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1)It is one of the core principles.Emphasized by all the classical thinkers.In 1900 while Weber
identified it with bureaucracy, Fayol included it in formal organization. Fayol referred it as G 
 . Urwick, Mooney, and Reiley and called it ¶   ..It is derieved from Greek term for
ruling structure of religious organizations. ²?
º !Ñ It   "  #! $" % ² pyramidical organisation ² wherein
¶  & "!! #'"  !" ! #'" "..Scalar is derieved
from the word scale.It may expand vertically if positions are increased( addition of Top, Middle level
management and supervidion.) and horizontally if functions are added.?
( #" Ñ?
)"* - Universal application of superior-subordinate relationship.?
 Ñ It is universal phenomenon?
UrwickÑ Every organization must have a scalar chain just as every house must have its drain?
"* - Three principles ² gearing of different individuals.?
(i) Through proper channel?
(ii) authority and responsibility to be equaled?
(iii) Unity of command.?

Ñ Both in simple and complex division of labour means Hierarchy?


c' * It is means by which resources are appropriated, personnel selected and assigned
duties.?
+c"Ñ Here every employee tends to raise above his level of incompetence.?
  " " Ñ (i) Grades system of control in which personnel are distinguishable on the basis
of position (ii) Authority is divided into units and subunits (iii) Pyramidical because fewer control
the larger number resulting gradual reduction of personnel at the top level v) Entire task segregated
into identifiable authority called Departments which remain closed to outside systems but converge
finally to the Chief Executive·s authority. v) Flow of authority command and control are from top to
bottom and responsibility and obedience are from bottom to top. vi) Entire system works on the
principle of through proper Channelµ?
   "' Ñ?
i) Order from Higher to lower and not vice versa. ii) No skipping on intermediate bu higher or lower
and vice versa iii) Authority and responsibility commensurative with each other iv) Filter and
Funnel system v) Improves efficiency of Executive branch in Admiistrative behaviour.?
Î  '" ##"$ *?
,   "  #'" "   "Ñ Pyramidical blocks balance it as
authority without responsibility is dangerous and responsibility with authority is meaningless.?
(ii  "c"  " #  "" Ñ Superior subordinate relationship leads
to it. Responsibilities are fixed and there will be no shortcut.?
.?
(iii) Weber favoured it as it ensured ""-" .## and had provision of appeal.
But R.K. Merton and Selznick exposed dysfunctional aspects.?
!"$" " */ 0' "'"  #'" "- most at high and vacumn at
lower level. Hence subordinate denied innovative thinking?
 c"ÑDue to gradation and authority, it gives priority to rank over talents.This was
peter principle given by J.Peter and Raymond Hallµmanagers tend to be promoted to the level of
incompetenceµ?
 ! *!    ' " "'"'"    " %"
!-" 
1 $"! * (i) Instrument of organizational integration- Mooney called it as universal because it
integrate various broken up parts of organization due to division of work into one unit. It is the
thread by which separate parts are sewen together. (ii) Channel of communication through chain of
command?
(iii) Responsibility at each level?
(iv) Avoiding Short circuiting by ensuring proper route?
(v) congestion prevention at top level?
(vi) Decentralization of decision-making?
(vii) facilitates delegation (viii) Procedures simplified?
(ix) coordination (x) discipline?
  $"! *2(i) Delay it is primary disadvantage.(ii) Discourages lower level in work ,
innovation descision making. (iii) Rigidity (iv) tall organization (v) Superior ² subordinate
relationship(vi) Creation of Caste system?
*  ""$    Ñ?
, 
! It is communication channel with an employee of the same level. It is horizontal
communication. It is called level jumping and he can communicate with the permission of superior.?
  " *File Jumping Experiment in Secretariat- Officers skipped may be informed of
the action taken or propsed -after orbefore.
, 
""-" # ! "  Ñ Applicable to countries with rapidly
advancing towards higher technology . his is structure created within formal hierarchy through
greater decentralization and division of authority.Example ² construction of Dam. This structure
presents a fan like appearance but it would not work out in general routine administration.?
¦ ##Ñ Structuralists focused on efficiency but behavioralists insisted on
non structural factors such as organization environment etc,. From 1950 various studies were
conducted on efficiency in Hiearchy and following results were found.?
, /¦Î 2+ % " & ' ÑOrganisations which are flat or less hiearchial
tend to encourage managerical development and employee·s morale.?
, /¦1º2"-+"*While working in an organization with 700 Scientists, hiearachy
was insignificant as job satisfaction was dependent upon development of technical ability.?
