by
1980
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
GRADUATE COLLEGE
Date
Y O
Date
'fd
Date /
Date
Date
z £
Dissertation Director Date
STATEMENT BY AUTHOR
SIGNED: / Ueao.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
with such a ripe topic to pursue and a very firm basis from which to
begin. His restrained guidance and timely encouragement made the entire
development of the first and third order theory and the vector formula
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
1. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
: iv 
V
Page
Figure Page
Figure Page
312. The Shape of the Two Focal Surfaces Containing Line Images
in a System with Binodal Astigmatism.......... 48
53. Plotted Output for the Actual and the Change in the RMS
Spot Size in the Arbitrarily Misaligned System
(X and Y Field Profiles) . 85
56. Contour Plot for RMS Spot Size (Micrometers) in the Coma
Compensated System ............. 90
Figure Page
61. Transverse Blur for Third Order Coma W 131 . . . . ... . 109
610. For Any Field Point H, the Magnitude of the OBSA Is the
Produce of the Distances to the Two Nodes
Ni X IS I • • • • •v • 120
Figure Page
620. The Behavior of the Balance Zone for the Third Plus
Fifth Order Medial Focal Surface in a Perturbed
System ................ 135
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSContinued
78. Magnitude Contour Plot for Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma.
Aligned System ..... . . . . . . . . . ......... . 160
Figure Page
732. List of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the Per
turbed System with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
XField Profile . . . . . . . ......... 188
Figure Page
744. X and Y Field Profile Plots of the Actual and the Change
in the RMS Wavefront Error.in the Perturbed System
with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane . . 201
748. Comparing Analytic and Real Rya Data for the Change
in the RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed System
for the Triplet. YField Profile . ....... 205
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSContinued
Figure Page
751. Comparing Analytic and Real Ray Data for the Change in the
RMS Wavefront Error due to Perturbations in an
F/3.5,45° Full Field, Five Element Double Gauss.
YField Profile . . . C.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
•i
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
56. Tabular Output for the Change in RMS Spot Size in the
Arbitrarily Misaligned System (YField Profile) . . . 84
xiv \ .
xv
Table Page
two major tasks. One is to find a design that provides the required
manufacture.
tion for optimization and use the values of the coefficients to guide
the design. Others use real rays to construct the merit function and
ray fans to follow the progress of the design. In studying the effects
tolerances, both groups have been forced to use real ray analysis.
niques for displaying the properties of the third and fifth order terms
optical design.
expansion. This new form has some important implications even for
used. These surfaces are inherently more significant than the sagittal
INTRODUCTION
of the system and are therefore taken to be small. The optical system
1
In this work, we will only discuss tilt and decenter perturba
the centers of the pupils for the surface with the center of curvature
optical system, the aberration field at the image plane is still the
have a common center at the image plane. This establishes the concept
in the image plane. This concept allows the description of the behavior
aberration expansion^ •
the image quality over the entire image plane. Through the use of
displaying information greatly enhances the speed with which one can
the behavior of the aberrations in the field (i.e., the field dependence)
its center of symmetry displaced from the center of the image plane
and in many cases a term will develop multiple zeroes with specific
wave aberration expansion. Included here are the equations for generating
ray fans„ spot diagrams and field curves, and for evaluating rms spot
Chapter 8 summarizes the results and indicates areas where this work may
be continued.
CHAPTER 2
simultaneously the mechanical axis of the system; the path of the zero
field, zero aperture ray; and the line containing the centers of
between them.
reference axis (RA) of the perturbed system. This is the axis from
which the surface tilts and decenters; object, image and pupil de
centers and Gaussian image plane tilt are measured. The reference axis
optical system.
and the reference axis of the system. The decentration gives the
■ axis.
interior surface, these planes are relayed images of the object field 0 ,
and the entrance pupil E, for the optical system. The location of 0.
3
and E . then, depend on the power of the preceding surfaces An
J
image plane 0.' and an exit pupil E.' are also associated with the jth
3 3
surface. They are images of 0. and E. formed by the surface j. These
3 3
planes, 0.’,E.* become the object plane and entrance pupil for the
J J .
center of the object/image planes and the pupils for all of the sur
field, zero aperture ray i,n a real ray trace. Given the tilts and
system. The intersection of this ray with the image plane of the un
the line connecting the center of the pupil, for that surface, with its
8
determined by the tilt and decenter of the surface. Since the center
result, any line through the center of curvature intersecting the sur
face may be taken to be the local axis of the surface. The properties
perturbed surface with the reference axis. The equivalent tilt param
and 5v by
sufficient to locate the center of the object/image and pupils for each
axis, and equivalent tilt gg, this is done by using the standard
face and then expressing the results with respect to the reference axis.
9
SURFACE
LA
LA
(equ i v )
6c
RA
6v
Fig. 2.1. Defining the Equivalent Local Axis and Equivalent Tilt
Parameter 6 q for a Spherical Surface.
system) is given by
Here 6 Q/y^. is the relative object displacement for the surface, measured
from the reference axis, y is the marginal ray height at the surface in
index of refraction and the object space index and jk = nuynuy is the
u is the chief ray angle preceding the surface, and y is the chief ray
R E FR ACTI NG
SURFACE
6Q=0
IMAGE LA
zTjrlT"
6c
O BJE C T .
may be found, along with the final image field displacement for the
may be used.
(23)
Here (dE/y^)' is the relative exit pupil displacement (the exit pupil
surface in the system, the paraxial ray height y*, at a surface, and the
paraxial ray angle u* preceding the surface for the OAR are given by
(24)
(25)
where both quantities are measured with respect to the reference axis
as in''Fig. "25.
account for the effects of tilts and decenters on the location of the
additional ray that is required to account for the effects of tilts and
ENTRANCE
OBJECT PUPIL
PLANE SURFACE PLANE
c OAR
6E
RA
LA
in the system is along the line that connects its center of curvature,
located by $o> and the center of the pupil, located by the OAR. Re
ferring to Fig. 24, the displacement, measured from the OAR, is given
by
 * T *
Yla 10
a* =  =  — (2  6 )
*i 1
13
where
i = u + yc
(27)
Iq* = i*  60
Gaussian image plane. It is this parameter alone that accounts for the
OBJECT
PUPIL
r
C H I E F RAY SURFACE
OAR
RA
measured with respect to the local axis of the surface, in the perturbed
Knowing that the principal planes in a system are planes of unit mag
P P'
OBJECT MAGE
PL A N E PL A N E
RA
with each surface are the relevant planes. For a single surface the
like the centers of the object/images and pupils, lie on the OAR.
The principal planes are normal to the line connecting the principal
points to the center of curvature of the surface. They are tilted then,
6* = 6o  cy* (211)
is the angle made by the line connecting the center of curvature to the
intersection of the OAR and the surface with respect to the reference
SURFACE
OBJECT IMAGE
PLANE PL A N E
LA
RA
y “= 0
u 1 0 q1 = u0 o• (2 1 2 )
This equation when carried along with the paraxial and OAR ray trace
gives the tilt of the Gaussian image plane, 0 ’, measured from the ref
erence axis. When Eqs. (22) and (213) are combined, they give the
GAUSSIAN
IMAGE
PLANE
DESIGN
PLANE
OAR
RA
Fig. 2.7. First Order Tilt and Displacement of the Gaussian Image
Plane.
17
the line connecting the vertex of the aspheric cap (the point of the
surface about which the aspheric departure from the base curve is
yTa*A %  7*
oA* = LA = __d . (214)
yl y
Here 5v^ is the displacement of the vertex of the aspheric cap from
ASPHERIC ENTRANCE
OBJECT SURFACE PUPIL
OAR
RA
contribution to the aberration field measured from the OAR for a par
zero at any surface with power and the other when y is zero at an
vertex of the aspheric is displaced from the center of the pupil, other
aberrations, which are uniform over the field, are generated. The
separation between the vertex of the aspheric and the center of the
pupil to some power (i.e. squared, cubed, etc.). The properties of the
the vertex of the aspheric from the OAR. For an aspheric surface this
<5v^  6 E
Ap a *  ; ■ (215)
/B
face's center of curvature. This case is then the same as the case
Ap* = 6C ~ 5E • (216)
E
The preceding developments were made assuming the tilts and de
also included.
Fig. 2.9. Summary of the First Order Parameters in Tilted and Dcccntercd Systems.
21
center of the object/image fields and pupils. The paraxial ray angle
preceding a surface is
u.* = u M > uM
Ay JVE/i
The paraxial ray height at a surface is
v ' t ) „ '<*), ■
Gaussian Image Plane Tilt:
V = A  [ u .6 + t.*A(u )]
J . i 1 J J
with J
Base Sphere:
in •
a.* = (with reference to OAR)
i.
J
with
10 (u * + c.y.*)  B0 .
J J J J
Aspheric Contribution:
a. .
Aj
Special Cases:
6 c. 5E.
4p.* J J Base Sphere
Cxp,
6v
A '
1 1 Aspheric Contribution
= 0
'"Aj"
CHAPTER 3
behavior of the third order aberrations under the influence of tilt and
decenter perturbations.
Wei ford (19 74), Kings lake (1978), Smith (1966), B o m and Wolf (1975),
the location of the zero or zeroes (nodes) of the term in the image plane.
23
. 24.
There are no new aberration types introduced; rather the interpretation
are provided in Table 31. All of the results in this chapter arise
series expansion
00 00 00 k = 2p + m
W = 1 1 1 I C W . H P cos 4, (31)
j Pnm 1 = 2n + ro I
.
. 5
field point of interest and whose vertex lies in the center of the. par
axial exit pupil. The forms for the subscripts k and 1 are a result
on the form of the power series are covered by Radkowski (1967). In this
field height (actual field height divided by the final image height), p
25
W04O =^ Si Sj = A 2y 4 ( 2
Coma:
w13i =l s n S II ’ 'I ^ ( n
3
Astigmatism: '
'1
W2 2 2 = 2 SIII SIII = "j B2 yA(n>
Petzval Curvature:
Distortion:
w 311 = J sv SV = *1 A [ S IV * S III
exit pupil radius) and <f> gives the angular dependence in the aperture.
nate system which has its y axis (vertical) in the meridional plane
A field point anywhere in the image plane is then located by the vector
H, where
H (32)
vector p, where
P P e (33)
11 H
y IMAGE
PLANE
EXIT
PUPIL
Fig. 31. Illustrating the Field Vector H and the Aperture Vector p.
Since the planes containing p and H are parallel, one can
consider taking the dot product of the two vectors by superimposing the
vector form as
CO CO oo k = 2p
r + m
W .= I I I £(WklnPj (H'H)P (pp)n (H»p)m . 1 = 2n + m
j P n m (35)
For comparison, the scalar form of the wave aberration expansion for the
in the image plane. The vector denotes the point from which the
" ' 
effective field height, j,for thesurfacecontribution is measured.
