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Grid plate

The grid plates of most modem shredders cover a working arc of 90 degrees
although South African (and Australian) shredders range from 80 to 120
degrees. This latter is probably the limit for a single pivoted grid plate assembly
as it is of importance that the setting of the grid plate can be adjusted over the
entire working area. This is normally done by checking the gap between
extended hammers and the working surfaces of the grid across the width of the
shredder at both the inlet (first grid bar) and outlet (final grid bar).

Setting is carried out by adjusting the hinge points at both sides of the shredder
and then adjusting whatever devices are used to control the pivoting about these
hinges.

Greenwood (1971) showed that pocketed type grids were more effective than
the serrated washboard type. He also concluded that the pockets should be not
less than 200 mm wide by 40 mm deep.

The mechanism of shredding in a pocketed grid appears to be that a mattress of


fibrous cane packs within each pocket. The cane being impacted and pulled
through the shredder by the rotating hammers is then stripped against the
surface of this fibrous mattress. The compacted mattress slowly "flows" through
the pockets and most of the shredding occurs against this constantly renewed
fibrous surface. This explains why the leading edges of the grid bars do not
wear nearly as fast as do the hammers. It is however important to keep
reasonably sharp edges on the grid bars to ensure that the fibrous mattress is
retained within the pockets.

Greenwood studied the effect of different grid bar arrangements. He found that
the "pocketed" type grid gave better results than the serrated washboard type
and that a wider pocket is better than a narrower pocket. He suggested that there
is probably a minimum pocket depth but not a maximum; the bottom of the
pocket fills with cane and protects the retaining plates holding down the grid
bars. Greenwood proposed a mechanism for shredding involving the "flow" of
cane through the compacted cane in the pockets. Cane is shredded against the
compressed mat of cane in the pockets. This protects the grid bars to some
extent so that they wear less than the hammers. The angle of wrap on most grids
is A larger wrap is desirable to improve preparation, and angles of wrap up to
120° are common on newer installations.

The grid plate can be rigidly secured but most Engineers prefer to allow for
some fail-safe mechanism in the event of large tramp iron or an excessive surge
of cane. Mechanisms to allow the grid plate to move rapidly away from the
rotor under such circumstances include pneumatic, hydraulic or spring loading
against adjustable stops (all of which are self re-setting) or shear pins (which
require a stop for replacement if sheared).

Conclusions
The modern heavy-duty shredder constitutes the single most important part of
cane preparation. The basic equipment parameters and maintenance
requirements are well established. Complying with these is essential for
acceptable extraction rates, whether from a milling train or a diffuser.

It is therefore appropriate to conclude with a checklist provided by Reid (1994)


for improving performance and/or simplifying shredder operation:

 Check the concentricity of the grid plate regularly.


 Check grid bar clearances frequently.
 Keep control of hammer lengths and masses (use of jigs).
 Consider building a spare grid plate assembly, if none exists.
 Particularly for diffuser operation, limit knifing to just enough to prevent
shredder chokes.

GRID FRAME and BARS


A rigid fabricated frame made of EN S355 J2 G3 steel plates is hinged at the top
of the housing while the lower part is equipped with shear pins as safety device
for to reduce the damage when there occurs serious shock load in the crushing
chamber, for example an entering of steel or stone pieces.

Tip speed
The calculated tip speed for the shredder is set between 88 m/s and 99 m/s,
which gives a good compromise between cane preparation and hammer life.

Long fibres: Because the shredder is processing cane that is not pre-knifed, the
resulting cane fibres it produces are usually slightly longer, which tends to
reduce mill slippage as the cane mat binds together better. Long fibres can also
be advantageous to boiler operation.

• Increased extraction: Cane with a greater breakage of cells (i.e. more highly
prepared) generally results in increased mill extraction, lower pol % bagasse
figures and lower final bagasse humidity.

A 0.1% increase in extraction per 1% increase in preparation index.


FACTORS AFFECTING SHREDDER PERFORMANCE

The performance of a shredder is affected by many factors. Some of these are


directly associated with the internal configuration of the machine and others
with the conditions of operation. The factors that will be considered here are
summarised
 Configuration of shredder
 Operating speed
 Hammer type and mass
 Hammer arrangement
 Grid configurations
 Use of feeder rolls
 Swept diameter of hammers
 Operating conditions
 Variety of cane
 Use of knives prior to shredding
 Use of two shredders in series
 Shredding rate

CONFIGURATION OF SHREDDER EFFECTS

Operating speed

The operating speed of a shredder has a very significant effect on the level of
preparation that can be achieved and the power that can be absorbed. By
reducing the operating speed from 1200 r/min (91 m/s) to 960 r/min (73 m/s)
the level of preparation fell by approximately 6 units POC.