 /¦1 23" 2c "%Ñ Useful in organizations with 500 or more but if
below 5000, less structure enabled norale and efficiency.smaller organizations the efficiency is
dependent on reward to work.?
$ /¦12- 4 '- *Hiearchy work best if employees have learnt work properly.?
?
$ /¦1*2 $ Ñ Strike, absentism, accidents more in tall hierarchies. Flat or medium
organizations worked best.?
/  "3"*Manabi majumdarin ´ Hieararchy and Decision making in Organisation talked
of Case Study made under IIPa about File system in West Bengal and exposed how routine
decisions taken at botton simply goes to higher without any contribution.
 4  ?
!Ñ?
Employee should receive orders from superior only ² single boss ² mono-command. the principle
has two faces 9i0 A single determinate person to issue order (ii) The order should not be conflicting
to confuse them. Normally followed in Military.?
2)#"  *?
(   ² employee should receive orders from one superior only.?
(ii)c#c "' Ñ Every member should report to one and only one leader.?
(iii) GullickÑ The significance of the principle is effective coordination.?
iv) WilloughyÑ it correlates several operational into an highly integrated unit.?
4) AdvantagesÑ I) Absence of conflict ii) effective supervision iii) clear fixation of responsibility. ivI
consistent with scalar principle v)) Effective control vi) leads to effective communication vii) ensures
accountability.?
(  !'"# Ñ - Henry Fayol ² strong advocate ² he said if it is violated, then there will be
jeopardy, Gullick and Urwick also supported at it ² a man cannot serve two masters and
administrative units in the government headed by single administration.?
b) Fayol said following factors result in dual command (i) Dviding up authority between two
members ii) Imperfect demarcation of Departments (iii) Constant linking up between departments
and badly defines duties?
  !'" ! "Ñ?
(i)Secklet-Hudson ² Millet ² Herbert Simon ² etc. were against it. Seckler-Hudson talks about one
person has to receive four orders- policy order personnel, budget, supplies and equipments.Hence
he saidµ One single bos is seldom found in modern organizations. Hence he advocated multiplicity
of command.?
(ii) Millet Advocate ¶Dual supervision ² technical and administrative.?
(iii) simon opposed it in proverbs of Administration and said it was introduced under the pretext of
enhancing orgaisational efficiency.?
Î   !-" Following have undermined the importance of concept.?
1. Adoption of plural headed bodies like ¶boards· and ¶commissions·?
2. Increase of specialists 3) Accounting and Technical Departments.?
6) "' can be understood from community Development Programmes in Panchayats at
Block level and now under Collector.?
7) Integration Versus DisintegrationÑ Constittution integrates various uits uder one single Executive
head. But Acts and Executive orders disintegrate them through delegation. But India has more
integrated form but America has more disintegrated form with seperation of powers, checks and
balances and IRC?
?
8) Area administration under district Administration and Functional Administration of specialists.?
c   ?
1)!.?
Number of subordinates or the units of work that an officer can personally direct, control and
supervise also known as ´Span of Supervisionµ or Span of Management.It was termed as Span of
Attention by Gracuinas. Span is the length between the thumb and the little finger.Symbolically it
refers to one·s hold over something. ?
2)†%  "" ?
1. Hamilton 3 to 4 in his Soul and Body of an Army. 2.Graicunus 5 to 6?
3. Urwick 5 to 6 at Higher 8 to 12 on lower 4. Haldane 10 to 12?
3)
'identified three factors which determine it (i) Function-technical less span- Time and
Space.?
4) "  "!?
  '"  - more when the work is easy, routine, mechanical, and homogenous difficult if
opposite.?
  * Age of the organisation ² more in old organization?
  ² Work spot ² if under the same roof more. Distinction between ´Direct supervisionµ and
access made by Urwick.?
d c " It is competence of supervisor as well as supervised. More if a supervisor is
intelligent energetic and tactful ² If subordinate are trained and experienced?
e) following also are relevant #"  .?
1.Delegation of authority?
2. Tradition and environments of the organisation?
3. Techniques of supervision.?
5) #  %!#"  $!"" " ?
Automation and Mechanization in Administration (ii) MIS including computers. (iii) Increasing
number and role of the specialists.They are experts and do not require general control (ii) They act
as advisors as staff and near to top iii) They dislike vertical relationship.(iv0 They consider each
individual has got his own right.Hence presently the span has increased in general and virtually no
for specialists.?
1 " * However Mason Haire in his Book Modern organization theory 1959 called the
principles as just plain silly- Woodward-increasingly complex phenomenon. ?
 
'  'ÑRelationships in Organisations-1933?
(i) Direct ! "  - increases by the same number if added?
)ii) Direct Group Relationship-Increases to 9, 27 etc,.?
