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A PROJECT REPORT
ON
“NATIONAL HIGHWAY- 2 CONSTRUCTIONS”

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Under guidance of
tuH.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING)
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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that ___________________________ has


complied this report on “ NATIONAL HIGHWAY-2
CONSTRUCTION ” under our supervision. As a part of the course in
B.E Final Year (7th Sem. Civil).

We are highly indebted to H.O.D ______________ and all


teachers of Department of CIVIL Engineering foe their valuable
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guidance and the wish counsel in the completion of this report.
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mand all our friends for the
Special thanks to our Parents
a to us in every phase of this report
encouragement and support given
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INTRODUCTION

In a National Highway-2 project, the


engineer has to plan, design and construct
either a network of new roads or road
link. m
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is cconstructed,
Once a highway
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development takes along a the adjoining
land and subsequentm changes in alignment
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in geometric standards become very
y n aligned highway is not
difficult. A badly
only a sourced of potential traffic hazard,
but also t u
causes a considerable increase in
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transportation cost and strain on the
drivers and the passengers. Therefore,
proper investigation and planning are most
important in a road project, keeping in view
the present day needs as well as the future
development of the region
NATIONAL HIGHWAY 2
PROJECT
DEFINITIONS
In the contract the following words and expressions shall
have the meanings here by assigned to them, except where
the context otherwise requires:

(i) A BOLLARD is a short vertical post typically found where


large ships docks. While originally it only meant a post used
on a quick for mooring, the word now also describes a
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variety of structure to control or direct road traffic. The
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term may be related to bole, meaning the lower trunk of a
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tree. .
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(ii) A BYEPASS is a road or highway that avoids or “bypasses”
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a built up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow

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without interference from local traffic, to reduce
congestion in the built up area, and to improve road safety.
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If there are no strong land use controls, buildings are built
a bypass, converting it into an ordinary town road, and the
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bypass may eventually become as congested as the local
streets it was intended to avoid.

(iii) A CURB or KERB is the edge where a raised


pavement/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets
an unraised street or other roadway. Typically made from
concrete, asphalt, or long stones, the purpose is twofold:
first as a gutter for proper drainage of the roadway, and
second for safety, to keep motorist from driving into the
shoulder, median, sidewalk, or pavement.

(iv) “EMPLOYERS” means the person named as such in part II


of these conditions and the legal successors in title to such
person. But not any assignee of such person.
(V) “CONTRACTOR” means the person whose tender has been
accepted by the employer and the legal successors in title
to such person. But not any assignee of such person.

• “Contract” means the conditions, the specification, the


drawings, the bill of quantity, the tender, the letter of
acceptance; the contract agreement and such further
documents as may be expressly incorporated in Letter
of Acceptance or Contract Agreement.
• “Specifications” means the specification of the work
included in the contract and any modification
therefore or addition.
• “Drawings” means all drawings, calculations and
technical information of a like nature provided by the
Engineer to the contractor under the contract and
all drawings, Calculations, Samples, Pattern, Models,
Operations and maintenance, manuals and other

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technical information of a like nature submitted by the
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contractor and approved by the Engineer.
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• “Bill of Quantities” means the priced and completed
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bill of quantities forming part of tender.

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• “Section” means a part of the works specifically
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identified in the Contract as a section.

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• “Site” means the places provided by the Employer
where the works are to be executed and any other
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places as may be specifically designated in the
Contract as forming part of the site.
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SETTING OUT
The contractor shall establish working Bench marks tied
with the reference Bench Mark in the soon after taking
possession of the site. The reference Bench Mark for the
area shall be as indicated in the contract document of the
values of the same shall be obtained by the Contractor
from the Engineer. The working bench mark shall be at rate
of 4 per km and also at or near all drainage structures,
over bridges and under passes. The working Bench
Mark/levels should be got approved from the Engineer.
Check must be based on this Bench Mark once every month
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and adjustments, if any, got agreed with the Engineer and
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recorded. An up-to-date record of all Bench Mark including
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approved adjustments, if any, shall be maintained by the
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contractor and also a copy supplied to the Engineer for his
record.
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The lines and levels of formation, side slopes, drainage
works, carriageways and shoulders shall be carefully set
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out and frequently checked, care being taken to ensure
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that correct gradients and cross sections are obtained

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everywhere.

In order to facilitate the setting out of the works, the


centreline of the highway must be accurately established
by the contractor and approved by the engineer. It must
then be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to
the engineer, every 50m intervals in plain and rolling
terrains and 20m intervals in highly terrain and in all curve
point as directed by the engineer, with marker pegs and
chainage boards sets in or near the fence line, and schedule
of reference dimensions shall be prepared and supplied by
the Contractor to the Engineer. These markers shall be
maintained until the works reach finished formation levels
are accepted by the Engineer.
On construction reaching the formation level stage, the
centre line again be set out by the contractor and when
approved by the Engineer, shall be accurately referenced
in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer by markers pegs
set at the outer limits of the formation.

No marker pegs or markers shall be moved without the


approval of the Engineer and and no earth work shall be
commenced until the centre line has been referenced.

The contractor will be the sole responsible party for


safeguarding all survey monuments, bench marks, etc. The
Engineer will provide the Contractor necessary for setting
out of the centre line. All dimensions and levels shown on
the drawing or mentioned in documents forming part of the
or issued under the contract shall be verified by the
Contractor on the site and he shall immediately inform the
engineer of any apparent error in such dimensions. The
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Contractor shall in connection with the staking out of the
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canter line, survey the terrain along the road and shall
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submit the engineer for his approval, a profile along the
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road centre line and cross section at intervals as required
by the Engineer.
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After obtaining approval of the engineer, work on
earthwork can commence and the profile and cross section
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shall from the basis for measurements and payments.
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The work oftsetting out shall be deemed to be a part of
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works preparatory to the execution of work and no
separate payments shall be made for the same..
TOPOGRAPHICAL
PLAN

THE SALIENT FEATURE OF NATIONAL


HIGHWAY - 2 ARE :

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• STRETCH – DELHI : a MATHURA
• NH No. m
: 2
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• LENGTH (Kms) 145
• : ADB
FOUNDED BY
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CONTRACTOR AND : MORTH through Haryana
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and NATIONALITY & UP PWD (IRCON).
TEST DONE IN PROJECT
LABORATORY

TEST ON SUB GRADE SOIL


(I) GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION:
Most of the method for the soil identification and

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classification are based on certain physical properties of
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the soil. The commonly used properties for the
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classification are the grain size distribution liquid limit and

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plasticity index. These properties have also been used in
empirical design method for flexible pavement; and in
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deciding the suitable of sub grad soil.

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Grain size analysis also known as mechanical analysis of

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soil is the determination of the percent of individual grain

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size present in the sample. The results of the test are of
great value in soil classification. In mechanical
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stabilization of soil and for designing soil aggregates
mixture the result of gradation test are used .correlation
have also made between the grain size distribution of soil
and the general soil behavior as the sub grade material and
the performance such as susceptibility to frost action,
pumping of rigid pavement etc.also permeability
characteristics, ‘bearing capacity and some other
properties, are approximately estimated based on grain size
distribution of the soil. The soil is generally divided into
four parts on the particle size. The fraction of the soil
which is larger than 2.00 mm size is called gravel, between
2.00 mm and 0.06 mm is sand 0.002mm silt and that is smaller
than 0.002 mm size is clay. Two type of sieves are available,
one type with square perforation on plate to sieves course
aggregate and gravel, the other type being mesh sieves made
of woven wire mesh to sieves finer particle such fine
aggregate and soil fraction consisting of sand silt and
clay. However the sieves opening of the smallest mesh
sieves commonly available is about 0.075 mm, which is
commonly known as 200 mesh sieves therefore all soil
particle consisting of silt and clay which are smaller than
0.06 mm size will pass through the fine mesh sieves with
0.075 mm opening. Therefore the grain size analysis of
course fraction of soil is carried out using sieves the
principle of sedimentation in water.

The sieves analysis is a simple test consisting of sieving a


measured quantity of material through successively
smaller sieves. The weight retain on each sieves. The weight
retain on each sieve is expressed as a percentage of the
total sample. The sediment principle has been used for
finding the grain size distribution of fine fraction; two
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hydrometer method.
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methods are commonly used pipette method and the

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The grain size distribution of soil particle of size greater
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than 63 micron is determine by sieving the soil on set of
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sieves of decreasing sieve opening placed one below the

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other and separating out the different size ranges.

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APPARATUS:
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Various apparatus set of standard sieves of different sieves
size, balance, and rubber covered pestle mortar, oven,
riffle, sieves shaker.

Procedure

• For the fraction retained on 2.0 mm sieves.


Sufficient quantity of dry soil retained on 2.0 mm sieves
is weighed out. The quantity of sample taken may be
increased when the maximum size of particle is higher.
The sample separated into various fraction by sieving
through the set of sieves of size100, 63, 20, 6, 4.75, and
2 mm is sieves. After initial sieves, material retained on
each sieves carefully collected and weighed.
• For fraction passing 2.0 mm sieves and retained on 0.63
mm size.
The required quantity of soil sample is taken by riffling
or quartering method, dried in oven at 105 to 110 c and
is subjected to dry sieves analysis using a set of sieves
with sieves opening 2.0, 0.6, 0.425, 0.15, and 0.075 mm,
pan lid. The material collected on the each sieves and
on the pan are separately collected and weighed.

CALCULATION:
The weight of dry soil fraction retained on each sieve is
calculated as a percentage of the total dry weight of the
sample taken. The gravel, sand , silt ,and clay contain in
percentage.

RESULT:
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The gravel, silt sand clay contents are marked as result.
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(II) CONSISTENCY LIMITS &
INDICES

The physical properties of fine grained soil, especially of


clay differ much at different water content. Clay may be
almost in liquid state, or it may snow plastic behavior or may
be very stiff depending on the moisture content. Plasticity is
a property of outstanding importance for clayey soil, which
may be explained as the ability to undergo changes in shape
without rupture.