Gaussian image plane (located by the OAR). The field point, measured
HAj = H Z (38) .
j P n m
 i jlpl n h \ lmh Uf
m Klm J
 t) •(H  t.) lp (?•?)"
1 J
t(H  (3 9 )
This equation accounts completely for the effects of tilt and decenter
G A U S S IAN
IMAGE
PLANE
OAR
of this chapter will deal with performing the summations and inter
preting the results for the third order aberrations. The wave aberra
* 1*1 3 U t (H " 0 , )  p l ( p  p )
j 3 3
are not affected by.tilts and decentrations. This is because they are
This term is independent of field and independent of a.. This means that
J
the spherical aberration is unaffected by tilt and decenter pertur
from tilted object and image planes, but this is a higher order effect
system. The summation 31a •> the sum of the surface contribution
j 3 3
displacement vectors in the image plane each weighted by the correspond
tilts and decentrations has been to displace the total coma field for
the centered system to the point located by the image plane vector
Fig. 33. In a Perturbed Optical System the Center of the Total Coma
Field for the System Is Displaced to the Point Located by the
Vector a%31.
32
For any field point H, measured from the center of the Gaussian image
general properties of the aberrations but also with the special cases.
Special cases generally arise from zero divide operations. The only
special case for coma occurs when 3i = 0 , i.e., the optical design is
cannot be performed. For a system corrected for coma Eq. (316) becomes
where A^3X is defined in Eq. (314). This is coma that is uniform over
the field, i.e., the magnitude and orientation of the coma are indepen
dent mf the fieTd point. The'Amargn'itude of 'the coma is  1A 3 3i  and the
coma is oriented along the vector A^3^. Physically this is the limiting
case of the node vector ai3i going to infinity as the coma, 3i goes to
zero.
vectors that are summations over the product of the surface contributions,
tors, Oj (in this case simply the vector itself), will be used to treat
all of the aberrations. This will lead to a set of image plane vectors
33
(a)
131
(b)
Fig. 34. Properties of the Transverse Blur for Third Order Coma W131,
(a) Aligned System, (b) Perturbed System.
34
will apply to all of the aberrations. For many of the terms this be
a measure of image quality. The best focal surface, i.e., the surface
Using the relationship between cos2^ and cos2<j)in the scalar form of
perturbed system,
AW2 0 = IW2 2 0 m  0“
.) »(H  o'.)]
j. J J J
+ IW2 2 0 M . . (2 ;23)
j ^
a2 2 0 M = A2 2 0 M/W2 2 0 M (:527)
this becomes ’
with field, but now the vertex is located transversely from the OAR in
the Gaussian image plane by the vector 8.220%;' That is to say, as with
the coma, the center of this contribution is displaced from the center
.
’y
of the image plane. As before, a2 2 oM is the normalized sum over sur
along the optical axis from the scalar term W2 2 b 2 2 0 ^ This term
gives the separation of the medial foca.1 surface from the Gaussian
radius
rM = ; C 3 " 3i:)
GA USSIAN
PLANE
IMAGE
22 0m
OAR
RA
MEDIAL/
FOCAL
SURFACE
DE SIGN
PLANE
Fig. 35. The Medial Focal Surface in a Perturbed Optical System May
Be Displaced Transversely and Longitudinally from the Center
of the Gaussian Image Plane.
the image quality on this surface would correspond to the minimum rms
wavefront for the system (i.e., the measurement of rms wavefront along
any other focal surface would result in a larger value for the rms
the point of minimum departure from the Gaussian image plane) would have
Table 32 and illustrated in Fig. 36. There are two categories to
consider: those for which the system has a flat medial image plane,
W2 2 O14 = 0 and those for systems with a curved medial focal surface
W2 2 0 M * 0 .
Table 3.2. Special Cases for the Medial Focal Surface in a Perturbed
Optical System.
(a) General Case: Flat medial focal plane tilted and defocused
relative to the GIP.
W = l/2pV2 2 2 [(H  t
j '
B^ 2 2 2 = IW 2 2 2 o . 2 (335)
j 33
3222 = a2 2 2 / W2 2 2 (336)
b2 2 2 2 = B2 2 2 2 /W2 2 2  a2 2 2 2 (337)
40
GAUS SIA N
IMAGE
PLANE
OAR
Ka) • H(a)
Kb) 11(b)
1 (c) 1 1 (c)
Fig. 36. Illustrating the Special Cases for the Medial Focal Surface.
See Table 32.
gives for Eq. (333)
=» ^
W = 1/2 W2 2 2 E(H  a222) + b2 222]'P2
(338)
= I / 2W 222[H2 222 + b 2 2 2 2 ] ° P 2 •
stood by finding where in the image plane the aberration is zero. From
0 = (H  a2 2 2 )^ + b2 2 2 2 (339)
Using the standard method of taking the square root of negative numbers
(342)
then
and
(344)
two points in the image plane. These two points are located by the
H
x
ib
222
222
zeroes in the field upon the introduction of tilt and decenter pertur
nodes are coincident at the center of the field. Using the concept of
44
that has allowed for the first time understanding of the properties of
vectors a.222 and b^zz Once they have been found, the magnitude and
E 1/2W222(N1N2) ^ 2 . (345)
The vectors ,N2 are called node vectors. These are vectors
that connect the field point of interest, located by H, with the nodes
product of the distance from the field point of interest to each of the
nodes,  Ni j N2 . The orientation of the line foci on one of the focal
surfaces are along the vector {N1N2}^. This is simply the line that
line foci on the other focal surface are at right angles to these.
Given the location of the nodes, one can construct the node vectors
and find the magnitude and orientation of the astigmatism for any
field point. ,
46
the astigmatism on each of the focal surfaces for a system with binodal
astigmatism.
tangential field curves. These are profile plots of the sagittal and
at two points in the field. At these points, the two focal surfaces
47
/ / — — — — vx X
/ / — — — — — \ X X \ 'V
/ / — x X \ X
z / Z    V \ \ \
z z Z » • * •> s \ \ \
/ / • ' ' \ \ \ \
/ / / \ \ ' X
\ \
\ \ \ \
\ X \ \ \ \ \ i
\ v. \ \
X X X \ X
X X X X \ '
x x X ' '
x '
__
curves) cannot cross because this would imply that there would be some
closed curve in the field where the astigmatism is zero. This behavior
surfaces that contain line foci due to astigmatism. Here a flat (i.e.,
Fig. 312. The Shape of the Two Focal Surfaces Containing Line Images
in a System with Binodal Astigmatism.
49
From Fig. 311 and Fig. 312 it can be seen that the focal sur
fifth order terms are included. The two focal surfaces will be called
N and P surfaces. This choice refers to the negative (N) and positive
With positive z left to right, the N surface is always to the left of the
aligned system depends on the sign of the field curvature and astigmatism.
As with the medial surface, there are two types of special cases
for astigmatism that are listed in Table 33. One set is the special
The other is the cases in which the system is corrected for astigmatism.
For the various cases. Figs. 313 and 314 provide the corresponding
.field, curves (where the profile is chosen to contain the nodes) and
projection plots of the four basic types of focal surfaces that may
N M P
1(a) H(a)
N M P N M P
Kb) 11(b)
K c) 11(c)
////////
////////
///////X
x\X
m u u i H i
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ M I w w w m
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ M I i/i i / /////
\ \ \ \ A \ \\1 1 II/zz
/////III \\W W W
m v /n \\m \
H (a) Linear astigmatism
I! iI
ii
III
III
i I
1 1( b) Constant a s t i g m a t i s m
This aberration results only in image displacement and does not result
turbed surface are zero. In this case the aberration introduced is due
to a shearing between the pupil and the center of symmetry for the
doing the summations and identifying the appropriate terms. This results
(555)
(554)
(555)
,56
These vectors are treated in the same manner as the vectors without the
new effects. We will not then distinguish these contributions from the
case.
to account for and understand the behavior of the systems under the in
fluence of tilt and decenter perturbations. the vectors that were intro
process. These options include ray fans, field curves, distortion calcu
lations, nhs wavefront and rms spot size calculations, spot diagrams,
Strehl ratios and MTF calculations, and a variety of options that are
derived from spot diagram data. In the large design programs these cal
tracing real rays. In all cases the analytic expressions are approxima
tions to the real behavior. The success of the analytic approach for
predicting real ray behavior depends on the order (i.e., third, fifth,...)
of the coefficients used and the speed (f/No.) and field of view of the
optical systems using coefficients have been available for some time. They
puters have become more and more efficient, these analysis routines have
listed are computed using real rays in the large design programs. The
calculation.
however, this is not the case, especially in the area of rms calculations.
be done only over one profile of the positive field. By analyzing the
system at three to five field points along the positive y axis in the
analysis. In rms calculations, which require that between 200 and 1000
rays be traced through the system for each field point, the cost rapidly
becomes prohibitive.
perturbed optical systems has not been available. The result is that
designers have been forced to analyze perturbed systems using real rays.
feasible, and the result has been a gross under sampling of the field and
vide the manufacturing and fabrication tolerances for a design. Using the
These expressions depend only on image plane quantities, and the result
is that calculations that give information over the entire image plane
Starting with the wave aberration expansion to third order including the
rms wavefront and spot size, field curve calculation, and distortion
W = AW^oCpop) + W0 4o(p«p) 2
+ W1 3 I [(H  a 13i )  p ] ( p  p )
+ 1 / 2 W 2 2 2 [ ( H  t 2 2 2 ) 2 > b 2 2 2 2 ] ‘ P 2 $ ( 4  1 )
where tilt and distortion have been left out as they do not contribute
wavefront
■
n(?:
?)nff1 tp*)n'1 (410)
With this relation, operating with the gradient operator on Eq. (46)
+ 2([ ]i3i«p )p + ( p ° p ) [ ] 13 1
+ 2 [ ]2 2 0 mP
+ t ]2 2 2 2 P* (411)
transverse rather than the wavefront domain. Now that the technique for
field cubed it is the most complex of the third order aberrations. For
Before defining image plane perturbation vectors, one of the terms must
■ + (415)
= Y [ W 311.f.2)H«.p. (417)
63
be interpreted through the use of node plots by writing the normalized form,
where
and the first order image displacement coefficient AWn has been included.
Equation (425) does not follow directly from Eq. (422), and the deri
the vector Hnig that is directed radially away from the first order node
ment component depends linearly on the distance from the node. The nodes
for the third order term W 3 u , are found by noting that H 2 3n + b^sii
matism. This term then gives zeroes, located at H3n + ib3n and
3b.
H 3h  ib3 1 1 . There is an additional zero at the pointlocated by the
obtain the behavior of the distortion across the field, both the first and
65
third order nodes must be considered. This will not be treated in detail
through node plots, the reader is referred to Chapter 6 and the discussion
relating to linear plus field cubed coma, which has the same nodal
behavior.