(iii) Cross Relationship- Increases to six. ?
?
8) Report on Committee on Administration 1972 has identified larger span in 7 areas?
a) Qualities of superior (ii) Subordinate (iii) nature of work (iv) Same roof (v) Effective
communication (vi) Well planned work (vii) Utilising staff assistance.?
?
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   4  c 4
 *c?
Authority signifies hold over knowledge, skill or position. First two are expert. The role of
authority is like soul to the body. Administrators do not actually perform duty directly but they get
things done. !"" !""! done is called authority. Authority is ! !"#' %.
!""   " ". In formal organization it is vested with job position and not to the
person. Hence it is a bureaucratic concept. Organisations where authority and responsibility are
clearly defined are good and less corrupt and hence termed asÑ Two Pillars on which organization is
sustained.?
º#"  *?
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, ???Fayol*" !"" !$   %" 3" 
(b)???   Ñ Rightful legal power to ask a subordinate to do and if not done to take
action.?
(c) Ñ Superior- subordinate relationships.It is power to make decisions.?
(d) Ñ Sums of powers and rights to make possible the performance.?
(e)    called it as supreme coordinating power that provides legitimacy to the
organizational structure.?
(f) å " Ñ Key to management job.?
(" " *?
(a)Existence of right (b) legitimate (c) exercised by making decisions and to carry out(d) to control
the negative aspects of behaviour (e) It is also determined by the personality factors of the
possessor.?
 c % '" "*Authority is institutionalized right of a superior to command and compel
his subordinate to perform a certain act. Power is ability of a person to influence another person to
perform an act. Power is competent to do an act and authority right to order action by others.
Examples of P.M. and Mahatma. Authority is right to command but power is capacity to command.?
(ii) Power is ability to make things happen- Follet?
(b) Power in democratic society requires control and greater the power greater should be the
control³L.D. White?
c) Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely- Lord Acton?
d) Pfinner and SherwoodÑPower is Capacity to secure domination over one·s values and authority is
capacity to command?
Î '  # '" "*?
   " '" " theoryÑ Constitution- power being transmitted from institution to
administrator.Gullick, Urwick, Mooney, Weber supported it.?
 "" Ñ Given by Chester Bernard as 5  ###  %  
 # "   #  %! ,  "!" ,     " ,   "" ,$ 
 " Simon called it 5  # "-if stressed disobedience will follow.?
  ""  * It is generated by personal qualities of technical competence.?
1  Ñ (i) Line ²direct contact through related chain (ii) StaffÑ Merely advisory (iii) Functional-
Midway between two- putting staff specialists in top position and giving him limited powers.?
(b) "-  ² Coercive authority 2. Normative authority 3.Utilitarian Authority also known as
reward authority. Also mention about Weber .?
 '"     * Herbert SimonÑ (i) It enforces    " of the individual to those who
wield authority (ii) It secures 3"   !(iii) It permits centralization of decision
making and  "!of activity. ?
8. There are " ' of authority.Legal 2. Traditional 3. Delegation. Max Weber also pointed
it as legal, charismatic and rational.?
¦  # ". She profounded the theory of ´law of the situationµ- one should not give orders
but both should agree to take orders from the situation. Power is ability to make things- power over
and powerwith.?
10. According to ". authority has to discharge #'"  in four areas.?
1. Programme authority 2. Organisational Authority 3. Budgetary authority 4. Personnel authority.
In Bureau type there is single authority. ?
Etzioni ² Coercive authority 2. Normative authority 3.Utilitarian Authority also known as reward
authority.?
/º) "'" "6?
(i)Habitually conditioned (ii) Get rewards for acceptance (iii) Fear punishments if not obeyed (iv) it
takes away their accountability (v) Believe that authority is on superior knowledge and competence?
/("  # '" "*(1) Codes laws 2) social, ethical and political limitations (3)Only exercise
functions within his jurisdiction (4) Collective bargaining (5) Biological constraints.?
14)    ""'!  0' # '" "?
"  !" " #  !'"  It denotes an obligation of an individual to carry out
his duties. It is different from authority.?
(a)????????Authority can be delegated wherein responsibility cannot be delegated. (b) Further
authority flows downwards while the other is to superiors.(c) Authority has longer life and
responsibility is shorter?
15.T (i) "!    " which can be delegated (ii) and '""
   " which cannot be delegated. According to Fayol both authority and responsibility are
inter related in administrative process, responsibility is of three kinds (1) Political responsibility 2.
Institutional responsibility 3. Professional responsibility or ethical responsibility.?