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Liquid limit it may be defined as the minimum content at which

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soil will flow under the application of a very small
shearing force. The liquid limit is usually determined in the
laboratory using mechanical device. a
m term, as minimum terms, as
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Plastic limit may define in general
minimum moisture content n at which the soil remain in a
y limit is arbitrarily defined and
plastic state. The lower
determined in thed
u laboratory by prescribed test procedure.

Plastic indextis defined as the numerical difference between


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the liquid and plastic limit.

p.i thus indicates the range of moisture content over which


the soil in plastic condition.

Consistency limit and plasticity index vary for different


type. Hence properties are generally used in the
identification and classification of soil

LIQUID LIMIT TEST:


Liquid limit is the moisture content at which 25 blow in
standard liquid limit apparatus will just close a groove of
standardized dimension cut in the sample by grooving tool
by a specified amount.

APPARATUS:
Mechanical liquid limit device consists of a cup and
arrangement for raising and dropping through a specified
height, grooving tool. Other apparatus include spatula,
moisture containers, and balance of capacity 200g sensitive
to0.01 g oven to maintain 105 to110c.

PROCEDURE:
About 120 g of dry pulverized soil sample passing 425
micron sieve is weighted, and mixed thoroughly with distilled
water in the evaporating dish to from a uniform thick paste.
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The liquid limit device is adjusted to have a free fall of cup
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through 10mm.a portion of the paste is placed above the
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lowest spot, and squeezed down with the spatula to have a
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horizontal surface . the specimen is trimmed by firm strokes
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of spatula in a such a way that the maximum depth of soil
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sample in the cup is 10 mm. the soil in the cup is divided along

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the diameter through the center line pf the cam followed by

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firm strokes of the grooving tool. So as to get a clean and

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sharp groove. The crank is rotated at the rated at the rate
of two revolutions per second by hand so that the cup is
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lifted and dropped. This continued till the two halves of the
soil cake come in to contact at the bottom of the groove
along a distance of 10 mm, and the number of blows given is
recorded . a representative soil is taken, placed in moisture
container, lid placed over it and weighed. The container in
dried in oven and the dry weight determined the next day for
finding the moisture content of the soil. The operations are
repeated for at least three more trial with slightly
increased moisture content each time, nothing the number
of blows so that there at least four uniformly distribute
reading of number of blows between 10 and 40 blows.

CALCULATION:
the flow index The flow cure is plotted by taking the number
of blows in the log scale on the x-axis, and the water
content in arithmetic scale on the y-axis, of format sheet
.the flow curve is straight line drawn on semi-logrithmetic
plot. The moisture content corresponding to 25 blow is read
from this curve rounding off the nearest whole number and
is reported as the liquid w1 of the soil. The slope of the
straight line flow cure is flow index. It may be calculated
from the following formula;

𝑊𝑊1−𝑊𝑊2 𝑊𝑊10−𝑊𝑊100
For index, If= = =w𝑊𝑊10 − 𝑊𝑊100
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑛𝑛2−𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿1 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿10 100/10

Hence if the flow curve is extrapolated and moisture w10


and w100 corresponding to 10and 100 blows
respectively are found, then the difference in these
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water content would give of the soil.
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PLASTIC LIMIT TEST

Plastic limit is the moisture content at which a soil when


rolled in to thread of smallest diameter possible, start
crumbling and has diameter of 3 mm.

APPARATUS:
Evaporating dish, spatula, glass plate, moisture containers,
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rod of 3 mm diameter , balance sensitive to 0.01 g, drying
oven controlled at temperature 105 to110c.
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PROCEDURE: a
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About 20 g of dry, pulverized soil passing 425 micron IS sieve
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is weighed out. The soil is mixed thoroughly with distilled
water in the evaporating dish till the soil paste is plastic
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enough to be easily molded with fingers. A small ball is
formed glass plate to a thread. The pressure just sufficient
to roll into a thread of uniform diameter should be used.
The rate of rolling should be between 80 and 90 strokes
per minute counting a stroke as one complete motion of
hand forward and back to starting position again. The
rolling is done till the diameterof thread is 3 mm . then the soil is
kneaded together to a ball and roller again to from therad
this process of alternate rolling and kneading is continude
untill the thread. This process of alternate rolling and
kneading is continude until th ethread crumbles under
prassure required for rolling and the soil can no longer to
roll into a thread.
If the crumbling start at diameter less than 3 mm, then
moisture content is more than the plastic limit and if the
diameter is greater while crumbling starts, the moisture
content is lower.

CALCULATION:
The plastic limit (w0) is expressed as a whole number by
obtaining the mean of the moisture content of the plastic
limit.

Plastic index is calculated as the diffrence between liquid


limit and plastic limit.

Plastic index = liquid limit – plastic limit

W1-wp
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(III) COMPACTION TEST

Compaction of soil is a mechanical process by which by


which the soil partical are constrained to be packed more
closley together by reducing the air void. Soil compaction
causes decreases ia air void and consequently an increase
in dry density. This may result in increase in shearing
strength., the possible of future settelment or
compressibility decrease. Degree of compaction is usually
measured quantitativily nby dry density.

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APPARATUS: .
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(a)Cylindrical mould of capacity 1000 cc. with an internal
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diameter of 10 cm and height 12.73 cm. the mould is fitted

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with a detachable base plate and removable collar
extension of about 6 cm hight.
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(b) For the light compaction, a metal rammer having 5
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cmdiameter circular face, and weight 2.6 kg is used which
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has drop oif 31 cm.

For heavy compaction, the rammer has 5 cm diameter


circular face, but havin g weight 4.89 kh free drop of
45 cm.

(c)Steel straight edge having behaving beveled edge for


trimming top of the specimen.
(d)Other accessories include moisture container, balance
of capacity 10kg and 200kg, oven, sieves, mixing tools.

PROCEDURE:
In case of soil sample has particle bigger than 4075 mm
sieve, about 20 kg of the representstive soil is air dried,
mixed pulerized and sieved through 20 mm and 4.75 m sieve is
not use in the test the percentage passing 20 mm sieve and
retained on 4075 mm sieve is noted and if this is less than 20
percen this sample is used as such. It is more than this
phenomenon is repeated. In case the sample passes 4075
sieves, than the bdry pulverized sample is sieved through
4.75 mm sieve and the portion passing this sievesis only used
for the test. About 16 kg of dry soil in total may be
neccessery for the compaction test in the 1000 cc mould.
For compaction the soil in the mould every time the required
quantity quantity will depend on the soil type, size of mould,
moisture content and amount of compaction. As arough
guidance, for each test 2.5 kg of soil may taken for light
compaction. As arough guidance, for each test 2.8 kg for
heavy compaction, and than the required water ia added. The
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estimated weight to be added to the soil every time may be
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measured in in a jet graduated in cc. enough water is added
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to to the specimen to bearing the moisture content to about
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7% less than the estimated o.m.c. for sandy soil and 10% less

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for clay soils. The processed soil stored in an air tight

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container for about 10 to 20 enable moisture to spread
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uniform in the soil mass.
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The mould with base fitted in is weighed. The process soil
water mixtureu
t throughly and divided into eight equal part.

(1)For S
light compaction the wet soil is compacted into the
mould in three equal layers, each layer being 25 blow
of the 2.6kg rammer.
(2)For heavy compaction the wet soil mix is compacted in
the mould in five equal layer being 25 bloq of 4.89 kg
hammer.

The blow should be uniform ly disributed over the surface


of each layer. Each layer of the compacted soil is scored
with a spatula before placing the soil for the succeeding.
The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to fill
the mould leaving about 5 mm to strike off on the top after
compacting the final layer.
The coller is removed and the compacted soil is leveled to
th top of the mould by mean of straight edge. The mould and
the soil are then weighed. The soil is then ejected out of the
mould and cut in the middle and a representative specimen is
determine by finding the wet weight, keeping in the oven at
105c to 110c and finding the dry weight the next day.

CALCULATION:
Let weight of mould copacted soil be = W1 g

Weight of empty mould =W2 g

Volume of mould = W
𝑊𝑊1−𝑊𝑊2
Wet density = g/cc
𝑊𝑊

𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷
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Then dry density = (100+𝑀𝑀.𝐶𝐶)∗100

RESULT: . c
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The result are dry density andm
wet density.
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CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO
TEST

INTRODUCTION:
The California bearing ratio (CBR) test was developed by
the California division of highway as a method of
classification and evaluating soil-subgrade and base course
material for flexible pavements. Just after world war-2,
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the U.S.Crops of engineers adopted the C.B.R. test for use in

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designing base course for air field pavement. The test is
empirical and result can not be related accurately with any
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fundamental property of the material. The CBR is a measure
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of resistance of a material to penetration of a standard
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plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions.

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The test procedure should be strictly adhered if high
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degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test may be

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conducted in remould or undisturbed specimen in the

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laboratory. U.S. crops of engineers have also recommended
a test procedure for in-situ test. Many methods exist today
which utilize mainly CBR test value for designing pavement
structures. The test is simple and has been extensive
investigated for field correlation of flexible pavement
thickness requirement briefly, the test consist of causing a
cylindrical plunger of diameter 50 mm to penetrate
component material at 1.25 mm/minute. The loads, for 2.5 mm
and 5.0 mm are recorded. This load is expressed as a
percentage of standard load value at a respective
deformation level to obtain CBR value.

APPARATUS:
• Loading machine: Any compression machine which can
operate at a constant rate of 1.25 mm/minute can be used
for this purpose. If such machine is not available then a
calibrate hydraulic press with proving ring to measure
load can be used. A metal penetration piston or plunger
of a diameter 50 mm is attached to the loading machine.

