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‫ ابدي‬abadīya infinite duration, endless

‫ا‬ time, eternity

‫ ا‬a particle introducing direct and indirect ‫ آبد‬ābid wild, untamed
questions; ‫ أم ― ا‬a - am in alternative
‫ آبدة‬ābida pl. ‫ اوابد‬awābid2 unusual
questions; ‫ أم ―سواء ا‬sawā’un a ― am no
thing, prodigious event │ ‫ اوابد الدنيا‬a. ad-
matter whether - or; ‫ أ و‬a-wa particle
dunyā the Wonders of the World
indicating or implying doubt: or? perhaps?
(atau/apakah) ‫( ااوتشك في ذلك‬tašukku) you ‫ مَؤبد‬mu'abbad eternal, endless,
wouldn't doubt it, would you? do you everlasting │‫( سجن مَؤبد‬sijn) life
perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? َ‫اال‬ imprisonment
alā and ‫ اامَا‬a-mā intensifying interjections 1
‫ ابر‬abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to
introducing sentences: verily, truly, pollinate (‫ هـ‬a palm tree)
indeed, oh yes, etc., ‫( االَ فانظروا‬fa-nẓurū)
oh, do look! why, look! ‫( اامَا انه‬innahū) ‫ ابرة‬ibra pl. ‫ ابر‬ibar needle, pln;
why, he is ... ! indicator (of an instrument); shot,
injection (med.);sting, prick │ ‫حقنه ابرة‬
‫ آب‬āb2 August = Agustus (month; Syr., Leb., ḥaqanahu ibratan to give s.o. an injection;
Jord., Ir.) ‫ ابرة الراعى‬i. ar-rā‘ī geranium (bot.); ‫ابرة‬
‫ اب‬see ‫ابو‬ ‫( مَغناطيسية‬magnāṯīsīya) magnetic needle;
3 ‫ شغل الَبرة‬šug1 al-i. needlework
‫ اب‬abba u to long, yearn, (‫ إلى وطنه‬ilā
waṯanihi for one's homeland) ‫ مَئبر‬mi'bar needlecase; pack needle
‫ ابيب‬look up alphabetically ‫ آبار‬ābār see ‫بئر‬
‫( اباتي‬It. abate) abātī abbot (Chr.) ‫ ابريشية‬abrašīya and ‫ ابروشية‬abrūšīya pl. -āt
diocese, bishoprie (Chr.); parish (Chr.)
‫ ابالة‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
‫ ابرمَيس‬abramīs, ‫ ابرامَيس‬bream (zool.)
‫ يا ابت‬see ‫ابو‬
‫ ابريز‬pure gold 1
‫ ابجد‬abjad alphabet
‫ ابريسم‬ibrīsam, ibrīsim silk
‫ ابجدي‬abjadī alphabetic(al); ‫ ابجديات‬elementary
facts, simple truths │ ‫الحروف الَبجدية‬the ‫ ابريق‬ibrīq pl. ‫ اباريق‬abārīq2 pitcher, jug
letters of the alphabet ‫ ابريل‬abril April
‫ ابد‬abada (‫ ابود‬ubūd) to stay, linger (‫ ب‬at a ‫ ابزن‬abzan pl. ‫ ابازن‬abāzin2 washbowl
place); ― i u to roam in a state of
wildness, run wild, be shy, shy away, run ‫ ابزيم‬ibzīm pl. ‫ ابازم‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp
away (animal, game) II to make lasting or ‫ ابض‬ubḍ pl. ‫ آباض‬ābāḍ and ‫ مَأبض‬ma’biḍ pl.
permanent, perpetuate, eternize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V ‫ مَآبض‬ma’ābiḍ2 hollow of the knee,
to be perpetuated, become lasting or popliteal space
permanentl; to return to a state of wildness
‫ ابط‬V to take or carry under one's arm (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
‫ ابد‬abad pl. ‫ آباد‬ābād endless, eternal to put one's arm (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬around s.o., around
duration, eternity; ‫ ابدا‬abadan always, s.th.), hold in one's arm (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.th.)
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the
future), not at all, on no account; (alone, ‫ ابط‬ibṯ pl. ‫ آباط‬ābāṯ m. and f. armpit
without negation) never! not at all! By no ‫ ابق‬abaqa i (‫ اباق‬ibāq) to escape, run away (a
means! │ ‫ إلى البد‬،‫ على البد‬and ‫أبد الدهر‬ slave from his master)
abada d-dahri forever; ‫ ابد البدين‬abada l-
‫ ابق‬abaq a kind of hemp
abadīn and ‫ إلى ابد البدين‬ilā abadi l-a.
forever and ever ‫ آبق‬ābiq pl. ‫ اباق‬ubbāq runaway,
escaped; a fugitive
‫ ابدي‬abadi everlasting, eternal, endless
‫ ابل‬ibil (coll.) camel
‫ الَبدي‬al-abadī eternity
‫ ابالة‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
‫ ابليز‬iblīz alluvial deposits (of the Nile) │ ‫( ابى الَ أن يفعله‬illā an yaf’alahū) he
insisted on doing it; ‫ ابى ا إلَ أن‬God willed
‫ ابليس‬iblīs pl. ‫ ابالسة‬abālisa devil, Satan
that ... V to refuse, decline
‫ ابن‬II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (‫ ه‬a
‫ اباء‬ibā’, ‫ اباءة‬ibā’a rejection; dislike,
deceased person), deliver a funeral oration
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride
(‫ ه‬in praise of s.o.)
‫ ابي‬abīy disdainful, scornful: proud,
‫ ابنة‬ubna passive pederasty
lofty, lofty-minded
‫ ابان‬ibbān time: ‫ ابان‬ibbāna during, ‫في‬
‫ آب‬ābin pl. ‫ اباة‬ubāh reserved,
‫ ابان‬at the time of, during
standoffish; unwilling, reluctant, grudging
‫ تأبين‬ta’bīn commemoration (of a
‫ ابيب‬abīb the eleventh month of the Coptic
deceased person) │‫ حفلة تأبين‬ḥaflat at-t.
calendar 2
commemorative celebration (in honor of a
deceased person) ‫ ابيقوري‬abīqūrī Epicurean
‫ مَأبون‬ma’būn catamite; weakling, ‫ ابيقوري‬abīqūriya Epicureanism
mollycoddle, sissy; scoundrel ‫ اترج‬utrujj and ‫ اترنج‬utrunj citron (Citrus
‫ ابن‬see 1‫بن‬ medica; bot.)
‫ ابنوس‬abnūs ebony ‫( آتشجي‬Turk. ateşçi) ātešgī fireman, stoker
‫ ابه‬abaha and abiha a (abh) to pay attention (‫ل‬, ‫ مَأتم‬ma’tam pl. ‫ مَآتم‬ma’ātim2 obsequies, funeral
also ‫ ب‬to), heed (‫ل‬, also ‫ ب‬s.th.), take ceremony
notice (‫ل‬, also ‫ ب‬of) │‫امَر لَ يؤبه له‬ 1
‫ اتان‬atān pl. ‫ آتن‬ātun, ‫ اتن‬utun, utn female
(yu'bahu) an insignificant, unimportant donkey, she-ass
matter V to display proud, haughty
manners; to turn away, keep one's ‫ اتون‬atūn, attūn pl. ‫ اتن‬utun, ‫ اتاتن‬atātīn2 kiln,
distance, remain aloof (‫ عن‬from), look furnace, oven
down (‫ عن‬upon), think o.s. far above (‫عن‬ ‫ اتاوة‬itāwa pl. ‫ اتاوى‬atāwā duty, tax, tribute
s.o. or s.th.)
‫( اتوبيس‬Fr.) otobīs autobus, bus
‫ ابهة‬ubbaha splendor, pomp,
ostentation, pageantry; pride ‫( اتومَاتيكي‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
‫ اب‬ab pl. ‫ آباء‬aba' father (also eccl.): ancestor, ‫ اتومَبيل‬boyl lI‫الى‬d ‫( اتومَوبيل‬Fr.) otomobīl
forefather: ‫ يــا ابــت‬yā abati O my father! automobile
‫ الَبــوان‬al-abawān the parents, father and ‫ اتى‬atā i (‫ اتيان‬ityān, ‫ اتى‬aty, ‫ مَأتاة‬to come (‫ ه‬or
mother; ‫ ابونا‬abūnā reverend father, form of ‫ الى‬to; ‫ على‬over s.o.), arrive (‫ هـ‬or ‫ الى‬at); ‫ب‬
address and title of a priest (Chr). │‫ابا عن جد‬ ‫ اتى‬to bring, bring forward, produce,
aban ‘an jaddin handed down from father advance, accomplish or achieve s.th.; ‫اتى ه‬
to son, as s.th. inherited from forefathers; ‫ ب‬to bring, give or offer s.o. s.th.; to do,
‫ ابو ســعن‬abū su’n marabou; ‫ ابــو النــوم‬abū n- perform (‫ هـ‬a deed), carry out, execute (‫هـ‬
naum poppy; ‫ ابـــو الهـــول‬abū l-haul the e.g., movements); to commit, perpetrate (
Sphinx; ‫ ابو اليقظان‬abū l-yaqẓān rooster, cock ‫ هـ‬a sin, a. crime); to mention (‫ على‬s.th.); to
‫ ابوة‬ubūwa fatherhood, paternity finish off (‫ على‬s.th., also s.o.); to finish,
complete, carry through, dispose, settle,
‫ ابوي‬abawī paternal, fatherly wind up, conclude, terminate, bring to a
‫ ابونيت‬ebonite close (‫ على‬s.th.); to destroy, annihilate,
eradicate, wipe out (‫ على‬s.th.); to
‫( ابونيه‬Fr. abonné) abūneh pl. -āt subscription; eliminate, carry away, sweep away (‫على‬
subscription card (e.g., for public s.th.), do away (‫ على‬with); to use up,
conveyances, a concert season, etc.) exhaust (also a subject), present
‫ ابى‬abā a (‫ اباء‬ibā’, ‫ اباءة‬ibā’a) to refuse, exhaustively, in great detail (‫ على‬s.th.),
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn, elaborate (‫ على‬on s.th.) │ ‫ كما يأتي‬as
disdain (‫ هـ‬s.th.): to deny (‫ على هـ‬s.o. s.th.) follows; ‫( اتى على آخره‬ākhirihī) to
complete, finish s.th.; to spend or use up ‫ على‬upon), produce an effect, make an
the last of s.th.; ‫ اتى على الخضر واليابس‬to impression, have influence (‫ في‬or ‫ على‬on);
destroy everything, wreak havoc; ‫اتى‬ to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (‫ هـ على‬s.th.
‫ البيوت مَن ابوابها‬s.th. in the right way, knock to), like (‫ هـ‬s.th.) more (‫ على‬than); to have a
on the right door;‫ يؤتى مَن قبل‬yu’ta min predilection, a liking (‫ هـ‬for), like (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
qibali is undermined, weakened, ruined by be fond (‫ هـ‬of); to choose, deem wise or
III to offer furnish, give, afford (‫ ب‬to s.o. advisable (‫ ان‬to do s.th.); to adore (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬
s.th.), provide, supply (‫ ب‬s.o. with); to be s.o., s.th.) │‫( آثر نفسه بالخير‬nafsahū bi-l-
propitious, be favorable (‫ ه‬for s.o.), favor ( kair) to wish o.s. well, hope for the best
‫ ه‬s.o.); to turn out well (. for s.o.), be in for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced;
favor (‫ ه‬of); to suit, befit, become (‫ ه‬s.o.), to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to
be appropriate (‫ ه‬for s.o.); to agree (‫ ه‬with be moved, be touched (‫ ب‬or ‫ ل‬by, also ‫;)مَن‬
s.o.; food) │‫( اتاه كل شيء‬kullu šai’in) to be excited, be stimulated; to be affected
everything was in his favor, turned out (‫ ب‬by, said of materials, e.g., iron by acid);
well for him, came his way IV to bring (‫هـ‬ to be induced (phys.); to follow in s.o.’s (‫)ه‬
s.o. s.th.); to give (‫ هـ‬s.o. s.th.); to grant (‫هـ‬ tracks, follow s.o.’s example, emulate (‫ه‬
‫ ه‬to s.o. s.th.), bestow (‫ هـ‬upon s.o. s.th.) │ s.o.); to pursue, follow up (‫ هـ‬a question, a
‫( آتى الزكاة‬zakāta) to give alms V to problem); to perceive, feel (‫ هـ‬s.th.) X to
originate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result claim a monopoly; to possess alone, with
(‫ عن‬from); to end (‫ عن‬with), result (‫عن‬ the exclusion of others, monopolize (‫ب‬
in); to get (‫ الى‬to), arrive (‫ الى‬at); to be easy s.th.); to appropriate (‫ ب‬s.th.), take
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be exclusive possession (‫ ب‬of); to preoccupy
attainable, go well, progress; to go about (‫ هـ‬s.th.), engross (‫ هـ‬the attention) │ ‫استأثر‬
s.th. (‫ )فى‬gently, cautiously X to ask to ‫ ا به‬the Lord has taken him unto Himself
come, induce to come (‫ ه‬s.o.) ‫ اثر‬aṯar pl. ‫ آثار‬āṯār track, trace, vestige;
‫ مَأتى‬ma’tan pl. ‫ مَآت‬ma’ātin place where sign, mark; touch; impression, effect,
s.th. comes from; place at which one action, influence (‫ في‬on); tradition
arrives; access; pl. ‫ مَآت‬place of origin; (relating the deeds and utterances of
origin, source, provenance; place where Mohammed and his Companions); work
one has been or to which one has come; (of art, esp. of literature); ancient
place where s.th. starts, where s.th. ends monument; ‫ آثار‬antiquities; remnants,
vestiges; (religious) relics │‫‘ علم الثار‬ilm
‫ آت‬ātin coming, next; following │
al-a. archeology; ‫ دار الثار‬museum of
‫( السبوع التي‬usbū‘) the coming week, next
antiquities; ‫( لَ اثر له‬aṯara) ineffective,
week; ‫ كالتي‬as follows
ineffectnal; ‫( بأثر رجعي‬raj‘ī) with
‫ مَوات‬mu’ātin, muwātin favorable, retroactive force (jur.); ‫اصبح اثرا بعد عين‬
propitious, opportune, convenient, suitable aṣbaḥa aṯaran ba‘da ‘ainin to be
‫ اث‬aṯṯa u I a (‫ اثاثة‬aṯāṯa) to be luxuriant, grow destroyed, be wiped out, leave nothing but
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up, memory behind; ‫( اعاده اثرا بعد عين‬a‘adahū)
prepare (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to furnish (‫ هـ‬an to destroy s.th. completely ; ‫ في اثره‬,‫على اثره‬
apartment) V to be or become rich, (also fī iṯrihī) on his (its) track, at his
wealthy, to prosper; to be furnished heels, after him; immediately afterwards,
presently, thereupon; ;'11 j. immediately
‫ اثاث‬aṯāṯ furniture, furnishings (of an afterwards, presently
apartment, of a room)
‫ اثر‬iṯra (prep.) immediately after, right
‫ تأثيث‬ta’ṯīṯ furnishing after
‫ اث‬aṯṯ, ‫ اثاث‬aṯīṯ abundant, luxuriant, ‫ اثري‬aṯarī archeologic(a1); archeologist
profusely growing (hair, plants) (also ‫ آثاري‬āṯārī); old, ancient, antique │
‫ اثر‬aṯara u i (aṯr, ‫ اثارة‬aṯāra) to transmit, pass ‫ عالم اثري‬archeologist; ‫( لغة اثرية‬luga) dead
along, report, relate (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ عن‬from, or language
based on the authority of, s.o.) II to affect, ‫ اثر‬aṯir egoistic, selfish
influence (‫ في‬or ‫ على‬s.o., s.th.), act (‫ في‬or
‫ اثرة‬aṯara selfishness, egoism ‫ اثيل‬atīl and ‫ مَؤثل‬mu’attal deep-rooted;
of noble origin, highborn
‫ اثير‬aṯīr favored, preferred (‫ عند‬by s.o.),
in favor (‫ عند‬with s.o.); select, exquisite, ‫ اثم‬atima a (itm, atam, ‫ مَأثم‬ma’tam) to sin, err,
noble; see also alphabetically slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain
o.s. hold back
‫ اثارة‬aṯāra remainder, remnant; faint
trace, vestige ‫ اثم‬itm pl. ‫ آثام‬ātām sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
‫ مَأثرة‬ma’ṯara, ma’ṯura pl. ‫ مَآثر‬ma’āṯir2
exploit, feat, glorious deed ‫ مَأثم‬ma’tam pl. ‫ مَآثم‬sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
‫ تأثير‬ta’ṯīr action, effect, influence,
impression (‫ على‬,‫ في‬on); effectiveness, ‫ تأثيم‬sin, offense, misdeed, crime
efficacy; induction (phys.) ‫ آثم‬ātim pl. ‫ اثمة‬atama and ‫ اثيم‬atīm pl.
