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aback: ad.

by surprise; behind; in the rear


abbreviation: n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
abolish: v. cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
aboriginal: a. being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
abound: v. be full of; be plentiful
abrasion: n. scratch; friction
abridge: v. condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
abundance: n. great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
accelerate: v. move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than
expected
acclaim: v. applaud; announce with great approval
accommodation: n. living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a
need; convenience
accord: n. settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two
states
accumulate: v. pile up; collect; mount up; increase
accumulation: n. act of gathering or amassing, as into a heap or pile
accuser: n. one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
acquaint: v. inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
acquiesce: v. consent or comply passively or without protest; assent
adept: a. expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
adhere: v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adjacent: a. adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
adjoin: v. be next to; be contiguous to; border on
administrate: v. administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
adolescence: n. state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional
period between youth and maturity
adoption: n. accepting with approval; favorable reception
advent: n. coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
adverse: a. in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aerial: a. of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
aesthetic: a. elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affectionately: ad. with affection; lovingly; fondly; tenderly; kindly
affiliate: n. A person, organization, or establishment associated with another, as a subordinate,
subsidiary, or member
affirm: v. assert; confirm
affix: v. fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict: v. cause pain, suffering or distress
affluent: a. generously supplied with money, property, or possessions; prosperous or rich;
plentiful; abundant
aggregate: v. gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation: n. anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agreeable: a. ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing: a. exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or
television broadcast
aisle: n. a passageway between rows of seats or shelves
albeit: ad. even though; although; notwithstanding
allege: v. state without proof; assert to be true
alleviate: v. provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate: v. assign; distribute according to plan
allot: v. parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share
or lot
alloy: v. combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alphabetical: a. arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
ambiguity: n. state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous: a. unclear or doubtful in meaning
amend: v. change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amid: ad. in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst: ad. amid; in the middle of; among
amphibian: a. able to live both on land and in water
amplify: v. broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful;
increase
analyse: v. resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for purpose of
examination of each separately
analytical: a. of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor: n. forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anecdote: n. short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story of history
or biography
annihilate: v. destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annuity: n. annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed
sum in each year
anoint: v. apply oil, ointment, or a similar substance to; choose by or as if by divine
intervention
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affirm: v. assert; confirm
affix: v. fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict: v. cause pain, suffering or distress
affluent: a. generously supplied with money, property, or possessions; prosperous or rich;
plentiful; abundant
aggregate: v. gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation: n. anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agreeable: a. ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing: a. exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or
television broadcast
aisle: n. a passageway between rows of seats or shelves
albeit: ad. even though; although; notwithstanding
allege: v. state without proof; assert to be true
alleviate: v. provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate: v. assign; distribute according to plan
allot: v. parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share
or lot
alloy: v. combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alphabetical: a. arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
ambiguity: n. state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous: a. unclear or doubtful in meaning
amend: v. change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amid: ad. in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst: ad. amid; in the middle of; among
amphibian: a. able to live both on land and in water
amplify: v. broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful;
increase
analyse: v. resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for purpose of
examination of each separately
analytical: a. of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor: n. forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anecdote: n. short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story of history
or biography
annihilate: v. destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annuity: n. annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed
sum in each year
anoint: v. apply oil, ointment, or a similar substance to; choose by or as if by divine
intervention
antagonism: n. active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
antarctic: a. opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to the region
near it
antenna: n. metallic apparatus for sending or receiving electromagnetic waves
anthology: n. book of literary selections by various authors
antonym: n. word of opposite meaning; counter term
apex: n. highest point; the vertex; usually pointed end of an object; the tip
apologetic: a. offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal
justification or defense
apparatus: n. a group of parts that work together to perform given function; appliance or device
for particular purpose
appease: v. bring peace, quiet, or calm to; satisfy or relieve
append: v. attach; add as supplement or appendix
appliance: n. durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
applicant: n. candidate
appraisal: n. assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to
its worth
appreciable: a. considerable; perceptible
apprentice: n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approximate: v. approach; come near
apt: a. likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
aquatic: a. consisting of, relating to, or being in water
arbitrary: a. randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or
principle