311
that limits the allowable value of some measure of image quality. Image
quality can be defined in terms of MTF, rms wavefront, rms spot size,
are relatively high. During the design process then, other analysis tools
used to guide the design process. The actual measure of image quality is
evaluated infrequently.
try to relate the behavior of one of the inexpensive analysis tools, such
as ray fans, to the degradation in image quality for a few cases and
expression for the rms wavefront or rms spot size calculated using
analytic expression is much more efficient than the real ray techniques
by many people including Unvala (1967), Radkowski (op. cit.), Wiese (1974),
The rms wavefront error is simply the square root of the variance. Here
field dependence and not the pupil dependence that is affected by pertur
bations. All of the techniques that have been developed to deal with
by Unvala and, in the notation used here, by Wiese. Since the integration
account for the change in the field dependence. This is done by substi*
tuting Eqs. (43), (44), (45), (422) for the field dependence. The
result is that the orthonormalized expression for the rms wavefront error
1 2
+ 180 W 0400
^rms^p (435)
1 2
+ 180 *040
+ ^ 4 [W2 2 2 H2 «W2 2 2 H2
(436)
I
69
in rms wavefront,
Ah3rms = K m s ^ ~ C(0rms}c* (4 3 7 )
Notice that this can be a negative number since at a particular field point
Given the aberration coefficients and the perturbation vectors, the cal
For the third order aberrations the relation between the node
plots and the resulting image degradation is generally clear. This can be
seen from the orthonormalized form of Eq. (435). The first term, being
a function of focus, is the equation for the best focal surface. Assuming
the image plane can be adjusted, this does not contribute any image
and therefore does not contribute to 'the image degradation. The fourth
term relates to the location of the centroid of the image and in general
image displacement term. The only terms that contribute to the degradation
in image quality are terms three and five. Term three depends only on
astigmatism and term five only on coma. The coma and astigmatism node
. . 70
plots then will generally explain directly the contours of constant image
The expression for the mean square spot size is obtained from
e2 _ !_ i rr /sw\2 / s w V
pdpdcj). (438)
ir (n'u,)z 1) L v y / \6 xJ
The rms spot size is the square root of this quantity. Again the inte
gration isover the pupil, and therefore it is unaffected bytilts and de*
result that is of the same form as Eq, (435) simply with different co
efficients. The resulting Expression for the rms spot size in a perturbed
system is
, ■ V, •
4 w2
+ g "040
i r r^ 2 a 2 i
J {_[ J2 2 2 *( J2 2 2 J
+ I [ p i 31" (439)
. .71
4 2
g" w040 (440)
+ W3n (ii«H)H)]
and astigmatism during the design process is often studied through the
One problem real ray programs have had is how sagittal and tangential
aligned system these surfaces are the sagittal and tangential focal sur
faces fbr astigmatism. The sagittal surface is the surface along which
the skew rays along the x axis in the aperture come to focus, leaving
surface is the surface along which the meridional rays in the aperture
sagittal line. The medial focal surface lies halfway between the sagittal
and tangential surfaces, and the image blur on this surface is circular.
in vector form,
expression
1
W220m = W220 + 2 " W222 (444)
 .  73
To see that line foci indeed result from Eqs. (446) and (450),
consider the exponential form. For the sagittal image, Eq. (446) can
be written as
^
n* u fe = 2 W2 2 2 (H«p)H. (452)
oriented radially away from the origin. Similarly, the expression for the
74
image on the tangential surface can be written
to each other at each field point are obtained. These surfaces are
departure from the medial surface. Substituting the field dependence for
n ’u* £ = (E 32 2 2 °E + E ]2 2 2 2 P*
 2 ([ ]2 2 2 "P) iE ]2 2 2 .(459)
where
image on the tangential surface can be written
to each other at each field point are obtained. These surfaces are
departure from the medial surface. Substituting the field dependence for
n'u'E = ( [ % 22  r ] 2 2 2 ) P + r t 2222#*
= 2 cr] 2 2 2 « p ) n 2 2 2 (4 5 5 )
Where .
76
the vector expansion and those from the scalar form is that in the
scalar form, the departure from the medial surface depends on the sign
The N and P surfaces then are not equivalent to the conventional S and

APPLICATION: MISALIGNMENTS IN RITCHEYCHRETIEN
TELESCOPES. A NEW TECHNIQUE. .
the problems can be corrected. This new technique for detecting and
concave primary and convex secondary in which conics are placed on the
two mirrors to correct the third order spherical aberration and the
third order coma. The result is that the field of view of these systems
77
This problem will be studied by simulation using a program
Yi.ew telescope with a 4m aperture. The specific system data including
the appropriate conics for the RitcheyChretien solution and the paraxial
ray trace data are given in Tables 51 and 52. (All units in
FS .8=00
l/2 fov= @«33deg
L» 11.4117 .
implies that the tilt and decenter of each surface are independent
that can occur. If the reference axis is chosen to be the line con
necting the vertex of the primary with the vertex of the secondary, then
only tilts of the primary and secondary can occur. If the reference
axis is chosen to be the local axis of the primary (i.e., the line
connecting the vertex with the center of curvature), then the two free
parameters are the tilt and decenter of the secondary. Any other choice
through the vertices of the two mirrors. The mirrors then can only be
given in Table .54 into the system. These values are about the order
telescope.
Table 55 lists the first order properties (see Chap. 2) of the
perturbed system.. The most important column here is the list of sigma
vectors, o. The row labeling, i.e. IX, IXA, IY,..., corresponds to the
subscript that appears with t, i.e. 01 = ci^i + alyj, aiA = .^i^i + alYAj>
Tilt
Magnitude Orientation
(Arc Min) (deg)
Primary 1 .2 27
Secondary 1 .2 . 70
Table 55. First Order Tilt and Decenter Properties in the Arbitrarily
Misaligned System.
—&
8 SIGMA OBJ DISP PUP DISP U Y FIELD TILT
IX 0.0273 ■ 0 .0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 8 .0 0 0 0 U= 8
IXA 0 .0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0
1Y ©=0545 8 .0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0.080000 0 .0 0 0 0 U=0
m 0 .0 0 0 0 8 .0 0 0 0
Figure 51 shows the graphic format for illustrating the nodal
(quadrant 1) gives the boresight error and the Gaussian image plane
tilt and illustrates the location of the Gaussian image plane (dashed
axes) with respect to the reference plane (i.e., the plane centered on
(quadrant 2) gives the properties of the coma field. The lower lefthand
_ quadrant (quadrant 3) gives the vertex location of the medial focal sur
face and the lower, righthand quadrant (quadrant 4) gives the nodal
turbations has been to introduce uniform coma into the system. Uniform
corrected for coma. The magnitude and orientation are calculated using,
: _ v/o _ ' ^
a X31 = [CWi3i)icri + (Wl3i)iA a lA + ( W ^ ^ c ^
. + CWi3i)2Aa2A]. (51)
fsee Bq.((314)]
The values shown in Fig. 51 may be found by inserting the appropriate
_ tilting the secondary and checking the system visually until the coma
TILKrad) MAGNITUDE*.
Y: — 7.25 u
0.0034
X: ORIENTATION:
0.0028 144.8 deg
H220M® 9.83u W222* 6.08u CENTER
Ha 1.00 Ha 1.00 Y20 ^ 5
CENTER : X222:
: 0.0 i
Y220M: NODES
0.10 : Yl:
X220M: J . 0.08
8.06 ........ 5 "WHx xi:
; 0.06
Y2:
MINIMUM : 0.0i
FOCAL ; X2:
shift: 0.04
0.007 nn
i
Fig. 51. Node Plots for the Arbitrarily Misaligned System.
the secondary. This does not insure that the system is aligned, as one
interest to know how the perturbations affect some measure of the image
the quantity of interest. Table 56 lists the change in rms spot size
Table 56. Tabular Output for the Change in RMS Spot Size in the
Arbitrarily Misaligned System (YField Profile).
for a profile in the field. Figure 53 gives a profile plot of both the
actual and the change in mis spot size for two profiles in the field, 0
and 90° . The most useful output, however, are the contour plots shown
in Fig. 54. These plots give a much better perspective on the problem
dErns
nicrons
300.00
actual
open change in
A Y field
o X field
FIELD
1.00
 200.00
Fig. 53. Plotted Output for the Actual and the Change in the RMS Spot
Size in the Arbitrarily Misaligned System (X and Y Field
Profiles).
86
of constant change in rms spot size are shown. In Fig. 54(b) contours
of actual rms spot size for the perturbed system are shown. In Fig.
54 (c) the contours of actual rms spot size for the aligned system are
the coma. Here this is done by solving Eq. (51) for a2, but in
are given in Table 57. The resulting first order properties are given
in Table 58, and the node plots are illustrated in Fig. 55. Referring
to quadrant 4, one sees that the system has binodal astigmatism. The
effect on the image quality over the field is shown in Fig. 56. From
Fig. 56(b) it is clear that the effect of binodal astigmatism has been
•such a'system, there woul d be a notice able effe ct. A simul at ion of a
of stars has been used at zero, 0.7, and full field in increments of
45° in the field. Five focal positions are superimposed with a small
well what a throughfocus star plate looks like under magnification when
20
Hx
 1.0
60
IMAGE PLANE
Hy
40
 1.0 0
125
Hx
l.0 l
IMAGE PLANE
Hy
_ 1.0 0
100
50
100
1.0 &
i.ee
(c)
Tilt
Magnitude Orientation
(arc min) (deg)
Secondary 4.5 27
Table 58. First Order Tilt and Decenter Properties in the Coma
Compensated System.
*>*
0 SIGMA OBJ DISP PUP DISP U Y FIELD TILT
IX 0.0273 0.0000 0.0000 0.000000 0.0000 U=0
1XA 8.0000 0.0000
1Y 0.0545 0.0000 0.0000 0.000080 0.0000 U=0
1YA 0.0000 0.0000
2X 0.0033 0.0545 0.0000 0.000314 2.3532 0.000157
2XA 0.0545 0.0000
2Y 0.0065 0.1091 0.0000 0.000628 4.7064 0.008314
2YA 0.1091 0.0000
Hx
 1 . 0 3
IMAGE PLANE
Hu
50
50
100
Hx
1 .0 &
50
 1.00
Fig. 56. Contour Plot for RMS Spot Size (Micrometers) in the Coma
Compensated System.
is. as follows: Start with a plate similar to that in Fig. 57 with at
paper over the star images for which the sagittal orientation has been
determined. The resulting plot for Fig. 57 is shown in Fig. 58. To
extend these lines to the center of the picture and check to see if they
the binodal astigmatism. This is done by locating the nodes for the
astigmatic field. There are two graphical techniques for locating the
nodes from line plots such as Fig. 58. One is to use the plots in
Appendix B to find the closest match to the orientation found in Fig. 58
Fig. 5 8 . Illustrating the Technique for Determining Misalignments from
ThroughFocus Star Plates.