‫ تأثيري‬ta’ṯīrī produced by induction, ‫ اثماء‬atmā’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;
inductive, inductional, induced (phys.) sinner
‫ إيثار‬īṯār preference; altruism; ‫ اثمد‬itmid antimony
predilection; love, affection ‫ اثير‬atīr ether
‫ تأثر‬ta’aṯṯur being influenced; agitation, ‫ اثينا‬atīnā Athens
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity;
(pl. -āt) feeling, sensation, perception │ ‫ اثيوبيا‬atyūbiyā Ethiopia
‫ سريع التأثر‬easily impressed, impressible, ‫ اثيوبي‬atyūbī Ethiopian; (pl.-ūn) an
sensitive Ethiopian │ ‫البلد الاثيوبية‬Ethiopia
‫ تأثري‬ta’aṯṯurī: ‫المذهب التأثري‬ ‫ اج‬ajja u i (‫ اجيج‬ajīj) to burn, blaze, flame (fire)
(madhab)the impressionistic movement II to light, kindle, start (‫ هـ‬a fire) V = I
‫ تأثرية‬ta’atturīya impressionism ‫ مَاء اجاج‬mā’ ujāj bitter, salty water
‫ استئثار‬isti’tār arrogation of a monopoly; ‫ اجاج‬ajjāj burning, blazing, hot
monopolization; presumption,
presumptuousness; exclusive power ‫ مَتأجج‬muta’ajjij burning, blazing,
‫ مَأثور‬ma’tūr transmitted, handed down
│ ‫(قول مَأثور‬qaul) and ‫( كلمة مَأثورة‬kalima) ‫ اجبية‬ajabīya horologium (Copt.-Chr.)
proverb 2
‫ أجر‬ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense,
‫ مَؤثر‬mu’attir affecting, acting upon; remunerate (‫ هـ‬s.o.) II to let for rent, let
effective; impressive; moving, touching, out, hire out, rent, lease (‫ هـ‬s.th.); (with
pathetic; (pl. -āt) influencing factor, nafsahū) to hire s.o. out IV to let for rent,
influence let out, hire out, rent, lease (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease (‫هـ‬
‫ أثير‬look up alphabetically s.th.), take a lease, (‫ هـ‬on); to hire, engage,
‫ أثفية‬utfīya pl. ‫ أثاف‬atāfin trivet, tripod (in take on (‫ ه‬s.o.), engage the services (‫ ه‬of
&ncient times: &ny one of the three s.o.) X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a
stones supporting a cooking pot near the lease (‫هـ‬.th.), take a lease (‫ هـ‬on); to charter
fire) │ ‫ ثالثة الثافي‬that which rounds out a (‫ هـ‬a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (‫ه‬
number, caps s.th., puts the lid on s.th., the s.o.), engage the service (‫ ه‬of s.o.)
crowning touch ‫ اجر‬ajr pl. ‫ اجور‬ujūr wages, pay,
‫ اثل‬atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to honorarium, recompense, emolument,
become rich V to be consolidated, be remuneration; price, rate, fee │ ‫اجور السفر‬
strengthened; to become rich u. as-safar fares
‫ اثل‬atl pl. ‫ اثول‬utūl (coll.; n. un. pl. ‫ اجرة‬ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate,
atalat) tamarisk (bot.) fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage │
‫ اجرة البريد‬postage; ‫ اجرة النقل‬u. an-naql
transport charges, freight(age), carriage, ‫ آجل‬ājil delayed, protracted; deferred;
cartage later, future (as opposed to ‫عاجلا او │)عاجل‬
‫’آجل‬ājilan au ājilan, ‫ في عاجله او آجله‬sooner
‫ اجير‬ajīr pl. ‫ اجراء‬ujarā’ hireling;
or later, now or later on; ‫في العاجل والجل‬
workman, laborer, day laborer; employee
now and in the future
‫ اجيرة‬ajīra working woman, factory ‫ الجلة‬al-ājila the life to come, the
girl, female laborer; woman employee hereafter
‫ تأجير‬ta’jīr letting, leasing, hiring out, ‫ مَؤجل‬mu’ajjal delayed, late, postponed,
letting on lease; lease│ ‫مَشروع التأجير‬ deferred; fixed in time, deadlined
‫( والعارة‬i‘āra) Lend-Lease Act ‫ اجمة‬ajama, coll. ‫ اجم‬ajam pl. -āt, ‫ اجم‬ujum, ‫آجام‬
‫ ايجار‬ījār pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing, ājām thicket, jungle, forest: reeds,
hiring out, letting on lease│ ‫ لليجار‬for canebrake
rent, to let ‫ اجمية‬ajamiya malaria│ ‫ بعوضة الجمية‬ba‘ūḍat
‫ اجارة‬ijāra pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing, al-a. anopheles
hiring out, letting on lease ‫ آجن‬ājin brackish (water)
‫ استئجار‬isti’jār rent, lease, tenure ‫ اجندة‬ajanda notebook
‫ مَأجور‬ma’jūr paid, salaried, on the ‫ اح‬aḥḥa u (aḥḥ) to cough
payroll, gainfully employed; employee;
‫ احد‬II to make into one, unite, unify (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed
VIII ‫ اتحد‬see ‫وحد‬
‫ مَؤجر‬mu’ajjir pl. -ūn landlord, lessor
‫ احد‬aḥad, f. ‫ احدى‬one: somebody, someone,
‫ مَستأجر‬musta’jir leaseholder, lessee, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative
tenant; employer 5 sentences and questions); ‫ الحد‬the One
‫ آجر‬ājurr (n. un. ‫ )ة‬baked brick (God); Sunday│‫ احدهم‬aḥaduhum every one
of them; ‫ يوم الحد‬yaum al-a. Sunday; ‫أحد‬
‫ اجزاجي‬see ‫جزء‬ ‫ السعف‬a. as-sa‘af Palm Sunday; ‫أحد العنصرة‬
‫ اجزاخانة‬see ‫جزء‬ a. al-‘anṣara Whitsunday; ‫ آحد اللوف‬āḥād
al-ulūf a few thousand (2-9000; as
‫ اجاص‬ijjāṣ pear distinguished from ‫ عشرات اللوف‬and ‫مَئات‬
‫ اجل‬ajala a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger II to ‫)اللوف‬
delay, postpone, put off, defer, adjourn ( ‫هـ‬ ‫ احدي‬aḥadī dominical, Sunday (adj.)
‫ الى‬s.th. till) V to be postponed, be
deferred, be adjourned (‫ مَؤجر‬till, to) X to ‫ احدية‬aḥadīya unity, oneness
request postponement (‫ هـ‬of s.th.); to seek ‫ الآحد‬al-āḥād the units (math.)
to delay (‫ هـ‬s.th.) 1
‫ احن‬aḥina a (aḥan) to bate (‫ على‬s.o.)
‫ اجل‬ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all means!
‫ احنة‬iḥna pl. ‫ احن‬iḥan old feud, deep-rooted
‫ لجل‬li-ajli or ‫ مَن اجل‬min ajli because of, hatred
on account of, for the sake of; for │ ‫لجل‬ 2
‫أن‬in order that, that, so that; ‫مَــن أجــل هــذا‬ ‫ احين‬see ‫اوح‬
therefore, for that reason, on this account ‫ اخ‬see ‫اخو‬
‫ اجل‬ajal pl. ‫ آجال‬ājāl appointed time,
‫ اخت‬see ‫اخو‬
date, deadline; instant of death; respite,
delay│‫ بالجل‬on credit (com.); ‫قصير الجل‬ ‫ اخذ‬aḳaḍa u (aḳḍ) to take (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from or
short-term, short-time; short-lived: ‫إلى أجل‬ out of): to take (‫ هـ‬s.th.) along: to get,
‫( غير مَسمى‬gairi musammā) for an receive, obtain (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from); to take
indefinite period, sine die, until further up, seize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to grab (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.),
notice take hold of (‫)ب‬: to perceive, notice (‫ ه‬s.o.,
‫ تأجيل‬ta’jīl delay, postponement, said of the eye); to gather, understand,
adjournment, deferment, respite; infer, deduce (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from), read (‫هـ‬
appointment of a time or date s.th.) between the lines (‫ مَن‬of); to grip,
captivate, thrill, spellbind (‫ ب‬s.o.); to take s.o., take care of s.o., look after s.o.; ‫أخذ‬
up, acquire, make one's own (‫ ب‬s.th., e.g., ‫( نفسه‬nafasahū) to draw breath; ‫أخذ عليه‬
a method); to keep, adhere (‫ ب‬to), ‫ أنفاسه‬to take s.o.’s breath away; ‫أخذ النوم‬
observe, take over, adopt, embrace, (naum) sleep overwhelmed him; ‫أخذ بيده‬
follow, copy, imitate (‫ ب‬s.th.); to accept ( (bi-yadihī) to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to
‫ ب‬s.th.); to take, lead (‫ الى ب‬s.o. to); to lay under a spell, enchant, bewitch (‫ ه‬s.o.)
admonish, urge, drive (‫ ب ه‬s.o. to do s.th.); III to censure, blame (‫ على ه‬,‫ ب‬s.o. for
to enjoin, impose (‫ ب ه‬on s.o. s.th.); to take s.th.); to punish (‫ على ه‬,‫ ب‬s.o. for); to hold
away (‫ ه على‬from s.o. s.th.), strip, deprive ( s.th. (‫ )على‬against s.o. (‫)ه‬, resent (‫ على‬s.th.
