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Assessment of Ground Water Quality through Geographic

Information System
(Case Study: District Kambar Shadatkot)

Sahib Khan, Imtiaz Chandio, Zahree khan chandio, Riaz Ali

Center for Environmental Science, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Ground water is an important source of drinking, especially in rural areas of Pakistan. Therefore,
it is very important to assess the quality of ground water. The present study aims to evaluate the
spatial mapping of ground water quality of district Kambar Shadatkot. Where majority of the
peoples are reside in rural areas and the groundwater is only source of drinking. The aim of the
study is to present in GIS environment for better understanding the spatial distribution of each
chemical parameter and mapping of current situation of groundwater quality of Kambar
shadatkot. Samples were collected from different locations of the district. The groundwater
samples were analyzed for physiochemical parameters like Hydrogen ion concentration(pH),
Electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH),
Magnesium(Mg2+), Turbidity, Chloride (Cl-), Sodium (Na+), Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and
Potassium (K+) were analyzed using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with
the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The study reveals that the concentration of
(pH), (EC), (HCO3-) and turbidity is under the permissible limit and the concentration of TDS,
TH, (Mg2+),(Cl-),(Na+), (K+) is high in the some areas of the district. The based spatial
distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 10.2.2. We also
estimated, the present dataset demonstrated the application of water quality indices that the
would be helpful to policymakers for appropriate management, treatment and sustainable societal
development at large.

Keywords: Ground water Quality, Mapping, Geographic Information system, ARCGIS.


Introduction
Ground water is considered is one of the most vital renewable and extensively circulated
resource of the earth.(A.siyal et.,al 2017) .The ground is believed to be comparatively much
clean and free from pollution than surface water. Ground water can become contaminated
naturally or because of numerous types of human activities, residential, municipal, commercial,
industrial and agriculture activities can all affect ground water quality. (S.Durgadevagi et.al
2016). Many parts of the world, particularly in the developing countries human activities on
human activities still impact negatively on the environment and appropriate facilities to ensure
safe disposal of wastes in a manner that will not constitute a potential hazards to public health,
animal health and the environment are lacking.(Berktay et.al 2010) There are possibility of
change in ground water quality due to hydrology and geologic condition over a period of
time.(Collect c et.al 1996) The most important chemical contaminants which cause serious
health problems are arsenic and fluoride which occurs naturally and Nitrate from agricultural
land as fertilizers. These three pollutants are often found in groundwater. (UNICEF- 2014)
Mapping technique is best representative tool in the assessment of ground water quality and its
utilization for irrigation, drinking and constructional needs. (Luo,Z. et.al 2001) Throughout the
globe many research was conducted on assessment of the groundwater quality through using GIS
techniques. In a research article by Ducci produced the maps of ground water quality and
contamination by using GIS in Southern Italy. It was suggested that the use of GIS technique is
vital in testing and improving the groundwater contamination risk assessment methods (Ducci
et.al 1999) Asadi and Reddy conducted a study that monitors the groundwater quality, related it
to land use and land cover and mapped the groundwater quality for a part of Hyderabad
metropolis by using GIS techniques.(Asadi et.al 2007) A detailed GIS based study on
groundwater hydrochemistry in Vattamalaikarai Basin, Tamil Nadu, India, has been carried out
to assess the quality of ground water for determining its suitability for drinking purposes in a
research article by Vennilla, Subramanian, Elago (G.Vennilla et.al 2008). Another work was
done by Ahmed and Ali, to assess the groundwater contamination due to the growing population
of Sohag, Egypt.(A.A.Ahmed et.al 2011). The purpose of this study was to focus on the
integrated role of various geochemical processes, agriculture and urbanization in evaluation of
the composition of groundwater and its impact on the quality of groundwater. The ground water
is believed to be correctively much clean and free from pollution.. The water shortage and its
increasing competition for various uses badly affected its quality.(US-EPA-1993) Most of the
reported health problems are directly or indirectly related to water, the only way to know; its use
for drinking and cooking contains potentially harmful substances is to have it tested. To
determine safety, the contaminant concentrations in the water are compared to maximum
contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the world Health organization (WHO) for public
drinking water supplies in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. (WHO-2004).
According to UNESCO Report, about 1.2 million people globally lack safe drinking water, and
50% of the populace in developing countries still has no reasonable access to safe and sustained
water supplies. The report estimated that 14.6 million children die annually as a result of water
related diseases. For those who rely on groundwater for their daily supply.(UNESCO 2003).
Estimates reveal that in Pakistan 30% of all diseases and 40% of all deaths occur due to use of
contaminated water, while every fifth person experience’s illness because of contaminated water.
(Akbar et.al 2013). It is also reported that more than three million people encounter the water-
borne diseases every year while 0.1million die. (Hyder et.al 2009). It is critical that their
groundwater is unpolluted and relatively free from undesirable contaminants. Hence monitoring
of ground water quality has become indispensable, water quality monitoring programs are
needed in order to raise the awareness of the public as regard to the problem of underground
water pollution and also the address the consequences of present and future threats of
contamination to ground water resources. (Ramakrishnaiah et.,al 2015) . In the era of
information technology, modern technologies such as remote sensing (RS) and geographic
information systems (GIS), coupled with geophysical surveys are very helpful for the evaluation
of groundwater resources in a basin. (Pandian M et., al 2014). Geographic information system
(GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool for storing, analyzing, and displaying spatial data and
using these data for decision making in several areas including engineering and environmental
fields. (Stafford, 1991; Goodchild, 1993; Burrough and McDonnell, 1998; Lo and Yeung, 2003).
The purposes of this assessment are to provide an overview of present groundwater quality,
determine spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters and to generate groundwater
quality zone map for the district. The results obtained from the study will be useful for
stockholder’s, policy makers as well as the public to be aware of existing groundwater
contamination and will be supportive for the monitoring and managing the vulnerability of
groundwater contamination in the Kambar shadatkot district.