59• Determining if , Te,
— 8 W «„S
; 95
The other is to use the knowledge that the sagittal image bisects the
angle between the nodes "to find the nodes. The second technique is a bit
more complicated, so the first technique will be used here. The plots
these are easily generated for use with the appropriate plate size. For
Fig. 58 one would find that the first plot in Appendix B gives the best
field.
for the astigmatism is near the center of the field. This occurs
s.2
because B2 2 2 is small here. This is a general property of most coma '
particular it is due to
(Wi3l)2 = CWi3l)2A
and
(W 222) 2 =' ~ ( ^ 2 2 2 ) 2a 
will be made here although we note that it is not required for the
installed, are on the tilt and decenter of the secondary. This implies
that the reference axis should now be the local axis of the primary,
x.e., crl = “■0. Making this conversion gives the first order prop
erties shown in Table 59 and the node plots in Fig. 510. If the
reference plane axes in quadrant 1 are superimposed for Fig. 55 and
5 1 0 , one sees that the two choices of reference axis are equivalent.
Table 59. First Order Tilt and Decenter Properties in the Coma
Compensated System with respect to the Local Axis of the
Primary.
Fig. 510. Node Plots for the Coma Compensated System with respect to
the Local Axis of the Primary.
. ;
98
So far only the effects of misalignments have been considered.
that mirror warpage contributes to the b^zz vector but not to the az2 2
1 2
W = yWzzzCCH  a2 2 2 ) 2 + ^ 2 2 2 !“P2
with
s.2 ^2 i.2 ^ ...
222 . = b 22.2/w 222 " a222
H = a2 2 2 ± 10222 1
2 1^ 2 2 2 1 »
oriented along
± ib2 2 2 
Once the nodes have been located, the vector b 2 2 2 can be determined
be calculated.
• • 99
If the binodal astigmatism is due to misalignment only, then
222 0 and
> ■ ' . ■
t*2 2 2  ±18222' (52)
star plate with this configuration and locating the nodes, one can
induced constant term. If this is not done and one proceeds to compen
0 2 j 02^ are not zero, there will be nonsymmetric distortion in the field.
100
Fig. 58, the vector +ib2 2 2 is as illustrated in Fig. 511. Its mag
be used to calculate the tilt and decenter present for the secondary,
H 5
y
x
5
Fig. 511. Measuring the Perturbation Vector b 2 2 2 from the Node Plot
Corresponding to Fig. 58.
101
Since one node appears near the center of the field, we will
^ (w l3l)2 ^ _a.
02 ‘ '* W m J i * *** ’ 1 1o2a; (57)
= 1.302^. (58)
^ 6v2 ,
a2 a =~ > (59)
72
i.e. +2.6 mm at either 25° or + 155° to the Y axis. The tilt is then
given by,
02. = 1 1^ 2A
1
32 + c 6v2 _ l0 2 A (513)
32
giving
6V 2 = ±0.00037 6^2
^ ±(0.05O)e"l(25O) . (514)
ensure that the system is aligned. The correct technique for this type
mirror systems, they are not adequate for most refractive designs. In
general, the third order terms will give the effects of centered system
system. This is because the third order coefficients change more quickly
than the fifth order coefficients when these parameters are changed.
Their behavior will dominate the response of the system to centered per
when the fifth order surface contributions are comparable to the third
groups and some wide field mirror systems. These terms must be in
balances some of the third and fifth order terms at various zones in the
the field. When tilts and decenters are introduced, the zeroes of the
third and fifth order contributions become displaced with respect to each
other in the field. Many times this has a drastic effect on the
103
104
therefore the fifth order coefficients are also unaffected. Given the
of this chapter.
This chapter will present the nodal behavior of the fifth order aber
ration fields.
order fields for two reasons. Generally, there are two types of
105
special cases; one set when the aberration term is zero and the other set
when the term is not zero. When a fifth order aberration coefficient at
enough third order aberration to balance the higher order terms at some
zero, its effect on the perturbed system is negligible and a nodal inter
node symmetry, i.e., nodes symmetric about the center of the field, one
for the equations that describe the nodal properties of the aberration
write this chapter in a manner such that most of the equations can be
rather than the techniques for calculating the properties. The equations
tor by cubing the magnitude of the linear vector and multiplying its
tion for the perturbation vectors indicate the power of the o. vectors
involved. The first letter. A, contains one o. vector, and fifth letter,
term by term, grouping terms together when appropriate. For each term,
w = WoeoC^p)3. (61)
is independent of field.
W = W^x C S p ) ( p ° p ) 2 . . (62)
This aberration term is similar to third order coffla. Its symmetry prop
directed radially away from the center (zero) of the aberration field.
By marking this line in units of' p2, the centers of the circles gener
ated by the second term may be located. The second term generates
circles of radius P 2 Wi3 ^. The centers for the circles are located by
109
noting that the lower edge of the circle passes through the correspond
ing zone mark on the line. This has been done in Fig. 61 for zone
marked in units of p4. The second term gives circles located as before,
but now the radius of the circles is 2p 3 Wi51, which alters the symmetry
Comparing this with Eq. (316), the field behavior is seen to be the
Ill
same as that for third order coma. The transverse aberration increases
linearly with field and is oriented radially away from the node. The
node is located by the vector a.1 5 1 . Fig. 63. The effect of a dis
iH
y
II
Q)
cn
O
H X.
(a)
151
(b)
Fig. 64. Properties of the Transverse Blur for Fifth Order Coma, W15 1
(a) Centered (b) Perturbed.
. 113
+ l/2W2lf2(fi2p2)(p^ . (66)
mapping of a circular zone in the aperture onto the image plane in the
clear that there are. focal positions that result in images that can be
used to identify SMT surfaces. For any other zone in the aperture, the
mapping has the same symmetry, but the size is scaled by p 3 and the
focal position for a particular symmetry has changed. Each zone has a
matism, but now the curvature of the surfaces is a function of the zone
The reason for the zone dependent curvature is the p4 aperture dependence
114
I M S
SIZE = p 3
24 0
cO = *
JK2 •
(b)
4(^240% + 1/2W242)p2
t
M FOCUS
4
MEDIAL PARAXIAL
.0 IMAGE IMAGE
PLANE PLANE
.7
.0
(a)
where the rays from the 0.7 zone in the aperture come to a focus. The
that surface in the field along which the medial image for the ]p  = 0 .7
obtained from the through focus mappings of the p = 0.7 zone in the
Comparing this with Eq. (329) shows that this is of the same form as
the expression for the medial focal surface associated with third order
Eq. (329) applies here, and the reader is referred to that section
order spherical aberration. This behavior will be seen for many of the
Fig. 6 6 . Node Plot for the Medial Surface Associated with Oblique
Spherical Aberration, W2 4 qm .
117
GAUSSIAN
IMAGE
PLANE
OAR
R.A.
M E DI AL
FOCAL
SURFACE
DESIGN
PLANE
may be used to find the properties of the focal surfaces as defined for .
the Ip = 0.7 zone in the aperture. Comparing this with Eq. (338) shows
that the field dependence is of the same form as seen for medial astig
matism with respect to the medial astigmatic focal surface. (Again a more
either of the focal surfaces can be found from the location of the two
nodes with respect to the field point of interest. The magnitude is pro
orientation of one of the oriented images is along the line that bisects
cos [3(0<j>) ] for the elliptical coma term, W 3 3 3 , which will be treated
later. Here,
242
242
N M P
Fig. 610. For Any Field Point H, the Magnitude of the^OBSA Is^ the
Product of the Distances to the Two Nodes   x jN^j.
"identical to that for third order (linear) coma. The only difference
cubed. This means that if the coefficients, W131, W33l^, have opposite
signs, there will be some circular ring in the field where these two
In any system with appreciable field cubed coma, this will be the case if
terms that, are linear and constant over the field. These contributions
will be separated from the field cubed coma and combined with the linear
aberration and combining them with the lower order balancing aberration
will be used for those fifth order aberrations that have lower order
node plots.
The linear term generated by the field cubed coma changes the
The constant term generated by the field cubed coma changes the nodal
location for the linear coma. The new node location is given by the
vector
^ ■ 1 ^ ^
a 131E = !V1 3 1 E (W 1 3 1 a 131 + W 331M [C 331M ~ b 2 331M a^ 3 1 M ] >
J612)
In the presence of field cubed coma, the third order coma field has the
With the linear and constant terms accounted for, the expression
The nodal interpretation can be made directly from this equation. The
term in square brackets is of the same form as Eq. (338) and therefore
at the center of symmetry in the field located by the vector a.3 3 1 ^. Re
call that the star notation indicates a conjugate vector and is important
Field cubed coma then, develops three collinear zeroes in the field in
331M
Fig. 611. In a Perturbed System the Field Cubed Coma Contribution Can
Be Zero at Three Collinear Points in the Field.
used to find the magnitude and orientation of the field cubed coma
contribution for any point in the field. The magnitude is the product
of the magnitudes of the three node vectors, one drawn from each of the
three nodes to the field point of interest (i.e., the product of the
124
distance from the field point to each of the nodes). The orientation is
given by the sum of the orientation angles for the two outer node
vectors minus the orientation angle of the central node vector (because
M * = H(HH*) = H(HH), .
Note also that the conjugate term ensures that the resulting orientation
resulting vector gives the magnitude of the sagittal coma and the
orientation.
cubed coma, insights into the effects of tilts and decenters on the
balance zone can be developed. To illustrate how the nodes affect the
of constant wave aberration magnitude for linear plus field cubed coma
orientation plot is shown in Fig. 613. Here the plot symbol is chosen
125
1H
xo
1.
vvykui>4».«
4 V V W U A A * . . y
» 4 A A 4
* * A A 4 »►**.▲<<*«
» > > > • • * 4 4 * < < « <
> > > > • . •««<<<<«
» > > V # . •4 r < < < * 1
9 rv v 4 * » v r T r r T <
* t ▼ r 4 A k h r r r r v '
*• *4 f 4
t* * • * 4 4
i» • . « 4
6 • • 4 4
k k
giving the magnitude of the sagittal coma. From these plots one can
see that the two terms balance each other over a ring located at a
optical system. In the figure the filled circles give the location of
the three collinear zeroes for the field cubed coma contribution. The
x denotes the nodal location of the linear coma accounting for the
field cubed contribution. For this example the magnitude of the third
Fig. 614. Node Plot for Illustrating the Behavior of Linear Plus Field
Cubed Coma in a Perturbed System.
order nodes.
Figures 615, 616 show how these nodes affect.the balance zone for
linear plus field cubed coma. The. first thing to note is that the bal
ance zone is no longer present. This occurs because these are orien
cancel each other, they not only must have the same magnitude, they
each other, the zone of balance collapses to, in general, two points
in the field. These two points of balance are shown in Fig. 615.
Comparing Fig. 613 with Fig. 615 shows clearly the transition from a
coma blur, shown in Fig. 61, being mapped to ellipses . This behavior •
is illustrated in Fig. 617. In (a) the vector arrows are the contri
bution due to the elliptical coma term and illustrate the mapping of
the circles to ellipses along the major and minor axes. At any point
circular zones and the resulting ellipses are shown and in(c) is the
Fig. 615. Contour Plot of Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma in a Perturbed
System with the Node Plot Shown in Fig. 614.