‫ ه على‬s.o. of), cut off, bar (‫ ه على‬s.o. from); ‫ه‬, in s.o.)│ ‫ لَ تؤاخذني‬lā tu’āḳidnī pardon
to reproach, hlame (‫ ه على‬s.o. for); to hold me! forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII ‫ات‬
against s.o. (‫ )على‬that ... (‫)ان‬, fix the blame ‫ خذ‬ittaḳada to take (‫ ه‬s.th.); to take on,
(‫ على‬on s.o., ‫ ان‬for the fact that); to assume (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to take up, occupy (‫هـ‬
obligate (‫ ب على‬s.o. to); to learn (‫ على‬or ‫عن‬ s.th.); to pass, adopt (‫ هـ‬e.g., a resolution);
from s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), acquire knowledge (‫على‬ to take, single out, have in mind (‫ ه ه‬,‫هـ هـ‬
or ‫ عن‬from s.o.), ‫'( أخذ العلم عنه‬ilm) to study s.o. or s.th. as); to make use (‫ هـ‬of s.th.),
under s.o.; to begin, start (‫ في‬or ‫ ب‬with use (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to imitate, affect (‫ هـ‬e.g.,
s.th. or s.th., with foll. imperf.: to do s.th.), s.o.’s manner of speaking); to make (‫مَن هـ‬
prepare, set out, be about (‫ في‬or ‫ ب‬to do s.th. out of s.o. or s.th.)│ ‫( اتخذ شكل‬šaklan)
s.th.) │ ‫( أخذ أبهته‬uhbatahū) to make to take on a form or shape; ‫اتخذ مَوقفا‬
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; ‫أخذ‬ (mauqifan) to take an attitude, assume a
‫( مَأخذ فلن‬ma’ḳad) to adopt the same position; ‫ اتخذ التدابير الَزمَة‬to take the
course as s.o. else, follow s.o.’s example; necessary measures; ‫( اتخذ قرارا‬qarāran) to
‫ أخذ مَنه مَأخذا‬to seize s.o., take possession of pass or adopt a resolution; ‫اتخذ المواقع الجديدة‬
s.o. (a sensation, or the like); ‫أخذ مَجراه‬ to take up new positions (troops)
(majrāhu) to take its course; ‫أخذ مَجلسه‬ ‫ أخذ‬aḳd acceptance, reception; seizure;
(majlisahū) to take one's seat, sit down; ‫أخ‬ taking out, taking away, removal, etc.│ ‫أخذ‬
‫( ذ خذره‬ḥidrahū) to be on one's guard; ‫أخذه‬ ‫ الرأي‬a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; ‫( أخذ ورد‬wa-
‫( بالحسنى‬ḥusnā) to be friendly, be nice to radd) discussion, debate, dispute,
s.o.; ‫( أخذ بخاطره‬bi-ḳāṯirihī) to show o.s. argument; ‫( شيء لَ يقبل أخذا ولَ ردا‬yaqbalu)
complaisant toward s.o., try to please s.o.; an indisputable matter; ‫أخذ وعطاء‬
‫( أخذ بذنبه‬bi-danbihi) to punish s.o. for his (wa-‘aṯā’) give-and-take; traffic, trade;
offense; ‫( أخذ رأيه‬ra'yahū) to ask s.o.’s dealings, relations (esp. business,
opinion, consult s.o.; ‫( أخذ الرأي عليه‬uḳida commercial); discussion, debate; fight,
r-ra'yu) the matter was put to a vote; ‫أخذ‬ battle
‫( بأسباب‬bi-asbābi) to embrace, adopt s.th.,
e.g., ‫( أخذ بأسباب الحضارة الروبية‬ḥaḍāra) to ‫ أخذة‬uḳda spell, charm
adopt European culture; ‫( أخذ بالشدة‬šidda) ‫ أخيذ‬aḳīd prisoner of war
to deal with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough
time; ‫ أخذ عليه طريقه‬to obstruct s.o.’s way, ‫ أخيذة‬aḳīda booty, spoils
hinder s.o. from moving on; ‫ أخذ على عاتقه‬to ‫ أخاذ‬aḳḳād captivating, fascinating,
shoulder s.th., take s.th. upon o.s.; ‫أخذ العدة‬ thrilling
‫‘( ل‬udda) to prepare, set out, get ready to
do s.th.; ‫‘( أخذ عليه عهدا‬ahdan) to put s.o. ‫ مَأخذ‬ma’ḳad pl. ‫ مَآخذ‬ma’āḳid2 place
under an obligation, impose a from which one takes s.th., source; O wall
commitment on s.o.; ‫أخذ على )حين( غرة‬ socket, outlet (el.); adoption, borrowing,
uḳida ‘alā (ḥīni) girratin to be taken by loan; manner of acting, mode of
surprise, be caught unawares; ‫أخذ بالمقابلة‬ procedure, approach; pl. ‫ مَآخذ‬source
(muqābala) to repay like for like; ‫شيء يأخذ‬ references, bibliography (in booke);
‫ القلوب‬s.th. which captivates the heart, a reprehensible points, faults, flaws, defects,
fascinating, thrilling thing; ‫أخذنا المطر‬ shortcomings│ ‫ المأخذ القرب‬the simplest,
(maṯarū) we got caught in the rain; ‫أخذ‬ easiest approach; ‫ قريب المأخذ‬easy to handle
‫( بناصره‬bi-nāṣirihi) to help s.o., stand by or to use; see wao aḳada (middle of
‫ مَؤاخذة‬mu’āḳada objection, exception; turn, she in turn, ‫ انا الخر‬I also; ‫ان كانت‬
censure, blame│ ‫( !لَ مَؤاخذة‬mu’āḳadata) ‫( الخرى‬in kānat) otherwise; ‫مَن آن الى آخر‬
pardon me! no offense, I hope! from time to time; ‫( مَن سنة الى اخرى‬sana)
from year to year; ‫( بين فترة واخرى‬fatra)
‫ أخذ‬ma’ḳūd taken, seized; taken by
once in a while, from time to time; ―‫اخرى‬
surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; taken
‫( آونة‬awinatan) sometimes -- sometimes, at
(‫ ب‬with), fascinated (‫ ب‬by); ‫ مَأخوذ به‬in
times -- at times
force, valid
‫ الخرى‬al-uḳrā the hereafter
‫ مَأخوذات‬ma’ḳūdāt receipts, takings,
returns (com.) ‫ اخروي‬uḳrawī of or relating to the life to
come or the hereafter
‫ اخر‬II to delay, put off, defer, postpone,
adjourn (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to hinder, impede, ‫ اخير‬aḳīr last; latest; rearmost; the
obstruct, hold up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), slow second of two; ‫ اخيرا‬eventually, finally, in
down, retard (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to draw out, delay ( the end, after all, at last; recently, the other
‫ عن‬s.th. beyond its appointed time); to put day; ‫ الول―الَخير‬the former—the latter│
back (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.), shelve (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫اخيرا وليس آخرا‬last but not least
set back (‫ هـ‬a watch, a clock); to suspend, ‫ مَئخار‬mi’ḳār palm which retains its fruit
discharge, dismiss, remove (‫ ه‬s.o. from an into the winter
office) V to be late; to be delayed, fall or
lag behind (‫)عن‬, tarry, linger, hesitate; to ‫ تأخير‬ta’ḳīr delay, deferment,
default (‫ عن‬on), be behindhand, be in postponement; obstruction, retardation;
arrears (‫ عن‬with), be behind (‫ عن‬in); to putting back, temporary shelving
hesitate (‫ عن‬with); to be suspended (from ‫تأخر‬.f ta’aḳḳar delay, lag, retardation;
service), be discharged, be dismissed│ ‫لم‬ hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness,
‫ يتأخر بعد ذلك مَن ان‬after that, he did not tardiness; backwardness,
hesitate long before he …, presently, he ... underdevelopment (of a country)
‫ آخر‬āḳir pl. -ūn, -āt, ‫ اواخر‬awaḳir2 last, ‫ مَؤخر‬mu’aḳḳar rear part, tail, end; atern
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, (of a ship); remainder, balance (of a sum,
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); ‫الخ‬ to be paid later); ‫ مَؤخرا‬mu’aḳḳaran
‫ ر‬and ‫ الخرة‬the hereafter│ ‫ الدار الخرة‬the recently, lately, the other day; at last,
abode in the hereafter, the everlasting finally, eventually
abode; ‫الى آخره‬ilā ākīirihī and so forth, et
cetera; ‫ آخر المَر‬āḳir l-amri eventually, ‫ مَؤخرة‬mu’aḳḳara rear, rear guard (of an
finally, in the end, after all; ‫ آخر الدهر‬āḳir army); rear positions or lines (mil.); stern
d-dahri forever; ‫ آخر الزمَان‬a. az-zamān (of a ship)
time at which the Day of Judgment is to ‫ مَتأخر‬muta’aḳḳir delayed, belated, late;
be expected, the end of the world; ‫عن آخره‬ occurring later (‫ عن‬than); behind,
to the last, down to the grass roots, behindhand in arrears; backward,
entirely, completely, e.g., ‫دمَر عن آخره‬ underdeveloped; lagging, staying behind;
(dummira) to be completely destroyed, be defaulter; ‫ المتأخرون‬the later, or modern,
wiped off the map; ‫ مَن آخره‬from behind, authors, writers, or the like (as opposed to
from the rear; ‫ مَا له آخر‬endless, infinite; ‫في‬ ‫ المتأخرات ;)المتقدمَون‬arrears, balance of a
‫ آخر الخر‬after all, last of all; ‫ اواخر الشهر‬a. ‫س‬um remaining due after previous
aš-šahr the end of the month, the last ten payment│ ‫( البلدان المتأخرة‬buldān) the
days of the month; ‫ اخيرا وليس آخرا‬last but underdeveloped countries
not least
‫ اخطبوط‬uḳṯubūṯ octopus
‫ الخرة‬al-āḳira the hereafter
‫ اخو‬III to fraternize, associate as brothers (‫ه‬
‫ آخر‬āḳar 2, f. ‫ اخرى‬uḳrā, pl. comm. ‫اخر‬ with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a
uḳar 2 (and ‫ آخرون‬āḳarūn or ‫اخريات‬ brother or friend VI to fraternize, associate
respectively) another, one more, ‫ الخر‬the as brothers
other│ ‫( مَرة اخرى‬marratan) once more; ‫هي‬
‫ هو الخر‬,‫ الخرى‬he also, she also, he in
‫ اخ‬aḳ pl. ‫ اخو‬iḳwa, ‫ اخوان‬iḳwān brother; impolite, uncivil; ‫‘( الدب العامَي‬āmmī)
fellow man, neighbor; friend; pl. ‫اخوان‬ popular literature; ‫ رجال الدب‬literati, men
specif., brethren or members of an order; ‫ا‬ of letters; ‫ كلية الداب‬kullīyat al-ā. (= faculté
‫ لخوان‬religious brotherhood of the Wahabi des lettres) college of arts; ‫ آداب‬rules, rules
sect, militant in character, established by of conduct, e.g., ‫ آداب السلوك‬rules of
Ibn Sa‘ūd in 1910│ ‫ يا أخي‬my dear friend! decorum, etiquette; ‫ الآداب‬decency, morals
‫ اخو ثقة‬aḳū tiqa trustworthy, reliable; ‫اخ‬ ‫ادبي‬adabī moral, ethic(al); literary│ ‫واج‬
‫ شقيق‬brother through both father and ‫ ب ادبي‬moral obligation; ‫ادبيا ومَاديا‬
mother, brother-german adabiyan wa-māddīyan morally and
‫ اخت‬uḳt pl. ‫ اخوات‬aḳawāt sister; (gram.) physically; ‫( الفلسفة الدبية‬falsafa) ethics,
cognate; counterpart│ ‫ اختها‬the other (of moral science
two), its mate, its counterpart (after a fem. ‫ ادبيات‬adabīyāt lliterature, belles-lettres
‫ ادبخانة‬adabḳāna pl. -āt toilet, water
‫ خوي‬ḳuwaiy little brother closet
‫ اخوي‬aḳawi brotherly, fraternal ‫ اديب‬adīb pl. ‫ ادباء‬udabā’ cultured,
‫ اخوية‬aḳawīya brotherhood (as a refined, educated; well.bred, well-
religious association) mannered, civil, urbane; a. man of culture
and refined tastes; man of letters, writer,
‫ اخاء‬iḳā’, ‫ اخوة‬uḳūwa brotherhood,
brotherliness, fraternity
‫ اديبة‬adība authoress, writer
‫ اخاوة‬iḳāwa fraternization, fraternity,
brotherliness ‫ مَأدبة‬ma’duba pl. ‫ مَآدب‬ma’ādib banquet,
formal dinner
‫ تآخ‬ta’āḳin fraternization
‫ تأديب‬ta’dīb education; discipline;
‫ اخور‬aḳūr barn, stable
punishment, chastisement; disciplinary
‫ اد‬adda u i to befall, afflict (‫ ه‬a.o.) punishment│‫ مَجلس التأديب‬majlis at-t.
‫ امَر اد‬amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible disciplinary board
thing ‫ تأديبي‬ta'dībī disciplinary; punitive,
‫ ادب‬aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, well- retaliatory│ ‫(قضية تأديبية‬qaḍīya)
mannered, cultured, urbane, have refined disciplinary action
tastes; ― adaba i (adb) to invite (to a ‫ تأدب‬ta’addub good breeding, good
party or banquet, ‫ ه‬s.o.), entertain (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ manners, civility, politeness,
‫( ادب مَأدبة‬ma'duba) to arrange a banquet, courteousness, tact
give a formal dinner II to refine, educate (‫ه‬
‫ آدب‬ādib host
s.o.); to discipline, punish, ehastise (‫ ه‬s.o.)
IV to invite as a guest (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to receive ‫ مَؤدب‬mu’addib pl. -ūn educator; teacher
a fine education; to be well-bred, well- in a Koranic school (Tun.); ― mu'addab
educated, cultured, have refined tastes; to well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane
show o.s. polite, courteous, civil, urbane; ‫ ادرة‬udra scrotal hernia
to educate o.s., refine one’s tastes (‫ ب‬by,
through); to let o.s. be guided (‫ ب‬by)│ ‫تأد‬ ‫ ادرنة‬adirna2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in NW
‫( ب بأدبه‬bi-adabihi) to follow s.o.’s moral Turkey)
example ‫( الَدياتيك‬Fr. adriatique) al-adriyātīk and ‫بحر‬
‫ ادب‬adab pl. ‫ آداب‬ādab culture, ‫ الَدياتيك‬baḥr al-a. the Adriatic Sea
refinement; good breeding, good manners, 1
‫ ادم‬adama i (adm) to take some additional
social graces, decorum, decency, food (‫ هـ‬with the bread), enrich (‫ هـ‬the
propriety, seemliness; humanity, bread) with some extra food or condiment
humaneness; the humanities; belles-
lettres│‫ بيت الدب‬toilet, water closet; ‫قليل‬ ‫ ادام‬idām anything eaten with bread;
‫ الدب‬and ‫ عديم الدب‬ill-mannered, ill-bred, shortening, fatty ingredient
‫ ادم‬adam, adama skin reading (e.g., of a musical composition);
fulfillment; payment│ ‫ حسن الداء‬ḥusn al-a.
‫ اديم‬adīm skin; surface; tanned skin,
good rendition (of a work of art, of a
leather│‫ اديم الرض‬a. al-arḍ the surface of
musical composition)
the earth
‫ تأدية‬ta’diya rendering (of a service);
‫ ادام‬addām tanner
pursuit, performance, execution, discharge
‫ آدم‬ādam2 Adam│‫ ابن آدم‬human being (of a duty), realization effectuation;
‫ آدمَي‬ādamī human; humane; poor, accomplishment (of a task); fulfillment;
inferior, meager; (pl. -ūn, (‫ اوادم‬awadim2) payment
human being ‫ مَؤدى‬mu’addan assignment, task,
‫ آدمَية‬ādamīya humaneness, humanity; function; sense, meaning, signification,
humanism import, underlying idea

‫ اداة‬adāh pl. ‫ ادوات‬adawāt tool; instrument; ‫ اذ‬id 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and)
utensil, implement, device, appliance; then; ‫ إذ ذاك‬id dāka (also written ‫ )إذاك‬then,
apparatus; (gram.) particle│ ‫ اداة الحكم‬a. al- at that time, at the same time, in doing so;
ḥukm machinery of government; ‫اداة‬ 2. (conj.; temp. and caus.) as, when; since,
‫ التعريف‬definite article (gram.); ‫اداة التنفيذية‬ as, the more so as, because; ‫ اذ ان‬id anna
(tanfīdīya) executive agency; pl. materials, since, as, in view of the fact that; for,
equipment, gear, ‫( ادوات حربية‬ḥarbīya) war because
material; ‫( ادواوت احطياطية‬iḥtiyāṯīya) stand- 1
1 ‫اذا‬. (introducing a nominal clause the
by equipment (techn.); ‫ادوات مَنزلية‬ subject of which may he expressed by ‫ب‬
(manzilīya) household utensils, household with foll. genit.) and then, and all of a
effects sudden; (with noun in nominative case or
‫ الدون‬al-adōn (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr. ... (Isr.) with ‫ )ب‬there was … and all of a sudden
there was …; 2. (conj.) when; if,
‫ ادى‬II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, whenever; whether, if (introducing
channel (‫ ه ب‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th., ‫ الى‬to), see that indirect questions); ‫ اذا مَا‬when, whenever; ‫ا‬
s.o. or s.th. (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬or ‫ )ب‬gets to (‫ ;)الى‬to ‫( لَ اذا‬illā) unless if not; except when
bring about, cause, effect, produce (‫الى‬ 2
s.th.); to lead, contribute, be conducive ( (‫ اذا )اذن‬idan then, therefore, in that case,
‫ الى‬to a result); to amount, come hence, consequently
practically (‫ الى‬to); to tend (‫ الى‬to), aim (‫الى‬ ‫ آذار‬ādār2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.)
at); to carry out, execute, discharge (‫هـ‬ 1
‫ اذن‬adina a to listen (‫ إلى‬to s.o..); to allow,
s.th.); to perform (‫ هـ‬a ritual, etc.); to do (
permit (‫ في ل‬s.o. s.th.); to hear, learn (‫ ب‬of
‫ واجبه‬wājibahū one’s duty); to fulfill (‫وظيفة‬
s.th.), be informed (‫ ب‬about) II to call (‫ب‬
a function, ‫ رسالة‬a mission); to accomplish
to), esp. to call to prayer (‫ ;)بالصلة‬to crow
(‫ مَأمَورية‬a task); to take (‫ يمينا‬an oath; ‫امَتحانا‬
(rooster) IV to announce, make known (‫ب‬
an examination); to render (‫ خدمَة‬ḳidmatan
s.th., ‫ ب ه‬to s.o. s.th.), inform, notify (‫ه‬
a service, ‫ ل‬or ‫ الى‬to s.o.; ‫ هـ‬e.g., a
s.o.); to call to prayer; to call upon s.o. (‫)ه‬,
meaning, a musical composition, etc.)│‫ادى‬
urge, admonish, exhort (‫ ه‬s.o..) to do s.th. (
(salām) to greet, salute V to lead, be
‫ ;)ب‬to herald (‫ ب‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to foreshadow
conducive, contribute (‫ الى‬to results); to be
(‫ ب‬s.th.); to be on the verge (‫ ان‬of doing
carried out, be performed, be
s.th..)│ (‫( آذن بالسقوط )بالزوال‬zawāl) to show
accomplished; to 10 arrive (‫ إلى‬at), be lead
signs of the imminent downfall (end); ‫آذن‬
(‫ إلى‬to) X to demand, claim (‫ هـ ه‬from s.o.
