be

obtained through direct application of formulae in Caro-Lopera et al., (2007), given for the

case of images in two dimensions.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their gratitude to the anonymous referees for their helpful

comments and suggestions.

Funding

This research work was supported by the University of Medellin (Medellin, Colombia) and

the Center for Mathematical Research (Guanajuato-Monterrey, Mexico), joint grant No.

157. The authors also thank grant 105657 of CONACYT, México.

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