A
A A A A A A A A A
A 7 7 7 7 4 ▼ 4 7 7 A
h A
fs N A7 7 T * > » » * 4 4 7
A 1T 7 > > X A • * * 4 7
hs A 4 7 > > > > X X X * • •* 4
> > > > X X • • • •
r h 4 7 7 > > > > > > • * • *
r A # 7 > > > > > > »
X* A f 7 *7 7 7 7 7 7
* f 7 "7 7 7 7 7 7
T » * “T ~7 ~7 ~7 7 7 7 A A A A A A A A
< "^7777 7 7 7 1 A A A A A A A
< * 4 7 7 77 "7 77 7 A A A A A A A
< «  77 7 7 7 A A A A A A A
7 'I 7
* ' 4 7 * 77 'I 7 7 A A A A A A 4
• 4 7 7 A 7 7 A A A A A A 7
» • 4 7 1 A 'I 7 7 A A A A 4
u » • 4 4 7 7 A A A 7 4 4
4 4 4 4
4 *
(a)
(c)
(b)
Fig. 617. The Effect of Elliptical Coma on Linear Plus Field Cubed
Coma in a Centered System.
(a) The vector arrows are the contribution of the elliptical coma
pattern.
(b) Composite showing the original aberration due to linear plus field
cubed coma and the ellipses resulting from the elliptical coma
term.
(c) The resulting pattern from the combination of the two aberrations.
130
This term does not have or generate any lower order balancing terms.
The only question then is, where in the field is this term zero? Writ
ten in the second form it can be seen that the term in square brackets
The result is that for elliptical coma there are in general three nodes
three points in the field the circular zones of the coma pattern remain
¥ ; itl (617)
2
v _ R — S'
X — _ . (618)
131
The vector I1333 locates the centroid of the node pattern and is the
point from which the vectors that locate the nodes are measured. These
vectors are
2x (619)
x + i/3 x (620)
x  i/3 x (621)
2x
x
+ i/3"
the major axes of the resulting ellipses, seen in Fig. 617 (c), depends
on both the orientation of the linear plus field cubed coma term and the
The orientation relative to the linear plus field cubed coma is found in
Appendix E. In general, the major axes for the ellipses are not along
which the minimum fms wavefront error is obtained. As with linear plus
field cubed coma, there is in general a ring in the field where the fifth
the third order aberration, proportional to the field squared. Over this
ring, the medial focal surface crosses the Gaussian image plane.
that affect the third order aberration field. Again these terms will be
combined with the third order terms to give a net third order field,
The fifth order term then has changed both the magnitude and the nodal
locations of the third order term but not the nodal behavior.
With the third order terms accounted for, the remaining terms in
As with field cubed coma, the zeroes of this term are apparent. The
quantity in square brackets is of the same form as Eq. (338) and ex
with the field cubed coma, this aberration term develops three collinear
here is that the central zero, located by a.4 2 0 ^ is weighted by the field
squared rather than linearly with the field. This nodal behavior is
illustrated in Fig. 619 where the larger central node indicates the
zone. Whereas the node plot for the medial surface is similar to that
for linear plus field cubed coma, the balance zone response is not.
starting with the ring balance zone in the aligned system, the change in
134
the magnitude of the third order coefficient moves the ring in or out
ellipse because the field dependence about the point located by the
'420
Fig. 620. The Behavior of the Balance Zone for the Third Plus Fifth
Order Medial Focal Surface in a Perturbed System.
(a) Ring balance zone for the medial focal surface in an aligned system.
(b) Perturbations may change the radius of the ring balance zone due to
to the change in the effective magnitude of the third order con
tribution, W2 2 0 J4E*
(c) Perturbations may also map the ring to an oval when the centers
of the third and fifth order contributions are separated.
(d) The most general form for the ring balance zone in a perturbed
system.
136
Astigmatism W2 2 2 s w^ 2 2
Fifth order astigmatism is another of the aberrations that has the same
blur features as a third order term with simply a higher order field
field over which the third and fifth order terms cancel to give no
that modify the nodal locations and magnitude of the third order aberra
a222E ± ib222E 
With the lower order terms removed, the remaining terms for fifth
where
same form and therefore exhibits trinodal behavior. The H*4 2 2 term
"*422 f +1/3x422
the product of the magnitudes of the four node vectors (the vectors from
the fifth order contribution [ ] 422 (see Appendix C) is the sum of the
found as in Chapter 3) [ ]2 ,
2 2 2 » to give a net astigmatism vector.
The line images on the N and P surfaces are then oriented along
and
i [ 3A
cussed. Here, as with linear plus field cubed coma, the third and fifth
case of astigmatism, there are six nodes to consider, which makes direct
by the binodal third order term assuming the nodes are within
139
the balance zone. The balance zone generally becomes a region of con
stant aberration, i.e., the terms do not tend to go to zero but rather
a broad minimum develops. Unlike the coma terms that tend to continue
to be zero at one or two points, the astigmatism may not have any zeroes
Generally, when the fifth order nodes are inside the balance zone, the
behavior outside the balance zone remains roughly the same. As the
nodes move outside the balance zones, the behavior becomes more complex
and orientation and contour plots are required to interpret the nodal
behavior.
gential focal surfaces breaks down completely when the fifth order terms
dington close skew ray trace to locate two focal surfaces along which
sagittal and tangential line images are obtained. When both third and
fifth order aberration are significant for a system, these focal surfaces
has been assumed that the Coddington trace locates two continuous focal
ton trace are not continuous in a perturbed system. There are, however,
aligned system is not a crossover, but rather a ring node. The two
focal surfaces (N and P) touch over this ring in the field but do not
cross it. This behavior must be correct because when small perturbations
are introduced, field curves taken along any profile not containing a
perturbed system unless this picture is used. As with linear plus field
cubed coma the ring node of the aligned system collapses to points of
balance when small perturbations are introduced because the third and
fifth order terms that are balancing each other are vector orientation
dependent aberrations.
images on the N and P surfaces are still at right angles to each other,
but they can have any orientation angle. The concept of bisecting nodes
that was introduced for third order astigmatism breaks down when the
to image orientation.
surfaces do not. Figure 622 gives plots that show image orientation and
field curves for a centered system with third order astigmatism balanc
ing fifth order for both the S and T and N and P interpretations.
::!^ z
w //
• >X
(c) (d)
I• \
I • i
I • • i
I • i
i
\ '
(e) (f)
Distortion is yet another case of the fifth order aberration having a
lower order balancing term. Here, however, because this term depends on
fifth order in the field, a nodal interpretation has not been pursued
that results in a node plot resembling linear plus field cubed coma.
there would be three sets of nodes to contend with for first, third and
fifth order contributions. There would be eight nodes with three field
are uniform aberration vectors for the fifth order aberrations that
arise from the fifth order spherical aberration. These vectors are given
in Appendix C.
 CHAPTER 7
method will be demonstrated in this chapter. > The approach was guided by
aligned system with insight into the behavior of a design when per
ray fans, field curves, and spot diagrams calculated using coefficients
The program accounts for the aberration terms through fifth order
extensions.
will be shown, this lens is not well represented by the third order
aberration terms, but is accurately described when the fifth order terms
are included. At the end of this chapter there will be a brief treatment
that even higher order aberration terms are required for some systems.
The tables and figures in this chapter were generated by the program
Table 77. These are the quantities described in Chapter 2, The most
considered.
U
0.176327
2 3=7393 *2.2943 ,114771
3 4.3@74 @=2929 ,192397 ,280553
4. 4=2321 ,038630 0=150202 ,150202
5 4=7712 1=4273 .098353 .284745
6 4=8428 1=8649 0=141187 .053096
7 0=179426 =179426
146
Table 73. Third Order Wave Aberration Coefficients
COEFFICIENTS I
3
Element .1 2 3
Magnitude 0 0.05 0.05
Decenter (mm)
Orientation 0 25 60
(degrees)
Magnitude 10 0 5
(arc min)
Tilt
•Orientation 55 0 1 1 0
(degrees)
Magnitude 0 5 5
(arc min)
Wedge
Orientation 0 0 125
(degrees)
150
MEDIAL
SURFACE 8=41E0©3
io43E004
X: 9.73E 989E6
ASTIGMATISM
YS 3.33E 2.93E005
i
j
Table 710 Fifth Order Perturbation Vectors II
i:=SS>Ei
M333
3ol7Ei
H420M
Y:
x: 1.98E' 2.55EG
H422
3.78E' 2,28E8
7.95EI io9iE0©8
mu
2.77E' 2oiSEE 2,58Ei
. : 152
Figures 72, 73, 74, and 711 show the node plots for this
example. These plots are probably the most important feature of this
for the third order aberration terms, neglecting the effects of the
ing how much affect the higher order aberrations have on the lower order
terms. Notice here the large displacement of the third order coma
quality. There has also been a fairly large decentration of the medial
■" .  ■ t
focal surface.
spherical aberration has not been appreciably changed and, because the
detail.
The nodal properties of linear plus field cubed coma and the
medial focal surface are shown in Fig. 74. Here, both third and fifth
rations . In both cases, the higher order terms have changed both the
the magnitude and the nodal locations of the third order terms as can
be seen by comparing with the third order data in Fig. 72. The ..
large central node in the plot for the medial surface indicates the
i
MEDIAL SURFACE W20M
H220ME* 0.83u H420M 0.25a
Hy; 1.00
i CENTER x CENTER VERTEX •
• Y220ME 0.18 Y420M= 0.02
X220ME 0.41 X420M 0.15
................... _Hx FOCUS OUTER VERTICES •
....... >........
• ■ Yl* 0.88
« dz« 0.010MM XI* 0.34
*
« Y2 0.04
X2 0.04
•
done by using the graphic routines shown in Figs. 75 to 710. Figure
(linear plus field cubed) coma in the field. The plot symbol is chosen
Fig. 61. Its length gives the magnitude of the sagittal coma. For
of coma has been introduced into the system. The balance points
remaining from the ring balance of the aligned system lie outside of
the field of view. As a result, both the magnitude and the orientation
the field for linear plus field cubed coma is shown in Fig. 77. This
nodes and the resulting aberration fields. The corresponding plot for
the centered system is shown in Fig. 78. In Fig. 77, the effect of
the three collinear fifth order nodes on the magnitude of the aberration
The contour plot of constant focal shift for the medial surface
the corresponding plot for linear plus field cubed coma. This is because
associated with the medial focal surface are scalars. The plot for the
Fig. 75. Orientation Plot for Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma.
Perturbed System.
158
1.00
.......................
'
Fig. 76. Orientation Plot for Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma.
Aligned System.
159
START SCAH:Hy,Hx
1,8
0 ,1
8 ,8
SCAN TYPE
<1=X,2«Y,3R,4A>:
2
1
3
STEP SIZE  1 .0 6 f
(relative field):
.1
.85
CONTOUR VALUE(waves):
1 1.2 1.4
CONTOUR1,CONTIHUE2:
1
CONTINUE SCAN?