‫( الليل بانتصاف‬lailu bi-ntiṣāf) it was close to
midnight V to herald, announce (‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ اداء‬adā’ pl. -āt (as verbal noun of II) X to ask permission (‫ في‬to do s.th., rarely
rendering (of a service); pursuit, ‫ ;)ب‬to ask permission to enter (‫ على‬s.o.'s
performance, execution, discharge (of a house), have o.s. announced (‫ على‬to s.o.);
duty), realization, effectuation, to take leave (‫ مَن‬of s.o.), say good-by (‫مَن‬
accomplishment (of a task); rendition, to)
‫ اذن‬idn permission, authorization; ‫باذن ا‬ ‫ ارب‬ariba a (arab) to be skillful, proficient (‫ب‬
if God choose, God willing; (pl. ‫اذون‬ in s.th.); -- araba i to tighten (‫ هـ‬a knot) III
udūn, ‫ اذونات‬udūnāt) (postal) order│ ‫اذن‬ to try to outwit (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ البريد‬pl. ‫ اذونات البريد‬postal money order; ‫اذن‬ ‫ ارب‬arab pl. ‫ آراب‬ārāb wish (‫ في‬for),
‫ البوسته‬do. desire, need (‫ في‬of s.th.); purpose. aim,
‫ اذن‬udun, udn pl. ‫ آذان‬ādan ear; handle goal, end
(of a cup)│ ‫( التهاب الَذن الوسطى‬wusṯā) ‫ ارب‬irb pl. ‫ آراب‬ārāb limb│‫مَزقه اربا اربا‬
middle-ear infection, otitis media (med.) (mazzaqahū) to tear s.th. to pieces or to
‫ اذان‬adān call to prayer shreds
‫ اذنية‬udaina little ear; ear lobe ‫ اربة‬irba skill, resourcefulness,
cleverness, smartness
‫ مَأذنة‬ma’dana, ‫ مَئذنة‬midana pl. ‫مَآذن‬
ma’ādin2 minaret ‫ اربة‬urba pl. ‫ ارب‬urab knot, bow
‫ ايذان‬idān declaration, proclamation, ‫ اريب‬arīb skillful, resourceful, clever,
announcement (‫ ب‬of s.th..)│ ‫ايذنا بانتهاء‬ intelligent
‫ الحديث‬indicating that the conversation is ‫ مَأرب‬ma’rab pl. ‫ مَآرب‬ma’ārib2 wish,
(was) ended desire; object of desire, purpose, aim,
‫ مَأذون‬ma’dūun authorized; slave with goal, end
limited legal rights (Isl. Law); = ‫مَأذون‬ ‫ اربيل‬arbīl Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city in N
‫( شرعي‬šar‘ī) official authorized by the Iraq)
cadi to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law)
‫ ارتوازي‬artuwaāzī artesian (well)
‫ مَأذونية‬ma’dūnīya leave, furlough (mil.
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.) ‫ ارث‬II to sow dissension (‫ بين‬between, among)
‫ مَؤذن‬mu’addin muezzin, announcer of ‫ ارث‬irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of
the hour of prayer inheritance)
‫ اذن‬idan see 2‫اذا‬ ‫ ارثوذكسي‬urtūduksī orthodox; ‫ الَرثوذكسية‬the
Orthodox Church
‫ اذى‬adiya a to suffer damage, be harmed IV to
hs.rm, hurt, wrong (‫ ه‬s.o.); to molest, ‫ الروم الَرثوذكسي‬ar=rūm al-urtūduksī the
annoy, irritate, trouble (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ لَ يؤذي‬lā Greek Orthodox Church
yu’dī innocuous, harmless, inoffensive V ‫ ارج‬arija a (araj, ‫ اريج‬arīj) to be fragrant V do.
to suffer damage, be wronged; to feel
offended, be hurt ‫ ارج‬araj fragrance, sweet smell
‫ اذى‬adan, ‫ اذاة‬adāh, ‫ اذية‬adīya damage, ‫ ارج‬arij fragrant, sweet-smelling
harm; injury; trouble, annoyance, ‫ اريج‬arīj fragrance, sweet smell
grievance, wrong, offense, insult
‫ ارجح‬II ta’arjaḥa to rock, swing
‫ اذاية‬idāya damage, harm, harmfulness,
noxiousness ‫ مَتأرجح‬muta'arjiḥ fluctuating

‫ ايذاء‬īdā’ harm, damage, prejudice; ‫ الَرجنتين‬al-arjantīn Argentina

offense,. hurt; grievance, nuisance ‫ ارجوان‬urjuwān purple
‫ مَؤذ‬mu’din hurtful, harmful, injurious, ‫ ارجوان‬urjuwānī purple(-colored)
detrimental, prejudicial; annoying,
‫ ارجوز‬popular spelling (eg.) of ‫’ قره جوز‬aragōz
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting,
(q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy show)
offensive, insulting
‫ ارخ‬II to date (‫ هـ‬a letter, and the like, ‫ ب‬with a
‫ اراتيقي‬arātīqī and ‫ اراتيكي‬pl. ‫ اراتقة‬arātiqa a
date); to write the history of s.th. (‫)هـ‬
heretic (Chr.)
‫ تاريخ‬ta'rīḳ dating (of a letter, etc.); ta'rīḳ
‫ آرامَى‬ārāmī Aramaean; Aramaic
pl. ‫ تواريخ‬tawārīḳ2 date; time; history;
chronicle, annals│ ‫ تاريخ الحياة‬t. al-ḥayāh
biography; curriculum vitae; ‫تاريخ عام‬ ‫ ارض‬araḍ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬termite;
(‘āmm) world history; ‫ علماء التاريخ‬the woodworm
historians ‫ ارضية‬arḍīya pl. -āt floor; ground (also, e.g., of
‫ تاريخي‬tārīḳī historic(al) a printed fabric, of a painting); ground
floor, first floor (tun.); storage, warehouse
‫ مَؤرخ‬mu'arriḳ pl. -ūn historiographer,
historian, chronicler, annalist; -- mu’arraḳ
dated ‫ ارضروم‬arḍurum2 Erzurum (city in NE Turkey)
‫ ارخبيل‬arḳabīl archipelago ‫( ارطة‬also ‫ )اورطة‬urṯa pl. ‫ ارط‬uraṯ (‫)اورط‬
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.)
‫( ارخن‬άρχων) pl. ‫ اراخنة‬arāḳina archon, pl.
notables (Chr.-Copt.) ‫ ارطقة‬arṯaqa pl. -āt heresy (Chr.)
‫ اردب‬irdabb (now usually pronounced ‫ تاريع‬see ‫ريع‬
ardabb)pl. ‫ ارادب‬arādib2 ardeb, a dry ‫ ارغن‬urgun pl. ‫ اراغن‬aragin2 organ (mus. instr.)
measure (Eg.; = 1981)
‫ ارول‬urgūl, argūl a wind instrument (related to
‫ اردبة‬irdabba cesspool the clarinet, consisting of two pipes of
‫ الَردن‬al-urdunn Jordan (river and country) unequal length)
‫ اردني‬urdunni Jordanian│ ‫المملكة الَردنية‬ ‫ ارق‬ariqa a to find no sleep II to make
‫ الهاشمية‬al-mamlaka al-u. al-hāšimīya the sleepless (‫ ه‬s.o.), prevent s.o. (‫ )ه‬from
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official sleeping
designation) ‫ ارق‬araq sleeplessness, insomnia
‫( اردواز‬Fr. ardoise) arduwāz slate ‫ اريكة‬arika pl. ‫ ارائك‬arā’ik2 couch, sofa; throne
‫ ارز‬arz (n. un. ‫ )ة‬cedar ‫ اركيلة‬argīla pl. ‫ اراكيل‬arāgīl2 (syr.) water pipe,
‫ ارز‬aruzz rice narghile
‫ ارس‬arasa i (ars) to till the land ‫ ارلندي‬irlandī Irish
‫ اريس‬irrīs and arīs peasant, farmer ‫ ارم‬arama i to bite
‫ ارستقراطي‬aristuqrāṯī aristocratic; ristocrat ‫ ارم‬urram molar teeth│ ‫حرق الَرم‬
(ḥarraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger)
‫ ارستقراطية‬aristuqrāṯīya aristocracy
‫ ارومَة‬arūma, urūma root, origin; stump
‫ ارسطو‬arisṯū Aristotle
of a tree
‫ ارش‬arš indemnity, amercement, fine, penalty;
‫ مَئرم‬mi'ram root (of a tooth)
blood money (for the shedding of blood;
Isl. Law) ‫آرام‬ārām (= ‫ )ارام‬pl. of ‫ رئم‬ri'm) white
‫( ارشي ابسقوبس‬Gr. ὰρχιεπίσϰοπος) archbishop
‫ الَرمَن‬al-arman the Armenians
‫( ارشيدوق‬Fr. archiduc) archduke, ‫ارشيدوقة‬
archduchess ‫ ارمَني‬armanī Armenian (adj. and n.)
‫ ارض‬arḍ f., pl. ‫ اراض‬arāḍīn, ‫ اراضون‬arāḍūn ‫ ارمَينيا‬armēniyā Armenia
earth; land, country, region, area; terrain, ‫ الَرناوط‬al-arnāwuṯ the Albanians
ground, soil│ ‫( الَرض السفلى‬suflā) the
nether world; ‫( الَرض المقدسة‬muqaddasa) ‫ ارناوطي‬arnāwuṯī Albanian
the Holy Land, Palestine ‫ ارنب‬arnab f., pl. ‫ ارانب‬arānib2 hare; rabbit│‫ارن‬
‫ ارضي‬arḍī terrestrial, of the earth; soil-, ‫( ب هندي‬hindī) guinea pig
land- (in compounds); situated on or near ‫ ارنبة‬arnaba female hare, doe│ ‫ارنبة الَنف‬
the ground, ground (adj.); earthly; a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, muzzle (of
underground, subterranean an animal)
‫ ارضي شوكي‬arḍī šaukī artichoke
‫( ارنيك‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ ارانيك‬arānīk2 neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical
pattern, model; form, blank situation, also ‫( مَأزق حرج‬ḥarij)
‫ اروبا‬urubbā Europe ‫ ازل‬azl pl. ‫ آزال‬āzāl eternity (without
beginning), sempiternity
‫ اروبي‬urubbī European (adj. and n.)
1 ‫ ازلي‬azali eternal, sempiternal
‫ ارى‬ary honey
2 ‫ ازلية‬azalīya sempiternity, eternity
‫ آرى‬ārī Aryan
‫ ازم‬V to be or become critical, come to a head
‫ آرية‬ārīya Aryanism
(situation, relations)
‫ اريحا‬arīḥā Jericho
‫ ازمَة‬azma pl. azamāt emergency; crisis│
‫ از‬azza u i (‫ ازيز‬aziz) to simmer; to hum, buzz; ‫( ازمَة وزارية‬wizāriya) cabinet crisis
to whiz, hiss; to fizzle; to wheeze
‫ تأزم‬ta'azzum: ‫ تأزم الحالة‬t. al-hāla critical
‫ ازيز‬azīz hum(ming), buzz(ing); development, aggravation of the situation
whizzing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets)
‫ مَأزوم‬ma'zūm victim of a crisis
‫ ازب‬azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water)
‫ ازمَير‬izmīr2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea-port
‫ مَئزاب‬mi'zāb pl. ‫ مَآزيب‬ma'āzīb and ‫مَيزاب‬ in W Turkey)
mīzāb pl. ‫ مَيازيب‬mayāzīb2 drain; gutter,
‫ ازمَيل‬izmīl pl. ‫ ازامَيل‬azāmīl 2 chisel
eaves trough
2 ‫( ازوت‬Engl.) azōt azote, nitrogen
‫ ازب‬izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man
‫ ازوتي‬azōtī nitrogenous
‫ الَزبك‬al-uzbak the Uzbeks
‫ ازى‬III to be opposite s.th. (‫)ه‬, face (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هـ‬
‫ ازر‬azara i (azr) to surround (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II to
clothe (‫ ه‬s.o. with an ‫ ازار‬izār q.v.); to
cover, wrap up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ ازاء‬izā’a (prep.) opposite, face to face
strengthen, brace (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to help with, facing; in front of; in the face of
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to support, back up, strengthen (‫ه‬ (e.g., of a situation); as compared with; ‫بازا‬
s.o.) V and VIII to put on an izār (see ‫ ء‬bi-izā’i opposite, face to face with,
below), wrap s.o. in an izār VI to help facing; in front of; ‫‘ على ازاء‬alā izā’i in the
each other; to rally, unite, join forces face of (e.g., of a situation)
‫ ازر‬azr strength│ ‫ شد ازره‬šadda azrahū or ‫شد مَن‬ ‫ آس‬ās myrtle
‫( ازره‬min azrihi) to help, support, 2
‫ آس‬pl. -āt ace (playing card)
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; šadda azruhū
to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, ‫ آس‬II to found, establish, set up (‫ هـ‬s.th.), lay
courageous the foundation (‫ هـ‬for) V to be founded, be
established, he set up
‫ ازار‬izār m. and f., pl. ‫ ازر‬uzur
loincloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, ‫ اس‬foundation, basis; exponent of a
cover power (math.)
