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Seven Principles for Principle 1: Encourage contact between

students and faculty.


Good Practice in Building rapport with students is very important.
Undergraduate The contact between students and teachers are vital
to the students' success. One of the main reasons
Education students leave school is the feeling of isolation that
they experience. The concern shown will help
students get through difficult times and keep
What are the Seven Principles? working. Faculty have many avenues to follow to
open up the lines of communication.
 Encourage contact between students and
faculty For the regular classroom:
 Develop reciprocity and cooperation among
students  Invite students to visit outside of class.
 Encourage active learning  Know your students by name.
 Give prompt feedback  Help students with problems in their
 Emphasize time on task extracurricular activities.
 Communicate high expectations  Personalize feedback on student
 Respect diverse talents and ways of learning assignments.
 Attend student events.
 Advise students regarding academic courses
What are the Seven Principles?
and career opportunities.
 Seek out students you feel are having a
How can undergraduate education be improved? In
1987, Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson problem with the course or are frequently
answered this question when they wrote "Seven absent.
 Encourage students to present their views
Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education." They defined what good education and participate in class discussions.
 Have regular office hours.
means at the undergraduate level. The seven
 Help students to work with other faculty. Let
principles are based upon research on good teaching
and learning in the college setting. them know of options, research, etc. of other
faculty.
 Share personal experiences and values.
These principles have been intended as a guideline
 Use the one-minute paper at the end of class
for faculty members, students, and administrators to
follow to improve teaching and learning. Research to get feedback on what the student is
for over 50 years on practical experience of students learning and how well they are learning it.
 Talk to students on a personal level and
and teachers supports these principles. When all
principles are practiced, there are six other forces in learn about their educational and career
education that surface: activity, expectations, goals.
cooperation, interaction, diversity, and
responsibility. Good practices work for professional For distance and online courses:
programs as well as the liberal arts. They also work
 Try computer conferencing.
for a variety of students: Hispanic, Asian, young,
 Use list serves.
old, rich, poor.
 Clearly communicate your email response
Teachers and students have the most responsibility policy.
 Encourage e-mail correspondence and
for improving undergraduate education. However,
improvements will need to be made by college and discussion forum use, especially beneficial
university leaders, and state and federal officials. It for those that are shy or are from different
is a joint venture among all that is possible. When cultures because it allows them a different
this does occur, faculty and administrators think of avenue of communication that might be
themselves as educators that have a a shared goal. more comfortable.
 "Chat time" online with faculty (at various
Resources become available for students, faculty,
and administrators to work together. times, scheduled weekly).
 Use pictures of faculty/students.
 Visit the distance sites, if possible.
The goal of the seven principles is to prepare the
 Have an on-site support person.
student to deal with the real world.
 Maintain eye contact with camera and local
students.
 Arrange for group work at a distance site.

