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CONTENT

SL.NO TITLE PAGE NO


LIST OF TABLES iii

LIST OF FIGURES iv

LIST OF SYMBOLS v

ABSTRACT vii

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 FLY ASH 1
1.2.1 APPLICATION OF FLY ASH IN 3
CONCRETE
1.3 EGG SHELL POWDER 4
1.3.1 PREPARATION OF EGG SHELL 4
POWDER
1.3.2 APPLICATION OF EGG SHELL 7
POWDER IN CONCRETE
1.4 OBJECTIVE 7
2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Review 8

2.2 Summary 10
3. METHODOLOGY 11
4. TESTING OF MATERIALS

4.1 CEMENT 12

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4.1.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT 13
4.1.2 CONSISTENCY TEST ON CEMENT 14
4.1.3 SETTING TIME OF CEMENT 16
4.1.3.1 INITIAL SETTING TIME 16
4.1.3.2 FINAL SETTING TIME 17
4.1.4 FINENESS TEST 17
4.2 PARTIAL REPLACED CEMENT 18
4.2.1 DETERMINATION OF FINENESS 18
MODULUS
4.3 COARSE AGGREGATE 19
4.3.1 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC 20
GRAVITY OF THE COARSE AGGREGATE
4.3.2 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF THE COARSE 21
AGGREGATE
4.3.3 IMPACT VALUE TEST 23
4.3.4 CRUSHING STRENGTH 24
4.4 FINE AGGREGATE 26
4.4.1 DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC 26
GRAVITY OF THE FINE AGGREGATE
4.4.2 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF THE FINE
AGGREGATE
5. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
5.1 MIX DESIGN 29
5.1.1 DESIGN STIPULATION 30
5.1.2 MIX CALCULATION 30

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5.2 MIX DESIGN FOR CUBE 31
5.3 MIX DESIGN FOR PRISM 33
6. PREPARATION OF SPECIMEN

6.1 PREPARATION OF FRESH CONCRETE 36


6.2 CASTING OF CUBE 37
6.3 DEMOULDING 38
6.4 METHOD OF CURING 39
6.5 COMPRESSION TEST 40
6.6 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 41
7. TEST ON HARDENED CONCRETE

7.1 CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE 42


7.2 10% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE 45
7.3 20% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE 48
7.4 30% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE 51
7.5 40% CEMENT REPLACED ONCRETE 54
7.6 COMPARISON CHART 57
8. CONCLUSION 59

9. REFERENCES 61

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO TABLE TITLE PAGE NO

1.1 Chemical composition of OPC and fly ash 2

1.2 Physical properties of OPC and fly ash 3

1.3 Chemical composition of OPC and egg 6

shell powder

TESTING OF MATERIALS

4.1 Properties of cement 18

4.2 Properties of partial replaced cement 19

4.3 Properties of coarse aggregate 25

4.4 Properties of fine aggregate 28

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

5.1 Quantity of material required for one m3 31

5.2 Mix design for cube in kg 33

5.3 Mix design for prism in kg 35

CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE

7.1 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 42

on 7th day

7.2 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 42

on 14th day

7.3 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 43

on 28th day

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7.4 Flexural strength of conventional concrete 44

10% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE

7.5 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 45

on 7th day

7.6 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 45

on 14th day

7.7 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 46

on 28th day

7.8 Flexural strength of 10% cement replaced concrete 47

20% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE

7.9 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 48

on 7th day

7.10 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 48

on 14th day

7.11 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 49

on 28th day

7.12 Flexural strength of 20% cement replaced concrete 50

30% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE

7.13 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 51

on 7th day

7.14 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 51

on 14th day

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7.15 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 52

on 28th day

7.16 Flexural strength of 30% cement replaced concrete 53

40% CEMENT REPLACED CONCRETE

7.17 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 54

on 7th day

7.18 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 54

on 14th day

7.19 Compressive strength for three cubes tested 55

on 28th day

7.20 Flexural strength of 40% cement replaced concrete 56

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIG NO TITLE PAGE NO

1.1 Fly ash 2

1.2 Cleaning of egg shells 5

1.3 Egg shell powder 6

4.1 Cement 12

4.1.1 Specific gravity of cement 13

4.1.2 Consistency test on cement 15

4.1.3 Initial setting time of cement 17

4.3 Coarse aggregate 20

4.3.1 Specific gravity of coarse aggregate 20

4.3.2 Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate 22

4.3.3 Impact value test 23

4.3.4 Crushing strength test 25

4.4 Fine aggregate 26

4.4.1 Specific gravity of fine aggregate 26

4.4.2 Sieve analysis of fine aggregate 27

6.1 Preparation of fresh concrete 36

6.2 Casting of cube 37

6.3 Demoulding 38

6.4 Curing 39

6.5 Compression test 40

6.6 Flexural strength of concrete 41

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7.1 Compressive strength of conventional concrete 43

vs. no of days

7.2 Flexural strength result for conventional concrete 44

7.3 Compressive strength vs. no of days of concrete 46

for 10% cement replaced concrete

7.4 Flexural strength vs. no of days of concrete 47

for 10% cement replaced concrete

7.5 Compressive strength vs. no of days of concrete 49

for 20% cement replaced concrete

7.6 Flexural strength vs. no of days of concrete 50

for 20% cement replaced concrete

7.7 Compressive strength vs. no of days of concrete 52

for 30% cement replaced concrete

7.8 Flexural strength vs. no of days of concrete 53

for 30% cement replaced concrete

7.9 Compressive strength vs. no of days of concrete 55

for 40% cement replaced concrete

7.10 Flexural strength vs. no of days of concrete 56

for 40% cement replaced concrete

7.11 Comparison of compressive strength 57

7.12 Comparison of flexural strength 58

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

FA Fine Aggregate

CA Coarse Aggregate

OPC Ordinary Portland Cement

IS Indian Standard

M25 Mix design

Lit Litre

M Meter

mm Millimeter

Kg Kilogram

wt Weight

gm Gram

MPa Mega Pascal

KN Kilo Newton

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ABSTRACT

The main aim is to make the use of egg shell powder from poultry and the use
of fly ash from the thermal power plant as a partial replacement of cement for the
low cost construction. The experimental study is an attempt to find the optimum
usage of fly ash and egg shell powder in the normal concrete by partially replacing
the cement (10%, 20%, and 30%) by weight various proportions.

The tests are conducted on concrete cubes to study the compressive strength.
The tests are conducted for testing the strength of concrete cubes in 7 days, 14 days
and 28 days.

The tests are conducted on concrete prisms to study the flexural strength. The
tests are conducted for finding the flexural strength of the concrete in 7 days, 14
days and 28 days.

The suitable volume of fly ash and egg shell powder are added and the
strength of the concrete are evaluated.

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