‫ مَئزر‬mi’zar pl. ‫ مَآزر‬ma’āzīr2 apron; ‫ اس‬asās pl. ‫ اسس‬usus foundation (also,
wrapper, covering, cover of a building), fundament, groundwork,
ground, basis; keynote. Tonic (mus.)│ ‫على‬
‫ مَؤازرة‬mu’āzara support, aid, ‫( اساس‬with foll. genit.) on the basis of, on
assistance, backing the strength of, on account of, according
‫ تآزر‬ta’āzur mutual assistance to; ‫( لَ اساس له مَن الصحة‬asāsa, ṣiḥḥa)
completely unfounded (news, rumor)
‫ ازف‬azila a (awaf, ‫ ازوف‬uzūf) to come,
approach, draw near (a time) ‫ اساسي‬asāsī fundamental, basic;
elementary; essential; principal, chief,
‫ ازق‬azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do.
main│‫( حجر اسود‬ḥajar) cornerstone,
‫ مَأزق‬ma'ziq pl. ‫ مَآزق‬ma’āziq2 narrow foundation stone
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle-
‫ اساسيات‬asāsīyāt fundamentals, ‫ الستانة‬al-āsitāna, ‫ الَستانة‬al-astāna, al-istāna
principles Constantinople, Istanbul
‫ تأسيس‬ta'sīs founding, foundation, ‫ استبرق‬istabraq brocade
establishment, setting up, institution; ‫ استراتيجي‬istrātījī strategic
grounding, laying of the substructure
(arch.); pl. -āt facilities, utilities; ‫ استرالي‬usturālī Australian
institutions ‫ استراليا‬usturālīyā Australia
‫ تأسيس‬ta'sīsī founding; foundational, ‫ استرليني‬istarlīnī sterling│ ‫ جنيه استرليني‬pound
fundamental│ ‫( مَجلس تأسيسي‬majlis) sterling; ‫ مَنطقة الَسترليني‬minṯaqat al-i.
constituent assembly sterling area
‫ مَؤسس‬mu'assis founder ‫ استمارة‬see ‫امَر‬
‫ مَؤسسة‬mu’assasa pl. -āt foundation, ‫( استوبة‬It. stoppa) tow, oakum; cotton waste
establishment; firm (com.); institution;
organization ‫( استوديو‬It.-Engl. studio) istūdiyō pl. ‫استوديوهات‬
istūdiyōhāt studio; atelier
‫ الَسبان‬al-asbān, al-isbān the Spaniards
‫ استوكهولم‬istokholm Stockholm
‫ اسباني‬isbānī Spanish; (pl. -ūn) Spaniard
‫( استونيا‬Engl.) istōniyā Estonia
‫ اسبانخ‬isbānaḳ spinach
‫ استياتيت‬I istiyātīt steatite, soapstone (min.)
‫ اسبانيا‬isbāniyā Spain
‫ اسوج‬look up alphabetically
‫ اسبداج‬isbidāj and ‫ اسبيداج‬isbīdāj white lead,
ceruse ‫ اسد‬X to display the courage of a lion (‫على‬
‫( اسبرتو‬It. spirito) isbirto alcohol
‫ اسد‬asad pl. ‫ اسد‬usud, usd, ‫ اسود‬usūd, ‫ آساد‬āsād
‫ اسبليطة‬isbalīṯa epaulet lion; Leo (astron.)│ ‫ داء الَسد‬leontiasis
‫ است‬see 1‫ست‬ (med.)
‫ استاتيكي‬istātīkī static (el.) ‫ اسر‬asara i (asr) to bind, fetter, shackle,
chain (‫ ه‬s.o.); to capture, take prisoner (‫ه‬
‫( استاد‬Fr. stade) istād stadium s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold
‫ استاذ‬ustād pl. ‫ اساتذة‬asātida master; teacher; spellbound (‫ ه‬s.o.), absorb, arrest (‫ هـ‬the
professor (academic title); form of address attention) X to surrender, give s.o. up as
to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists, prisoner
officials, writers and poets); ledger ‫ اسر‬asr (leather) strap, thong; capture;
(com.)│ ‫( الَستاذ العظم‬a‘ẓam) Grand captivity│‫ شدة الَسر‬šiddat al-a. vigor,
Master (of a lodge); ‫ الَستاذ الكبر‬title of the energy
Rector of Al Azhar University; ‫استاذ كرسي‬
(kursī; Eg.) and ‫( استاذ بكرسي‬Syr.) full ‫ اسرة‬usra pl. ‫ اسر‬usar, -āt family;
professor; ‫( استاذ بل كرسي‬Syr.) associate dynasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; -- asirra
professor; ‫( استاذ مَتفرغ‬mutafarrig;Eg.) part- see ‫سرير‬
time professor (holding an office outside ‫ باسره‬bi-asrihī entirely, completely,
the university); ‫( استاذ مَساعد‬musā‘id) altogether, ‫ جاءوا باسرهم‬all of them came,
assistant professor (Eg.; Syr.); ‫استاذ زائر‬ they came one and all
(Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; ‫اساتذة في الجدل‬
(jadal) they are masters of disputation ‫ اسار‬isār (leather) strap, thong; captivity;
captivation, enthrallment│ ‫ وقع في اساره‬to
‫ استاذية‬ustādīya mastership; be subjected to s.th., fall into the clutches
professorship, professorate of s.th.
‫ استانبول‬istanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople ‫ اسير‬asīr pl. ‫ اسراء‬usarā2, ‫ اسرى‬asrā, ‫اسار‬
‫ استانبولي‬istanbūlī of Istanbul ‫ ى‬asārā prisoner, captive, prisoner of war
‫ اسيرة‬asīra pl. -āt female prisoner, slave ‫ اسف‬asifa and ‫ اسيف‬asīf regretful, sorry,
girl sad, grieved, distressed
‫ آسر‬āsir winning, captivating, ‫ تأسف‬ta'assuf regret
fascinating; captor ‫ آسف‬āsif regretful, sorry, sad│ ‫تركته غير‬
‫ مَأسور‬ma’sūr captivated, fascinated, ‫( آسف‬gaira āsifin) I left him without regret,
enthralled (‫ ب‬by) I was only too glad to leave him
‫ اسرة‬asirra see ‫سرير‬ ‫ مَأسوف عليه‬ma’sūf ‘alaihi mourned (esp.
3 of a dead person, = the late lamented)
‫ مَأسورة‬look up alphabetically
‫ مَؤسف‬mu’sif distressing, sad, regrettable
‫ اسرائيل‬isrā’īl2 Israel│ ‫ بنو اسرائيل‬banū i. the
Israelites; ‫ دولة اسرائيلية‬daulat i. the State of ‫ مَتأسف‬muta’assif sad, sorry, regretful; ‫مَتأ‬
Israel ‫ !سف‬sorry!
‫ اسرائيلي‬isrā’īlī Israelitish; Israelite; ‫ اسفاناخ‬isfānāk and ‫ اسفانخ‬isfānaḳ spinach│
Israeli (adj, and n.); ‫ اسرائيليات‬Judaica ‫( اسفاناخ رومَي‬rūmī) garden orach (Atriplex
hortensis, bot.)
‫ اسرافيل‬isrāfīl 2 Israfil, the angel who will sound
the trumpet on the day of Resurrection ‫ اسفلت‬asfalt asphalt
‫ اسرب‬usrub lead (metal) ‫ اسفنج‬isfanj,isfunj sponge
‫ اسطانبول‬isṯanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople ‫ اسفنجي‬isfanjī spongy; porous
‫ اسطبل‬isṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn ‫ اسفندان‬isfindān maple (bot.)
‫( اسطبة‬It. stoppa) usṯubba tow, oakum ‫ اسفيداج‬isfīdāj; white lead, ceruse
‫ اسطرلَب‬asṯurlāb astrolabe ‫ اسفين‬isfīn pl. ‫ اسافين‬asāfīn2 wedge
‫ اسطقس‬isṯaqīs pl. -āt element ‫ اسقربوطي‬isqarbūṯī: ‫( مَرض اسقربوطي‬maraḍ)
scurvy (med.)
‫ اسطوانات‬usṯuwāna pl. -āt column (arch.);
cylinder (math.; of an engine); ‫ اسقف‬usquf pl. ‫ اساقفة‬asāqifa, ‫ اساقف‬asāqif2
phonograph record; -- pl. ‫ اساطين‬asāṯīn2 bishop│ ‫ رئيس الَساقفة‬archbishop
high-ranking, prominent personalities; ‫ اسقفي‬usqufī Episcopal
stars, celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g.,
of art: ‫ اساطين الفن‬a. al-fann) ‫ اسقفية‬usqufīya episcopate, bishopric
‫ اسطوانى‬usṯuwānī cylindric(al) ‫ اسقمري‬usqumrī, isqumrī mackerel (zool.)
‫ اسطورة‬usṯūra pl. ‫ اساطير‬asāṯīr legend, fable, ‫ اسقيل‬isqīl an Oriental variety of sea onion
tale, myth, saga (Scilla)
‫ اسطوري‬usṯūrī fabulous, mythical, legendary ‫( اسكتش‬Engl.) isketš sketch
‫ اسطول‬usṯūl pl. ‫ اساطيل‬asāṯīl2 fleet; squadron ‫ اسكتلندا‬iskotlandā Scotland
□ ‫ اسطى‬usṯā (colloq. for ‫ )استاذ‬pl. ‫اسطوات‬ ‫ اسكتلندي‬iskotlandī Scottish, Scotch
usṯawāt master; foreman, overseer; also ‫ اسكلة‬iskila pl. ‫ اساكل‬asākil2 seaport,
form of address to those in lower callings, commercial center (in the East)
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc.
‫ اسكملة‬iskamla stool, footstool
‫ اسف‬asifa a (asaf) to regret (‫ على‬or ‫ ل‬s.th.), feel
sorry (‫ على‬for), be sad (‫ على‬about) V do ‫ اسكندرونة‬iskandarūna2 Iskenderon (formerly
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey)
‫ اسف‬asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret│ ‫وا‬
‫ !اسفاه‬wā asafāh! Oh, what a pity! it's too ‫ الَسكندرية‬al-iskandarīya Alexandria (city in N
bad! ‫ ويا للاسف‬wa-yā lal-asafi (or only ‫للاس‬ Egypt)
‫ )ف‬unfortunately; ‫ مَع الَسف‬and ‫ بكل اسف‬bi- ‫ اسكندينافيا‬iskandināfīya Scandinavia
kulli asafin do.
‫ اسل‬II to sharpen, point, taper (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ اسل‬asal (coll.) rush (bot.) ‫ أسوار‬iswār, uswār pl. ‫ أساور‬asāwir2, ‫أساورة‬
asāwira bracelet, bangle
‫ اسلة‬asaIa pl. -āt thorn, spike, prong;
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of the ‫ أسوان‬aswān Aswan (city in S Egypt)
tongue ‫ اسوج‬asūj Sweden
‫ الحروف الَسلية‬al-ḥurūf al-asalīya the ‫ اسوجي‬asūjī Swedish
letters ‫ س‬,‫ ز‬and ‫ص‬
‫ اسى‬see ‫اسو‬
‫ اسيل‬asīl smooth│ ‫( خد اسيل‬ḳadd) smooth
cheek ‫ آسيا‬āsiyā Asia│ ‫( آسيا الصغرى‬ṣugrā) Asia
‫ اسالة‬asāla eliptic, oval form
‫ آسيوي‬āsiyawī Asiatic, Asian (adj. and n.)
‫ مَؤسل‬mu’assal pointed, tapered
‫ اسيوط‬asyūt2 Asyūt (city in central Egypt)
‫( اسلمَبولي‬variant of ‫ )استانبولي‬islāmbūlī of
Istanbul ‫ اشب‬V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley (a
‫ اسلنده‬islandā Iceland
‫ اشابة‬ušāba pl. ‫ اشائب‬ašā’ib2 mixed,
‫ اسم‬see 1‫سم‬ motley crowd
‫ اسمانجوني‬asmanjūnī sky-blue, azure, cerulean ‫ اشببيلية‬išbīliya2 Seville (city in SW Spain)
‫ اسمره‬asmara Asmara (capital of Eritrea) ‫ اشبين‬išbīn pl. ‫ اشابين‬see ‫شبن‬
‫ اسمنت‬asmant, ismant cement ‫ اشر‬ašara u (ašr) to sow (‫ هـ‬s.th.); -- i to file,
‫ اسمنتي‬asmantī cement (adj.) sharpen with a file (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II to mark,
indicate, state, enter, record (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ اسن‬asana i u and asina a to become brackish
grant a visa; to provide with a visa (‫على‬
‫ آسن‬āsin brackish
‫ اشر‬ašar liveliness, high spirits,
(‫ اسو‬and ‫ اسا )اسى‬asā u (asw, ‫ اسا‬asan) to nurse, exuberance; wildness; insolence,
treat (‫ هـ‬a wound); to make peace (‫بين‬ impertinence
between, among); -- ‫ اسى‬asiya (‫ اسا‬,‫اسى‬
‫ اشر‬ašir lively, sprightly, in high spirits,
asan) to be sad, grieved, distressed II to
exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent,
console, comfort (‫ ه‬s.o.); to nurse (‫ ه‬a
patient) III to share (one’s worldly
possessions, ‫ ه‬with s.o.), be charitable (‫ ه‬to ‫ مَئشار‬minšār pl. ‫ مَواشير‬mawāšīr2 saw
s.o.); to assist, support (‫ ه‬s.o.); to console, ‫ تأشير‬ta’šīr issuance of an official
comfort (‫ ه‬s.o.); to treat, cure (‫ هـ‬s.th., endorsement; official endorsement; visa
medically) V to be consoled, find solace
VI to share the worldly possessions; to ‫ تأشيرة‬ta’šīra pl. -āt visa│ ‫ تأشيرة مَرور‬t.
assist one another, give mutual assistance murūr or ‫ تأشيرة اجتياز‬transit visa
‫ اسى‬asan grief, sorrow, distress ‫ مَؤشر‬mu’aššir indicator, needle (of a
measuring instrument)
‫ اسوة‬uswa, iswa example, model,
pattern│‫ اسوة ب‬uswatan bi following the ‫ مَؤشر‬mu’aššar jagged, serrated; marked,
model or pattern of; along the lines of; in designated (‫ ب‬by, with)
the same manner as, just as, like ‫ اشفى‬išfā pl. ‫ اشاف‬ašāfin awl, punch
‫ مَأساة‬ma’sāh pl. ‫ مَآس‬ma’āsin trogedy, ‫ اشنان‬ušnān potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; bot.)
‫ اشنة‬ušna moss
‫ تأسية‬ta’siya consolation, comfort
‫ اشور‬ašūr Assyria
‫ مَواساة‬muwāsāh (for mu’āsāh)
consolation; charity; beneficence ‫ اشوري‬ašūrī Assyrian (adj. and n.)