• Cylindrical moulds: Mould of 150 mm diameter and 175 mm


height provided with a collar of about 50 mm length and
detachable perforated and base are used for this
purpose. A spacer disc of 148 mm diameter and 47.7 mm
thickness is used to obtain a exactly 127.3 mm height

• Compaction rammer: The material is usually compacted as


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specified for the work, either by dynamic compaction or
ISI are given in table bellow:-
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TYPE OF NUMBER
m
WEIGHT FALL, cm NUMBER
COMPACTION OF LAYERS
a OF OF BLOWS

y n HAMMER,
Kg
Light
d3 2.6 31 56
compaction
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Heavy
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compaction
5 4.89 45 56

• Adjustable stem, perforated plate, tripod and dial gauge:


the standard procedure require that the soil sample
before testing should be soaked in water to measure
swelling.
• Annular weight: in order to stimulate the effect of the
overlying pavement weight, annular weight each of 2.5 kg
and 147 mm diameter are placed on the top of the
specimen, both at the time of soaking and testing the
sample, as surcharge.

Beside above equipment, coarse filte r paper, sieves, oven,


balance, etc. Required
TEST ON CEMENT

(1) FINENESS TEST:

INTRODUCTION:

The object of this is to check the proper grinding of cement.


The rate of hydration depends on the fineness of cement.
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The finer is the cement, the earlier the hydration and the

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faster and greater is the gaining of strength. This because
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of hydration starts at the surface. Larger the surface area
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(i.e. finer the cement), faster will be hydration. However,
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very fine cement is susceptible to air set and deteriorates
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earlier. The grinding of cement shall be as fine as to

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conform to the standard specification and also shall be

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uniformly fine .If the cement is not uniformly fine, the

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concrete made out of it will have poor workability and will
require a large quantity of water while mixing. Also
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bleeding of concrete can occur i.e. even before the
concrete is set , water will come out of the surface due to
the settlement of concrete particle. To check the fineness
of the cement IS: 4031-1998 gives three methods:

1. By drying sieving.
2. Blaine air permeability method.
3. By wet sieving.

First method is used to find the fineness of cement in the


project laboratory.
DRY SIEVING METHOD:
The fineness of the cement depends on the particle size
distribution. A small mass of fine cement may have surface
area have large surface area than a large mass of coarser
particle of cement. It is therefore necessary to reduce the
percentage of coarse particles to get require fineness of
cement .In this test mass of coarser cement particle is found
out which is limited to specified percentage for various
cements as per respective Indian standard. Take 100g of
various cements from samples and breakdown any air set
lumps with finger. Place it on a standard IS sieve no.9.
Continuously sieve the sample with a gentle wrist motion
m
for 15 minutes. The mass of residue shall not exceed 10g in
o
case of ordinary Portland cement and 5g in case of rapid
c
hardening cement.
.
a
CALCULATION AND RESULT: m
a
y n is divided by weight taken and
The weight of cement retained

micron sieve isu


d
is multiplied by 100 so the percentage retained cement on 90

t calculated. Three trials are done and the

S
average of percentage.

Cement retained is calculated. The average percentage


of cement retained should not be more than the specified
limit.
(II) TEST FOR ONSISTENCY,
INITIAL & FINAL SETTING TIME
OF CEMENT

CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT PASTE:

m
INTRODUCTION: co
.
a
m
This test determines the quantity of water required to
a
produce a cement paste of standard consistency for

yn
the use of other test. The vicat apparatus is used for
this purpose. The consistency of standard cement paste
d
is defined as that consistency which will permit the
tu
vicat plunger 50mm long and having 10mm diameter to
S
penetrate to a point 5mm to 7mm from the bottom of the
vicat mould. The unit of the consistency is percentage
of water by mass of dry cement and denoted by P.

PROCEDURE:
Take 400g cement and add to it 30% water on a glass
plate or any non porous surface. Mix thoroughly and
fill the mould of vicat apparatus. The interval from the
time of adding water to the dry cement until
commencing to fill the mould is known as the time of
gauging and must be not less than 3 minutes and not
more than 5 minutes. Lower plunger gently to touch
the surface of test block and quickly release it,
allowing it to sink into the paste. Note the settlement
of the plunger. The settlement of the plunger should
be 5mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould. If not,
repeat the procedure using fresh cement and other
percentage of water until the described penetration
of the plunger is obtained.

The consistency of standard cement paste is expressed


as the amount of water as percentage by mass of dry
cement.

Let, m1= mass of cement taken


m2= mass of water added when the plunger has a
penetration of 5mm to . 7mm
m
from the bottom of the mould.
c o
. standard
a
Then the percentage of water or
consistency is
m
a
P = (m2/m1)x100
n
yconsistency
d
Usually standard P lies between 26 to 33
percent.
t u
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TEST FOR SETTING TIMES

INTRODUCTION:

The change of the cement paste from fluid to rigid state may
be referred to as setting. The gaining of strength of a
cement of a set cement paste is known as hardening. During
the setting, cement acquires some strength, however it is
not considered in definition to distinguished setting from
hardening, where hardening is gain of strength of a set
cement paste.

Objects of these tests are:-


m
co
.
1. To find initial and final setting times of cement.

a
2. To distinguished between quick setting and normal
setting types of cement
m
3. To detect deterioration due to storage.
a
yn
When water is added to cement and mixed properly. The
chemical reaction soon starts and the paste of cement
d
remains plastic for a short period. During this period, it is

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possible to remix the paste for a short period. During this
period, it is possible to remix the paste. This period is called
S
initial setting time. It is assumed that no hardening will
starts in this period .As time lapses, the reaction is
continued and cement begins to harden. At some stages it
gardens also called ‘finally set’ and the time elapsed since
the water was added is called final setting time. It is not
possible to express the exact state of hardening and hence
empirical measurements are taken.

This is purely a conventional one and does not relate to the


setting and hardening of actual concrete.
PROCEDURE:

Mix 400g of cement with 0.85 P percentage of water where P


is the consistency of standard cement paste. Start the stop
watch at the instant when water is added to cement. Fill the
vicat mould with this paste and smooth of the surface of the
paste making it level with the top of the mould attach 1mm*
1mm square cross section needle to the vicat rod. Lower the
needle gently near the surface of the block. Note whether
the needle pierces completely .If so, wait for a while drop
the needle at a fresh place. Repeat the procedure till the
needle fails to pierce the block for 5 + 0.5mm measured
from the bottom of the mould. The interval between the time
when water was added to cement and the time at which the
needle fails to pierce the block by 5 + 0.5mm is known as
initial setting time.

m
Replace the needle by the needle which has a sharp

co
pointing, projecting in the centre with a annular
attachment and release it on the same test block as before.
.
a
Note the time when needle makes an impression, but the
attachment fails to do so. The interval between these time
m
and the time when water was added is known as the final
setting time.
a
y n
The initial settingdtime for a ordinary Portland cement
should not be u
t less than 30 minutes and the final setting time
should not more than 10 hours. For quick setting cement,
S
the initial setting time should not be less than 5 minutes and
the final setting not more than 30 minutes.

The minimum limits on initial setting are specified because:

Concrete once placed should not be distributed after the


initial setting has taken place.
There must be sufficient time for placing of second batch
which may be distribute the first batch of the concrete.
The transportation of concrete from the place where
concrete is prepared to the placing of concrete requires
some finite time.

The maximum limits of the final setting time are specified


because the concrete should achieve the desired strength
as early as possible so that the shuttering can be remove
and reused.

TEST ON ROAD AGGREGATES

(I) AGGREGATES IMPACT TEST

INTRODUCTION:
Toughness is the property of the materials to resist impact.
Due to traffic loads, the load stones are subjected to the
pounding action or impacts and there possibility of stones
breaking into smaller pieces. The road stones should
m
therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact.
o
A test designed to evaluate the toughness of the stones
c
.
therefore the resistance of the two fractures under
a
repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road
stones. Impact test may either carry out cylindrical stone
m
specimens as in page impact test or stone aggregates as in a
a
aggregate impact test. The aggregate test has been

yn
standardized by the British Standard Institution and the

d
Indian Standard Institution. The aggregate impact value

tu
indicates the a relative measure of the resistant of
aggregate to sudden shock or an impact, which in some
S
aggregate differ from its resistant to slow compressive
load. The method of test covers the procedure for
determine the aggregate impact value of coarse
aggregates.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of an impact testing machine, a


cylindrical measure temping rod, IS sieve, balance and oven.

• Impact Testing Machine : The machine consist of a


matter base with a plane lower surface supported well
on a firm flour, without rocking detachable cylindrical
steel cup of internal diameter 10.2cm and depth 5.0cm is
rigidly fastened centrally to the base plate. A matter
hammer of weight between 13.5 and 14 kg having the
lower and cylindrical in shape, 10cm in diameter and 5.0
cm long, with 2.0 mm chamber at the lower edge is
capable of sliding freely between vertical guides, and
fall concentric over the cup. There is an arrangement
for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely
between vertical guides from a height of 38 cm on the
test sample in the cup, the height fall being adjustable
up to 0.5 cm a key is provided for supporting the hammer
while fastening.
• Measure: A cylindrical metal measure having internal
diameter 7.5 cm and depth 5.0 cm for measuring
aggregates.

• Tamping rod: A straight metal tamping rod of circular


cross section, 1.0 cm in diameter and 23 m long, rounded
at one end.

m
• Sieve: IS sieve of size 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm for
sieving the aggregates.
co
.
a
• Balance: A balance of capacity not less than 500g to
weight accurate up to 0.1g.
m
a
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• Oven: A thermostatically controlled drying oven
capable of maintaining constant temperature between
d
100oC and 110oC.
tu
S
PROCEDURE:
The test sample consist of aggregates passing 12.5mm sieves
and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven 4 hours at a
temperature 100oC to 110oC and cooled. The aggregates
are filled up to about one –third full in the cylindrical
measure and tamped 25 times with rounded and of the
tampering rod. Further quantity of aggregates is then
added up to about two – third full in the cylinder and 25
strokes of the tamping rod are given. The measure is now
filled with the aggregates to over flow, tamped 25 times.
The surplus aggregates are stuck off using the tamping rod
as straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the
measures determined to the nearest gram this weight of the
aggregates is used for carrying out duplicate test on the
same materials. The impact machine is placed with its bottom
plate on the flour so that the hammer guide columns are
vertical. The cup is mixed firmly in position on the base of the
test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to
the cup and compacted by tamping with 25 strokes.