/1  '" "    "* Complimentary and supplementary (ii) Two sides of a coin (iii)
Interdependent . Hence following conclusions can be arrived at.i)Both should be coequal ii) No
authority to be used without responsibility (Terry) iii) Authority signifies sanction against
subordinate but responsibility limits frequent use and it regulates authority to a certain
extent. Principle of Correspondence?
/ c #     (Urwick) No authority without responsibility and vice versa and
they are interdependent, coterminous and coequal..?
18)   2c"" Ñ Now it is felt that there is no use and no belief in authority but
teamwork is stressed. It can be achieved through participation.?
, #" */ c  "",  # % ## " ,  # $'
 " ,$ '"' ""' ",$ " ! "$" ,$ !! # #
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It is an essential part and essence of administration and # "  # !-" 
 First principle means it expresses organization in toto- nothing less. It means all
principles are contained under coordination. According to him it has both positive and negative. It
brings cooperation, teamwork, remove organizational conflicts, bring personnel closer which
are positive. It removes conflicts, inconsistencies, and friction, overlapping and working at cross-
purposes which are negative.POSDCORB, Fayl have also stressed it.?
º ! Ñ It is the process of bringing about unity and harmony of functioning among the
diverse elements and sub systems of an organization.?
(#"  *?
,  * Orderly arrangement of group effort in pursuit of common purpose?
(ii) * Smooth interplay functions. However !-"   are dangerous.?
(iii) Ñ Executive develops an orderly pattern and secures unity of action.?
(iv) %* Orderly synchronization of efforts?
(v )"* Causing disjunct elements to concentrate on complex of forces?
($  % "Ñ Orderly arrangement of group effort.?
(vii) TerryÑ Adjustment of the parts of each other and of the movement and operation of parts?
  "' *?
,/   ""$"$",º " #    ' "## "  ""  "
$ ,( !" #! '## " ,    ''" #" " % 
   7"$,Î "  "' '   ! !  ,1 "   "  " 
!  !-"    " # "$## " 
Î  ""  "%  " Ñ Cooperation denotes the collective efforts by the persons
working in the organization voluntarily for accomplishing a particular purpose. It is willingness to
help each other. Coordination is more than it as it made by executive to achieve the common
purpose of goals of organization.?
1  ?
"  3" ² Internal coordination with individual activities of persons which is also
known as #'" . External coordination is co-ordination with other organization. It
is "'"'?
,  - "  c'  †"*Vertical when Head coordinate with subordinates
and it is horizontal or sideways..?
, c '  ' ""$. ²It is specification of organization itself that is generalized
description of the behaviours; substantive is concerned with content of the organizational activities.?
7.  "?
1) Avoid conflicts and duplication ² ensures economy 2. Curtail employees attachment for too much
significance to their own work. 3. Prevent empire-building 4. Check the narrow perspective of
specialists and meet the requirement of organization.5. Chanelisation of group efforts (6) Unity in
diversity (7) Harmonisation of goals (8) Congruency of flows?
8. 0' ?
1. Planning 2. Organisational devices 3. Standardization of procedures 4. Development of
institutional spirit among the employees 5. Consultations 6. Organizational hierarchy 7. Centralized
² house keeping and verbal and written communication. Further there are informal means like
personal contacts, dinners, cocktail parties, party system etc.,?
9..  " "'" .?
1) M.P. Follet·s 4 principles given under Dynamic Administration 1941?
2. According to Gulick organization and dominance of an idea are to primary ways for achieving co-
ordination. ?
3. According to Thompson there are three kinds of inter dependencies, Pooled inter dependencies ²
various fairly autonomous units?
2. Sequential interdependence inter dependence output /input 3. Reciprocal inter dependence.?
$ 8"  " µ suggests deliberate planning to create conflicts.?
10) "#"   # !-" Ñ?
 
$ * (i) Familiarity with work (ii) Informal acquaintance (iii) Physical proximity (iv) Specific
Objective (v) Desirability of limited number of participants.?
  '* 1) personnel ii) Committes and Conferences iii) Instructions iv) Reports and
returns v) training vi) Policy .Cooperation is the consequence of coordination.?
  Ñ a) Clarifing authority and ResponsibilityÑ Reduce overlapping and duplication?
b) Checking and ObservationÑ Factual activity and desired activity?
c) Facilitating effective communicationÑ Use of committees and Dgroup decision making d)
Coordination through leadership?
11 "  *1. Uncertainty of the future behaviour of individual 2. Lack of technical
knowledge 3. Lack of administrative skills 4. The vast number of variables involved 5.Lack of
proper methods for developing programmes. 6. Enormous growth in size 7. Poor planning 8.