‫ اصيص‬aṣīṣ pl. ‫ اصص‬uṣūṣ flowerpot
‫ اصد‬II to close, shut (a door, etc.) ‫ اصيل‬pl. ‫ اصلء‬uṣalā’2 of pure, noble
origin; original, authentic, genuine; pure;
‫ اصر‬iṣr pl. ‫ آصار‬āṣār covenant, compact,
proper, actual; firm, solid; sound,
contract; load, encumbrance, burden; sin;
reasonable, sensible; of strong,
pl. ‫ آصار‬bonds, ties
unswerving character; steadfast; deep-
‫ آصرة‬āṣira pl. ‫ اواصر‬awāṣir2 bond, tie (fig. e.g., rooted; native, indigenous│ ‫الصل الصيل‬
‫ اواصر الولَء‬a. al-walā’i bonds of the actual reason; ‫ اصيل الرأي‬of sound,
friendship); obligation, commitment unerring judgment
‫ اصطبل‬iṣṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn ‫ اصيل‬pl. ‫ آصال‬āṣāl, ‫ اصائل‬aṣā’il2 time before
‫ اصفهان‬iṣfahān2 Isfahan (city in W central Iran) sunset, late afternoon

‫ اصل‬aṣula u (‫ اصالة‬aṣala) to be or become ‫ اصالة‬aṣāla firmness, steadfastness,

firmly rooted; to be firmly established; to strength of character; nobility of descent,
be of noble origin II to found (‫ هـ‬s.th.), purity of origin; aṣālatan immediately,
give s.th. (‫ )هـ‬a firm foundation, establish directly, personally│ ‫ اصالة الرأي‬a. ar-ra’y
the foundation or origin of (‫ )هـ‬V to be or clarity and firmness of judgment;
become firmly rooted, deep-rooted, judiciousness; ‫بالَصالة عن نفسه‬
ingrained; to take root, be or become spontaneously, of one's own accord, in
firmly established; to derive one's origin ( one's own name, personally, privately (as
‫ مَن‬from) X to uproot, root out, extirpate, opposed to ‫اصال ونيابة ;)بالنيابة عن غيره‬
exterminate, annihilate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to aṣālatan wa-niyābatan directly and
remove (‫ هـ‬an organ by a surgical indirectly
operation)│ ‫(استأصل شأفته‬ša’fatahū) to ‫ تأصيلة‬ta’ṣīla pedigree, genealeogy
eradicate s.th., eliminate s.th. radically
‫ تأصل‬ta’aṣṣu1 deep-rootedness
‫ اصل‬pl. ‫ اصول‬root; trunk (of a tree); origin,
‫ استئصال‬isti’ṣāl extirpation,
source; cause, reason; descent, lineage,
extermination, (radical) elimination;
stock (esp., one of a noble character);
removal by surgery
foundation, fundament, basis; the origins!
(e.g., of s book); pl. ‫ اصول‬principles, ‫ مَتأصل‬muta’aṣṣil deep-rooted, deep-
fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., seated; chronic (illness)
of a science); rules; basic rules, principles, ‫ اطيط‬aṯīṯ the mooning bray of a camel
axioms; real estate, landed property; assets
(fin.); -- ‫ اصل‬aṣlan originally, primarily; ‫ اطر‬aṯara i u (aṯr) and II to bend, curve (‫هـ‬
(with neg.) by no means, not at all, not in s.th.)
the least│‫ في الصل‬originally, at first; ‫اصول‬ ‫ اطار‬iṯār pl. -āt, ‫اطر‬uṯur frame (also, of
‫ الفقه‬u. al-fiqh the 4 foundations of Islamic eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop (of a
jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, Sunna, qiyās barrel, etc.)
(analogy) and ijmā‘ (consensus); ‫اصول‬
‫ وخصوم‬assets and liabilities; ‫اصول مَضاعفة‬ ‫ اطارة‬iṯāra rim, felly (of a wheel)
(muḍā‘afa) double-entry bookkeeping; ‫ اطاري‬iṯārī framelike, hoop-shaped
‫( حسب الصول‬ḥasaba) properly, in 2
conformity with regulations ‫ اطرية‬see ‫طرى‬

‫ اصلي‬original, primary, primal, initial; ‫ اطرغلة‬uṯrugulla a variety of pigeon

genuine, authentic, pure; basic, ‫ اطرون‬aṯrūn = ‫نطرون‬
fundamental, principel, chief, main│ ‫الثمن‬
‫ الَطلنطيك‬,‫ الَطلنتيك‬al-aṯlantīk, al-aṯlanṯīq the
‫( الصلي‬taman) cost price; ‫الجهات الصلية‬
(jihāt) the cardinal points (of the
compass); ‫‘( عدد اصلي‬adad) cardinal ‫ اطلنطيكي‬aṯlanṯīqī and ‫ اطلنطي‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic
number; ‫‘( عضو اصلي‬uḍw) regular member ‫ اطلس‬aṯlas2 satin; (pl. ‫ اطالس‬aṯālis2 atlas,
‫ اصولي‬uṣūlī in accordance with the volume of geographical maps
rules, conforming to prevailing principles; ‫ اطلسي‬aṯlasī Atlantic
traditional, usual; legist
‫ اطلنطي‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic│ ‫الحلف الَطلنطي‬the ‫ آفاق البلد‬a. al-bilād the outlying portions of
Atlantic Pact the country; ‫ شذاذ الآفاق‬šuddad al-a.
foreigners, travelers
‫ اطوم‬aṯūm sea turtle
‫ افقي‬ufqī horizontal
‫ اغا‬agā, ‫ آغا‬āgā pl. ‫ اغوات‬agawāt aga, lord,
master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain ‫ آفاقي‬āfāqī coming from a distant country
or region
‫ الَغريق‬al-igrīq, ‫ الَغارقة‬al-agāriqa the Greeks
‫ افاق‬affāq wandering, roving, roaming;
‫ اغريقي‬igrīqī Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.)
tramp, vagabond
‫ اغسطس‬agustus August (month)
‫ افك‬afaka i (afk) and afika a (ifk, afk, afak, ‫افوك‬
‫ ا ف‬V to grumble, mutter in complaint (‫مَن‬
‫ف‬ ufūk) to lie, tell a lie
‫ افك‬ifk and ‫ افيكة‬afīka pl. ‫ افائك‬afā’ik2 lie,
‫ ا ف‬uff dirt (in the ears or under the
‫ف‬ untruth, falsehood
nails), earwax, cerumen
‫ افاك‬affak liar, lying
‫ف‬‫ ا ف‬uff interj. expressing anger or
‫ افل‬afala u i (‫ افول‬ufūl) to go down, set (stars)
‫ افول‬ufūl setting (of stars)
‫ افف‬afaf displeasure; grumbling,
grumble ‫ آفل‬āfil transitory, passing
‫ الَفرنج‬al-ifranj the Franks, the Europeans│ ‫بلد‬ ‫ افلطون‬aflāṯūn2 Plato
‫ الَفرنج‬Europe ‫ افن‬afan stupidity
‫ افرنجي‬ifranjī European ‫ افين‬afīn and ‫ مَأفون‬ma’fūn stupid, foolish,
‫ افرنسي‬ifransī French; ‫ الَفرنسية‬the French fatuous; fool
language; ‫ الَفرنسيون‬the French ‫ افندي‬afandī pl. -īya gentleman (when referring
‫ افريز‬ifrīz pl. ‫ افاريز‬afārīz2 frieze; edge; curb; to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes
sidewalk│‫ افريز المحطة‬i. al-maḥaṯṯa and the tarboosh); (after the name) a title
platform (of a railroad station); ‫افريز الحائط‬ of respect (eg.); ‫ !افندم‬afandim! Sir! (eg.)
molding (arch.) afandim? (I beg your) pardon? What did
you say? 20
‫ افريقا‬afrīqā f. and ‫ افريقيا‬ifrīqiyā, now usually
pronounced afrīqiyā f. Africa│ ‫افريقيا‬ ‫( افوكاتو‬It. avvocato) avokātō advocate, lawyer,
‫( الشمالية‬šamālīya) North Africa attorney│‫ الافوكاتو العمومَي‬representative of
the attorney general (= Fr. avocat général)
‫ افريقي‬ifrīqī, now usually pronounced
afrīqī African; (pl. -ūn, ‫ افارقة‬afāriqa) an ‫ افيون‬afyūn opium│‫ روح الَفيون‬al-a. laudanum
African ‫ اقة‬uqqa pl. -āt oka, a weight, in Eg. = 1.24s
‫ آفرين‬āfirīn bravo! well done! kg, in Syr. = 1.2s2 kg
‫ افسنتين‬ifsantīn, ifsintīn wormwood, absinthe ‫ مَؤقت‬see ‫وقت‬
(Artemisia absinthium; bot.) ‫ اقحوان‬uqhūwān pl. ‫ اقاحى‬aqāḥī daisy
‫ افشين‬ifšīn pl. ‫ افاشين‬afāšīn litany (Chr.) ‫ اقرباذين‬aqrabādīn composite medicament│ ‫علم‬
‫ الَفغان‬al-afgān the Afghans; Afghanistan ‫‘ الَقرباذين‬ilm al-a. pharmaceutics,
‫ افغانستان‬afgānistān Afghanistan
‫ اقرباذيني‬aqrabādīnī pharmaceutic(al)
‫ افغاني‬afgānī Afghan (adj. and n.)
‫ اقيط‬aqīṯ cottage cheese
‫ افق‬ufq, ufuq pl. ‫ آفاق‬āfāq horizon; range of
vision, field of vision; pl. distant lands, ‫ اقليد‬iqlīd look up alphabetically
faraway countries, remote regions; ‫ اقلم‬aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt,
provinces, interior of the country (as adjust II ta'aqlama to acclimatize (o.s.)
distinguished from the capital)│ ‫آفاق الرض‬
a. al-arḍ the remotest parts of the earth;
‫ اقليم‬iqlīm pl. ‫ اقاليم‬aqiilim2 climate; area, ‫ اكل‬akala u (akl, ‫ مَأكل‬ma’kal) to eat (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
region; province, district; administrative eat up, consume, swallow, devour, destroy
district (Eg.; = ‫ الَقاليم ;)مَديرية‬country, (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to eat, gnaw (‫ هـ‬at), 21 eat away,
provinces (as distinguished from the city) corrode, erode (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to spend
unlawfully (‫ هـ‬s.th.). enrich o.s. feather
‫ اقليمي‬iqlīmī climatic; regional, local;
one's nest (‫ هـ‬with)│ ‫اكل عليه الدهر وشرب‬
territorial│‫( المياه الَقليمية‬miyāh) territorial
(dahru, šariba) to be old and worn out, be
timeworn; ‫( اكل الربا‬ribā) to take usurious
‫ اقليد‬iqlīd pl. ‫ اقاليد‬aqālīd2 key interest; ‫ يعلم مَن اين تؤكل الكتف‬ya‘lamu min
‫ اقليدس‬iqlīdis Euclid aina tu’kalu l-katif he knows how to
tackle the matter properly; ‫( اكله جلده‬j
‫ اقنوم‬uqnūm pl. ‫ اقانيم‬aqānīm2 hypostasis, divine ‫ه‬lduhū) his skin itched; ‫اكل في الصحن‬
person within the Trinity (Chr.); (ṣaḥn) to eat off a plate; ‫( اكل حقه‬ḥaqqahū)
constitutive element to encroach upon s.o.’s right II and IV to
‫( اقونة‬Gr. είκών) iqūna icon (Chr.) give s.o. (‫ )ه‬s.th. (‫ )هـ‬to eat, feed (‫ هـ ه‬s.o.
s.th.) III to eat, dine (‫ ه‬with s.o.) V to be
‫ اقيانوسية‬uqyanūsiya Oceania devoured, be consumed; to be eaten away,
‫ اكادى‬akkādī Akkadian corrode, undergo corrosion; to become
old, worn, timeworn, full of cracks; to be
‫ اكاديمية‬akādīmīya academy
destroyed by corrosion VI = V
‫ اكتوبر‬okctober October
‫ اكل‬akl food; meal, repast; fodder, feed│
‫ اكد‬II to assure (‫ هـ ل‬s.o. of, ‫ ان‬that); to give ‫غرفة الَكل‬gurfat al-a. dining room; (eg.) ‫اكل‬
assurance (‫ هـ ل‬s.o. of); to confirm (‫ هـ‬s.th. ‫ البحر‬a. al-baḥr land washed away by the
a view) V to be or become convinced, sea or the Nile (as opposed to ‫)طرح البحر‬
convince o.s. (‫ مَن‬s.th.); to reassure o.s.,
‫ اكل‬ukul, ukl food; fruit│ ‫ آتى اكله‬to bear
make sure (‫ مَن‬of s.th.); to be sure (‫ مَن‬of);
to be urgent, imperative, requisite
‫ اكلة‬akla pl. akalāt meal, repast; -- ukla
‫ تأكيد‬ta'kīd pl. -āt assurance;
bite, morsel
confirmation; emphasis; ‫ بالتأكيد‬most
certainly! of course! ○ ‫ اكال‬ukāl prurigo, itch eruption
‫ تأكد‬ta’akkud assurance, reassurance (med.)
‫ أكيد‬akīd certain, sure; firm (resolve); ‫ اكال‬akkāl, ‫ اكيل‬akīl, ‫ اكول‬akūl voracious,
definite (desire); urgent, imperative gluttonous; hearty eater, gourmand,
(need); ‫ أكيدا‬akīdan certainly! surely! glutton
‫ مَؤكد‬mu’akkad certain, definite, sure; ‫ مَأكل‬ma’kal pl. ‫ مَآكل‬ma’ākil2 food, eats
‫ تأكل‬ta’akkul wear; corrosion; erosion
‫ مَتأكد‬muta'akkid convinced (‫ مَن‬of) (geol.)
‫ اكر‬akara i (akr) to plow, till, cultivate (‫ هـ‬the ‫ تآكل‬ta’ākul wear; corrosion; erosion
land) (geol.)
‫ اكار‬akkār pl. -ūn, ‫ اكرة‬akara plowman ‫ ائتكل‬i’tikāl erosion (geol.)
‫ اكرة‬ukra pl. ‫ اكر‬ukar ball (for playing) ‫ آكل‬ākil eater
‫ اكزيما‬ekzēmā eczema (med.) ‫ آكلة‬ākila gangrenous sore
‫ اشعة اكس‬aši‘‘at iks X-rays ‫ مَأكول‬ma’kūl eatable, edible; pl. ‫ مَأكولَت‬food,
‫ اكسترا‬extra foodstuffs, eatables, edibles

‫ اكسجين‬oksižēn oxygen ‫ مَؤاكل‬mu’ākil table companion

‫ اكسير‬iksīr elixir ‫ مَتأكل‬muta’akkil and ‫ مَتآكل‬muta’ākil

corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full of
‫ اكف‬akuff see ‫كف‬ cracks; rusty, rust-eaten
‫ اكليروس‬iklīrūs clergy (Chr.) ‫( الزاس‬Fr. Alsace) alzās2 Alsace (region of NE
‫ اكليروسية‬iklīrūsīya clericalism
‫ الس‬II to belittle, disparage (‫ على‬s.o.)