The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above the


upper surface of the aggregates in the cup ,and allowed to
fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected
to a total 15 such blows, each being delivered at an
interval of not less than one second. The crushed
aggregates is then removed from the cup and whole of it
sieve on the 2.36mm sieve until no further significant
amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is also
weighed accurate to 0.1gm.The fraction retained on the
sieve is also weighed and if the total weight of the fraction
passing and retained on the sieve is added, it should not be
less than the original by 1g, the result should be discarded
and a fresh test made

m
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a
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a
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S
EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
These specification shall be apply to the construction of
embankment including sub grade, earthen shoulders and
miscellaneous backfills with improved material obtained
from the road way and drain excavation, borrow pits and
other resources. All the embankments, sub grades, earthen
shoulders and miscellaneous backfills shall be
constructed in accordance with the requirements of these
m
specification and in conformity with the lines, grade and
o
cross section shown on the drawing or as directed by the
c
engineer.
.
a
m
Material & general requirements:
a
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d
t u
Physical requirements:
S
The material used in the embankments, sub grades, earthen
shoulders and miscellaneous backfills shall be soil,
moorum, gravel, a mixture of these or any other material
approved by the engineer. Such a material should be from
log, stumps, roots, rubbish or any other intrigent likely to
be deteriorate or effect the stability of the
embankment/sub grade

The following types of material shall be considered


unsuitable for the embankment:

• Material from swamps, marshes and bogs.


• Peat, log, stumps and perishable material; any soil that
classifies as OL, OI, OH or Pt in accordance with
IS:1498;
• Material susceptible to spontaneous combustion;
• Clay having liquid limit exceeding 70 and the plasticity
index exceeding 45;
• Material with salt resulting in leaching in the
embankment;

The size of coarse material in the mixture of earth shall


ordinarily shall not exceeded 75mm when being placed in
the embankment and 50mm when placed in sub grade.

Ordinarily, only the material satisfying the density


requirements given in the table 1 shall be employed for
the construction of the embankment and for the sub
grade.

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Table 1.density requirement of
a
yn sub-grade material.
embankment and
d
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MAXIMUM
LABORATORY DRY
UNIT WEIGHT WHEN
S.No. TYPES OF WORK TESTED AS PER IS :
2720 (PART 8)
Embankment up to 3meter Not less than
1 height, not subjected to 15.2kn/cu. m
extensive flooding.

Embankment exceeding 3m
2 height or embankment of
Not less than
any height subject to long
period of inundation. 16.0kn/cu. m

3 Sub grade and earthen


backfill/shoulder/verges
Not less than

m
17.5kn/cu. m

co
.
a
GENERAL REQUIREMENT: m
a
yn
d
u
Borrow material:
t
S shall obtain representative sample from
The contractor
each of the identified borrow areas and have these tested
at the site laboratory following a testing program
approved by the engineer. It shall be ensured that sub grade
material when compacted to the density requirements as in
table 2 shall yield the design CBR values of sub grade.

TABLE 2. Compaction requirements for


embankment and sub grade
RELATIVE COMPACTION
AT % OF MAXIMUM
TYPE OF
LABORATORY DRY
S.No. WORK/MATERIAL
DENSITY AS PER
IS:2720 (PART 8)

Sub grade earthen NOT LESS THAN 97


1 shoulders
NOT LESS THAN95
2 Embankment

m
Construction operations: co
.
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a
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Setting out:
d
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After the site has been cleared, the limits of
embankment/sub grade shall be marked by fixing batter
S
pegs on both sides of 10 meter intervals. The
embankment/sub grade shall be built sufficiently wider
than the design dimension so that surplus material may be
trimmed, ensuring that the remaining material is to desire
density & in the position specified and conforms to the
specified of the slope.

Compaction ground supporting:

Embankment/sub grade:
In case where the difference between the sub grade level
and ground level is less than .5 m and the ground does not
have 97% relative compaction with respect to the dry
density as given in table 2 the ground shall be loosened up
to level .5 m below the sub grade level, watered and
compacted in layer up to 97% of dry density.

Spreading material in layers and bringing to


appropriate moisture content:
The embankment and the sub grade material shall be spread
in layer of uniform thickness not exceeding 200 mm
compacted thickness over the entire width of the
embankment by mechanical means.

Compaction:
m
co
The compaction shall be done with the help of vibratory
.
a
roller of 80 to 100 KN static weight with plain or pad foot
drum or heavy pneumatic typed roller of adequate capacity
m
capable of achieving required compaction.
a
n
Finishing operation:
y
d
tu
Finishing operation shall include the work of shaping and
dressing the shoulder/verge/road bed and side slope to
S
confirm to the alignment, levels and cross section
dimension shown n the drawing or as directed by the
engineer subject to the surface tolerance.

Surface finish and quality control of work


The surface finish of construction of surface of sub grade
shall conform to the requirement of heading 10. Control
on the quality of material and work shall be exercised in
accordance with heading 11.
Measurement of payment
Earth embankment/sub grade construction shall be
measured separately by taking cross at interval at the
original position before the work starts and after it
completion and the volume of the earthwork in cubic meter
by the method of areas and average.

m
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.
a
m
a
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d
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S
GRANULAR SUB-BASE

Scope:
The work shall be should be consists of laying and compacting well
graded material on prepared sub grade in accordance with
requirements of these specifications. The material shall be laid in one
or more layer as sub base or lower sub-base and upper sub-base(termed
as sub-base here in after) as necessary according to lines, grades and
cross sections shown on the drawing or as directed by the engineer.

Material:
m
The material to be used for the work shall be natural sand,

co
moorum, gravel, crushed stone or combination thereof
.
depending upon the grading required. Material like crushed
a
slag crushed concrete, brick metal and kankar may be
m
allowed only with the specific approval of the engineer.
a
The material shall be free from organic and other

yn
deleterious constituents and confirm to one of the three
grading in table 3.
d
tu
Srequirements:
Physical
The material shall have 10% fine value of 50 KN or more
(for sample in soaked condition when tested in compliance
with BS: 812 (part 111). The water absorption value of the
coarse aggregate shall be determined as per IS:2386(part
3); if this value is greater than 2% the soundness test shall
be carried out on the material delivered to site IS:383. For
grading II and III material, the CBR shall be determined at
the density and moisture content likely to be developed in
equilibrium conditions which shall be taken as being the
density relating to a uniform air void content of 5%.
TABLE 3 . GRADING FOR CLOSE-GRADED
SUB-BASE MATERIAL

IS SIEVE % by weight passing the sieve


DESIGNATION GRADING I GRADING II GRADING III
75 mm 100 -------- --------
53 mm 80-100 100 ---------
26.5 mm 55-90 70-100 100
9.5 mm 35-65 50-80 65-95
4.75 mm 25-55 40-65 50-80
2.36 mm 20-40 30-50 40-65
m
0.425 mm 10-25
o
15-25
c
20-35
0.075 mm 3-10 .
3-10 3-10
a
m 25
CBR VALUE (MAX.) 30
a 20

yn
d
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S
Strength of sub-base:
It shall be ensured prior to actual execution that the material to be
use in the sub base satisfied the requirements of the CBR and other
physical requirement when compacted and finished.

When directed by the engineer , this shall verified by the


performance CBR test in the laboratory as required on
specimens remolded at the field dry density and moisture
content and any other test for the “quality” of the
material, as may be necessary.
Construction operation:

Preparation of sub-grade:
Immediately prior for the laying of the sub base, the sub-
grade already finished shall be prepared by removing all
vegetation and other extraneous matter, lightly sprinkled
with water if necessary and rolled with two passes of 80-
100kN smooth wheeled roller.

Spreading and compacting:


Immediately thereafter, rolling shall start. If the thickness
m
of the compacted layer does not exceed 100 mm, a smooth
o
wheeled roller of 80kN to 100kN weight may be used. For
c
.
compacted single layer up to 225 mm the compact shall be
a
done with the help of the vibratory roller of minimum 80 to
m
100 kN static weight with plain drum or pad foot drum of
a
heavy pneumatic tyred roller of minimum tyre pressure of

yn
0.7kN/m2 or equivalent capacity roller capable of

d
achieving the required compaction. Rolling shall commence

tu
at the lower edge and proceed toward the upper edge
longitudinally for portion having unidirectional cross fall
S
and super elevation and shall commence at the edges and
progress toward the center portion having cross fall on
both side s. Each pass of the roller shall uniformly over lap
not less than one-third of the track made in the preceding
pass. During the rolling, grade and cross fall (camber)
shall be the checked and any high spots or depressions,
which become apparent, corrected by removing of adding
fresh material. The speed of roller shall not exceed 5
km/hr.

Rolling shall be continued till the density achieved is at


least 98% of the maximum dry density for the material
determined as per IS:2720 (par 8).The surface of any layer of
material compaction shall be well closed, free from
movement under compaction equipment and from
compaction planes, ridges, crack or loose material. All
loose, segregated or otherwise defected areas shall be
made good to the full thickness layer and re-compacted.

Surface finish and quality control of work:


The surface of the compaction shall confirm to the
requirements of heading 10.

Control on the quality of material and work shall be


exercised by the engineer and accordance with heading 11.

Measurement of payment:
Granular sub-base shall be measured as finished work in
position in cum. The protection of edges of granular sub-
base extended over the full formation as shown in drawing
m
shall be considered incidental to the work providing
o
granular sub-base and such no extra payment shall be made
c
for the same.
.
a
Wet mix macadam sub-Basel m base
a
SCOPE this work shall n
y consists of laying of compacting

with water, tou


d
clean, crushed, graded aggregated and granular, premixed

t a dense mass on a prepared sub –grade/sub-

with the S
base or existing pavement as the case may be in accordance
requirements of these specifications. The material
shall be laid in one or more layer as necessary to line,
grades and cross-section shown on the approved drawings
or as directed by the engineer.