Hammer mass

After tests on hammers of 5.8, 10 and 15 kg mass it was concluded that there
was an insignificant effect of mass of hammer on the level of preparation
achieved provided that the same coverage (per cent of the length of the shredder
covered by the width of hammer heads) was achieved.

Hammer arrangement

Number of rows - The number of rows was found to have only a marginal effect
on preparation level achieved. No difference in performance was found between
shredders operating with 6 or with 8 rows. A slight improvement in preparation
level (approximately 1.3 POC) was obtained when operating with 12 rows, but
choking was more prevalent.
Hammer complement - A change from full hammer coverage per row to a
hammerspace- hammer-space configuration has a very significant effect.
Running at half complement reduces the preparation level by approximately 4
units POC.

This swinging hammer design greatly facilitates changing hammers when the working edges are
worn.

Grid configuration
Effect of settings - For 15 kg hammers, settings of hammer-tip-to-grid clearance
in the range 0 to 10 mm have been found to have no significant effect on
preparation.

With a setting change from 0 to 22 mm however, preparation falls off by


approximately 3.3 units POC.

Grid length - Limited tests carried out with grids of 70" and 90" "wrap" showed
no significant effect of the change in grid length on the level of preparation
obtained.
Grid types - Of arange of grid designs evaluated, the best perforfnance was
achieved with a pocketed grid of 150 mm depth and approximately 200 mm
spacing. When the depth was reduced to 25 mm the preparation level decreased
by approximately 1.5 units POC. Reducing the spacing between grids also
caused a slight drop in the level of preparation.

Use of feeder rolls


By using a set of feeder rolls on a shredder, feeding can be enhanced and higher
levels of preparation can be achieved because of the large angle of wrap that can
be incorporated into the design. It can be seen that increases in preparation
level by at least 3 units POC compared with a gravity fed unit are achievable.

Effect of machine diameter

The results of tests carried out on shredders of 1450 mm and 1830 mm diameter
are shown in Table 111. The reasons for building a machine of larger diameter
are to achieve a higher potential preparation level or to allow the machine to
.run at a lower rotational speed (e.g. 960 r/min electric motor speed) and still
achieve an acceptable preparation level. From Table I11 it is seen that a larger
diameter machine running at the same tip speed as a smaller diameter machine
achieves a higher level of preparation presumably due to the longer grid bar
length.
EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS
Varietal effects - The variety of cane can have a significant effect on the
preparation achieved with a particular shredder configuration. For example, for
single shredding, the average preparation for variety Q63 was 3.8 units POC
lower than for NCo310.

Power requirements per tonne cane per hour were the same for both varieties,
indicating that Q63 is a harder cane to shred.

Effect of knifing prior to shredding - The effect of pre-knifing on preparation


after one shredder pass was found to be significant where the preparation
potential of the shredder configuration was low (less than 75 POC).
Improvements of up to two units POC could be achieved by using knives.
Where the shredder configuration had potential to achieve greater than 80 POC,
the improvement in final preparation due to the use of kniving prior to the
shredder was insignificant.

Effect of double shredding - When shredded cane is passed through a shredder a


second time its preparation level is increased to an extent which depends on
both the shredder configuration and the initial level of preparation. Table IV
summarises the results obtained in double shredding tests. The increases in POC
following double shredding are seen to be from eight units POC for medium
potential shredders to three units POC for high potential shredders.

Effect of cane rate - The effect of rate on preparation level and power per tonne
of cane per hour has been shown to be not significant for single pass shredding
at rates equivalent to 250 and 350 tonne per hour through shredders 2130 mm
wide.

Fibrizer in sugar cane industry constitutes most important part of cane


preparation. So modifications are helpful in fibrizer and it updated day by day.
This project have achieved its original aims, and shown that redesign and
optimization in hub by changing its profile to three leafs gave better results in
operation. Weight has been reduced in new hub and also material is saved so
that the cost of project is also reduced. Total weight reduced is nearby 2800kg.
Total assembly mass of fibrizer is reduced so power consumption is decreased
with compared to old one, motor used in new fibrizer operation is 3000kw
instead of 3500kw as in old one. So cost of new motor is also less than old
motor. Study in ANSYS has shown that stresses on hub gave safe results.
Stresses on hub are minimum having value1.6048 MPa and it is under the
maximum value 6.3232 MPa, so it is safe. Hence new hub profile is modified
and it is safe in operation. This will help in increasing efficiency of industry.