‫ اكليركي‬iklīrikī cleric(al)
‫ الف‬alf pl. ‫ الوف‬ulūf, ‫ آلاف‬ālāf thousand;
‫ اكلينيكي‬iklīnīkī clinical
millennium│‫( الوف مَؤلف‬mu’allafa) or ‫آلَف‬
‫ اكمة‬akama pl. -āt, ‫ اكام‬ikām, ‫ اكم‬ukum, ‫آكام‬ ‫ مَؤلفة‬thousands and thousands; ‫عشرات‬
ākām (coll. ‫ اكم‬akam) hill; reef; heap, pile│ ‫ الالوف‬ašarāt al-u. tens of thousands; ‫مَآت‬
‫( وراء الَكمة مَا وراءها‬warā’a) something's ‫ الَلوف‬mi’āt al-u. hundreds of thousands
fishy! there is more to it than meets the
‫ الفى‬alfī: ‫‘( عيد الفى‬īd) millennial
celebration, millenary
‫ ال‬ill pact, covenant; blood relationship, 2
‫ الف‬alif name of the letter│‫ مَن الفه الى يائه‬from
beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫يعرف الفه‬
‫ الا‬a-lā and ‫ امَا‬a-mā see│a ‫( وياءه‬wa-yā’ahū) he knows it from A to Z;
َ‫ال‬alā see 1‫الو‬ ‫ الف باء‬ABC
َ‫ ال‬allā (= َ‫ ان ل‬an lā) lest, that ... not, in order ‫ الف‬alifa a (alf) to be acquainted, familiar,
that ... not, so as not to conversant (‫ هـ‬with s.th.); to be on
intimate terms (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to be or get
َ‫ ال‬illā (=‫ ان ل‬in lā) unless if not; except, save; accustomed, used, habituated (‫ هـ‬to); to
(after negation:) only, but, not until│‫الَ ان‬ like (‫ هـ‬s.th.), be fond of (‫ ;)هـ‬to become
illā anna except that ..., yet, however, tame II to accustom, habituate (‫ هـ ه‬s.o. to
nevertheless (also introducing main s.th.); to tame, domesticate (‫ هـ‬an animal);
clauses); ‫ الَ اذا‬illā idā unless, if not; except to form (‫ هـ‬e,g., a committee, a
when; َ‫ وال‬wa-illā (and if not =) otherwise, government); to unite, join, combine, put
orelae; ‫ الَ وهو‬illā wa-huwa (with a together (‫ بين‬different things); to compile,
preceding negation) unless he ..., except compose, write (‫ هـ‬a book) V to be
that he ... ; ‫ ومَا هي الَ ان‬wa-mā hiya illā an composed, be made up, consist (‫ مَن‬of); to
(with following verb in perf.) it was not be united, be combined VI to be attuned to
long until ... ; presently, forthwith; ‫ومَا هي‬ each other, be in tune, be in harmony; to
‫ حتى‬... ‫ الَ ان‬wa-ma hiya illā an ... ḥattā no harmonize (‫ مَع‬with) VIII to be united, be
sooner had he ... than .... e.g..... ‫فما هي الَ أن‬ linked, be connected; to be on familiar,
‫( هم حتى فعل‬hamma) he had no sooner made intimate terms (‫ ب‬with); to form a.
his plan than he carried it out coalition (pol.); to fit, ‫س‬uit (‫ مَع‬s.th.), go
‫ الَسكا‬alaska Alaska well, agree, harmonize (‫ مَع‬with); to be
well-ordered, neat, tidy X to seek the
‫ الَى‬alay and ‫ آلَى‬ālay pl. -āt regiment 22 intimacy, court the friendship (‫ ه‬of s.o.)
‫ الب‬alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forces, rally ‫ الف‬ilf pl. ‫ الاف‬ullāf intimate; close
II to incite (‫ على ه‬s.o. against) V to rally, friend, intimate, confidant; lover
band together, plot, conspire (‫ على‬against)
‫ الف‬ulfa familiarity, intimacy;
‫ جبال الَلب‬jibal al-alb the Alps friendship, love, affection; union, concord,
‫ الالبان‬al-albān the Albanians harmony, congeniality
‫ البانيا‬albāniyā Albania ‫ اليف‬alīf familiar, intimate; tame,
domesticated (animal); friendly, amicable,
‫ الخ‬abbreviation of ‫ الى آخره‬ilā āḳirihī and so
genial; (pl. ‫ الائف‬alā’if2) intimate, close
on, etc.
friend, associate, companion
‫ الذى‬alladī f. ‫ التى‬allatī, pl. m. ‫ الذين‬alladīna f. ‫ال‬
‫ الوف‬alūf familiar, intimate; tame,
‫ لتى‬allātī, ‫ اللواتى‬allawātī, ‫ اللئى‬allā’ī
domesticated (animal); attached, devoted,
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;
who, which, that│‫ بعد اللتيا والتى‬ba‘da l-
lutayyā wa-llatī after lengthy discussions, ‫ مَألف‬ma'laf object of familiarity
after much ado
‫ تأليف‬ta’līf formation (e.g., of a ‫ مَتألم‬muta’allim aching, painful; in pain,
government); union, junction, suffering, deeply afflicted; tormented
combination (‫ بين‬of separate things); 2
‫ الام‬ilā-mā see ‫الى‬
literary work; composition, compilation,
writing (of a book, of an article); (pl. ‫تآليف‬ ‫ الماس‬almās (al sometimes interpreted as
ta’ālīf2, ‫ )تواليف‬work, book, publication definite article) diamond
‫ تآلف‬ta’āluf harmony; familiarity, ‫ الَلمان‬al-almān the Germans
intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship, ‫ الماني‬almānī German; (pl. -ūn, ‫المان‬
camaraderie almān) a German
‫ ائتلاف‬I’tilāf concord, harmony; ‫ المانيا‬almāniyā Germany
agreement (‫ مَع‬with); union; coalition,
entente (pol.) ‫ المانية‬almānīya German character or
characteristics, Germanity
‫ ائتلافي‬I’tilāfī coalition- (in compounds)│
‫ وزارة ائتلافية‬coalition cabinet ‫ اله‬II to deify (‫ ه‬s.o.), make a god of s.o. (‫ )ه‬V
to become a deity, a godhead; to deify o.s.
‫ الف‬ma’lūf familiar, accustomed; usual,
customary; custom, usage 23 ‫ الاه‬,‫ اله‬ilāh pl. ‫ آلهة‬āliha god, deity,
‫ مَؤلف‬mu’allif pl. -ūn author, writer; --
mu’allaf composed, consisting, made up ( ‫ الاهة‬ilaha pl. -āt goddess
‫ مَن‬of); written, compiled; (pl. -āt) book, ‫ الَهي‬,‫ الهي‬ilāhī divine, of God;
publication; see also 1‫ الف‬alf theological; ‫ الَلَهيات‬al-ilāhīyāt
‫ مَتآلف‬muta’ālif harmonious theological, spiritual concerns ‫علم الَلَهيات‬
‘i1m al-i. theology
‫ الق‬alaqa i, (alq) to shine, radiate, flash, glitter,
glisten V and VIII do. ‫ الله‬allāh Allah, God (as the One and Only)│ ‫ل‬
‫ درك‬li-llāh darruka exclamation of
‫ الق‬alaq brightness, brilliance admiration and praise, see ‫در‬
‫ الاق‬allāq bright, shining, brilliant, ‫ اللهم‬allāhumma O God!│ َ‫( اللهم ال‬illā)
radiant; glittering, flashing, sparkling unless, were it not that, except that, or at
‫ تألق‬ta’alluq glow, radiance, effulgence best (after a negative statement); ‫اللهم اذا‬
(idā) at least if or when; if only; ‫اللهم نعم‬
‫ مَتألق‬mula’alliq bright, shining, brilliant, (na‘am) by God, yes! Most certainly!
‫ الوهية‬ulūhīya divine power, divinity
‫ الكتروني‬elektrōnī electronic│‫‘( عقل الكتروني‬aql)
electronic computer ‫ تأليه‬ta’līh deification, apotheosis
‫ الم‬alima a (alam) to be in pain, feel pain; to ‫ آله‬ālih (pagan) god
suffer (y from s.th.) II and IV to cause ‫ آلهة‬āliha pl. -āt goddess
pain or suffering (‫ ه‬to s.o.), pain, ache,
hurt (‫ ه‬s.o.) V = I; to complain ‫ آلهي‬ālihī divine
‫ الم‬alam pl. ‫ آلام‬ālām pain, ache, ‫ مَتأله‬muta’allih divine, heavenly
suffering, agony│‫( آلَم نفسانية‬nafsānīya) ‫ اللاهوت‬etc., see ‫لَهوت‬
mental agony; ‫ اسبوع الآلَم‬usbū‘ al-a. 1
Passion Week (Chr.) (‫ الا )آلو‬alā u to neglect or fail to do, not to do (
‫ في‬s.th.), desist, refrain (‫ في‬from s.th.)│ ‫لا‬
‫ اليم‬alīm aching, sore; sad, grievous, ‫(يألو جهدا في‬jahdan) he will go to any
painful, excruciating; hurting length, he spares no effort, goes out of his
‫ تألم‬ta’allum sensation of pain, pain, ache way for IV to swear│‫ آلى على نفسه ان‬he
promised himself that he ...
‫ مَؤلم‬mu’allim aching, painful; sad,
grievous, distressing ‫ ايلاء‬īlā’ oath
‫( آلو‬Fr. hallo) hello!
‫ الومَنيا‬alūminyā and ‫ الومَنيوم‬aluminyom meninges; ‫ ام اربع واربعين‬u. arba‘ wa-
aluminum 24 arba‘īn centipede; ‫ ام شملة‬u. šamla(ta) this
l world, the worldly pleasures; ‫ بام العين‬bi-u.
‫ الى‬ilā (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; till,
l-‘ain or ‫ بام عينه‬with one’s own eyes; ‫ام‬
until; ‫( الى ان‬conj.) until│‫( الى آخره‬āḳirihī)
‫ القرآن‬and ‫ ام القرآن‬the first sura of the
and so forth, et cetera; ‫ الى ذلك‬besides,
Koran; ‫ ام القرى‬u. al-qura Mecca; ‫ام الكتاب‬
moreover, furthermore, in addition to that;
also: the original text of the Book from
‫ الى غد‬till tomorrow! ‫( اللقاء الى‬liqā’) good-
which Koranic revelation derives; the
by! ‫ الَم‬ilāma (= ‫ )الى مَا‬up to where! how
uncontested portions of the Koran; ‫ام الوطن‬
far! ‫ الى مَتى‬till when! how long! ‫اليك عني‬
u. al-waṯan capital, metropolis; ‫امَهات‬
(‘annī) get away from me! away with you!
‫ الحوادث‬the most important events; ‫امَهات‬
‫( الى جانب ذلك‬jānibi d.) besides, moreover,
‫ الحروف‬matrix (typ.); ‫ امَهات المسائل‬the main
in addition to that; ‫ هذا الى ان‬moreover,
problems; ‫ امَهات المسائل‬the principal virtues
furthermore; ‫( الى غير ذلك‬gair d.) and the
like; ‫ ومَا اليه‬and the like, et cetera; ‫ومَن اليه‬ ‫ امَة‬umma pl. ‫ امَم‬umam nation, people;
(‫( )اليهم‬wa-man) and other people like that; generation│‫ امَة مَحمد‬Mohammed's
‫( اليك‬addressing the reader) now here you community, the Mohammedans; ‫الَمَم المتحدة‬
have ... ; here is (are) ... ; following is (muttaḥida) the United Nations
(are) ..., e.g., ‫ والى القارئ مَا‬in the following, ‫ امَي‬ummī maternal, motherly; illiterate
the reader will find what ... ; ‫اسلوب عبراني‬ uneducated; (pl. -ūn) an illiterate
‫( الى العربية‬uslūb ‘ibrānī) a style of Hebrew
approximating Arabic; ‫لَ الى هذا ولَ الى ذاك‬ ‫ امَية‬ummīya ignorance; illiteracy; see
neither this way nor that way, belonging to also under 2‫امَوى‬
neither group; ‫ الامَر اليك‬it’s up to you, the ‫ امَمي‬umamī international
decision is yours
‫ امَومَة‬umūma motherhood; motherliness,
‫( آلاء‬pl. of ‫ الى‬ilan) benefits, blessings maternity
‫ الية‬alya, ilya pl. alayāt fat tail (of a sheep); ‫ امَام‬amāma (prep.) in front of; in the
buttock presence of│‫( الى الَمَام‬amāmi) to the front,
‫ الياذة‬iliyāda Iliad forward, onward, ahead; ‫( لم يكن الا ان‬illā
1 an) he had no other alternative but to ... ;
‫ ام‬am or? (introducing the second member of ‫( وقف امَامَه‬waqafa) to oppose, resist, stop,
an alternative question) check s.th.
‫ امَة‬ama pl. ‫ امَاء‬imā’, ‫ امَوات‬amawāt bondmaid, ‫ امَامَى‬amāmī front, fore-, anterior,
slave girl forward, foremost│‫( نقطة امَامَية‬nuqṯa)
‫ ام‬amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair (‫هـ‬ outpost 25
to a place), go to see (‫ ه‬s.o.); -- (‫امَامَة‬ ‫ امَام‬imām pl. ‫ ائمة‬a’imma imam, prayer
imāma) to lead the way, lead by one’s leader; leader; master; plumb line
example (‫ ه‬s.i.); to lead (‫ ه‬s.o.) in prayer; --
(‫ امَومَة‬umūma) to be or become a mother II ‫ امَامَة‬imāma imamah, function or office
to nationalize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to go, betake o.s. of the prayer leader; imamate; leading
repair (‫ هـ‬to a place), go to see (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII position; precedence
to follow the example (‫ ب‬of s.o.) ‫ تأمَيم‬ta’mīm pl. -āt nationalization
‫ ام‬umm pl. ‫ امَهات‬ummahāt mother; source, 1
‫ امَا‬a-mā see│a
origin; basis, foundation; original, original 2
version (of a book); the gist, essence of ‫ امَا‬ammā (with foll . ‫ ف‬fa) as to, as for, as far
s.th.; pl. ‫ امَهات‬matrix (typ.)│ ‫ ام الحبر‬u. al- as... is concerned; but; yet, however, on
ḥibr cuttlefish squid; ‫ ام الحسن‬u. al-ḥasan the other hand│‫( امَا بعد‬ba‘du) (a formular
(magr.) nightingale; ‫ ام الخلول‬u. al-ḳulūl phrase linking introduction and actual
river mussel (zool.); ‫ ام درمَان‬u. durmān subject of a book or letter, approx.:) now
Omdurman (city in central Sudan, then …, now to our topic: ...