1 9
 1 . 00
Fig. 77. Magnitude Contour Plot for Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma.
Perturbed System.
160
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
.3,0 X
1,0 /
SCAN TYPE /
<1=X,2*Y,3*R,4*A): / ,0.10 \
A . r
STEP SIZE 1.00 r \ " ' 1 i.be
(relative field): \
.05 \
.1 \
CONTOUR VALUECveves): \
.10 \
CONTOUR1, CONTINUE2!
1  
CONTINUE SCAN?
0
1.00
Fig. 78. Magnitude Contour Plot for Linear Plus Field Cubed Coma.
Aligned System.
161
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
SCAN TYPE
(1—X,2=Y,3=R,4—A)
Hx
STEP SIZE
(relative field)
CONTOUR VALUE(waves)
CONTOUR1,CONTINUE2
1
CONTINUE SCAN?
 1.00
Fig. 79. Magnitude Contour Plot for the Medial Focal Surface.
Perturbed System.
162
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
0,0
SCAN TYPE
C13X,2*Y,3=R,4=A)I
2
Fig. 710. Magnitude Contour Plot for the Medial Focal Surface.
Aligned System.
163
decentration of the focal surface and the change in focus are both evi
dent in comparing these plots. Because the fifth order term is small and
additive, the third order term dominates the behavior of this aberration.
The node plots for elliptical coma and astigmatism are shown
in Fig. 711. Notice here the large displacement of one of the nodes
node plot for astigmatism with its six nodes is beginning to become
more difficult to visualize directly and one has to rely more heavily
arrow oriented along the major axis of the elliptical mapping of the
"circular zones. These are simply the mapping vectors along the major
elliptical coma contribution and the linear plus field cubed coma. The
Fig. 713 the change in orientation at the edge of the field is due to
of the node plot in Fig. 711. The corresponding plot for the aligned
system is shown in Fig. 715. As with linear plus field cubed coma there
<  ■  '
164
i
166
i « « i —
*% + * * * » • • • # # # # %
^ % * ................... ..   \
# » • • * ................ ...  %
............................... .
*• « • * .............. .
1.00 i — .......................... .. 
%< • • • • .............. . j
' ^ * ................... ..
% / / # » * *
1 1 1 » » . .
START SCAH:Hy,Hx
1,9
SCAN TYPE
<1X,2»Y,3R,4A):
2
1
STEP SIZE
(relative field):
.1
CONTOUR VALUECvaves):
.1 .2
.05 .15
.25
CONTOUR1,CONTINUE2:
1
CONTINUE SCAN?
0
 1.00
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
1,0
SCAN TYPE
<1=X,2Y,3R,4*A>:
2
STEP SIZE
(relative field):
.1
CONTOUR VALUE(waves):
.1
.05
CONTOUR*!,CONTINUE2:
1
CONTINUE SCAN?
0
 1.00
has been a significant change in this aberration term due to the large
made along the N or P focal surfaces as shown in Figs. 716 and 717.
the aligned system are shown in Figs. 718 and 719. A contour plot of
cussed in Chapter 6. The contour plot for the aligned system is shown
in Fig. 721. For this example, the balance zone lies just outside of
the N and P focal surfaces, relative to the design plane of the aligned
system (D), the effects of the Gaussian image plane tilt, displacement of
the vertex of the medial surface and the astigmatic nodes can be dis
played. These profiles are shown in Figs. 722 and 723. The field
tortion, the magnitude and orientation plots and contour plots are
important for analyzing this term. These plots are shown for the per
turbed and aligned system in Figs. 725 through 728. From these, one
170
 
 —
» * s
/ /s X — —
' / / // X ^ •— ^
1 / / / ✓ X — • ^
1 / / / / # # • • »
1 1 1 1
 1. 00 » t 1 1 1 • •
X \ \ \ X x % ^ • *
\ \ \ \ \ \ X ^ — 
\ \ \ \ \ X X •
— — —
N \ \ \ \ \ ^ — — —
X X X x X. — — — ——
x X X
 1.00
v' / / / / / / I l % X X X
/ / % / / / Z / 1 I X \\ \
/ / / / / / / / I 1 \ \W W W X
/ / / / I I \ \ \\ \ \ \ w
/ / / / / /
•n i l
• i i i
i i \ \ \\ \
\
* —— XXX %
/ / / / —•— — ■X X X X %
* / / / / / — XXXX\ %
/ / z z / / — — — ~ X X X X X \ \
/ / / / / s   •— X X \ \ \ \ \ X
//////  X\\\\\\
z///// X\\\\\\
///1l•*• •»%\\\\I1
 1.00
1 1 1 1 i • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
\\\1t»'• •••1///11
\ \ \ \ \ \  «• » / / / / / 1 /
\\\\\\X ///////
\\\\ X X X //z// /#
\\\\xv X—— //Zz/ /
\\Xx^ —— ///z / X
X X X V. — — /// X
Xx —— ,
% \ I I I /
' \ \ \ \ I I / / '
'N\ \ \ \ I / / / / '
'X \ \ \ \ \ I z / / / S '
x X X \ \ \ \ / / / / / S '
~ X X X X N \ \ / / ///S' '
X X X X X \ % # / SSSS S *
•
 1.00 —
■ __ _____
— — — — —  «* • • • x ——— —
——
— —• —  ' • % X X X.
/ s / / r t X S X X X X
*s S / s / / /. / X \ N X X X X X x
S/ // / / / \ \ \ \ X X x
' s/ // / / / \ \ \ \ \ X X
' / / / / / / \ \ \ \ \ \ X
/ / / / %
/ / \ \ \ \ \
/ / / 1 1 X X %
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
•4,0
8 ,•8
.2,.8
SCAN TYPE
a*X,2«Y,3«R,4»A>:
2
1
STEP SIZE 1
(relative field):
•1
.05
CONTOUR VALUE(waves):
.05
.15
.25
CONTOUR1,CONTINUE2:
i 1
CONTINUE SCAN?
0
 1.00
Fig. 720. Magnitude Contour Plot for Astigmatism with respect to the
Medial Focal Surface. Perturbed System.
175
START SCAN:Hy,Hx
1*0
.4,0 0.15
SCAN TYPE 05
(1=X,2Y,3=R,4A)
STEP SIZE
(relative field)
.05
CONTOUR VALUE(waves)
.25
.15
.05
CONTOUR1,CONTINUE2
12
CONTINUE SCAN?
1.00
Fig. 721. Magnitude Contour Plot for Astigmatism with respect to the
the Medial Focal Surface. Aligned System.
176
DRAM OAR? 1
DRAW REF AXIS? 1
DRAW DESIGN PLANE? 1
1.00
DRAW OAR? 1
DRAW REF AXIS? 1
DRAW DESIGN PLANE? 1
1.00
DRAW OAR? 1
DRAW REF AXIS? 1
DRAW DESIGN PLANE? I
\v x I I 1 1 I I < 4
VV\ W V X l i s t i i i i t
1.09
* % ^ x x
x X ^ ^ ^
' % x X>xX^
^ X
1.90
START SCAN:Hy,Hx ^
SCAN TYPE / / /
<1»X,2Y,3R,4A): / /
2 / /
1 / /
STEP SIZE 10* /
(relative field): /
.1 /
.15 /
CONTOUR VALUE<waves): /
1 1 s' /
2 _____ —
3   
CONTOUR1»CONTINUE2:
1 ___ —
CONTINUE SCAN?  "
1 0 _
1.00
START SCAN:Hy,Hx /
1,0 /
SCAN TYPE /
C1=X,2Y,3R,4A):
2 /
the plots presented here.one finds that the properties of linear plus
field cubed coma and elliptical coma are dominant. The analysis then can
wavefront error which the design must meet over the field of view.v.Once
lished oh the allowable tilts and decenters of the elements such that the
obtain either the actual rms wavefront in the perturbed system or the
where in the field a particular value for actual or change in rms wave
faster than real ray calculations, such plots may be made economically.
; ' : ■ 184
There are two methods for analyzing rms wavefront. In one,
the calculations are made with respect to the best focal surface. In
the other, a flat best focused image plane is used. Both methods will
be shown here.
plotted output for profiles in the field are available. These are shown
in Figs. 729 through 733 for the aligned and the perturbed system. The
plot labeling in Figs. 730 and 733 is found by studying the columns to
The contour plots for the actual rms wavefront in the aligned
system and both the actual and the change in the rms wavefront for the
perturbed system are shown in Figs. 734, 735 and 736. From these, the
dominance of on axis coma due to the large displacement of the third or
the use of field focus plots. These plots, introduced by Shack (1974)
optical system. Field focus plots are profiles of the allowable defocus >
met. Figure 737 shows the field focus plot for the aligned system.In
the plots, the central profile represents the shape of the medial sur
of defocus allowable increases and the two profiles move out symmetrically
from the medial surface. There are two profiles for each tolerance
185
Fig. 729. List of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned System with
respect to the Best Focal Surface.
186
Fig. 730. Profile Plot of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned System
with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
187
Fig. 731. List of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the Per
turbed System with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
YField Profile.
188
Fig. 732. List of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the
Perturbed System with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
XField Profile.
189
Fig. 733. X and Y Field Profile Plots of the Actual and the Change in
the RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed System with re
spect to the Best Focal Surface.
190
Fig. 734. Contour Plot of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned
System with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
191
STEP SIZE
(relative field):
1 .0 b I '
\
V
V
4. t he
.1 .05 X
.15 \
CONTOUR VALUECwavcs): X. ^
.2 .25
.3
.15
CONTOUR1,CONTINUE2:
1 /
CONTINUE SCAN? C
0 1 N
 1.00
Fig. 735. Contour Plot of RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed System
with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
192
ye. 0 3 / ./e/pfi f
m \
1
STEP SIZE
Crelstivc field):
14
1
T
/
1
1 I \
I V \ \— 1 X i.be
CONTOUR VALUECwaves):
vy \ \ V _
V \
.1 .975 \ X
.05 .025 \
.15 .125 / \
CONTOUR1,CONTIHUE2: / \ 1 0.08
1 \ J
CONTINUE SCAN? \
0 1 \
1.00
Fig. 736. Contour Plot of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the
Perturbed Systems with respect to the Best Focal Surface.
193
 1 .0 0
and 739 show the corresponding plots for two orthogonal profiles in
the field for the perturbed system. Notice in these plots that many
the medial focal surface can be seen from the tilt of the medial sur
face, The tolerance profiles can be seen to have moved in from the .
in the image plane (again, most easily seen with the closed profile).
to making the analysis with respect to a best focused flat image plane.
In this case, best focus is chosen to give the smallest maximum value
for the rms Wavefront across the field. In these figures, the behavior
the coma.
the comparison is made for a profile along the yaxis only because of the
expense involved in the real ray calculations. Also included are the
Eq. (437). This illustrates the importance of including the fifth order
1 .0 0
Fig. 738. Field Focus Plot for the Perturbed System. YField Profile.