Lack of leadership quality among the superiors. 9. Size of the organization- smaller are well
coordinated. 10) Unclear policies 11) political Interference 12) Distance from headquarter 13)
Big Budget.?
/º † '  "! ! * Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister·s office, Central
Secretariat, Planning Commission and NDC, Inter Departmental Committes. Regional Councils,
Staff Agencies like O& M , Central Purchasing Agency etc,. ?
/(   "   $ "  "" * Failure of First plan due to lack of
coordination (ii) Review Committee Report 1985 suggested improvement in both vertical and
horizontal coordination (iii) Seventh Plan created DRDA as a coordinating Agency (iv) Eighth plan
made a major change and enabled people·s participation. It went a step ahead and suggested and
´Integrated Area development Approach.µ?
(b)Eight Plan realized need for the following requirements in coordination?
(i) Involved of beneficiaries (ii) Involvement of voluntary agencies (iii) Supervision by local bodies (iv)
Flexibility at the local level (v)Proper training (vi) Monitoring (vii) Improved delivery systems.?
?
     
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These concepts are used to denote the Administrative or Management authority within an
organization. Centralisation is concentration of authority in one place while the other is greater
dispersion of authority. Centralisation incline towards  %   " ; the other inclines
towards  ""  #2"" . Centralisation is also overload apex of the pyramid;?
º#" ?
, )"* Transfer of authority from lower to higher level is Centralisation.?
,   *Everything which increase important of sub-ordinates is Decentralisation.?
,  *It is systematic and consistent reservation of authority at Centre?
(" " 2, "  ?
(i) Reservation of decision-making power like planning, coordinating, control at top level. (ii)
Reservation of operating authority with middle level.?
(iii)Operations at lower level?
     # 'Ñ "   '$" " " ?
,  c " "  * I) lack of confidence over subordinate (ii) Lack of skill of subordinate (iii)
Insecure personality of the Chief Executive?
,  c " "  Ñ (i) colonial legacy (ii) Nation·s development (iii) Urban Bias (iv) Defence
activities?
>   "  * I) Big Budget (ii) Foreign Aid (iii) Control over social security spending.?
 %$."%' #'  !-"   &! ! "  " "
' &  "   3" '" % % ""/¦( $
   /¦ ¦$ '!! ""-" 
Î $"!  #" " ?
(i) Uniformity in functioning (ii) Clarity about source of decisions?
(iii) Effectiveness of top administration (iv) Broader perspectives?
(v) Benefits of Natural leadership?
1""    $"! ' ?
(i) Middle and lower levels are without authority. (ii) Abuse of power.?
(iii) Heavy workload. (iv) Rigid Bureaucratic structure?
(v) Weak communication system (vi) Impediment to organizational growth?
  "3"ÑCentralised Planning, Defence, and Development aspects require centralization
and political demand and democratic participation of people indicate decentralization.Community
Development Programme and committee of Albert Mayer thrusted paranoid chief executive
imposing enforcement over unwilling subordinates.?
" " ?
/ " #$ " ,   % " "   "" ,  ""$ 
, !  # " "  ""0' " " 3,  ""$ , 
' %" "$  ,c " ,$   " #'" ,
 ! ,$ 
'" '"  "   " , '"  
 ? " " ? " " ?
1? Greater decision at top-Falser? At Middle.?
2.? Responsibility at top? At Middle?
3.? Hqrs issue orders? Hqrs supply leadership?
4.? Lower Personnel have no initiative? More Initiative?
    #" " ?
( c ""-"  ² federal ² provinces ² municipal - ?
, " "-" *Districts, Taluks etc?
,  '" "-" *Certain powers in the specialized units are given ² UGC, Central
Social Welfare Board etc.?
(iv) Horizontal and VerticalÑ (i) and (ii) are vertical and (iii) horizontal?
 '$ "  "/¦¦( ! #  %!("  #$"
"-" 
,  "" Ñ First stage- simply passing some duties as chief is overloaded.?
( !" Ñ Specific task assigned for accomplishment with powers defined clearly.?
>$ '" Ñ It is complete decentralization.?
Hence it concluded that most of the third world countries have adopted deconcentration and hence
have not achieved results which was termed as Fesler as (' " " µ . Those who
have adopted delegation and devolution have produced good results.?
Î   According to James W. Fesler there are 4 approaches.?
(i)Doctrinal approach ² It is an end and not means?
(ii)Political approach (iii) Administrative Approach (iv)Dual approach?
1"  #" " ?
(i) Relieves higher executives (ii) Motivate subordinates?
(iii) Increases effectiveness of big organizations (iv) Quick decisions?
(v) Executive development (vi) Efficient supervision and control?