1. Study Area

District Kambar shadatkot situated on the north-west of Sind, Pakistan. The district lies
between 67º10ʹ to 86º 12ʹ east longitude and 27º26ʹ31ʹʹ to 27º58ʹ55ʹʹ north latitude. It is
bounded by district larkana in the east, Baluchistan province in the north-west, district
Shikarpur and Jacobabad in the north-east and district Dadu in the south. It spread
geographical area about 5,882 km2; the total population is 1,182,554 and population
density (no: of person sq.: km) is 244 no/km2. The climate of Kambar shadatkot district is
similar to that of Jacobabad, which is severest in the province as well as in the country.
The climate of Kambar Shahdatkot district is mainly dry, with rain-fall varying between 5
to 10 inches (127 to 254mm) in a year.

Materials and Methods:


Sample Collection

The Ground water samples were collected from randomly selected hand pumps installed at
public places. These hand pumps were extensively used by the people for extracting groundwater
for their domestic use .Groundwater sampling location were recorded using the handheld
Garmin-GPS. The groundwater samples were collected in one-liter polythene bottles by
observing standard sample collection methods. The bottles we rewashed and rinsed properly with
distilled water to remove any possible contamination. During the study, it was learned that the
installation depth of hand pumps varied from 5-15 m throughout the district. According to the
depth of hand pumps, the purging process was applied. If the hand pump was bored at 10 m
depth, it needed 30 strokes for its purging. After purging, the polythene bottles and their caps
were washed with the same water and then samples were collected in bottles or getting
maximum accuracy in results. All the collected groundwater samples were coded, sealed and
preserved properly, then transferred towards laboratory for further analysis.

Water Quality Parameters

The groundwater samples were analyzed for different physicochemical parameters like TDS
EC, pH, TH, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, HCO3-, K+, Turbidity using available standard laboratory
methods. The results of groundwater quality parameters were compared with permissible limits
prescribed by WHO (World health organization) for the safe drinking water. Materials and
methods used for determining groundwater quality parameters of Kambar Shadatkot.