Principle in action:
 A York College (PA) professor has  O'Neill, K.L. and Todd-Mancillas, W.R.
incorporated an invitation in the syllabus to (1992). An investigation into the types of
encourage contact during office hours: "You turning points affecting relational change in
are encouraged to stop in during office hours student-faculty interactions. Innovative
to talk about any problems or suggestions Higher Education, 16, (4), 227-290.
you may have concerning the course; about  Wilson, R.C., Gaff, J.G., Dienst, L.W., and
careers (especially graduate school or the Bavry, J.L. (1975). College Professors and
benefits of majoring or minoring in (Insert Their Impact on Students. New York, NY:
your course here); or just about things in John Wiley.
general. If you want to talk to me and find
the schedule hours to be inconvenient, feel
free to schedule an appointment."
 Faculty at St. Norbert College, Wisconsin, Principle 2: Develop reciprocity and
use electronic mail discussion groups. Many cooperation among students.
instructors find that the students are more
willing to participate in a written discussion When students are encouraged to work as a team,
than to speak up in class. The instructor more learning takes place. Characteristics of good
monitors the discussions and participates learning are collaborative and social, not
along with the students, adding personal competitive and isolated. Working together
perspectives and ideas to those of the improves thinking and understanding.
students.
 The Residential College of Winona State For the regular classroom:
University has implemented a "living-and-
learn" environment to encourage student and  Use cooperative learning groups
faculty interaction. It is located 12 blocks  Have students participate in activities that
from the main campus and houses 400 encourage them to get to know one another.
students in large, mostly single rooms.  Encourage students to join at least one
Academic activities at the Residential organization on campus.
College include freshman seminars,  Assign group projects and presentations
sophomore common reading seminars, and  Utilize peer tutoring.
an in-resident program with notable scholars  Encourage students to participate in groups
or artists participating with students in a when preparing for exams and working on
variety of experiences. Residential College assignments.
faculty are located there and hold office  Distribute performance criteria to students is
hours. The interaction between students and that each person's grade is independent of
faculty are enhanced because of the those achieved by others.
increased interaction.  Encourage students from different races and
cultures to share their viewpoints on topics
Technology, like e-mail, computer conferencing, shared in class.
and the World Wide Web/Internet, now gives more
opportunities for students and faculty to converse. It For distance and online courses:
is efficient, convenient, and protected. It allows
more privacy so that students are able to discuss  Use chat sites and discussion forums for
more openly without fear that other students are student-to-student communication.
going to hear. E-mail also gives student more time  Set up teams to interact through e-mail or
to think about what they want to say. With these phone bridges with enough people at each
new alternatives to face-to-face communication, site.
interaction from more students should increase  Encourage students to respond to their
within the classroom. peers' work by posting it on the internet.
 Have a question and answer time online.
Resources:  Use teleconferencing for idea sharing.
 Encourage online discussion groups that
 Building awareness and diversity into require interaction.
student life: Pomona College. (1991).  Work on group projects through phone and
Liberal Education, 77 (1), 38-40. e-mail.
 First year experience creates a community of  Team-teach courses.
learners: Augsburg College. (1989). Liberal  Include an "ice-breaker" activity to allow
Education, 75 (5), 28-29. students to share their interest and to learn
 Furlong, D. (1994). Using electronic mail to about others.
improve instruction. The Teaching
Professor, 8 (6), 7. Principle in action:
 Students in communication courses at Strategies and Group Activities. Edina, MN:
Miami University develop a group "code of Interaction Book Co.
conduct" to help facilitate cooperative  McKinney, K. and Graham-Buxton, M.
learning. A sample code is given out as a (1993). The use of collaborative learning
model. The sample code includes: respect groups in the large class: Is it possible?
each other, criticize ideas instead of people, Teaching Sociology, 21, 403-408.
listen actively, seek to understand before  Prescott, S. (1992). Cooperation and
being understood, contribute to group motivation. Cooperative Learning and
discussion, keep an open mind, share College Teaching, 3 (1).
responsibility, and attend all meetings.  *Special note: The National Center on Post
Students are encouraged to customize the secondary Teaching, Learning, and
code to address other shared concerns the Assessment has developed a source book on
group may have. Students refer to the code collaborative learning. Contact: NCTLA,
after each class or group session to assess Penn State University, 403 S. Allen St. Suite
their performance and identify areas for 104, University Park, PA 16801.
improvement.
 At Naugatuck Valley Community-Technical
College, students are tested both
individually and collaboratively. Students Principle 3: Encourage active learning.
are given a test date but are not told in which
fashion they will be tested. Group tests are Learning is an active process. Students are not able
highly structured and a unanimous decision to learn much by only sitting in classes listening to
must be reached for the answer. The teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments,
collaborative testing method helps students and churning out answers. They must be able to talk
experience a sensitivity for diversity and about what they are learning, write about it, relate it
others' point of view; develop and refine to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives.
skills in persuasion, listening, and reading; Students need to make learning a part of
and share responsibility and accountability. themselves.
This method also reduces test anxiety among
students. For the regular classroom:
 In a first-year composition class at
University of Minnesota students videotape  Ask students to relate what they are learning
themselves discussing apprehensions before to something in real life.
taking the course, their feelings when they  Use journaling.
received their papers back, and what they  Give students concrete, real-life situations to
learned from the class. Next quarter, the analyze.
video is shown to new students in the course  Encourage students to suggest new reading,
to show that the feelings they are projects, or course activities.
experiencing are shared by others and helps  Ask students to present their work to the
motivate them to succeed. class.
 Use of simulation software to run "what-if"
Cooperative learning has several benefits. Students scenarios allows students to manipulate
care more about their learning because of the variables and circumstances.
interdependent nature of the process. Retention is  Practice role modeling and use web-based
higher because there is a social and intellectual case studies to practice new thinking skills.
aspect on the content material. Students also find  Encourage students to challenge your ideas,
the method more enjoyable because there is no the ideas of other students, or those ideas
competition placed upon them. Cooperation, not presented in readings or other course
competition, is more effective in promoting student materials in a respectful matter.
learning.  Set up problem solving activities in small
groups and have each group discuss their
Resources: solutions with the class.