The thickness of a single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer


shall not be less than 75 mm. When vibrating or other
approved types of compacting equipment are used, the
compacted depth of a single layer of the sub-base course
may be increased to 200 mm upon approval of the engineer.

Materials:
Aggregates:
Physical requirements:
Coarse aggregates shall be crushed stone. If crushed
gravel/Shingle is used, not less than 90 percent by weight
of the gravel/Shingle pieces retained on 4.75 mm sieve shall
have at least two Fractured faces. The aggregates shall
conform to the physical requirement set forth in table 4
below.

Table 4 physical requirements of coarse


aggregate for wet mix macadam for sub-base
/base coarse:
m
S.NO. TEST TEST co
REQUIREMENTS
.
METHODa
m
1. Los Angles a
IS:2386 40%
Abrasion
yn(part 4)
d
Value Or
tu
IS:5640
Aggregate 30%
S Impact
Value.
Combined
2. IS:2386
Flakiness 30%
(part1)
Elongation
Test
Aggregate may satisfy requirements of either of the two
tests. To determine this combined portion, the flaky stone
from a representative sample should first be separate out.
Flakiness index is weight of flaky stone metal divided by
weight of stone sample. Only the elongated particles be
separated out from the remaining (non-flaky) stone metal.
Elongation index is weight of elongated particles divided by
total non-flaky particle. The value of flakiness index and
elongation index so found are added up.

If the water absorption value of the coarse aggregate is


greater than 2 percent, the soundness test shall be carried
out on the material delivered to site as par IS: 2386 (part-S).

GRADING REQUIREMENTS:
The aggregate shall conform to the grading given in
Table 5 m
co
.
a
TABLE 5. GRADING REQUIREMENTS OF
AGGREGATES FOR WETm MIX MACADAM:
a
yn
Is sieve designation % by weight passing the IS
d SIEVE
tu
S
53.00 mm 100
45.00 mm 95-100
26.50 mm -
22.40 mm 60-80
11.20 mm 40-60

4.75 mm 25-40
2.36 mm 15-30
600.00 micron 8-22
75.00 micron 0-8

Material finer than 425 micron shall have plasticity index


(PI) not exceeding 6.the final gradation approved within
these limits shall be well graded from coarse to find and
shall not very from the low limit on one sieve to high limit
on the adjacent sieve or vice versa..

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION :
Preparation of base: m
c o
.
a
The surface of the sub-base/ base to receive the mix wet mix
macadam coarse shall be prepared to the specific lines &
mof dust& other extraneous
cross falls (camber) & made free
a
yn
material.

PROVISION u OFdLATERAL CONFINEMENT OF


t :
S
AGGREGATES
While constructing wet mix macadam, arrangement shall be
made for the lateral confinement of wet mix. This shall be
done by laying material in adjoining shoulder along with
that of Wet Mix Macadam layer.

Preparation of mix:
Wet mix macadam shall be prepared in an approved mixing plant of
suitable capacity having provision for controlled addition of water
and forced! Positive mixing arrangement like pug mill or pan type mixer
of concrete batching plant.
Optimum moisture for mixing shall be determined in accordance with IS:
2720 (pait-8) after replacing the aggregate fraction retail 1ed on 22.4
mm sieve with material of 4.75 mm to 22.4 mm size. While adding water,
due to allowance should be made for evaporation losers. However, at
the time of compaction, water in the wet mix should not vary from the
optimum value by more than agreed limits. The mixed material’ should be
uniformly wet and no segregation should be permitted.

Spreading of mix:
Immediately after mixing, the aggregates shall be spread
uniformly and evenly upon the prepared sub-grade/sub-
base/base in required quantities. In no case these be laid
nor shall their hauling over a partly completed stretch be
permitted.

The mix may be spread either by a paver finisher or motor


grader.
m
c
For portions where mechanical means cannot o be used,
manual means are .
a
shall be capable For portionsm
approved by the: Engineer shell be used. The motor grade

a where mechanical means

y
uniformly all over the
n
cannot be used, manual means are spreading the material
surface. Its blade shall have
hydraulic controldsuitable for initial adjustments and
t usame so as to achieve the specified slope and
maintaining the
grade.
S
The power finisher shall be self-propelled, having the
following features:

(1) Loading hoppers and suitable distribution


mechanism.

(2) The screed shall tamping and vibrating arrangement


for initial compaction to the layer is it is spread
without rutting or otherwise marring the surface
profile.

(3) The paver shall be equipped with necessary control


mechanism so as to ensure that the finished surface
is free from surface blemishes.

COMPACTION: m
co
.
After the mix has been laid to the: required thickness, grade

a
and cross fall/ camber the same shall be uniformly
compacted, to the. Full depth with suitable roller. If the
m
a
thickness of single compacted layer does not exceed 100

yn
mm, a smooth wheel roller of 80 to 100kN weight may be
used. for a compacted single layer up to 200 mm, the
d
compaction shall be done with the help of vibratory roller

tu
of minimum static weight1 of 80 to 100kNor equivalent

S
capacity roller. The speed of the roller shall not exceed 5
km/hr.
In portions having unidirectional cross fall/ super
elevation, rolling shall commence form the lower edge and
progress gradually towards the upper edge. Thereafter,
roller should progress parallel to the centerline of the
road, uniformly over-lapping each preceding track by at
least one-third width until the entire surface has been
rolled.
Alternate trip of the roller shall be terminated at the
stops at least 1 m away from any preceding stop. I portion in
camber, rolling should begin at the edge with the roller
running forward and backward until the edges have been
firmly compacted. The roller shall than progress
gradually towards the center line of the road uniformly
overlapping each of the preceding track at least one-third
width until entire surface has been rolled.

Rolling shall be continued I till the density achieved is at


least 98% of the maximum dry density of the material as
determined by the method outlined in IS: 2720 (part 8).

SETTING AND DRYING:

m
After final compaction of wet mix macadam course, the road
shall be allowed to dry for 24 hours.
co
.
Opening to traffic a
m
a
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Preferably no vehicular traffic of any kind should be
allowed Dn the finished wet mix macadam surface till it has
d
dried and the wearing course laid.

tu
S
SURFACE FINISH AND QUALITY CONTROL
OF WORK SURFACE EVENNESS:
The surface finish of construction shall conform to the
requirements of heading 10.
QUALITY CONTROL:
Control on the quality of materials and work shall be
exercised by the engineer in accordance with heading 11.

MEASURMENT FOR PAYMENT:


Wet mix macadam shall measure as finished work in position
in cubic meters.

m
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S
PRIME COAT OVER GRANULAR BASE

SCOPE:
This work shall consist of the application of angle coat of
low viscosity liquid bituminous material to a porous
granular surface.

Preparatory to the superimposition of bituminous


treatment or mix.

MATERIALS:
m
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.
PRIMER: a
m shall depend upon the
a
the choice of the bituminous primer
n
porosity characteristic of the surface to be primed as
classified in Ire:16. y
d
These are
t u
S
1. Surface of low porosity, such as wet mix macadam and
water bound macadam.

2. Surface of medium porosity, such as cement stabilized


soil base.

3. Surface of high porosity, such as gravel base.

Primer viscosity:
The type and viscosity of the primer shall comply with
requirements of IS: 8887, as sampled and tested for
bituminous primer in accordance with these standards.
Guidance in viscosity and rate of spray is given in TABLE.

Table 6. viscosity requirements and


m
quantity of liquid o primer
bituminous
.c
a
Kinematic viscosity Quantity of liquid
Types of
of primer at
m bituminous material
a
60deg.C per 10 sq. m.
yn
surface
centistokes
d
tu
S
Low porosity 30-60 6 to9
medium

Porosity
70-140 9 to12

High porosity
250-500 12 to 15

Choice of primer:
The primer shall be bitumen emulsion, complying with of a
type and grade as specified in the contract or as directed by
the engineer. The use of medium curing cutback as per IS: 217
shall be restricted only for site at sub zero temperatures
or for emergency application as per directed by the
engineer.

Weather and seasonal limitations:


Bituminous primer shall not be applied to wet surface
during a dust storm or weather is foggy, rainy or windy or
when the temperature in shade is less than 10deg. C.
surface which are to receive emulsion primer should be
damp, but no force or standing water shall be present.

Construction: m
co
.
a
Equipment: m
a
yn
The primer distributor shall be self-propelled or towed

d
bitumen pressure sprayer equipped for spraying the

tu
material uniformly at the specified rates and temperatures.
Hand spraying of small areas, inaccessible to the
S
distributor, or in narrow strips shall be sprayed with a
pressure hand sprayer, or as directed by the engineer.

Curing of primer and opening to traffic:


A primed surface shall be allowed to cure for at least 24 hrs. or such
other period as is found to be necessary to allow all the volatiles
evaporate before any subsequent surface treatment or mix is laid. Any
unabsorbed primer shall first be blotted with an application of sand
using the minimum quantity as possible. A primed surface shall not be
opened to traffic or other than that necessary to lay the next course.
A very thin layer of clean sand may be applied to the surface of the
primer, to prevent primer of picking up under the wheels of the paver
and the trucks delivering bituminous material to the paver.
Quality control of work
For control of the quality of material supplied and the
work carried out, the relevant provision of heading 11
shall be applied.

Measurement of payment
Prime coat shall be measured in terms of surface area of
application in square meters.

m
co
.
a
m
a
yn
d
tu
S
TACK COAT

SCOPE:

This work consists of the application of a single coat of low


viscosity liquid bituminous material to an existing bituminous
road surface preparatory to the superimposition of
bituminous mix, when specified by the Contract or instructed
by the Engineer.

MATERIALS:
m
co
.
BINDER: a
The binder used for tack coatm
a shall be bitumen emulsion

Contract of a directed n
complying with IS: 8887 of a type and grade specified in the
y by the Engineer. The use of cutback
d
bitumen as per IS:217 shall be restricted only for sites sub-

t u or for emergency applications as


zero temperatures

S
directed by the Engineer.

WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMITATIONS


Bituminous material shall not be applied to a wet surface of
during a dust strom or when the weather is foggy, rainy or
windy or when the temperature in the shade is less than 10c.
Where the tack coat consists of emulsion, the surface
should be slightly damp, but not wet. Where the tack coat is
of cutback, the surface shall be dry.

CONSTRUCTION
EQUIPMENT
The tack coat distributor shall be self-propelled or towed
bitumen pressure sprayer, equipped for spraying the
material uniformly at a specified rate. Hand spraying of
small Areas, inaccessible to the distributor, of in narrow
strips, shall be sprayed with a pressure hand sprayer, or as directed by
the Engineer.

APPLICATION OF TACK COAT:

The application of tack coat shall be at the rate specified in


the Contract, and shall be applied uniformly. If rate of
application of tack coat is not specified in the Contract
then it shall be at the rate specified in Table 7. The normal
range of spraying temperature for a bituminous emulsion
m
o
shall be 20°C to 70°C and for a cutback, 50°C to 80°C if RC-
c
.
70/MC-70 is used. The method of application of the tack coat

a
will depend on the type of equipment to be used, size of
nozzles, pressure at spray bar, and speed of forward
m
a
movement. The Contract r shall demonstrate at a spraying

yn
trial, that the equipment and the method to be used is
capable of producing a uniform spray, within the
d
tolerances specified.

tu
S
TABLE 7 RATE OF APPLICATION OF TACK
COAT

TYPE OF SURFACES QUANTITY OF LIQUIDBITUMINOUS


MATERIAL INKG. PER SQ. M. AREA

(I) Normal bituminous surface 0.20 to 0.25


(ii) Dry and hungry bituminous 0.25 to 0.30
surface

(iii) Granular surfaces treated with 0.25 to 0.30


primer

(iv) Non Bituminous surfaces) 0.35 to 0.400.30 to 0.3


Granular base (not primed)b)
Cement concrete pavement

m
Where the material to receive an overlay is a freshly laid

co
bituminous dyer that has not been subjected to traffic of
.
contaminated by dust, a tack coat is not mandatory where
a
the overlay is completed with two days.
m
a
y n
CURING OF TACK
The coat shallu
d COAT:
t be left to cure until all the volatiles have

S
evaporated before any subsequent construction is started.
No plant of vehicles shall be allowed on the tack coat
other than those essential for the construction.

QUALITY CONTROL OF WORK


For control the quality of materials supplied and the works
carried out, the relevant provision of heading 11 shall
apply.

MEASUREMENT OF PAYMENT
Tack coat shall be measured in terms of surface area of
application in square meters.
DENSE GRADE BITUMINOUS MACADAM
SCOPE
This clause specifies the construction of Dense Grade
Bituminous Macadam, (DBM), for use mainly, but not
exclusively, in base/binder and profile corrective course.
DBM is also intended for use as road base material. This
work shall consist of construction in a single of multiple
layers of DBM on a previously prepared base of sub-base.
The thickness of a single layer shall be 50 mm to 100mm.

MATERIALS

BITUMEN:
m
o
The bitumen shall be paving bitumen of penetration Grade

. c
complying with Indian Standard Specifications for “Paving
Bitumen” IS: 73, and of the penetration indicated in Table 10
a
for Dense Bituminous Macadam, or a appropriate grade of
m
bitumen is given in the manual for construction and
a
Supervision of Bituminous Works.

yn
d
tu
S AGGREGATES:
COARSE
The coarse aggregates shall consist of crushed rock,
crushed grave! Or other hard material retained on the 2.36
mm sieve. They shall be clean, hard, durable, of cubical
shape, free from dust and soft or friable matter, organic of
other deleterious substances. Where the Contractor’s
selected sources of aggregates have poor affinity for
bitumen , as a condition for the approved anti-stripping
agent, as per the manufacturer’s recommendations, without
additional payment.
Before approval of the source, the aggregates shall be
tested for stripping. The aggregate shall satisfy the
physical requirements specified in Table 8, for dense
bituminous macadam.
Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate,
not less than 90% by weight of the crushed material
retained on the 4.75 mm sieve shall have a least two
fractured faces.

FINE AGGREGATES:
Fine aggregates shall consists of crushed or naturally
occurring mineral material, or a combination of the two,
passing the 2.36 mm sieve and retained on the 75 micron
sieve. They shall be dean, hard, durable, dry and free from
dust, and soft or friable matter, organic or other
deleterious matter.
The fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value of
not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the
requirement of IS:

m
2720 (Part 37). The plasticity index of the fraction passing

o
the 0.425 mm sieve shall not exceed 4. When tested in
c
accordance with IS: 2720 (Part 5)
.
a
m
TABLE 8. PHYSICALaREQUIREMENTS FOR
COARSE yn
d
t u
S
AGC REGA THE DENSE GRADE
BITUMINOUS MACADA
PROPERTY TEST SPECIFICATION

Cleanliness(dust) Grain size an analysis Max 5% passing


Flakiness and 0.075 mm sieve
Elongation Index Max 30%
(Combined)

Particle Shape Los Angles Abrasion max 35%


value
Strength Aggregate Impact Value Max 27%

Durability Soundness sodium Max 12%Max 18%


sulphate Magnesium

Water absorption Sulphate water Max 2%Max


Stripping Absorption Coatin and retained coating
Stripping of Bitumen 95%

Water Sensitivity Aggregate Mixtures Max 80%


Retained Tensile
Strength

FILLER:
Filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, hydrated lime
or cement approved by the Engineer. m
co
The filler shall be graded within the limits indicated in Table 9
.
a
m
TABLE 9. GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR
MINERAL a
yn
d
FILLER t
u
S
ISSIEVE(MM) CUMULATIVE PERCENT PASSINGBY WEIGHT OF TOTAL AGGREGATE

0.6 100

0.6 95-100

0.075 85-100

The filler shall be free from organic impurities and have a


plasticity Index not greater than 4. The Plasticity Index
requirement shall not apply if filler is cement or lime. When
the coarse aggregate is gravel, 2 percent by weight of total
aggregate, shall be Portland cement or hydrated lime and
the percentage of fine aggregate reduce accordingly,
Cement or hydrated lime is not required when the lime stone
aggregate is used where the aggregates fail to meet
requirements of the water sensitivity test in Table 8, then 2
percent by total weight of aggregate, of hydrated lime
shall be added without additional cost.

AGREGATE GRADING AND DINDER


CONTENT:
When tested in accordance with IS: 2386 Part 1 (wet sieving
method), the combined grading of the coarse and fine
aggregates and added filler for the particular mixture
shall fall within the limits shown in Table 10, for dense
bituminous macadam grading 1 of 2 as specified in the
contract. The type and quantity of bitumen, and appropriate

m
thickness, are also indicated for each mixture type.

co
.
MIXTURE DESIGN a
mMIXTURE:
REQUIRMENT FOR THE
a
yn
A Part from conformity with the grading and quality
requirements for individual ingredients, the mixture shall
d
meet the requirements set out in Table 11.
tu
Notes: 1. The normal maximum particle size is one size larger
S
than the first sieve to retain more than 10 percent.
2. Interpolate minimum voids in the mineral aggregate (YMA)
for design air voids values between listed.

BINDER CONTENT:
The binder content shall be optimized to achieve the
requirements of the mixture set out in Table: 11 and traffic
volume specified in the Contract. The Marshall method for
determining the optimum binger content shall be adopted as
described in The Asphalt Institute Manual Ms-2, replacing
the aggregates retained on the 22.4 mm sieve, where
approved by the Engineer.
Where 40 mm dense bituminous macadam mixture is specified,
the modified Marshall method described in MS-2 shall be
used. This method requires modified equipment and
procedures; particularly the minimum stability value in
Table 11 shall be multiplied by 2.25, and the minimum flow.
Shall be 3 mm.

JOB MIX FORMULA:


The Contractor shall inform the Engineer in writing, at
least 20 days before the start of the work, of the job mix
formula proposed for use in the works, and shall give the
following details:
Source and location of all materials;
Proportions of all materials expressed as follows where
each is applicable:

Binder type, and percentage by weight of total mixture;


Coarse aggregate/fine aggregate/mineral filler as’
percentage by weight of total aggregate: including mineral
filler; m
co
.
a
A single definite percentage passing each sieve Iv1 the mixed
aggregate;
m
a
yn
The individual grading of the individual aggregate
fractions, and the proportion of each in the combined
d
tu
grading.

S
The results of tests enumerated in Table 11 as obtained by
the Contractor.
Where the mixer is a batch mixer, the individual weights of
each type of aggregate, and binder per batch.

Test results of physical characteristics of aggregates to


be used;

Maxing temperature and compacting temperature.

While establishing the job mix formula, the contractor


shall ensure that it is based 011 a correct and truly
representative sample of the materials that will actually
re used in the work and that the mixture and its different
ingredients satisfy the physical and strength requirements
of these specifications. Approval for mix formula shall be
based on independent testing by the engineer for which
samples of all ingredients of the mix shall be furnished by
the Contractor as required by the Engineer. The approved
job mix formula shall remain effective unless and until a
revised job Mix Formula is approved. Should a charge in the
source of materials be proposed, a new job mix formula
shall be forwarded to the Engineer for approval before
the placing of the material.

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION
WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMTATIONS
m
o
Laying shall be done suspended while free-standing water is
c
.
present on the surface to be covered, or during rain, fog

a
and dust storms, After rain, the bituminous surface, Prime
of tack coat, shall be blown off with a high pressure air jet
m
a
to remove excess moisture, or the surface left to dry before

yn
laying shall start. Laying of bituminous mixtures shall not
be carried out when the air temperature at the surface on
d
which it is to be laid is below 100e or when the wind speed at

tu
any temperature exceed 40 km/h at 2m height unless

S
specifically approved by the Engineer.