Mapping of Ground Water Quality Using GIS

GIS is an effective tool widely used for monitoring and mapping of the water quality, evaluating
the spatial variability of water quality and detecting the environmental change. (Skidmore et.al
1997). ArcGIS 10.2.2 was used to develop spatial distribution groundwater quality thematic
maps of the district for various physicochemical parameters. The resulting analysis of
physicochemical parameters was stored in MS Excel spreadsheet along with location
coordinates. The excel sheet was imported in ArcMap 10.2.2 through add option. The spatial
variation of each of the groundwater quality parameter was interpolated for the whole district
using spatial interpolation Thus, spatial distribution thematic maps of the groundwater of district
Kambar shadatkot for various physicochemical parameters pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity,
magnesium, total hardness, chloride, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium were
developed.
Results and Discussion:

The water quality maps are useful for assessing the suitability of water for drinking purpose.
(Skidmore et.,al 1997). These maps provide the visual interpretation of spatial variability of
different ground water quality parameters hence are helpful in monitoring and mapping the
vulnerability of ground water contamination. (K. Balathandayutham et.,al 2015).

Table 1.Statistics of Physico-Chemical parameters

Parameters Min Max Mean Standard deviation

pH 7.1 8 7.5 0.278


EC (μs/cm) 680 4560 1694 887.61
TDS (mg/l) 422 2964 1078 579.61
TH (mg/l) 180 700 310 148
Ca2+ (mg/l) 0.9 8 7.5 0.22
Mg2+ (mg/l) 1.8 8.3 3.4 0.74
Na+ (mg/l) 24 515 127 99.44
K+ (mg/l) 1 3 1.8 0.75
HCO3 - (mg/l) 0.6 9.5 3 6.49
Cl- (mg/l) 2.9 28.1 5.64 4.789

1. Hydrogen ion concentration – pH


The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in moles per
liter. In general, pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of water. It is one of the most
important operational water quality parameters with the optimum pH required often being
in the range of 7.0- 8.5 (Tikle et al., 2012). pH is important parameter, which determines
the suitability of water for various purposes. The value of pH range is between 7.1-
8.1.with average value of pH is 7.5. Figure 1, shows that the concentration of pH values is
meets the WHO permissible limit.

2. Electrical Conductivity- EC
The value of E.C varies from 680ppm-4560ppm,with average value 1694, as shown in
Figure2, The higher E.C may cause a gastrointestinal irrigation in human
biengs.Although the large variation in E.C is mainly attributed to geochemical process
like ion exchange reverse evaporation, silicate, weathering, and rock water exchange
interaction, sulphate reduction and oxidation process (Remegh- et al., 2008).
3. Total dissolved solids- TDS
Total Dissolved Solids is a measure of organic and inorganic substances which are in
suspended condition in a liquid (Ranjana et al., 2001; Joseph and Jaiprakash et,.al 2000;
Hari Haran et,.al 2002; Subhdra Devi et,. al 2003).Total dissolved solids varies from
422-2964, with average value 1078, as shown in Figure3, Concentration of TDS is high
in the some of the U.C’s (Gaibedero, Mirpur, Gaji khuhawnar, Abad, Kalar, Hazar-wah,
and Shdatkot-03). Total dissolved solids in water could be controlled by reverse osmosis,
electro dialysis; exchange and solar distillation process (Jain et al., 2003). As per TDS
classification, 50% of the wells are brackish (TDS>1,000) water and 50% well are fresh.
(Freeze et,.al 1979).

4. Total Hardness- TH
Total Hardness of water is the capacity to neutralize soap and is mainly caused by
carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium (Balakrishnan et,. al 2011). Figure 4,
shows the spatial distribution of T.H of water, it varies from 110-700. With the average
value of 310. High concentration is obtained in Ber union council. Hardness is an
important parameter of water for its use in a domestic sector. (Rajesh, J et.,al 2016). Hard
water is not a health hazard but can be a purpose. (H.Annapooma et.al 2015)

5. Magnesium- Mg

Magnesium also is one of the abundant elements in rock. It causes hardness in water.
(Balakrishnan et,.al-2011). Figure 5, shows the spatial distribution of magnesium in the study
area it varies from 1.8-12.7 with average value of 3.75 and concentration of magnesium is high
in the Gaji khunwar and Abad union council’s.

6. Turbidity:
Figure 6, shows the spatial distribution of turbidity in the study area it various from 3.6-
442, concentration of turbidity is high in Muradi and Wagan union council’s.