196
1.00 1 .0 0
1.00
Fig. 739. Field Focus Plot for the Perturbed System. XField Profile.
197
PROFILE ORIENTATION(deg)
0.00
YFIELD XFIELD CENTERED RMS CHANGE IN RMS FOCUS
waves waves <nn>
1.00 0.00 0.239 0.000 0.092
0.90 0.00 0.230 0.000 0.092
0.80 0.00 0.226 0.000 0.092
0.70 0.00 0.223 0.000 0.092
0.60 0.00 0.220 0.000 0.092
0.50 0.00 0.219 0.000 0.092
0.40 0.00 0.221 0.000 0.092
0.30 0.00 0.225 0.000 0.092
0.20 0.00 0.230 0.000 0.092
0.10 0.00 0.234 0.000 0.092
0.00 0.00 0.236 0.000 0.092
0. 10 0.00 0.234 0.000 0.092
0.20 0.00 0.230 0. 000 0.092
0.30 0.00 0.225 0.000 0.092
0.40 0.00 0.221 0.000 0.092
0.50 0.00 0.219 0.000 0.092
0.60 0.00 0.220 0.000 0.092
0.70 0.00 0.223 0.000 0.092
0.80 0.00 0.226 0.000 0.092
0.90 0.00 0.230 0.000 0.092
1.00 0.00 0.239 0.000 0.092
PLOT?
1
Fig. 740. List of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned System with
respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane.
198
Fig. 741. Profile Plot of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned
System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane.
199
PROFILE ORIENTATION<deg)
0.00
YFIELD XFIELD CENTERED RMS CHANGE IN RMS FOCUS
waves waves (MM>
1.00 0.00 0.239 0.082 0.100
0.90 0.00 0.230 0.114 0.100
0.80 0.00 0.226 0.128 0.100
0.70 0.00 0.223 0.132 0.100
0.60 0.00 0.220 0.127 0.100
0.50 0.00 0.219 0.118 0.100
0.40 0.00 0.221 0.103 0.100
0.30 0.00 0.225 0.087 0.100
0.20 0.00 0.230 0.070 0.100
0.10 0.00 0.234 0.053 0.100
0.00 0.00 0.236 0.038 0.100
0.10 0.00 0.234 0.025 0.100
0.20 0.00 0.230 0.013 0.100
0.30 0.00 0.225 0.003 0.100
0.40 0.00 0.221 0.002 0.100
0.50 0.00 0.219 0.002 0.100
< 0.60 0.00 0.220 • 0.007 0.100
0.70 0.00 0.223 0.026 0.100
0.80 0.00 0.226 0.056 0.100
0.90 0.00 0.230 0.095 0.100
1.00 0.00 0.239 0.142 0.100
PLOT?
0
Fig. 742. List of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the Per
turbed System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image
Plane. YField Profile.
200
PROFILE ORIENTATION(deg)
90.00
YFIELD XFIELD CENTERED RMS CHANGE IN RMS FOCUS
waves waves (mm)
0.00 1.00 0.239 0.178 0.100
0.00 0.90 0.230 0.114 0.100
0.00 0.80 0.226 0.056 0.100
0.00 0.70 0.223 0.010 0.100
0.00 0.60 0.220 0.023 0.100
0.00 0.50 0.219 0.038 0.100
0.00 0.40 0.221 0.038 0.100
0.00 0.30 0.225 0.025 0.100
0.00 0.20 0.230 0.007 0.100
0.00 0.10 0.234 0.015 0.100
0.00 0.00 0.236 0.038 0.100
0.00 0.10 0.234 0.064 0.100
0.00 0.20 0.230 0.091 0.100
0.00 0.30 0.225 0.118 0.100
0.00 0.40 0.221 0.144 0.100
0.00 0.50 0.219 0.166 0.100
0.00 0.60 0.220 0.180 0.100
0.00 0.70 0.223 0.185 0.100
0.00 0.80 0.226 0.176 0.100
0.00 0.90 0.230 0.149 0.100
0.00 1.00 0.239 0.096 0.100
PLOT?
1
Fig. 743. List of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the Per
turbed System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image
Plane. XField Profile.
201
Fig. 744. X and Y Field Profile Plots of the Actual and the Change in
the RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed System with respect
to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane.
202
Fig. 745. Contour Plot of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Aligned
System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane.
203
2 i/a4 0 [  /0r28
STEP SIZE ”1*0? I \ / / 1 1 >> Ai.be
(relative field):  1 \ ^ / re. 30 / \
•05 \ i / J0.40
CONTOUR VALUE<vav«*>: \0.30 /.
.4 \ /
.3 \ / .
.2 \ /
CONTOUR1,CONTIHUE2: \ /
12 X f
CONTINUE SCAN? X J
8 X
i.ee
Fig. 746. Contour Plot of the RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed
System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image Plane.
204
Fig. 747, Contour Plot of the Change in the RMS Wavefront Error in the
Perturbed System with respect to a Flat, Best Focused Image
Plane.
205
REAL RAY
THIRD AND FIFTH ORDER
THIRD ORDER
Fig. 748. Comparing Analytic and Real Ray Data for the Change in the
RMS Wavefront Error in the Perturbed System for the Triplet.
YField Profile.
206
using real rays. Fig. 749, and coefficients (Eq. (F2)), Fig. 750. In
both figures, the spot diagrams were made at the best focal position
for the field point;. On the right side of the figure are the correspond
For some systems, particularly those with large fifth order sur
face contributions ( M O waves) , even the fifth order terms are not
47° full field, f/3.5, five element double Gauss. Figure 751 shows
a typical plot comparing analytic to real ray calculations for the image
agreement indicates, as one might expect, that the seventh order terms
— T" 0.5
REAL RAY
ANALYTIC
YFIELD
0.5
Fig. 751. Comparing Analytic and Real Ray Data for the Change in the
RMS Wave front Error due to Perturbations in an F/3.5, 45°
Full Field, Five Element Double Gauss. YField Profile.
CHAPTER 8
evaluating the actual or the change in the rms wavefront error or the
rms spot size. These expressions allow evaluating the image, quality
change in rms in the field, a complete summary picture of the system may
to an optical design.
However, systems with appreciable seventh, ninth, and higher order terms
show significant departure between the analytic calculations and real ray
210
: 2ii
this is done, one finds the same behavior for the aberration fields as
presented for tilted and decentered systems. The problem in this case
aberration totals.
' • 212
dealing with perturbed systems also indicates that the vector approach
design process.
surface than previously thought. Also, the need for replacing the
a.. This parameter is, in turn, directly a function of the tilt and
3 ■ ' . _
decenter parameters. Given the distribution functions for the tilt and
eg., the mean, variance, etc. Such techniques would provide a valuable
VECTOR RELATIONS
system.
dot products, which result in a scalar, and vector cross products, which
in phasor notation as
ae1" f . be16.'
214
215
Multiplying these two vectors gives
AB = abe1 ^ + 3) . (Al)
AA = A? = A2eia, (A2)
AB
a scalar.
By contrast
a vector.
Similarly, •
(A5)
Vector Multiplication: AB = (a b + a b )i + (a b  a b )j
r y .x xyJ y y x x J
Then,
A°B = ab cos (a  g) = a b + a b
xx y y
(A7)
(AB) = abcos (a + 3) = ab  ab
y y y x x
(A8)
(A2) = a2 sin2a = 2a a
x x y
(A3) = a 3 sin3a = 3a 2a  a3
x y x x
Vector Conjugates
Vector Identities
Chain Rule:
v[0f.p")(p.p)^ [V(p'.p)m ]
+ r v f H ^ i K p  p )111
m
v(p.F)m
= [fe1 +17 j_(x2 + y2)
ml,
= m(x2 + y2) [2xi + 2yj]
^ml*
2m(p°p) p
n = 1
H i + H j = f 1 = n H 11^ " 1 )*
A y
n = 2
(i#)xV(2xy) + (H2)yV(y2  x2)
iPt* = ntfCp11"1)*
n = 3
(H3) xV (3y2x  x3) + (H3) yV (y3  3x2y)
through Blj) which may be used to locate the nodes due to binodal
between plots. The foci represent the nodes of the binodal astigmatic
field and the hyperbolae give the orientation of the sagittal line
images at any field point for that particular node spacing. By over
laying a discrete set of orientation samples, i.e.. Fig. 58, one can
find the appropriate node spacing by finding the closest match across
the field.
220
221
Fig. Bl(a)
222
Fig. Bl(b)
223
Fig. Bl(c)
224
Fig. Bl(d).
Fig. Bl(e).
226
Fig. Bl(f).
227
Fig. Bl(g)
228
Fig. Bl(h).
229
Fig. Bl(i).
250
Fig. Bl(j)
APPENDIX C
centered system the unnormalized and then the normalized expressions for
Also included are the expansions required to include the special cases
231
232
the point located by the vector cy in the image plane. The resulting,
notation is
w = a w 2 o (p°p) + A W n (ilp) + l_ W o 4 o 4 ( p  p ) 2
j 3
+ I W 0 6 O4 (P°P) 3 + I
Wisi.[(Ha )«p] (pp) 2
3 3 j 3 3
Continued
. 233
cos3#
1 3
W 2 20m = W 2 20 J W 222 W 331m = %31 ^ % %33
1 t (C3,
w 240m = W240 + J W242 ^420^ 9 % 2 0 * 7^422
'ti. ■ Z"ki^
F2
B2vim
klm = K
4 klm. j b2klm = B2 klm/Wklm ' ^ k l m
3 J
e3 C3 /W  a3
?3klm s ISlm/j klm u klm klm a klm
J J
^klm ~ S l n / S l m ” ^ S l m ’Slm^
ing on the left of an equation refers to the vector identity used from
Appendix A.
Wu 4 0 ;. w = I ^ 0 4 0 .(pep )2
= W2 2 oM ( M )  2H^I W 2 2 0 M^ j) + I W2 2 0 M _(ajaj)j(p«p)
,2 ^ 2
W 2 2 2 : W = 4 I W 2 2 2 , [ ( H  o J 2 e 'P 2 ]
3 1 J . *
+ ( I Ws il j ( o y O j )) (Hp)
 w311j (ajCj)c^p
* (I W s i i j S j 2)?!?
w = [ W 31y ( H  H ) H  2 ( H  A 3 1 1 )H + 2 B 3 1 1 H  ( %  % ) A 3 ii + ^ 311% *
C 3II ] °P ( C  8)
W 06 0 : w = I W 060 • ( p  p )3
j J
= W q s q ( p ^ p )3 (G9)
= [W 2 4 0 m (HH)  2 ( H  A 2 4 u m ) + b 24 0 m ] ( P ’P )2
* 2 p  ( i w»20h_;.=)
238
W4 2 2 : W = j I W422j [ ( ^  ^ j ) ' C ^  ^ j ) ] [ ( H  O j ) 2 ° P 2 ]
3
* (S a )((i w, 2 2 .s . 2)  5 2)  2 ( a  ( i w ^ a j S j ) ) ^ 2? 2)
+ W422j ( o ^ a ^ a ^ y p 2
+ 2(HH)^ W1+22joj2)p2
 ( I W422jCTjd jHp2
W = 4 [W422(H»H)ii2  2(HH)HA4 22 + 3 (H H )B 4 2 2  2 (H A 4 2 2 )H 2
Wsn :
+ 4 I w511^ (Ha.) ( o .  a . ) ( c .  p )
j J J. J J J
(a)
+ 2{ P ^ l W s i l f j V J & p )
(b)
' (l Wslljl^.H2?