archaic: a. no longer current or applicable; antiquated
ardent: a. displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
arduous: a. demanding great effort or labor; difficult
arid: a. lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody
plants
armour: n. defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against
weapons
arouse: v. excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
array: v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
arsenal: n. stock or supply, usually of weapons
ascend: v. climb; mount
ascent: n. the act of rising or going upward
ascertain: v. find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe: v. inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign
as a quality
aspiration: n. ambition; longing
aspire: v. seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
assert: v. declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
assorted: a. varied; miscellaneous
astound: v. affect with wonder; surprise; shock
astronaut: n. person to pilot, navigate, or as a crew member of spacecraft
asylum: n. a place offering protection and shelter
attain: v. achieve or accomplish; gain
attendee: n. person who is present and participates in a meeting
attribute: n. essential quality; reputation; honor
audible: a. perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
augment: v. make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authenticity: n. quality of being genuine or trustworthy
authoritative: a. having weight of authority; peremptory and dictatorial
automate: v. replace or enhance human labor with machines
automation: n. act or process of converting the controlling of a machine or device to a
more automatic system, such as computer or electronic controls
autonomy: n. independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-
determination
auxiliary: a. helper, additional or subsidiary
avail: v. turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avalanche: n. fall or slide of a large mass, as of snow or rock, down a mountainside
avenue: n. a method or means by which something may be accomplished
avert: v. prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
avian: n. thin A bird-like or flying creature
aviation: n. design, development, and production of aircraft
awake: v. rouse from sleep;stir the interest of; excite
axis: n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
backstage: ad. In or toward the area behind the performing space in a theater,
especially the area comprising the dressing rooms
bacterium: n. single celled organism with no nucleus
badminton: n. game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
boundary: n. dividing line; border; frontier
boycott: v. refrain from buying or using
brace: v. confront with questions; prepare or position so as to be ready for impact or danger
brashness: n. characteristic of being brash; trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
breach: n. an opening or tear; breaking of waves; a gap or rift
brisk: a. marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or
manner
browse: v. graze; skim or glance at casually
brush: n. short and sometimes occasional encounter or experience
bulge: v. cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
bumbler: n. someone who makes mistakes because of incompetence
bungalow: n. small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
buoyant: a. able to float; cheerful and optimistic
bureaucracy: n. over-regulated administrative system
burgeon: v. grow forth; send out buds; grow or develop rapidly
burrow: n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; dig; move through by or as
by digging
bustle: v. move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
bypass: v. to avoid by using an alternative channel or route
calamity: n. event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; disaster;
misery
calcium: n. silvery, moderately hard metallic element
calorie: n. unit of heat; unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree
canny: a. careful; pleasant; shrewd
canteen: n. vessel used by soldiers for carrying water, liquor, or other drink; snack bar or small
cafeteria, as on a military installation
capsule: n. small container; spacecraft to transport people in outer space
caption: n. title; chapter heading; text under illustration
carcass: n. dead body of an animal especially one slaughtered and dressed for food
cascade: n. a stream or sequence of something, a waterfall
cast: v. throw something, especially light; throw with force; hurl
catalogue: v. to creat or add to a systematic and complete list of item
catalyst: n. agent which brings about chemical change while it remains unaffected and
unchanged
catastrophe: n. great, often sudden calamity; complete failure; sudden violent change in the
earth's surface
caustic: a. capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action
censor: n. overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or sensitive
content
centenary: a. relating to a 100-year period; occurring once every 100 years
ceramic: a. of or pertaining to pottery; relating to the art of making earthenware; as, ceramic
products; ceramic ornaments for ceilings.
certification: n. document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; confirmation that some
fact or statement is true through the use of documentary evidence
certify: v. give certain information to; assure; make certain
cessation: n. a stopping or discontinuance of action
chamber: n. room in a house, especially a bedroom; hall for the meetings of a legislative or
other assembly; enclosed space
characterize: v. distinguish; be characteristic of; be a distinctive trait or mark of
charge: n. accusation, a claim of wrongdoing
chasm: n. deep opening in the earth surface
chaste: a. morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
chauffeur: n. a person employed to drive a private motor car or a hired car of executive or
luxury class
cherished: a. deeply loved or highly valued
chilling: a. causing mild fear
chisel: v. practice trickery or fraud; cheat
chore: n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
chronological: a. arranged in order of time of occurrence
circulate: v. move around, as from person to person or place to place
circumference: n. boundary line of a circle, figure, area, or object
cite: v. quote; adduce as an instance
clasp: n. fastening device; firm grip
classify: v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or
categories
clinical: a. involving direct observation of a patient
clockwise: ad. in the direction that the hands of a clock move
cluster: n. group; bunch; group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring
closely
coarse: a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
coax: v. persuade or try to persuade by pleading or flattery
codefendant: n. a defendant who has been joined together with one or more other defendants in
a single action
coed: a. relating to an education system in which both men and women attend
compulsory: a. mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
compute: v. reckon; make mathematical calculation
concerted: a. planned or accomplished together; combined
concise: a. brief and compact; expressing much in few words
concoct: v. digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition.
concurrent: a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
condemn: v. express strong disapproval of; judge or declare to be unfit for use
condense: v. change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops; compress or
concentrate
condolence: n. expression of sympathy with another in sorrow or grief.