(vii) Reduces strain on organization communication system(viii) Accountability possible (ix) Reduces
policy implementation expenditure x) Modern contextÑ Right to Information ?
" ?
(i) Chances of abuse of autonomy(ii) Difficulty in co-ordination?
(iii) Expensive (iv) Lack of uniformity.?
* "  "!" " ?
1.Larger and fast growing enterprises.?
(ii) Geographically spread over greater degree of uncertainty, complexity in their external
environment. (iii) Well structured organization (iv) Greater stability of manpower(v)Greater absence
of emergency situations. (vi)Greater faith over the sub-ordinates ability.?
¦" "    !" if (i)Greater number of decisions made at lower level(ii) Important
decisions made at lower level.?
(iii)More functions made at lower level.?
10) Factors which prevented decentralization in IndiaÑ " !, 
  ""'" #""%  ", " c!,$ ''
//  "  ! $!" "  " " ?
, "  #   "Ñ Acts as deterrent to decentralisation?
(ii)  ""$ "  Ñ Long age, stable policyand incompetence of field personnel favour
centralization.Opposite favour decentralization?
(iii) '"  "  Ñ Limited and nontechnical centralized and vice versa?
(iv) External; political, people, etc,.?
/º  '  *The difference between them is only of degree and not of kind for no organization
can be completely centralized as it would overload the Chief and completely decentralized as it
would lead to anarchy.It relates to the point where the balance between two should be struck.?


 *c
?
It is to grant or confer authority by one executive to subordinate on "$  for the
purpose of   ! the  ! "  . The existence of an organization depends on
delegation of authority. It    "$"'" " #  $   ". Delegation
and decentralization though different or related concepts. In simple terms it is the temporary
transfer of general routine work with less importance to the lower to relieve the higher from heavy
work.?
?
º#"  ?
a) * Conferring authority from Higher to lower.?
b) * From one executive unit to another.?
c) "* confer discretionary powers upon others by some one. To sum up it is grant of authority
by a superior to a subordinate for the attainment of specific assignment. ?
(d   compares it with imparting knowledge. . Delegated power can be taken back ?
(e) c " considered it as myth of organization. She believed that authority belongs to the job
and stays with job.?
?
(!#9 $"! Ñ?
1) Art of getting best results (2) Lightens the burden of top executives (3) Top can concentrate on
vital duties only (4) It enable quick decisions (5) It motivates the subordinate.(6)Develop the
subordinates skills- 7) Avoid delay?
8) Proper adjustment of policy to local conditions?
9) Train subordinate with responsibility?
10) Developing second line of leadership?
11) Overcome complexity in procedures, that is delegation to specialists?
?
    "  # !" * (1) Entrustment of operative    " (2) Granting
of '" " (3) Creation of an obligation or  '""y.?
?
Î  ?
a) Full and partial b) Conditional and unconditional c) Formal and informal d) Direct and
Intermediate.?
?
1c  #!" Ñ?
a)?????Assignment of duties in terms of results expected?
b)??????Parity of authority and responsibilityÑ So much of authority to accomplish the task alone to
be delegated.?
c)??????Clarity on authority conferred?
d)?????Absoluteness of responsibility?
e)?????Unity of command-No double delegation?
f)???????Authority level principle- no seeking clarification etc,.?

'  !" .?
?
1) Specific and Written?
2) To a position and not to individual?
3) Competence of subordinates?
4) Authority and responsibility?
5) Proper planning?
6) Usual chain of command and unity of command?
7) Systematic reporting to be maintained?
8)To be followed by performance appraisal system?
9) Give them training?
10) Give them incentives?
* !-"    ?
, !-" ?
,/ Lack of well established procedures and methods?
(2) Unstable and non repetitive character of work?
(3) Lack of effective means of internal communication?
(4) Centralization requirements of certain special programmes?
(5) Smaller and narrower geographic coverage of organization?
(6) Lack of effective means of internal coordination?
(7) Lack of well-defined positions in terms of responsibility and authority?
(8) The lesser age of organization due to a few precedents?
(9) The constitutional. Legal and political restrictions?
?
(b) c  which are of two kinds?
,  c  c  
?
(i)lure for authority (ii) Lack of receptiveness- none else can do (iii) Fear of being exposed (d)
Difficulty in briefing (v) Lack of Confidence over subordinates?
,  c    
?
(i)easy way to consult superior (ii) Fear of criticism 9iii) Lack of self confidence (iv) Absence of
incentives (v) Excessive workload?
?
¦  '  Ñ Most failures in effective delegation occur not because executives do not understand
the nature and principles of delegation but because they are unable or unwilling to apply them.