 Cassini, C. (1994). Collaborative testing, For distance and online courses:


grading. The Teaching Professor, 8 (4), 5.
 Grading student projects: A project in itself.  Allow flexibility in choosing material so that
(1994). Adapted from For Your it is more meaningful to the learner (e.g.
Consideration, 3 (3), by The Teaching students choose their own topic, project
Professor, 8 (2), 3-4. format, etc.).
 Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T. (1985).  Have an interactive web page.
Cooperative Learning: Warm Ups, Grouping  Debate on-line.
 Present students work for other students to  Gabennesch, H. (1992). Creating quality
review. class discussion. The Teaching Professor, 6
 Talk about what students are learning by (9), 5.
creating a learning group through e-mail,  Hands on experience in course's focus:
telephone, chat room, or conferencing. Temple University. (1989). Liberal
 Use e-mail for group problem solving. Education, 75 (4), 33-34.
 Harrison-Pepper, S. (1991). Dramas of
Principle in action: persuasion: Utilizing performance in the
classroom. Journal of Excellence in College
 At Iowa State University, history students Teaching, 2.
interview prominent historical individuals  Interdisciplinary approach to technology.
during a press conference. After the press (1998). Liberal Education, 74, (2), 23-24.
conferences, students work in groups  Nalcolmson, P. and Myers, R. (1993).
identifying the main ideas and creating Debates: Techniques for improving student
headlines and news articles that highlight thinking. The Teaching Professor, 7 (3) 6.
those ideas.
 Structured journal writing is a major part of
several classes at Lesley College. Each
journal entry has two parts: the first Principle 4: Give prompt feedback.
paragraph emphasizes points for recall and
retention; the second part emphasizes By knowing what you know and do not know gives
application of the content to the student's life a focus to learning. In order for students to benefit
experience and observation. from courses, they need appropriate feedback on
 An education professor at the University of their performance. When starting out, students need
Wisconsin-LaCrosse has created a help in evaluating their current knowledge and
hypothetical school system, complete with capabilities. Within the classroom, students need
administration, teachers, pupils, and frequent opportunities to perform and receive
families. The goal is to help the students suggestions for improvement. Throughout their time
learn the legal aspects of special education. in college and especially at the end of their college
During the semester, the students take on all career, students need chances to reflect on what
roles as they participate in legal cases they have learned, what they still need to know, and
involving students with disabilities. Students how to assess themselves.
gain an understanding of the law as it
applies to special education and students For the regular classroom:
with disabilities, and they develop a human
understanding of the human side of the  Follow-up presentations with a five minute
cases. period for students to write down what they
have learned in class.
Promoting active learning in higher education is a  Provide informative comments that show the
struggle because of the learning background that students' errors and give suggestions on how
many students come to classes with. This is due to they can improve.
the fact that the norm in our nation's secondary  Discuss the results of class assignments and
schools has been to promote passive learning. A exams with the class and individual
large amount of information needs to be covered students.
with not enough time, so teachers resort to lecture in  Vary assessment techniques (tests, papers,
order to economize their time to cover as much journaling, quizzes).
material as possible. Students progress from topic to  Offer on-line testing, software simulations,
topic with no real understanding of the content and and web-based programs that provide
how it relates to their life. Effective learning is instantaneous feedback.
active learning. The concept of active learning has  Have question and answer sessions.
been applied to curriculum design, internship  Use audio and/or video recordings to assess
programs, community service, laboratory science performances.
instruction, musical and speech performance,  Return grades for assignments, projects, and
seminar classes, undergraduate research, peer tests within one week.
teaching, and computer-assisted learning. The
common thread between all these events is to For distance and online courses:
stimulate students to think about how they as well
as what they are learning and to take more  E-mail gives instant feedback instead of
responsibility for their own education. waiting for the next lesson.
 Use on-line testing, software simulations,
Resources: and web-based programs that provide
instantaneous feedback.
 Monitor bulletin boards regularly and give  Dohrer, G. (1991). Do teachers comments
specific information feedback to students. on students' papers help? College Teaching,
 Use pre-class and post-class assessments. 39 (2), 48-54.
 Schedule a chat group where you, the  Enhancing instructor-class communication.
instructor are present. Use it as a question (1994). The Teaching Professor, 8 (3), 3-4.
and answer session when appropriate.  More on student self-assessment. (1992).
 Send acknowledgment e-mails when you The Teaching Professor, 6 (10), 7.
receive a students work.  Svinicki, M.D. Four R's of effective
 Post answer keys after receiving assignment evaluation. (1993). Reprinted from The
from all students. Center for Teaching Effectiveness
 Use of hyperlinks within text to provide Newsletter at the University of Texas as
feedback to questions raised within the text. Austin, in The Teaching Professor, 7 (9), 3-
4.
Principle in action:

 At the University of Scranton, a


management professor, used computer Principle 5: Emphasize time on task.
scored multiple choice tests and quizzes
which allowed the professor to have the tests Learning needs time and energy. Efficient time-
graded during the break that followed the management skills are critical for students. By
test or quiz. The students immediately allowing realistic amounts of time, effective
received their results and were able to learning for students and effective teaching for
discuss the exam in detail. Students were faculty are able to occur. The way the institution
able to understand the material better defines time expectations for students, faculty,
through the class discussion that occurred administrators, and other staff, can create the basis
after the test. for high performance from everyone.
 Hollins College students taking the Critical
Thinking course submit two copies of their For the regular classroom:
papers. The second paper is critiqued by
another student.  Expect students to complete their
 Faculty at Winona State University in the assignments promptly.
Communication Studies Department have to  Clearly communicate to your students the
evaluate as many as 30 speeches a day. They minimum amount of time they should spend
developed a system of codes for the most preparing for class and working on
common comments on speeches. These assignments.
codes were programmed into a computer  Help students set challenging goals for their
program and instructors were able to listen own learning.
to the speech and type in the codes for the  Have realistic expectations (don't expect 10
appropriate comments. This gave extra time papers in 10 weeks).
to make specific comments on the individual  Encourage students to prepare in advance
speech and also gave students complete and for oral presentations.
prompt feedback on the entire speech.  Explain to your students the consequences
of non-attendance.
The importance of feedback is so obvious that it is  Meet with students who fall behind to
often taken for granted during the teaching and discuss their study habits, schedules, and
learning process. It is a simple yet powerful tool to other commitments.
aid in the learning process. Feedback is any means  Be careful that time on task is real learning,
to inform a learner of their accomplishments and not busy work.
areas needing improvement. There are several  Do not use technology for technology's sake.
different forms that feedback can take. They are It must be relevant and useful to the topic.
oral, written, computer displayed, and from any of  Have progressive deadlines for projects and
the interactions that occur in group learning. What assignments.
is important is that the learner is informed and can  Teach time management.
associate the feedback with a specific response.  Discussion topics from class posted in a
discussion group on the web .
Resources:
For distance and online courses:
 Brinko, K.T. (1993). The practice of giving
feedback to improve teaching. Journal of  Understand that there will be problems with
Higher Education, 64 (5), 574-593. the distance and technology along the way.
 Identify key concepts and how those will be principle of time on task. Student achievement is
taught. Given the amount of time, decide not simply a matter of the amount of time spent
what realistically can be covered. working on a task. Even though learning and
 Each distance class should involve some development require time, it is an error to disregard
kind of achievement expectation that is laid how much time is available and how well the time
out at the beginning of the course. Assign is spent. Time on task is more complicated than one
some content for out of class time. might assume.
 Give up the illusion of doing it all as you
might in a regular classroom. Resources:
 Vary the types of interaction. In creating an
interactive environment, it can be  Britton, B.K., and Tesser, A. (1991). Effects
overwhelming to the students and teacher if of time management practices on college
the types of interaction required are too time grades. Journal of Educational Psychology,
consuming. 83 (3), 405-410.
 Consider both in and out of class time.  Earth-sea-sky course combines art, science:
 Make sure you know what your goals are Mississippi State University. (1988). Liberal
and that the learners understand them as Education, 74 (2), 29-30.
well.  Geiger, K. (1994). Rethinking school time:
 Have regular discussions that require New, Better, and different...as well as more.
participation. The Washington Post, June 12, 1994. p. C3.
 Ludewig, L.M. (1992). The ten
Principle in action: commandments for effective study skills.
The Teaching Professor, 5 (10), 3.
 At Fort Lewis College in Colorado they  Terenzini, P.T., and Pascarella, E.T. (1994).
have an "Innovative Month". Students are Living with myths: Undergraduate education
offered a series of five week summer in America. Change, pp. 28-32.
domestic and foreign travel experiences that
help them relate what they learned in the
classroom to real life. The groups are limited
to eight to fifteen students pre faculty Principle 6: Communicate high
member. Examples of Innovative programs expectations.
include, "Management in Action", "Native
American Schools", and "Music and Theater Expect more and you will get it. The poorly
in England". prepared, those unwilling to exert themselves, and
 At Lower Columbia College, the Integrative the bright and motivated all need high expectations.
Studies Program is a block of 15 to 18 credit Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-
hours, organized around a theme. Students fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions
enroll in "traditional" courses, ut must enroll hold high standards and make extra efforts.
in the full block. This lets the faculty
reorganize the day from the traditional fifty For the regular classroom:
minute classes to include whatever schedule
of lectures, seminars, conferences, and  Give a detailed syllabus with assignments,
discussion groups needed to achieve due dates, and a grading rubric.
learning objectives for that week.  Encourage students to excel at the work they
 Wake Forest University teaches time do.
management and study skills in their  Give students positive reinforcement for
Learning Assistance Program and in the doing outstanding work.
Learning to Learn class. Through a  Encourage students to work hard in class.
counseling/teaching model in the Learning  Tell students that everyone works at
Assistance Program, students are different levels and they should strive to put
individually encouraged to learn and forth their best effort, regardless of what
develop strategies to improve their academic level it is.
performance. In the Learning to Learn  Help students set challenging goals for their
Course, first and second year students study own learning.
learning theory with emphasis on  Publicly acknowledge excellent student
demonstrating how good time management performance.
and appropriate study skills positively affect  Revise courses when needed so students
outcome. remain challenged.
 Work individually with students who are
An easy assumption to make would be that students struggling to encourage them to stay
would be more successful if they spent more time motivated.
studying. It makes sense but it over simplifies the
 Encourage students to do their best instead and ethics. They include the discipline to set goals
of focusing on grades. and stick with them, an awareness and appreciation
of the diversity of society, and a philosophy of
For distance and online courses: service to others.