confer: v. bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
confide: v. disclose private matters in confidence; give as a responsibility or put into another's
care
configuration: n. arrangement of parts or elements; outline
confine: v. restrict in movement; circumscribe
conform: v. comply with; follow; fit; meet
congestion: n. act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass
congruent: a. possessing congruity; suitable; agreeing; corresponding
conjure: v. summon a devil or spirit by magical or supernatural power
conscience: n. awareness of moral or ethical aspects to one's conduct, together with the urge to
prefer right over wrong
conscientious: a. diligent; responsible; reliable
conscious: a. having an awareness of one's environment and one's own existence, sensations, and
thoughts
consecutive: a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
consensus: n. opinion or position reached by a group as a whole; general agreement or
concord
consequent: a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
conservation: n. preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect
conservatory: n. greenhouse; school of music or dramatic art
conserve: v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding
waste
consign: v. give, transfer, or deliver in a formal manner, as if by signing over into the possession
of another
consist: v. be made up or composed; be comprised or contained in
consolidate: v. make solid; unite or press together into a compact mass; harden or make dense
and firm
conspicuous: a. noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious

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constituent: n. component or part; citizen, voter
constitute: v. make up; form something
constrain: v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
constrict: v. restrict; shrink; make smaller or narrower by binding or squeezing
construct: v. form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
contaminate: v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate: v. look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contend: v. strive in opposition or against difficulties; struggle; compete, as in a race
contention: n. competing as for profit or prize
continuity: n. property of a continuous and connected period of time
contradict: v. confront; oppose
contradiction: n. assertion of contrary; denial of the truth of a statement or assertion; opposition,
whether by argument or conduct
contrive: v. form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design
convene: v. cause to come together formally
converge: v. approach; tend to meet; come together
converse: v. chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
conversely: ad. in a converse manner; with change of order or relation; reciprocally.
cook: v. develop, or take place; prepare food for eating by applying heat
correlate: v. relate; associate; bring into a mutual relation
correspond: v. be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
correspondence: n. similarity or analogy; communication by the exchange of letters
correspondent: a. one who communicates information, especially, by letter or telegram to
newspaper or periodical
corresponding: a. accompanying
corrode: v. destroy metal or alloy gradually, especially by chemical action; be eaten or worn
away
cortical: a. pertaining to the outer layer of an internal organ or body structure, such as the kidney
or the brain
cosmopolitan: a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
cosy: n. padded or knitted covering placed especially over a teapot to keep the tea hot; cozy
counterbalance: v. act as force or influence that balances, checks or limits an opposite one
counterpart: n. duplicate copy; analogue; one that closely resembles another
couplet: n. two similar things; a pair; in poetry, a pair of lines with rhyming end words
coveted: a. greatly desired
crackle: v. make a succession of slight sharp snapping noises; show liveliness, energy, or
intensity
craggy: a. rugged and uneven; abounding with broken rocks
crater: n. a bowl-shaped opening at the top of a volcano
crease: n. a line or long thin mark made by folding or doubling
crest: n. ornamental tuft or ridge on the head of animal; plume used as decoration on top of
helmet; top, as of a hill or wave
criterion: n. standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crouch: v. bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal when
waiting for prey, or in fear
crumple: v. fall apart; fold or collapse; crush together or press into wrinkles
cub: n. young of certain animals, such as the bear, wolf, or lion
culinary: a. relating to the kitchen, or to the art of cookery; used in kitchens
culminate: v. reach the highest or most decisive point; rise to summit
cultivate: v. improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote the
growth of
cumbersome: a. heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk
cumulative: a. increasing by successive addition
curriculum: n. course; program
curtail: v. cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part
custodian: n. curator; guardian
cut short: v. make shorter by cutting; interrupt and curtail before the planned end time
daft: a. mad; crazy; simple; stupid; foolish; gay; playful
damper: n. something that deadens, restrains, or depresses
dazzle: v. become blinded; dim the vision of with intense light
deadlock: n. standstill resulting from opposition of two forces or factions; stalemate
dearth: n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
decaf: n. coffee with the caffeine removed
decent: a. adequate, meeting accepted standards
decompose: v. decay
decrease: v. lessen; reduce; make a quantity smaller
decrepit: a. weakened, worn out, or broken down by old age, illness, or hard use
deduce: v. lead forth; reach a conclusion by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
deduct: v. lead forth or out; take away, separate, or remove, in numbering, estimating, or
calculating; subtract
deed: n. act or action, usually praiseworthy act
deem: v. decide; judge; sentence; condemn
default: n. failure to fulfill an obligation, failure to money when it is due