Delegartion is, in a way an elementary act of managing or administering. Yet studies of
administrative failures almost invariably find that poor or inept delegation is at or near the top of
the list of causes.?
 ? !" ? " " ?
1? Delegation is a process? Decentralisation is the end result of delegation.?
2.? It is essential for It is optional as top management may or may
management process.? not disperse authority.?
3.? It denotes relationship It denotes relationship between top
between a superior and management and various semi-autonomous
a subordinate.? divisions.?
4.? The delegator exercises The control may be delegated to departmental
control over the heads.?
subordinates.?
5.? It is a technique of It is a philosophy of management.?
management.?
c †?
 c.?
It is one of the important tasks of management. Since top executives cannot perform all
overseeing of works, they entrust it to the other subordinates.Further workers also require
guidance. It gives coherence to the organization. According to Millet it has two purposes ²one is to
achieve  "  among various and the second one is to ensure that each unit    
" "  . It has two terms ´Superµ and ´Visionµ which means, ´overseeingµ. In purely structural
terms it may mean monitoring and controlling the subordinates but in modern management it
mean a mix of activities such as teaching, guiding, cooperating, exploring and inspecting. The
crude form of penalizing authority of the past is now replaced by participative and spiritual
collaborator of subordinates. Taylor and Fayol have put emphasis on the role of supervisor. 
 " ""0'" # '$    "" "  µ?
º "$" - Superintendence, direction, control, guidance, inspection and coordination.?
( '"  *?
As per F.M. marx it has 3 phases or aspects .?
(a)???Substantive or technical- he must know techniques of work?
(b) Institutional or objective know the policies and procedures according to which it
should be done?
(c) Personnel or human- handling of workers?
?
 *# '$  Ñ (a) Relieves workload of top executive (b) Principle by which coordination
can be achieved. (c) Method by which employees are trained and inspired to a high level of morale
and performance (d) Basis is laid for controlling results e) It converts general plans and policies into
worl plans and hence into units of production.?
Î  
a) Single- Line- Police and Plural Line and Staff- O& M, Accountant etc,. b) Line and Functional c)
MilletÑ Substantive (actual work) and Technical (Methods)
1 0' ?
As per J.D. Millet following 6 techniques are to be followed.?
/ c   $ #$'c 7" º c '!"  #$ " ('!"
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?
7. Supervisory skillsÑ?
(a) Technical skill (b) Human Skill (c) Conceptual skill (d) Diagnostic skill (e) political skill- ability to
acquire power to do a thing.?
8.Qualities and Functions According to G.D. Halsey it has six ingredients. According to H. Nissen
there are 11 duties.Pfinner has listed 8 qualities
9 LIKERT·S SUPERVISORY STYLESÑ Likert·s Michigan Studies proved that more general the
degree of supervision excercisable by a superior, higher the level of production. Conversely the
closer the degree, lower was the output. Hence he classified supervisor into two (i) job centred and
(2) employee centred and he preferred the second for results. To him the second one has 7 plus
points and chacteristics.(i) Little pressure on subordinates (ii) Get trust and confidence of lower (iii)
General supervision (iv)Allow subordinates to schedule their own path of work (v) Permit decision
making by employees (vi) Not punitive (viii) Devote more attention to responsible jobs.
10) Michigan and Ohio StudiesÑ
From 1947, the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan carried out a large scale
programme of research into "the organisational structure and the principles of leadership and
management which result in the best performance." The study concluded that managers can be job
centred or employee centred and that the latter were more effective. Job centred management
behaviour was close to what Frederick Taylor called scientific management - an emphasis on
discovering the best way to do a job, hiring and training the right person, monitoring performance
closely and rewarding on a piece rate basis. Employee centred behaviour concentrates upon
the human aspects of work, allowing people their own creativity, freedom to work the way they feel
most comfortable and to become involved in their own goal setting. The Michigan studies'
conclusions were further developed in the Ohio studies which showed that the two ends of the
Michigan continuum were not opposites but relatively independent of each other. The distinction
created many models of management style, all largely based upon these insights.The relative
independence of the two factors - job centred and employee centred behaviour - led to the idea that
varying degrees of each were effective, dependent upon the situation.
