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TLE Reviewer 9

Personal Entrepreneurial Market And Environment

Competencies (PECs)
 Process of innovation and new
 Tangible in nature
venture creation
 Separable
 Converting ideas into marketable
goods and service  Non-perishable
 Involves systematic organization and  Can be owned
utilization Service
Entrepreneurs  Intangible in nature
 People who have the ability to see  Inseparability of production and
and evaluate business opportunities consumption
 People who innovate, allocate and  Perishable nature
manage factors  Lack of ownership
 Catalysts for economic change who Factors That Affect The Sales of Product
use purposeful searching and careful And Services
 People’s lifestyle/business
Characteristics of a Good Entrepreneur
 Market
 Creative  Types of business
 Good Human Relations  Capital
 Initiative
Steps In Formulating Business Ideas
 Hardworking
 Confident 1. Recognize the needs and wants of
 Disciplined the community
 Committed 2. List down the possible business
 Ability to accept change ideas
 Profit-oriented 3. Evaluate one’s self
4. Conduct a research
Important Skills of a Good Entrepreneur 5. Perform a SWOT Analysis
6. Finalize the business ideas
 Excellent planner
 Possess people skills SWOT Analysis – Strengths, Weaknesses,
 Sound-decision maker Opportunities, Threats. A managerial tool
used to assess the environment.
Steps In Conducting SWOT Analysis  Technical Man’s Sketches – Shown
in a special type of drawing called
1. Identify the strengths and orthographic projection/
weaknesses in your business.
2. Identify the opportunities and threats Pencil Techniques
3. Do something about it
 Build on your strength  Perpendicular Lines - 90° angled
 Address your weakness lines.
 Consider the opportunities  Parallel Lines – Lines that will
 Guard against the threats never meet even if prolonged.
 Horizontal Lines – Lines going
Abstract Reasoning from left to right; vice-versa
 Vertical Lines – Lines going top
 Refers to an individual’s ability to downward; vice-versa
recognize patterns and relationships  Inclined Lines – Bottom left to top
of theoretical or intangible ideas right; vice-versa
 Ability to analyze information and  Short Lines – Finger movement
solve problems on a complex-thought  Long Lines – Arm movement
based level. It involves skills such
as: Curved Lines
- Forming theories about the nature
of the subject.  Regular – Circle, Arc, Eclipse
- Understanding subjects on a  Irregular – Lines with no definite
complex level though analysis shape
- Ability to apply knowledge in
Regular Curved Lines
problem solving using theory,
metaphor, and complex analogy  Radii Method
3 Steps In Abstract Reasoning  One or two strokes method

 Recognition – Identifying instances Irregular Curved Lines

of abstract deducting reasoning about  Parallelogram method
abstract concepts and distinguish
 One or two strokes method
premises from the conclusion
 Construction – Constructing an Drafting Tools
instance of valid deductive reasoning
about abstract concepts  45-45-90 Triangle – Draw vertical
 Evaluation – Distinguishing valid lines with T-Square as base. Draw
forms of deductive reasoning about angles.
abstract objects or concepts from  T-Square – Paper set up. Horizontal
invalid and/or fallacious forms lines. Base for triangle to draw
vertical lines.
Freehand Drawing  Drafting Paper – Used to draw on.
9” x 12”
 Artist’s Sketches – Uses charcoal
 30-60-90 Triangle – Draw angles.
pencil, black ink, pastel, oil paint,
Draw vertical lines. Most important
triangle in drafting.
 Eraser Shield/Guide – Used to space between the object and
erase small deficits of line segments. extension line.
 Drafting Pencil – 6H, hard lead,
sketching. H, soft lead, finishing. Drawing
 Compass – Draws circle or arcs. - It is the art of representing objects or forms
 Scale – Measuring ratios/ on a surface chiefly by means of lines.
 Vinyl Eraser – Used to erase
unwanted lines. Pictorial Drawing – A drawing that shows
 Drafting Tape – Holds paper in an object as how they would appear in a
place. photo. A drawing that shows more than one
 Dust Brush – Wipes eraser shavings side.

Grades of Pencil Axonometric – Characterized by how

angles of axes (axon) are measured with
 Soft – 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B respect to each other.
 Medium – 3H, 2H, H, F, HB, B
 Hard – 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H, 9H  Isometric – All equal angles
 Dimetric – Two equal angles
HB – Lettering  Trimetric – Unequal angles
2H – Line Work Box Method – Starting point for all
isometric figure.
4h – General
Oblique Drawing – Designed to show a 3-
Alphabet of Lines dimension view of an object. There are three
types of oblique—cavalier, normal and
- Each line has a definite form and line
cabinet obliques.

5 Main Line Types  Cavalier – You keep the depth at

full measurement.
 Visible Lines – Dark, heavy lines.  Cabinet – You cut the depth in half.
Shows the outline and shape of an  Normal – You cut the depth in ¾.
object. Defines features.
 Hidden Lines – Light, narrow, - In oblique drawing, the front view of an
short, dashed lines. Used to help object is rendered as if it were a 3-view. The
clarify a feature but can be omitted. side and top view are then projected by
drawing the lines to make up the side and
 Center Lines – Thin lines consisting
top at an upward angle, usually 45° and
of long and short dashes. Shows the
center of holes, slots, paths of sometimes at 30° .
rotation and symmetrical objects. Isometric Drawing – A way of 3D
 Dimension Lines – Shows the representation of an object on a 2D surface.
length, width, height of the features. Consists of a 2D drawing. It is a way of
Terminated with arrowheads. presenting designs in 3D. Consists of 2D
 Extension Lines – Used to show drawings that are tilted at some angle to
starting and ending points of a expose other views and give the viewer the
dimension. Must have at least 1/16th illusion of what they are viewing.
Orthographic Drawing – The term 1. Set up Isometric Axis using 1
orthographic came from the Greek words vertical line and 2 lines at 30 degrees
orthos and grapos which means straight line from horizontal
2. Estimate the overall width height and
Six Principal View depth of the object, and sketch the
edges of a block that would
 Top View completely enclose the object
 Front View
3. Sketch the outline of the front face
 Right Side View
using lines parallel and equal in
 Left Side View
 Rear View length to the two previous height and
 Bottom View width edges
4. Sketch the outlines of the top and
Principal Dimension side faces using the same basic
 Width procedure as used for the front face
 Height Begin sketching start/end points of
 Depth major features
5. Begin darkening major features as
Isometric to Orthographic- Orthographic they are developed. Locate start/end
Views are used extensively in engineering.
points of additional and smaller
Often, they must be produced from a 3D
object or possibly an existing Isometric features
drawing or sketch. 6. Locate and sketch start/end points
for non-isometric lines such as the
1. Block in the 3 views using overall angled surface. Sketch and darken
width, height and depth. Front View
the non-isometric features
first, then project height and width
using construction lines. Make sure
depth is the same on Top and Right
Views Isometric
2. Lightly block in major features in Drawing
each view. Place circles in views
where they look round. Begin
darkening major features
3. Construction lines can be used to Oblique
project location or size of one feature Drawing Orthographic
to another view. A miter line can be Drawing
used to project Depth dimensions
4. Finish adding all final lines. Be sure
to add all hidden and center lines
Darken all final lines
Orthographic to Isometric - Orthographic
drawings are common in engineering.
Visualizing or creating the Isometric View is
a critical engineering skill