7. Chloride- Cl
Figure 7, shows the spatial distribution of chlorine in the study area, it varies from 2.9-
28.1. and the concentration of chlorine is high in Gaji khunwar union council. Higher
levels of chloride in water indicate that there is presence of organic pollutants in the
water. The concentration of Cl in ground water is high may possibly be due to domestic
wastages /or leaching from upper soil layers in dry climates. (Srinvasamoorthy et.,al
2008).

8. Potassium
Potassium is slightly less abundant than sodium and similar in behavior to sodium. Its
Concentration in groundwater is one-tenth or even one-hundredth of that of Sodium.
(Khalid et.,al 2014). Figure 8, shows the spatial distribution of potassium in the study
area it varies from 1.0 -3.0, and the concentration of potassium is high in Mirpur, Lakhu,
Muradi, Wagan and Ber union Councils.

9. Sodium- Na
Figure 9, shows the spatial distribution of sodium in the study area, it varies from 24- to
515, and the concentration of sodium is high in Ber union council. In general sodium
salts are not acutely toxic because of the efficiency with which mature kidneys excreted
sodium. However acute effects and death have been reported following accidentals
overdoses of sodium chloride. (WHO-1993).

10. Bicarbonate HCO3

The bicarbonate HCO3 concentration in the ground water varies from 1.1 – 6.2 mg/l with
an average value of 3 mg/l. The primary source of carbonate and bicarbonate ion in
groundwater is the dissolution of carbonate minerals in the study area. The decay of
organic matter present in the soil release CO2 dissolves carbonate minerals, as it passes
through soils and rocks to give bicarbonates. Bicarbonates also show high positive
correlation with alkalinity.(Balathandayutham et.,al 2011).
Figure 1
Figure 2 Electrical Conductivity
Figure 3 Total Dissolved Solids
Figure 4 Total Hardness
Figure 5 Magnesium
Figure 6 Turbidity
Figure 7 Chloride
Figure 7 Potassium
Figure: 9 Sodium
Figure 10 Bicarbonate
Table 1: Water Quality Analysis Result
rrjjfjfjreanalysis
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude PH
No location

1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 8


2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 7.2
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 7.1
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 7.6
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 7.4
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 7.3
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 7.5
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 7.8
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 7.5
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 7.7
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 7.1
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 7.4
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 7.7
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 7.6
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 7.7
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 7.4
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 7.6
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 8
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 7.3
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 7.6
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 7.2
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 7.2
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 7.2
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 7.6
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 7.2
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 8.1
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 7.6
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude EC
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 1205
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 1750
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 1705
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 2615
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 2790
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 2690
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 2090
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 1130
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 805
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 1060
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 1280
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 2090
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 680
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 2830
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 750
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 1860
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 1605
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 1150
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 4560
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 1910
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 950
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 780
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 1240
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 1210
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 2680
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 1020
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 1310
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude TDS
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 759
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 1120
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 1091
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 1674
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 1786
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 1722
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 1338
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 712
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 499
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 668
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 806
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 1338
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 422
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 1811
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 465
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 1190
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 1027
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 725
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 2964
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 1222
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 569
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 484
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 781
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 762
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 1710
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 643
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 825
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude TH
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 700
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 380
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 400
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 380
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 350
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 380
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 400
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 400
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 420
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 410
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 400
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 380
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 110
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 150
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 110
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 110
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 115
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 135
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 130
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 150
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 155
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 450
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 470
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 325
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 330
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 320
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 310
Sr.No Name of Sample Location Latitude longitude Mg