11 Qualities of Good supervisorÑ I) direct contact ii) Communicate iii) Inquisitive mind- Why do we
do it in this way? Iv) care for public interest than personal interest v) Familiar with procedures vi)
Confident
12Ñ GeneralÑ When the decisions have been communicated, it becomes the duty of the top
administrators in the organizational hierarchy to see that they are implemented properly. To see to
the fact that the ends of organization are being realized is the job of supervision and control in an
administrative organization. The top administrators give directions to the subordinates, watch their
activities and observe the results. Negatively, supervision is to direct inspect and investigate the
activities of the personnel in the organization; positively, it has to tell them the best way of doing
work and achieving the targets. Supervision is to achieve co-ordination among the various units of
the organization and it has to see that each unit of the organization accomplishes the tasks
assigned to it. The task of supervision is to hatch the results of organization. This task can be
performed by laying down some objective tests and criterion of efficiency. Some times supervision is
exercised through budgetary provisions. The employees have to submit a report of the progress of
the work to the supervising authority. The supervisor can also inspect the records, papers, files and
thus know the results. The supervisor lays down the targets, and then sees to it that the targets
have been efficiently achieved.
In an organization, such environment may be created that every one puts his best in the
work, and the result is maximum output. To achieve it, supervision is called upon to check the
faults and to show the right lines for future action. The supervisor has not only to inspect and
inquire, but has to encourage and inspire, and thus achieve teamwork.?
  ?
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º ! 
, )"   * It is originated in the military. They are concerned with substantive functions of
Govt.They are primary and central at any as well as larger organizations. The classical examples are
given below?
a) Government departments b) Public Corporations c) Government companies d) Independent
Regulatory Commissions as in America.?
?
,  '"  * These agencies perform the following major functions.?
(a)Making decision b) Taking responsibility c) Planning d) Interpreting and defending policy e)
Maintaining production and seeking efficiency and economy.?
?
, " "'  #* Primary function, Authority flows from vertical to downwards, direct
chain of command, unity of command, takes decisions and issue commands, delegation. Sometimes
called ´""$'" "µ.?
?
("## ! .?
""  " %%#  ' "'"" "take or initiate
   "  supportive ##'"  $ "
#'"  #  ##" '" '" "## ##   "$  $"
#'"  
?
, '"  * (i) Budgeting and accounting (ii) personnel (iii) Planning (iv) research, reporting and
public relations (v) Legal services (vi) Other management procedures. Mooney has identified three
aspects; White has recognized 6 functions and Pfinner 7 functions. ?
?
 " " " are-(1) Assistance-(ii_ Information (iii)Advisory- Planning Commission
(iv) Supervisory- Cabinet Secretariat (v) Delegated functions- PMO press release.?
?
,   *There are three kinds.?
1)????????
"## or filter and funnel ²PMO or White House ² administrators and not technical?
2)????????  "##- economic or financial or foreign affair advisor ?
3)???????? '3 "##. Willoughby called them as Institutional or housekeeping services.?
?
.4. '3 ! They were termed as Establishment Services by British writers.?
?
1)?????Central Public works Department2b) Law Ministry 3) Finance Ministry 4) Information and
Broadcasting Ministry 5) Union Public Service Commission 6) Parliamentary Affairs
department 7) Director ² General of supply and Disposal. ?
?
Î*   "##* $ main differences in (1) Role-decision-advice (2) direct contribution (3)
doing function (4) flow of authority downward (5) Operating decision (6) Functional-institutional (7)
ends- means for ends (8) substantive- supportive (9) control-report (10) Bears final responsibility
(11) Provide channel of communication?
?
1  "##  '3*Four differences- (i) advise-housekeeping, (ii) no authority but limited, (iii)
no executive function auxiliary have operational responsibility, (iv) attached to line at every levels -
under chief executive- but not bothered with the improvement of organisation.?
?
 "## ! $ '  '" *?
?
* PMO. Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Committees, Planning Commission, UPSC, SSC, CBI?
?
"* Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Committees, Treasury, Civil Service Department, Central
Police Review Staff?
?
 * White House Office, EOP, National Security Council, office of Management and Function.?
?
* #""%"##?
i) Line dislikes staff for the fear of being taken for a ride (ii) Staff controls office technology including
fax, computer (iii) Staff controls information (iv) Line is not for change but staff act as catalyst for
change.?
?
¦ c % #"  " 'c ""  " Ñ?
a) Staff is more powerful as Chief Executive has wider control and powers under seperation of
Powers. Hence, OBM, White House and offices in the EOP are powerful than the staff agencies
under the Cabinet system.?
?
b) Chief Executive does not require the approval of Cabinet for supporting the staff agency. But in
Cabinet PM has to keep his Ministers together to support the staff.
?
/ ' " Ñ LoganÑ Difference at the start but not after growth.?

(2) Peter DruckerÑ It is destructive distinction, as head of staff may become Empire Builders, as they
have no authority and responsibility
3) Mooney and Reiley_ it is a term applicable in formal Organisations only.?
?
4) New lifeline of office management system initiated a process towards decline of hierarchical,
pyramidical and Weberian organizations

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