PREPARATION OF BASE:
The surface to which the bituminous work is to be laid shall
be cleaned of all loose and extraneous matter by means of
a mechanical broom or any other approver equipment /
method as specified in the contract. The use of a high-
pressure air jet from a compressor to remove dust or loose
matter shall be available full time on the site. Unless
otherwise specified in the contract.

PRIME COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam
is to be laid is other than bitumen bound layer, a prime coat
shall be applied, as per specifications, of as directed by the
Engineer.

TACK COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam
is to be placed is bitumen bound surface, a tack coat shall
be applied, as per specifications, or as directed by the
Engineer.

SPREADING:
Except in areas where a mechanical paver cannot access,
bituminous materials shall be spread, levelled and tamped
by an approved self-propelled paving machine. As soon as
possible after arrival at site, the materials shall be
supplied continuously to the paver and laid without delay.
m
The rate of delivery of material to the paver shall be
o
regulated to enable the paver to operate continuously. The
c
.
travel rate of the paver: and its method of operations shall
a
be adjusted to ensure and even and uniform flow of

m
bituminous material across the screen, free from dragging,
a
tearing and segregation of the materials. In areas with

yn
restricted space where the mechanical paver cannot be
used, the material shall be spread, raked and levelled with
d
tu
suitable hand tools by experienced staff, and compacted to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.
S
The minimum thickness of material laid in each paver pass
shall be in accordance with the minimum values given in the
relevant of these Specifications. When laying blinder
course or wearing course approaching an expansion joint
of a structure, machine lying shall stop 300 mm short of the
joint. The remainder of the pavement up to the joint, and the
corresponding area beyond it, shall be laid by hand, and the
joint or joint cavity shall be kept clear 6f surfacing
materials.
Bituminous material, with a temperature greater than 145°C
shall not be laid or deposited on bridge deck waterproofing
systems, unless precautions against heat damage have been
approved by the Engineer.
ROLLING:
Bituminous materials shall be laid and compacted in layers
which enable the specified thickness, surface level,
surface regularity requirements and compaction to be
achieved.

Compaction of bituminous materials shall commence as soon


as possible after lying. Compaction shall be substantially
completed before the temperature falls below the minimum
rolling temperature started in the relevant part of these
specifications. Rolling of the longitudinal points shall be
done immediately behind the paving operation. After this,
rolling shall commence at the edges end progress toward
the centre portions; it shall progress from the lower to the
upper edge parallel to the centre line of the pavement.
Rolling shall continue until all roller marks have been
removed from the surface. All deficiencies in the paver
m
co
before initial rolling is commenced. The initial or
breakdown rolling shall be done with 8-10 tones dead
.
a
weight smooth-wheeled rollers. The intermediate rolling
shall be done with 8- 10 tones dead weight or vibratory
m
roller On with a pneumatic typed roller of 12 to 15 tonnes
a
yn
weight having nine wheels, with a tyre pressure of at least
5.6 kg/cm2 the finish rolling shall be done with 6 to 8
d
tonnes smooth wheeled tandem rollers.

tu
Bituminous materials shall be rolled in a longitudinal

S
direction, with the driven rolls nearest the paver. The
roller shall first compact material adjacent to joints and
then work from the lower to the upper side of the layer,
overlapping on successive passes by at least one-third of
the width of the near roll or, in the case of a pneumatic-
tried roller, at least the nominal width of 300 mm. In
portions with super-elevated and unidirectional camber,
after the edge has been rolled, the roller shall progress
from the lower to the upper edge.
Rollers should move at a speed of not more than 5 km per
hour. The roller shall not be permitted to stand on
pavement which has not been fully compacted, and
necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent dropping
of oil, grease, petrol or other foreign matter on the
pavement either when the rollers are operation or
standing. The wheels of rollers shall be taken moist with
water, and the spray system provided with the machine shall
be in good working order, to prevent the mixture from
adhering to the wheels only sufficient moisture to prevent
adhesions between the wheels of rollers and mixture
should be used. Surplus water shall not be allowed to
stand on the partially compacted pavement.

OPENING TO TRAFFIC
The newly laid surface shall not be open to traffic for at
least 24hrs after laying and complete on of compaction,
without the express approval of the Engineer in writing.

MEASUREMENT FOR PAYMENT


Dense Grade Bituminous Materials, shall be measured as
finished work either in cubic meters, tons or by the square
m
meter at a specified thickness as detailed an Contract
o
drawings, or documents, or as directed by the Engineer.
c
.
a
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE m
SCOPE a
This clause specifiesy
n
the construction of bituminous
concrete, for used in wearing and profile corrective
u shall consist of construction in a single
courses. Thistwork
S
or multiple layers of bituminous concrete on a previously
prepared bituminous bound surface. A single layer shall be
25 mm to 100 mm in thickness.

MATERIALS

BITUMEN:
The bitumen shall be paving of bitumen of penetration grade
complying with Indian Standard Specification for Paving
Bitumen, IS: 73 and of the penetration indicated in Table 15,
for bituminous concrete, or as otherwise specified in the
Contract. Guidance on the selection of an appropriate
grade of bitumen is given in The Manual for Construction
and Supervision of Bituminous Works.

COARSE AGGREGATES:
The coarse aggregates shall consist of crushed rock,
crushed gravel or other hard material retained on the 2.36
mm sieve. They shall be clean, hard, and durable, of cubical
shape, free from dust and soft or friable matter, organic or
other deleterious substances. Where the Contractor’s
selected source of aggregates have poor affinity for
bitumen, as a condition for the approval of that source the
bitumen shall be treated with an approved anti-stripping
agent, as per the manufacturer’s recommendations, without
additional payment.

m
Before approval of the source, the aggregates shall be

co
tested for stripping. The aggregates shall satisfy the
physical requirements specified in Table 13, for bituminous
.
a
concrete.

m
a
n
FINE AGGREGATES:
y
d
Fine aggregates shall consists of crushed or naturally

tu
occurring mineral material, of a combination of the two,
passing the 2.36 mm sieve and retained on the 75 micron
S
sieve. They shall be clean, hard, durable, dry and free from
dust, and soft or friable matter, organic or other
deleterious matter.
The fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value of
not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the
requirement of IS:
2720(Part 37).
The plasticity index of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm
sieve shall not exceed 4. When tested in accordance with IS:
2720 (part 5).

FILLER:
Filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as
rock dust, hydrated lime or cement approved by the
Engineer.
The filler shall be graded within the limits indicated in
Table 9. The filler shall be free from organic impurities and
have a Plasticity Index rot greater than 4. The plasticity
Index requirement shall not apply if filler is cement or lime.
When the coarse aggregate is gravel, 2 percent by weight
of total aggregate, shall be Portland cement or hydrated
lime and the percentage of fine aggregate reduce
accordingly. Cement or hydrated lime is not required when
the lime stone aggregate is used. Where the aggregates fail
to meet the requirements of the water sensitivity test in
Table 13, then 2 percent by total weight of aggregate, of
hydrated lime shall be added without additional cost.

AGGREGATE GRADING AND BINDER


CONTENT:
m
When tested in accordance with IS: 238C Part 1 (Wet

co
grading method), the combined grading of the coarse and
.
fine aggregates and adder filler shall fall within the limits
a
shown in Table 15 for grading 1 or 2 as specified in the
Contract. m
a
y n
d
MIXTURE DESIGN
t u
S
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MIXTURE:
Apart from conformity with the grading and quality
requirements for individual ingredients, he mixture shall
meet the requirements set out in Table 16.
The requirements for minimum in percent voids in mineral
aggregate (VMA) are set out in Table 12.

BINDER CONTENT:
The binder content shall be optimized to achieve the
requirements of the mixture set out in Table 16 and the
traffic volume as specified in the Contract. The Marshall
method for determining the optimum binder content shall be
adopted as described in the Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2,
replacing the aggregates retained on the 26.5 mm sieve and
retained on the 22.4 sieve, where approved by the Engineer.

JOB MIX FORMULA:


The Contractor shall inform the Engineer in writing, at
least 20 days before the star of the work, of the job mix
formula proposed for us, in the works, and shall give the
following details:
Source and location of all materials;
Proportions of all materials expressed as follows where
each is applicable:
Binder type, and percentage by weight of total mixture;
Coarse aggregate (fine aggregate/mineral filler as

m
percentage by weight of total aggregate including mineral
filler;
co
.
A single definite percentage passing each sieve for the
mixed aggregate;
a
The individual grading of the individual aggregate factions,
m
a
and the proportion of each in the combined grading.

yn
The results of tests enumerated in Table 16 as obtained by
the Contractor;
d
Where the mixer id a batch mixer, the individual weights of

tu
each type of aggregate, and binder per patch;

S
Test results of physical characteristics of aggregates to
be used;
Mixing temperature and compaction temperature.
While establishing the job mix formula, the contractor
shall ensure that it is based on a correct and truly
representative sample of the materials that will actually
be used in the work and that the mixture and its different
ingredients satisfy the physical and strength requirements
of these specifications Approval of the job mix formula
shall be based on independent testing by the engineer for
which samples of all ingredients of the mix shall be
furnished by the Contractor as required by a Engineer. The
approved job mix formula shall remain effective unless and
until a revised Job Mix Formula is approved. Should a charge
in the source of materials be proposed, a new job mix
formula shall be forwarded to the Engineer for approval
before the placing of the material.