 Give a detailed syllabus with assignments, Resources:


due dates, and a grading rubric.
 Call attention to excellent work in bulletin  An American Imperative: Higher
board postings or class list serves. Expectations for Higher Education. An open
 Show examples of your expectations with letter to those concerned about the American
previous students' work. future. Report on the Wingspread group in
 Publish student work. Higher education. (1993).
 Provide corrective feedback. State what you  Defining what students need to know:
did and did not like. Clayton State. (1988). Liberal Education, 74
 Be a role model to students. Model the (3), 29-30.
behavior and expectations that you expect  Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Matthews,
from students. R.S., and Smith, B.L. (1990). Learning
 Expect students to participate. communities: Creative connections among
 Try to make assignments interesting and students, faculty, and disciplines. New
relevant to create interest. Directions for Teaching and Learning, (4),
 Ask students to comment on what they are San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
doing.  Nuhfer, E.B. (1993). Bottom line disclosure
 Suggest extra resources that support key and assessment. The Teaching Professor, 7
points. (7), 8.
 Williams, J.H. (1993). Clarifying grade
Principle in action: expectations. The Teaching Professor, 7 (7),
1.
 At Bellevue University (Nebraska), students
in the Introductory Psychology course are
given a guide for answering essay questions
on their syllabus. The suggestions are Principle 7: Respect diverse talents and
designed to provide direction to answering a ways of learning.
broadly stated essay question. Three exams
are given throughout the course. The list of There are many different ways to learn and no two
suggestions as well as the essay question are people learn the same way. Students bring different
included on the first two exams. On the final talents and learning styles to the classroom.
exam, only the essay question is given. Students that excel in the seminar room may be all
Students are allowed to practice their writing thumbs in the lab or art studio and vice versa.
skills until the assistance is no longer Students need the opportunity to show their talents
needed. and learn in ways that work for them. Then, they
 In order to understand how students at can be guided into new ways of learning that are not
SUNY-Plattsburgh learn and develop and as easy for them.
how the school can help them to do so,
students are required to take the College For the regular classroom:
Outcomes Measures Project examination of
the American College Testing Program  Use Web technologies to allow students to
(ACT COMP) as freshmen and again at the pick and choose learning experiences that
end of their sophomore year. fits the way they learn.
 Clayton State College requires students to  Encourage students to speak up when they
exhibit seven different writing styles. do not understand.
Several levels of proficiency are present for  Use diverse teaching activities and
each of the seven criteria. All students must techniques to address a broad range of
pass writing assessments on four different students.
occasions.  Select readings and design activities related
to the background of students.
Although it is often only discussed at the  Provide extra material or activities for
instructional level, high expectations also includes students who lack essential background
the students' performance and behavior inside and knowledge or skills.
outside the classroom. College and universities  Integrate new knowledge about women,
expect students to meet their high expectations for minorities, and other under-represented
performance in the classroom, but also expect a populations into your courses.
personal and professional commitment to values