defer: v. delay till later; put off; hold back to a later time
defiance: n. refusal to yield; readiness to contend or resist
deficit: n. failure or falling off in amount or quality
defile: v. pollute; make dirty or spotty
deflate: v. reduce from an inflated condition; release contained air or gas from
deflect: v. to turn aside, to deviate
defraud: v. deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device
deft: a. quick and skillful; neat in action or performance
degrade: v. reduce level; lower grade of something
delectable: a. delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste
delegate: n. person authorized to act as representative for another; deputy
delinquency: n. failure or omission of duty; fault; misdeed; offense or crime
delirium: n. mental disorder marked by confusion
delude: v. deceive mind or judgment of; lead from truth or into error; frustrate or disappoint
deluge: n. great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water
demarcation: n. setting or marking of boundaries or limits
demolish: v. raze; destroy; do away with completely; put an end to
denomination: n. class, society, or collection of individuals called by the same name;
specifically, a religious sect
denote: v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
depict: v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
deplete: v. decrease fullness of; use up or empty out
depletion: n. act of emptying, reducing, or exhausting
deplore: v. feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn; express sorrow or grief over;
regret
deposition: n. testimony under oath
depress: v. lower in spirits; press down
derelict: a. left and abandoned; negligent in performing a duty
derive: v. obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
descend: v. move downward and lower; come from; be connected by a relationship of blood
designate: v. indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
desolate: a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
destine: v. decree or designate beforehand; fate
detach: v. part; separate or disunite; disengage
detain: v. keep back or from; withhold; restrain from proceeding; stay or stop; delay
deter: v. keep from; stop; prevent or discourage from acting
deteriorate: v. become worse; decline
detriment: n. harm; damage; injury; something that causes damage, harm, or loss
detrimental: a. causing damage or harm; injurious
devastate: v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
devastating: a. highly critical; causing or capable of causing complete destruction
deviate: v. turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
devise: v. form, plan, or arrange in the mind; transmit or give by will
devour: v. consume; eat greedily; destroy completely
diagnose: v. analyze; examine; identify
diagnosis: n. act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or
injury
diagram: n. graph; chart; figure or drawing made to illustrate a statement; plan
dialect: n. vocabulary that is for a specific group of people
diameter: n. length of straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two
points on the circumference
dietary: n. regulated daily food allowance; rule of diet; a fixed allowance of food, as in
workhouse, prison
differentiate: v. set apart; distinguish; perceive or show difference in or between
diffuse: v. spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilapidated: a. in disrepair, run down; of very poor quality or condition
dilate: v. make wider or larger; cause to expand; enlarge; widen
diligent: a. assiduous; industrious; hard-working
dilute: v. weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
dime: n. coin of the United States or Canada worth ten cents
diminish: v. dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
din: n. loud, confused, harsh noise; loud, continuous, rattling or clanging sound
dingy: a. darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored
diode: n. electronic device that restricts current flow chiefly to one direction; semiconductor that
consists of a p-n junction
diplomat: n. one who is in charge to deal with others, like an ambassador, who is appointed to
represent a government in relations with other governments
disarray: v. throw into disorder; break the array of.
discard: v. throw out something from one's hand; get rid of
discern: v. detect; perceive
disclose: v. unclose; open; remove a cover or envelope from; lay open or expose to view
discord: n. conflict; lack of agreement among persons, groups, or things
discount: v. deduct or subtract from a cost or price; regard with doubt or disbelief
discrepancy: n. lack of consistency; difference
discrete: a. separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
discriminate: v. make a clear distinction; distinguish; make sensible decisions; judge wisely
disdain: v. view with scorn or contempt; feel with aversion
disgust: n. strong disrelish or distaste; aversion to the taste of food or drink
dish out: v. put food on to a dish ready for eating; distribute or deliver something
dislodge: v. remove or force out from a position or dwelling previously occupied
dismay: v. destroy courage or resolution by exciting dread; cause to lose enthusiasm
dispel: v. scatter; drive away; cause to vanish
disperse: v. move away from each other; cause to separate; cause to become widely known
displace: v. move or shift from the usual place or position, especially to force to leave a
homeland
disruptive: a. causing disrupt or unrest; characterized by unrest or disorder
dissent: n. disagreement, differences of opinion
dissipate: v. spend or expend wastefully; vanish by dispersion; drive away; disperse
distend: v. swell out or expand from or as if from internal pressure
distil: v. drop; fall in drops; flow in a small stream
distort: v. twist out of proper or natural relation of parts; misshape; misrepresent
distracted: a. having the attention diverted; suffering conflicting emotions; distraught
diverse: a. differing in some characteristics; various
dividend: n. sum of money to be divided and distributed; share of a sum divided that falls to
each individual; a distribute sum, share, or percentage