TABLE 13. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR


COARSE AGGREGATE FOR BITUMIENOUS
CONCRETE PAVEMENT LAYERS

PROPERTY TEST TEST Cleanliness Grain Size


(dust) analysis
Particle Flakiness 0.075mm Strength Value
shape and sieve Max Aggregate
Elongatio 30% Impact
n Index Caules
Los Polished

m
Angeles Stone

o
Abrasion
Polishing
Durability
Value
Soundness
Max
30%Max . c
Water
absorptio
Coation
and
Sodium a
24%Max n Stripping
Sulphate
m
55% Stripping of Bitumen
Magnesium
a Water Aggregate

yn
Sulphate Sensitivity Mixture
Water Retained
d
absorptio Tensile

tu
n Strength

S
CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS:
WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMITATIONS:
Lying shall be done suspended while free-standing water IS
present on the surface to be covered, or during rain, fog
and dust storms. After rain the bituminous surface, prime of
tack coat shall be blown off with a high pressure air jet to
remove excess moisture of the surface left to dry before
lying shall start.
Laying of bituminous mixture shall not be carried out when
the air temperature at the surface on which it is to be laid is
below 10 c or when the wind speed at any temperature
exceeds 40 km/h at 2 m height unless specifically approved
by the Engineer.

PREPARATION OF BASE:
The surface to which the bituminous work is to be laid shall
be cleaned of all loose and extraneous matter by means of
a mechanical broom or any other approved equipment /
method as specified in the contract. The use of a high-
pressure air jet jorum a compressor to remove dust or
loose matter shall be available full time on the site, unless
otherwise specified in the contract.

TACK COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam
is to Be placed is bitumen bound surface, a tack coat shall

m
be applied as per specifications, or as directed by the
Engineer.
co
.
a
MIXING AND TRANSPROTING m OF THE
MIXTURE: a
Pre-mixed bituminousy
n
concrete shall be prepared in a hot mix
plant of adequate dcapacity and capable of yielding a mix of
t u quality with thoroughly coated
proper and uniform
S
aggregates. Appropriate mixing temperatures can be found
in Table 14 of these specifications; the difference in
temperature between the binder and aggregate should at
no time exceed 14°C. In order to ensure uniform quality of
the mix and better coating of aggregates, the hot mix plant
shall be calibrated from time to time.

TABLE MANUFACTURING AND ROLLING


TEMPRATURES

BITUMEN BITUME AGGREAGAT MIXEDMATE© ROLING© LAYING©


PENETRAT MIXING© MIXING©

35 160-170 160-175 170 100 130


min min

65 150-165 150-170 165 90 min 125


min

90 140-160 140-165 155 80 min 115


min

Bituminous materials shall be transported in clean


insulated vehicles, I and unless otherwise agreed by the
Engineer, shall be covered while in transit or awaiting
tipping. Subject to the approval of the Engineer, a thin
coation of diesel of lubrication oil may be applied to the
interior of the vehicle to prevent sticking and to facilitate
discharge of the material. m
c o
TABLE 15. COMPOSION OF . BITUMINOUS
CONCRETE a
m
a
y n
d
PAVEMENT LAYERS
t u
S
GRADING 1 2
NOMINALAGGREGATE 19MM 13MM
SIZE
LAYER THICKNESS 50-65 MM 35-45
MM
IS SIEVE(MM) COMMULATIVE % BY WEIGHT OF
TOTAL AGGREGATE POASSING

45 - -

37.5 - -
26.5 100 -

19 79-100 100

13.2 59-79 79-100

9.5 52-72 79-88

4.75 35-55 53-71

2.36 28-44 42-58

1.18 20-34 34-48

0.6 15-27 26-38

0.3 13-20 18-28

0.15 13-14 13-20

m
co
SPREADING: .
a
Except in areas where a mechanical paver cannot access,
m
bituminous materials shall be spread, levelled and tamped
a
yn
by a n approved self-propelled paving machine. As soon as
possible after arrived at site, the materials shall be
d
supplied continuously to the paver and laid without delay.

tu
The rate of delivery of Material to the paver shall be

S
regulated to enable the paver to operate continuously. The
travel rate of the paver and its method of operations shall
be adjusted to ensure an even and uniform flow of
bituminous material across the screed free from dragging,
tearing and segregation of the materials. In areas with
restricted space where the mechanical paver cannot, be
used, the material shall be spread, raked and levelled with
suitable hand tools by experienced staff and compacted to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The minimum thickness of Material laid in each paver pass
shall be in accordance with the minimum values given in the
relevant parts of these Specifications. When laying binder
course of wearing course approaching an expansion joint of
a structure, machine lying shall stop 300 m short of the
joint. The remainder of the pavement up to the joint, and the
corresponding area beyond it, shall be laid by hand, and the
joint of joining cavity shall be kept clear of surfacing
materials.
Bituminous material, with a temperature greater than
145°C, shall not be laid or deposited on bridge deck
waterproofing systems, unless precautions against heat
damage have been approved by the Engineer.

ROLLING:
Bituminous materials shall be laid and compacted in layers
which enable the specified thickness, surface level,
regularity requirements and compaction to be achieved.
Compaction of bituminous materials shall commerce as soon
as possible after laying. Compaction shall be substantially

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completed before the temperature falls below the minimum

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rolling temperature started in the relevant part of these
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specifications. Rolling of the longitudinal joints shall be

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done immediately behind the paving operation. After this,
rolling shall commence at the edges and progress towards
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the centre longitudinally except that on super elevated

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and unidirectional cambered portions, it shall progress
from the lower to the upper edge parallel to the centre
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line of the pavement. Rolling shall continue until all

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roller marks have been removed from the surface. All

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deficiencies in the surface after lying shall be made good by
the attendants behind the paver, before initial rolling is
commenced. The initial of breakdown rolling shall be done
with 8-10 tones dead weight smooth-wheeled rollers. The
intermediate rolling shall be done with 8-10 tones dead
weight cr vibratory roller or with a pneumatic type roller
of 12 to15 tones weight having nine wheels, with a tyre
pressure of at least 506 kg/sq.cm. The finish rolling shall
be done with 6 to 8 tonnes smooth wheeled tandem rollers.
Bituminous materials shall be rolled in a longitudinal
direction, with the driven rolls nearest the paver. The
roller shall first compact material adjacent to joints and
then work from the lower to the upper side of the layer,
overlapping on successive passes by at least one-third of
the width of the rear roll or, in the case of a pneumatic-
tried roller, at least the nominal width of 300 mm.
In portions with super-elevated and uni-directional camber,
after the edge; has been rolled, the roller shall progress
from the lower to the upper edge.
Rollers should move at a speed of not more than 5 km per
hour. The roller shall not be permitted to stand on
pavement which has not been fully compacted, and
necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent dropping
of oil, grease, petrol of other foreign matter on the
pavement either when the rollers are operating of
standing. The wheels of rollers shall be taken moist with
water, and the spray system provided with the machine shall
be in good working order, to prevent the mixture from
adhering to the wheels. Only sufficient moisture to prevent
adhesion between the wheels of rollers and the mixture
should be used. Surplus water shall not be allowed to
stand on the partially compacted pavement.
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OPENING TO TRAFFIC
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The newly laid surface should not be .
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open to traffic for at
least 24 hours after laying and completion of compaction,
without the express approvalm of the Engineer in wirting.
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SURFACE FINISH d AND QUALITY CONTROL
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The surface finish of the completed construction shall

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conform to the requirements of heading 10. All materials
and workmanship
in heading 11 of this specification.

MEASUREMENT OF PAYMENT
Dense Grade Bituminous M.1 trials, shall be measured as
finished work either in cubic meters, tons or by the square
meter at a specified thick ness as detailed the Contract
drawings, or documents, or as directed by the Engineer.
METHODOLOGY OF PQC.
SCOPE:
The work shall consist of construction of un-reinforced,
dowel jointed plain cement concrete pavements in
accordance with the requirements of MOST specification
and in conformity with the lines grades and cross sections
as shown on the approved drawings. The work shall include
furnishing of all plant and equipment, materials and labour
as directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS:

CEMENT:
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Ordinary part land cement 43 grade confirming IS: 8112.
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ADMIXTURES: m
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Admixtures used conforming to IS: 9625 and IS: 9103.
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COARSE
The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm. the coarse
aggregate complying with IS: 383

FINE AGGREGATE:
As approved in mix design confirm to IS: 383.

WATER:
It shall meet the requirement as stipulated in IS: 456.
MACHINERY USED IN
CONSTRUCTION

LIST OF PLANT & MACHINERY


DEVELOPED AT SITE:

• WMM Mixing plant


• Tailor
• Stone Crusher unit 100TPH
• Tipper (6/8) m
• GSB Crusher unit 100 TPH
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• Tipper (14cum) .
• Weight Bridge a
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Tractor
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• Concrete Batching Plant
• Plate Compactor
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• Transit Mixer
• Concrete Mixer
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Motor Grader
• Generator set 250KVA
• Front end loader
• Generator set 180KVA
• Generator set 125KVA
• Generator set 100KVA
• Generator set 22KVA
• Generator set 17.5KVA
• Generator set 5KVA
• Excavator
• J.C.B
• Soil Compactor
• Sensor Pavers
• WMM Pavers
• Vibratory Tandem Roller
• Static Roller
• Hydra
• Air Compressor
• Needle Vibrator
• Water Pump
• Bitumen Spryer
• Welding set with Generator 8KVA
• Mechanical Boomer
• Vehicles
• Water Tanks

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SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

1. Civil engineer should perform the work at their


level best so that it will give better result and
improve the production of the company.
2. Infrastructure of Civil Contractor Cell should be
more developed for giving the contract to the best
contractor.
3. Welfare facilities should be increase in for civil
engineers of Construction Company.
4. For the safety of civil engineers at the
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construction, company should give the best
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equipments of safety to the civil.engineers.
a should be improved
5. The hostel facility and amenities
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so that the civil engineers
efficiency.
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d are advised to do their work in
6. The civil engineers
tudo it bulk which create adverse
slot as they
S for example the road was dug during the
problems
rainy season in one flow which resulted in heavy
loss of material, money and machinery of the
company. The work should have been done in small
phases and according to the circumstances. The
clipping can be seen on the next page as to how
destruction was made during the time when I was
undergoing my training.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. I.S. specification book on highway.
2. Highway material testing book by
3. S.K.Khanna, C.E.G Justo.
4. Organization’s Laboratory.
5. Organization’s Engineers.

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