 Use learning contracts and other activities to feature of every academic program, and practiced in
provide students with learning alternatives every classroom.
for your courses.
 Encourage students from different races and Resources:
cultures to share their viewpoints on topic
discussed in class.  Hill, P.J. (1991). Multiculturalism: The
 Use collaborative teaching and learning crucial philosophical and organizational
techniques and pair students so they issues. Change, 38-47.
compliment each others abilities.  Jacobs, L.C., and Chase, C.I. (1992).
 Give students a problem to solve that has Developing and Using Tests Effectively: A
multiple solutions. Guide them with clues Guide for Faculty. San Francisco, CA:
and examples. Jossey-Bass.
 Consider field trips.  Kolb, D. (1981). Learning styles and
 Be familiar with Howard Gardner's research disciplinary differences. In The Modern
on multiple intelligences. American College, edited by A.W.
Chickering and Associates. San Francisco,
For distance and online courses: CA: Jossey-Bass.
 Lynch, J.M., and Bishop-Clark, C. (1993).
 Encourage students to express diverse points Traditional and nontraditional student
of view in discussions. attitudes toward the mixed age classroom.
 Create learning activities filled with real-life Innovative Higher Education. Winter, 109-
examples and diverse perspectives. 121.
 Provide Saturday lab experiences by  National Institute of Education. (1984).
contracting with local high schools or Involvement in Learning: Realizing the
community colleges. Potential of American Higher Education.
 Some CD-Roms are available that offer a Final report of the study group on the
simulated lab. conditions of excellence in American higher
 Balance classroom activities for all styles education. Washington, DC: U.S.
(some books, some hands on, some visual). Department of Education News.
 Explain theory from a practical approach
first then add the structural approach.

Principle in Action: References


 Realizing that students can interpret exam  Benson, David, Lu Mattson and Les Adler
questions in different ways, students at (1995). Prompt Feedback. In Susan Rickey
Georgia State University in the nursing Hatfield (Ed.), The Seven Principles In
program are given the chance to modify Action (55-66). Bolton, MA: Anker
multiple choice exam questions that they Publishing Company, Inc.
find confusing. This student input lessens
test anxiety and gives the student an  Brown, David G. and Curtis W. Ellison
opportunity to demonstrate what they know. (1995). What is Active Learning?. In Susan
 Western Washington University's Fairhaven Rickey Hatfield (Ed.), The Seven Principles
College has a cluster college with an In Action (39-53). Bolton, MA: Anker
interdisciplinary curriculum and an Publishing Company, Inc.
emphasis is place on student-
centered approaches to teaching and  Bunda, Mary A. (1993). The Seven
learning. Principles for Good Practice in
 At Kalamazoo College, the K Plan gives Undergraduate Education. Instructional
students an on and off campus study that Exchange 4 (1-6), 1-4.
allows them to spend a significant amount of
their time in college on career-development  Chickering, Arthur W. (1991).
internships, foreign study, and Institutionalizing the Seven Principle and
individualized projects. the Faculty and Institutional Inventories.
New Directions For Teaching And Learning.
The meaning of diversity is very clear from Jossey Bass Inc. 47.
effective institutions. They embrace diversity and
 Chickering, Arthur W. and Ehrmann,
systematically foster it. This respect for diversity
should play a central part in university decisions, be Stephen C. (2000). Implementing the Seven
apparent in the services and resources available to Principles: Technology as Lever. [Online].
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