(I Wsl^H^.p
ing the effects of tilts and decenters in terras of image plane quanti
ties then is
+ B3 1 1 H*  C3 1 1 ]•p
+ W o s o C p  p )3 + [ ( ^ 151H  A i 51) o p ] ( p * p )2
.. + j I ( W 2 4 2 H2  2 E 2 4 2 + B2 4 2 )  P 2 ] ( P  P )
Continued
242
» 2Cfl2.l5u)S  4(6^511)#
■ ■■' ■'■■■ , .
* WodoCpp)4  (c19)
[ ] 131 * W
131S  ^131 (C20)
 « 3»h ( C " 2 7 )
E 3420m
2
f ] 4 2 2 Wi+22(H»H)H2  2 (H°H)HAi+22 + 3(H”H)"B422 “ 2(H=A422)H2
Cl s u = W s n C H  H ) ( H  H ) H  4 C M ) C M 5 U ) H  6B 511 C H ° H ) H
+ 2 ( S 2« I 1 h ) S  4^ ^ 511) % * 5D 511H
+'  4Ct”S)^5U
h 2c 1 h  c l n i l 2 * + 2 D 5 U H *  E s i r ( c  3 i )
/
244
+ 6(pVAp)(Zp«Ip)2 + (Zp«Ip)3] .
+ 6(p°p)(p2»tp2) + 18(p«p)(p»lp)(ApAp)
+ 9(p°p)(ApoAp)2 + 2 (p3°Ap3)
+ 6(p2oAp2)(ApAp) + 6(p«Ap)(ApAp)2
+ (Ip'Ap)2]. . CC33)
245
j : ■
of fib y 9  tklm
a) It  a = ft  a (C46)
e) ( 9  a) 3 = 93 _ 3g2I + 39a2 ,_ a^ (C 5 0 )
+ (aa)(aa) (CSl)
* 3(9.9) a2  2C9.a)92 
*1 31 ; * = [ ( * 1 3 1 ^  ^ 1 3 l ) ° P ] ( P eP)
= * l 3 l ( ^ 1 3 . 1 <’P) (P °P ) (0 5 4 )
2 2
* = J *222^222 + ^222] "P2 ■ (C56)
+ ^ 3 1 1 ^ * ~ ^ 3 1 1 3 "P
 (C3 I I ~ ^ 3 1 l 3  * 3 i l ) 1 eP
W 2 4 0 M [ ( ^ 2 4 0 m * ^ 2 4 0 m ) + b 2 4 0 M ] ( P ’P )2 (C60)
[see W220m ]
y {[W 242H 2  2l S 2 4 2 + ^ 2 4 2 ] ° P 2 } ( P ° P )
[see W2 2 2 1
[see tV311 ]
2
+ 2 ( H 2 » $ 4 20m)  .4 20m) + D4 20m] ( p  p )
“ 2W4 2 oM ( S 2  a 4 20M)
= W 4 2 0 m I ( H 4 2 0 m oH 4 2 0 m ) (H 4 2 0 m °H 4 2 0 m ) + 2 (H 4 2 0 M eb 4 2 0 M ) '
• , + 4 b 4 2 0M ( S ° H)  4 (H °c 4 2 0 m ) + d420M
+ 4 ( H a 4 2 oM eb 4 2 oM)  2 a 4 20M, b 4 2 0 MK p * p )
2 2 2
W = W4 2 0 m [ (H 4 2 om + 2 b 4 2 oM) ”H 4 2 0 M] ( P ' P )
2 2
+ ( d420M  2 a 4 2 oM4 4 2 QM) ] ( p ° p ) (C 6 4)
W4 2 2 : W = j [W 4 2 2 ( S  5 ) S 2  2 (S S )3 A 4 2 2 + 3(5*5)1^22  2 (6 A 4 2 2 ) 6 2
3 v 2
 ^422^* + 38422^  3l5?422 + ^ 4 2 2 ] °P^
250
3 3
 ^ 4 2 2 ^* + W422a422H* + 3B422H 2  3W422(a422°a422)f^2
W 4 2 2 ( a 4 2 2 ° a 4 2 2 ) a 4 2 2 J"P2
.3 .*
Y W422,[H[t22H1+22 + 3H1+22bit22H422  c422H42;
+ 3Ha4 2 2 bi+22  3 a4 2 2 a4 2 2 b 4 22
•n2
 c422a422^'P
higher order aberration and redefine the lower order perturbation vectors
W1 31 + W3 3 1 M :
+ W331M{[,(^331M + bssi^HsSl^l’PHpp)
Define
Then,
(C68)
W 22 0M + W42 0M :
W = ......
W220m [(A
H220M °*
H220M) + b220MKp*P)
2
^. . 2
^ _y2
+ lV4 2 0 M [(H 4 2 0 M + 2 b 4 2 0 M ) ° H 4 2 0 M ] (P*P)
2
+ W42 0M [4b420M (ti,H) 2H (2c4 20m "2b4 2 oMa42 0M)
^2 ^2 \ ^
+ Cd420M  2a420M °b420M)1(P*P).
Define
Then
+ W42 0 m [ ( H4 2 0 m + b 4 2 0 M) ° ^ 4 2 0m ] C P ’ P) (C 73)
j W2 2 2
W = — W222 (H222 + b 2 2 2 ) ° P 2
Define
_»3' _>3 ^2
c422 = c422  35422^422 (C74)
(C 77)
^2 v2 >2
b 2 22E  B2 2 2 e /W 2 2 2 e " a 222E • (C 78)
253
Then
IV = i W2 2 2 p [ ( S 2 2 2 F + ^ 2 2 2 E ) «P2 ]
Spherical Aberration:
Coma:
2 2 *
+ IV331mU (H33iM + b 3 3 lM)H3 31 .
M ]p} (pp) . (C81)
?
1 >3 ' >2 >3 _>0
c) W3 3 : W = r W 333 [(H333 ■+ 3H3 3 3b 3 3 3  C3 3 3 ) °p ] (C83)
Medial Surface:
IV = AW2o(p°p)
r +. t
IV220im[CH220»rF,H220M T:)
., ^E u_n2 2 0 iNIE, n 22 0 ilEl + b2
^2 2200,v
^fnH p”P)
2 2 2
+ IV420M UH420M + b420M) ^420;^] (P”P) (C84)
Astigmatism:
1 _^2 _^2
IV = j IV222E [ (H2 2 2 e + b 2 2 2 E) ‘ P 2
3 v ^2 4.3 v*
+ j W4 2 2 [(^422. + 3Hu22b422  ^422)^^422 "P2 1 (C85.)
Oblique Spherical Aberration:
Spherical Aberration:
Coma:
S = a33lM 
b) # 5 1 : Zero at 8 = ai5i
Medial Surface:
tional to b2 2 0 MEv
Astigmatism:
it = a2 2 2 g ~ i^2 2 2 g “
Term quartic in field is zero at four points in the field.
proportional to b240{yjg
it = a242  ib2 4 2 •
256
W 5i Coma
2x
X 333
Media 1
Surface
420
420
22 As t igmatism
'222 E
222 E
M
Spher ica
>240,
240
f242 Ob 1 ique
Spherica1
242
Algebraic Solution:
Given
x3 + ax + b = 0, CDI)
Tet
•(D2)
Then the zeroes occur at
A + B A  B A + B A  B
x = A + B, vd,  / 3 .
CD3)
Vector Generalization:
0 , CD4)
let
R = lA W s
(D5)
_s.
S # 2 . (S Y
263
264
and
_a> —^
R + S
x = CD6)
'v R  S
x = . (D 7)
2
ELLIPTICAL COMA
absolute angle Y, for the orientation of the major axis of the ellipse.
the transverse aberration for linear plus field cubed coma and
+  M 3 3 P2 el ( 3 6 3 3 ' ; (E2)
Where
These three components are illustrated in Fig. El. The first component
265
266
The second component traces out the circular zone and the third component
component three, when extended, passes through the center of the circle.
S
I '
/ 36333 " Z*
i
j + a = 180 • (E9)
Y + a = 831 (E10)
which gives
The major axis of the elliptical mapping of the circular zones, then, is
expansion, transverse aberration, rms wavefront and rms spot size for
+ ([ 1131 °p ) (P °P) + [ + j t ]2 2 2 2 ° P ^
+ [ ]311°P
+ [ ] 2 4 0[^(P*P)2 + y ( [ ]Z2h2°t2) ( p ° p )
+ [ ]420m^p°p^ * ]2b22°Jp 2
+ [ Isii'P
* W080(?P)‘* CF'1:
268
269
From this, the expression for the transverse aberration is found
to be,
+ 2([ ] i 3i ° p ) p + (p ° p ) [ ] i 31 + 2 [ ]220^P
+ 4 ([ ] 1 5 1 * p ) ( p ep) p + ( p ° p ) 2 [ ] 151
a perturbed system is
+ [ l2 2 0 M +. [ ]240m + t ]420IJ 2
+ 44100 [W080J2
+ [([ ]2222 + ft ]2242 + [ ]2422) 0([ ]2222
+ jl 12242 + [ 32422^]
+  H 331m .+ M 5 1 1 )].
■’• f r i l S l + M 3 3 1 M)]
The corresponding expression for calculating the actual rms spot size
l 2 4 0 M + [ H 2 0 M] 2
Kt'#040 + f #0 60 + ^ # 0 8 00 ) + [
1225.. M 2
1 / ^ 2. a. 2 ^ \ / _&, 2 2
+ 2 ] 222 +■[ 3.242 + [ 3 42 2 /° \ I 3222 + [ 3242
+ M 422)
2b.2 2
+ I 1 1242°[ ]242
+ 1^ 3 5 1 1 ) <■(a#ii^ + riiai+ r i i s i + n 3
+ n 33i M + ' t h n )
+ 1 ( H i s i t+ $[^3151
JL J151 + t^3 33iM)°([ 3l31 •
. + 1^151 + n 331M )
loCriisrnisi]
(F4)
+ 16 [ [ ]333°[ 
Burch, C. R., "On the Optical SeeSaw Diagram," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.
201:159 (1942).
Kingslake, R., Lens Design Fundamentals, Academic Press, New York (1.978).
272
273
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