1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 1.9


2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 2.3
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 2.1
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 3.3
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 8.3
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 6.5
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 2.6
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 2.4
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 2
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 1.9
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 2.5
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 2.8
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 1.8
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 3.7
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 1.8
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 5.3
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 5
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 1.4
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 12.7
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 2.4
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 1.9
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 2.6
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 2.5
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 2.6
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 8.3
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 2.7
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 3.1
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude Turbidity
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 3.6
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 4.7
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 6.1
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 6.2
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 4.5
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 3.9
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 6.2
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 6.2
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 6.1
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 6.3
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 6.2
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 6.1
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 30
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 26
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 24
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 23
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 22
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 70
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 74
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 72
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 70
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 40
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 37
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 55
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 36
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 442
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 420
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude Cl
No Location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 3.3
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 6.8
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 4.5
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 8.3
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 8.1
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 5.6
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 4.9
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 4.3
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 2.9
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 4.1
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 3.9
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 4.2
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 3.2
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 5.5
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 2.9
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 6.2
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 6.1
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 3.4
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 28.1
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 4.5
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 3.9
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 2.9
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 3.9
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 4.1
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 9.2
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 3.5
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 4.2
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude Potassium
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 3
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 2
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 1
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 2
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 2
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 1
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 1
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 2
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 2
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 2
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 2
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 2
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 2
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 2
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 1
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 1
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 1
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 2
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 2
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 1
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 1
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 1
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 3
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 3
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 3
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 3
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 3
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude Na
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 515
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 160
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 166
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 164
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 155
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 160
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 164
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 161
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 162
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 163
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 165
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 80
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 60
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 25
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 26
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 24
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 32
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 31
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 33
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 34
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 29
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 205
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 208
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 207
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 103
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 101
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 102
Sr. Name of Sample Latitude Longitude HCO3
No location
1 Ber 68.27361111 24.73027778 4.8
2 Buhar 67.14555556 26.58722222 2.4
3 Dost Ali 68.05722222 27.58666667 4
4 Gaibedero 68.09638889 27.55027778 1.5
5 Kalar 68.055 27.565 1.7
6 Kambar-3 67.93694444 27.55666667 9.5
7 Bahram 67.90194444 27.90194444 2
8 Dhingano Mahesar 68.08416667 27.47861111 1.9
9 Karira 67.97416667 27.52111111 2
10 Khabar 67.9125 27.49055556 4.2
11 Sijawal 67.95861111 27.46277778 1.7
12 Tharo Wadho 68.0925 27.43305556 8.2
13 Bagodero 67.99444444 27.43138889 1.1
14 Hazar Wah 67.82861111 27.43805556 2.8
15 Jamali 67.95583333 27.39611111 1.1
16 Aitbar Khan Chandio 67.86194444 27.41611111 2.1
17 Hazar Wah-1 67.9225 27.3775 1.2
18 Jamali-1 67.89472222 27.34666667 0.6
19 Abad 67.87861111 27.37777778 1.1
20 Dera 68.96666667 27.30194444 4.7
21 Gaji khunwar 67.91972222 27.25972222 2.1
22 Khandu 67.83611111 27.2775 5.9
23 Lakhu 67.73222222 27.25555556 3.2
24 Laloo Rounak 67.63722222 27.275 1.8
25 Mirpur 67.86472222 27.19777778 5.8
26 Muradi 67.55888889 26.68972222 2.3
27 Wagan 67.87888889 27.15694444 1.3

Conclusion:
Ground water is considered is one of the most vital renewable and extensively circulated
resource of the earth. Ground water is an important source of drinking especially in rural areas
of Pakistan. Therefore, it is very important to assess the Quality of ground water. The present
study aims to evaluate the spatial mapping of ground water quality of district Kambar
Shadatkot. The aim of the study to present in the dataset in the data in GIS environment for
better understanding the spatial distribution of each chemical parameter and mapping of current
situation of groundwater quality of Kambar shadatkot. Samples were collected from different
locations of the district. The groundwater samples were analyzed for physic-chemical
parameters like Hydrogen ion concentration(pH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved
Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Magnesium(Mg2+), Turbidity ,Chloride (Cl-), Sodium
(Na+), Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and Potassium (K+) were analyzed using standard techniques in
the laboratory and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The study
reveals that the concentration of (pH), (EC), (HCO3-) and turbidity is under the permissible
limit and the concentration of TDS, TH, (Mg2+),(Cl-),(Na+), (K+) is high in the some areas of
the district. The geographic information system based spatial distribution map of different major
elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 10.2.2. We also estimated, the present dataset
demonstrated the application of water quality indices that the would be helpful to policymakers
for appropriate management, treatment and sustainable societal development at large.

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