opposite Khartoum); ‫ ام الراس‬u. ar-ra's 3
‫ امَا‬immā if; ‫ وامَا‬-- ‫ امَا‬be it -- or, either – or
skull, brain; cerebral membrane, (also ‫ او‬-- ‫)امَا‬
‫ امَبراطور‬imbrāṯūr emperor however things may be; ‫ هو بين امَرين‬he has
two possibilities (or alternatives); ‫الامَر الذى‬
‫ امَبراطوري‬imbrāṯūrī imperialist(ic)
which (introducing a relative clause the
‫ امَبراطورية‬imbrātūrīya empire, antecedent of which is another clause);
imperium; imperialism ‫ قضى امَره‬qudiya amruhu it's all over with
‫ امَبير‬ambīr pl. ‫ امَابير‬amābīr2 ampere (el.) him; in the latter and similar phrases, ‫امَره‬
is a frequent paraphrase of "he"
‫ امَبيق‬imbiq = ‫انبيق‬
‫ امَر‬immar simple-minded, stupid
‫ امَت‬amt crookedness, curvedness, curvation,
curvature; weakness ‫ امَرة‬imra power, influence, authority,
command│‫ امَرته‬under his command
‫ امَد‬amad pl. ‫ آمَاد‬āmād end, terminus,
extremity; period, stretch or span of time, ‫ امَارة‬amāra pl. -āt, ‫ امَائر‬amā’ir2 sign,
time; distance│‫ مَنذ امَد بعيد‬for a long time token, indication, symptom, mark,
(past); ‫ قصير الَمَد‬short-dated; of short characteristic 26
duration, short-lived; short-term ‫ امَارة‬imāra position or rank of an emir;
‫ امَر‬amara u (amr) to order, command, bid, princely bearing or manners; principality,
instruct (‫ ه‬s.i. ‫ ب‬to do s.th.), commission, emirate; authority, power│‫ امَارة البحر‬i. al-
charge, entrust (‫ ه‬s.o. ‫ ب‬with s.th. or to do baḥr office or jurisdiction of an admiral,
s.th.); -- amara, amura u (‫ امَارة‬imāra) to admiralty; ‫( امَارات ساحل عمان‬i. s. ‘ummān)
become an emir II to invest with authority, Trucial Oman
make an emir (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ على‬over) III to ask ‫ امَير‬amīr pl. ‫ امَراء‬umarā’ commander;
s.o. 's (‫ )ه‬advice, consult (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to come prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling
to power; to set o.s. up as lord and master; house; tribal chief│ ‫(امَير الَى‬alay)
to behave like an emir; to assume an commander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.;
imperious attitude; to be imperious, approx.: colonel; as a naval rank, approx.:
domineering VI to take counsel, deliberate captain); ‫ امَير الَمَراء‬approx.: major general
together, confer, consult with each other; (Tun.); ‫( امَير البحار‬Eg. 1939) approx.:
to plot, conspire (‫ على‬against) VIII to admiral, ‫( كبير امَراء البحار‬Eg. 1939)
deliberate, take counsel) (‫ ب‬about); to approx.: fleet admiral; ‫ امَير البحر‬a. al-baḥr
conspire, plot, hatch a plot (‫ ب‬against admiral (when referring to a non-Arab
s.o.)│ ‫ ائتمر بامَره‬to carry out s.o.’s orders officer of this rank; Eg. 1939 approx.:
‫ امَر‬amr 1. pl. ‫ اوامَر‬awāmir2 order, vice-admiral); ‫ امَير البحر الَكبر‬or ‫امَير البحار‬
command, instruction (‫ ب‬to do s.th.); ‫ الَعظم‬fleet admiral (when referring to a
ordinance, decree; power, authority; non-Arab officer of this rank); ‫ امَير اللواء‬a.
(gram.) imperative│ ‫‘( امَر عال‬ālin) royal al-liwā’ (Ir., since 1933) brigadier; ‫امَير لواء‬
decree (formerly, Eg.); ‫‘( امَر علي‬alīy) ‫ العسة‬a. l. al-‘assa commandant of the
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, Tun.); Bey's palace guard (formerly, Tun.); ‫امَير‬
‫ امَر قانوني‬ordinance having the force of law ‫ المؤمَنين‬a. al-mu’minīn Commander of the
(Tun.); ‫( الَمَر والنهي‬wa-nnahy) pl. ‫الَوامَر‬ Faithful, Caliph
‫( والنواهي‬lit.: command and interdiction, ‫ امَيرة‬amīr pl. -āt princess
i.e.) sovereign power; full power(s),
‫ امَيري‬amīrī (and □ ‫ مَيري‬mīrī)
supreme authority; ‫( امَر توريد‬delivery)
goverment(a1), state-owned, state,
order (com.); ‫ تحت امَرك‬at your disposal, at
public│ ‫( ارض امَيري‬arḍ) government land
your service. -- 2. pl. ‫ امَور‬umūr matter,
(Syr.); ‫ المطبعة الَمَيرية‬government press
affair, concern, business│‫امَر واقع‬
(accomplished) fact; ‫ امَر مَعروف‬common ‫ امَار‬ammār constantly urging, always
knowledge; ‫ في اول الَمَر‬at first, in the demanding (‫ ب‬to do s.th.); inciting,
beginning; ‫( لامَر مَا‬amrin) for some reason instigating│ ‫( النفس الَمَارة بالسوء‬nafs, sū’)
or other; ‫ اليس الَمَر كذلك‬isn't it so? ‫امَا والَمَر‬ the baser self (of man) that incites to evil
‫( كذلك‬ammā wa-l-amru) things being as
they are, there will, no doubt, ...; ‫مَهما يكن‬
‫( مَن امَر‬min amrin) whatever may happen;
‫ تأمَور‬ta’mūr soul, mind, spirit; ‫ امَرلس‬amarillis amaryllis (bot.)
pericardium (anat.)│‫التهاب التأمَور‬ ‫ امَريكا‬amrīkā (formerly, also ‫ )امَريقا‬America│
pericarditis (med.) ‫( امَريكا الجنوبية‬janūbīya) South America 27
‫ مَؤامَرة‬mu’āmara pl. -āt deliberation, ‫ امَريكي‬amrīkī American; (pl. -ūn) an
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy American
‫ تأمَر‬ta’ammur imperiousness, ‫ الَمَريكان‬al-amrīkān the Americans
domineeringness; imperious deportment,
overbearing manners ‫ امَريكاني‬amrīkānī American; (pl. -ūn) an
‫ تآمَر‬ta’āmur joint consultation, counsel,
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy ‫ امَس‬amsu (but acc. ‫ امَسا‬amsan) the day past,
yesterday; the immediate past, recent
‫ ائتمار‬i’timār deliberation, counsel, time; -- amsi (adv.) yesterday; recently,
conference; plot, conspiracy lately, not long ago│ ‫ بالَمَس‬bi-l-amsi
‫ استئمارة‬isti’māra (frequently written ‫استما‬ yesterday; not long ago; ‫ امَس الَول‬a. l-
‫ )رة‬form, blank awwal two days ago, the day before
‫ آمَر‬āmir commander; lord, master;
orderer, purchaser, customer, client│ ‫المَر‬ ‫ امَسية‬umsīya pl. -āt, ‫ امَاسى‬amāsīy
‫ الناهى‬absolute master, vested with evening
unlimited authority ‫ امَستردام‬amstirdām Amsterdam
‫ مَأمَور‬ma’mūr commissioned, charged; ‫ امَشير‬amšīr the sixth month of the Coptic
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp., calendar
one in executive capacity; the head of a
markaz and qism (Eg.)│ ‫مَأمَور البوليس‬ ‫ امَع‬imma‘ and ‫ امَعة‬imma‘a characterless
commissioner of police; ‫مَأمَور التفلسة‬ person; opportunist, timeserver
(taflīsa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.); ‫ امَل‬amala u (amal) to hope (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬for),
‫ مَأمَور‬m. al-ḥaraka traffic manager entertain hopes (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬of) II to hope; to
(railroad); ‫ مَأمَور التصفية‬m. al-taṣfīya expect (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. of s.o.); to raise hope. (‫ه‬
receiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.) in s.o.), hold out hope. (‫ ه‬for s.o.), give (‫ه‬
‫ مَأمَورية‬ma’mūrīya pl. -āt order, s.o.) reason to hope or expect│ ‫امَله خيرا‬
instruction; errand; task, assignment, (ḳairan) to let s.o. hope for the best V to
mission; commission; commissioner's look attentively (‫ في‬,‫ هـ‬at), regard,
office, administrative branch of a contemplate (‫ في‬,‫ هـ‬s.th.); to meditate; to
government agency, e.g., ‫مَأمَورية قضائية‬ consider, think over, ponder (‫ في‬,‫ هـ‬s.th.),
(qaḍā’īya) judicial commission charged reflect (‫ في‬,‫ هـ‬on)
with jurisdiction in outlying communities ‫ امَل‬amal pl. ‫ آمَال‬āmāl hope, expectation
(Eg.) (‫ في‬of s.th., also ‫ امَل كاذب │)ب‬fallacious
‫ مَتآمَرون‬muta’āmirūn, conspirators, hope
plotters ‫ مَأمَل‬ma’mal pl. ‫ مَآمَل‬ma’amil2 hope
‫ مَؤتمون‬mu’tamirūn conspirators, plotters; ‫ تأمَل‬ta’ammul pl. -āt consideration;
members of a congress, convention, or contemplation; pl. ‫ تأمَلات‬meditations
conference, conferees
‫ آمَل‬āmil hopeful
‫ مَؤتمر‬mu’tamar pl. -āt conference;
convention, congress│‫ مَؤتمر الصلح‬m. aṣ- ‫ مَؤمَل‬mu’ammil hopeful
ṣulḥ peace conference ‫ مَأمَول‬ma’mūl hoped for, expected
‫ امَرك‬II ta’amraka to become Americanized, ‫ مَتأمَل‬muta’ammil contemplative,
adopt the American way of life, imitate meditative, reflective; pensive, wistful,
the Americans musing
‫ تأمَرك‬ta’amruk Americanization
‫ امَن‬amuna u (‫ امَانة‬amāna) to be faithful, (‘āmma) secretariat general; ‫مَحزن الَمَانات‬
reliable, trustworthy; -- amina a (amn, ‫امَان‬ maḳzan al-a. baggage checkroom
amān) to be safe, feel safe (‫ مَن‬or ‫ هـ‬from) ‫ مَأمَن‬ma’man place of safety, safe place
II to reassure (‫ ه‬s.o.), set s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind at
rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard, ‫ تأمَين‬ta’mīn securing, protection;
guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm, assurance; safeguarding; reassurance;
corroborate (‫ هـ‬,‫ على‬s.th.); to insure ( ‫ضد‬ ensuring; guaranty, warranty; security,
‫ الحريق‬against fire); to entrust (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫على‬ surety; insurance│ ‫( تأمَين اجتماعي‬ijtimā’ī)
s.th.); to say "amen" (‫ على‬to s.th.) IV to social security; ‫( تأمَين ضد الحريق‬ḍidda) fire
believe (‫ ب‬in) VIII to trust (‫ ه‬s.o.), have insurance; ‫( تأمَين على الحياة‬ḥayāh) life
confidence, have faith (‫ ه‬in); to entrust ( insurance
‫ على ه‬s.o. with, to s.o s.th.) X = VIII; to ask ‫ ايمان‬iman faith, belief (‫ ب‬in)
for protection, for a promise of security,
for indemnity (‫ ه‬s.o.) ‫ ائتمان‬I’timān trust, confidence; credit
‫ امَن‬amn safety; peace, security, ‫ استئمان‬isti’mān trust, confidence
protection│‫‘( الَمَن العام‬āmm) public safety; ‫ آمَن‬āmin peaceful
‫ رجال الَمَن‬the police
‫ مَأمَون‬ma’mūn reliable, trustworthy
‫ امَان‬amān security, safety; peace;
shelter, protection; clemency, quarter ‫ مَؤمَن عليه‬mu’amman ‘alaihi insured
(mil.); safeguarding, assurance of ‫ مَؤمَن‬mu’min believing, faithful; believer
protection; indemnity, immunity from
‫ مَؤتمن‬mu’taman entrusted (‫ على‬with);
punishment│‫( في امَان ا‬a valedictory
confidant; sequestrator (jur.)
phrase) in God's protection!
‫ امَنيبوس‬omnibus omnibus, bus
‫ امَين‬amīn pl. ‫ امَناء‬umanā’2 reliable,
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, ‫ امَوى‬amawī of or like a bondmaid or
honest; safe, secure; authorized handmaid
representative or agent; trustee; guarantor 2
‫ امَوي‬umawī Ommiad (adj.)
(‫ على‬of); chief, head; superintendent,
curator, custodian, guardian, keeper; ‫ بنو امَية‬banū umayya the Ommiads
chamberlain; master of a guild (Tun.); ‫ امَيبا‬amībā amoebae
(mil.) approx.: quartermaster-sergeant
(Eg. 1939)│ ‫( الَمَين الَول‬awwal) Lord ‫ امَيرال‬amīrāl admiral
Chamberlain (formerly, at the Eg. Court); ‫ امَيركه‬,‫ امَيركا‬amērikā, amērika America
‫ كبير الَمَناء‬approx.: Chief Master of
‫ امَيرالية‬amīrālīya admiralty
Ceremonies (ibid.); ‫ امَين المخزن‬a. al-
maḳzan warehouse superintendent; stock ‫ ان‬an (conj.) that; -- in 1. (conj.) if; ‫ وان‬wa-in
clerk; ‫ امَين سر الدولة‬a. sirr ad-daula and although, even though, even if; ‫ وان – ان‬be
‫ امَين السر‬a. as-sirr permanent secretary of it -- or (be it); َ‫ ال‬illā (= َ‫ )ان ل‬look up
state (Sy,.); ‫ امَين الصندوق‬a. aṣ-ṣundūq and alphabetically 2. (particle) not, esp. in the
‫ امَين المال‬treasurer; cashier; ‫امَين العاصمة‬ phrase َ‫ ان هو ال‬in huwa illā (f. َ‫ )ان هي ال‬it
mayor (esp. Ir.); ‫‘( امَين عام‬āmm) secretary is nothing but, it is no more than
general; ‫ امَين المكتب‬a. al-maktab (formerly) 2
‫ ان‬anna (conj.) that; ‫ بما انه‬bi-mā annahū since
a subaltern rank in the Eg. navy (1939) 28 he (it), because he (it); ‫‘ على انه‬alā annahū
‫ آمَين‬āmīn amen! while he (it), whereas he (it); introducing
a main clause: however, yet; ‫ وذلك انه‬that is
‫ امَانة‬amāna reliability, trustworthiness;
to say, namely, to wit; -- innā (intensifying
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty;
particle introducing a nominal clause)
integrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good
verily, truly (in most cases not translated
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; (pl.
in English)
-āt) s.th. deposited in trust, a deposit, trust,
charge; secretariat│‫ امَانة الصندوق‬a. aṣ- ‫ انما‬innamā but, but then; yet, however; rather,
ṣundūq treasury department; ‫امَانة عامَة‬ on the contrary
‫ ان‬anna i (‫ انين‬anīn, ‫ تأنان‬ta’nān) to groan, ‫ انثوى‬untawī womanly, female, women's
moan (‫ مَن‬at) (in compounds); effeminate, womanish
‫ انة‬anna pl. -āt moan, groan│ ‫انات وآهات‬ ‫ انوثة‬unūta femininity, womanliness
wails and laments ‫ تأنيث‬ta’nīt the feminine, feminine form
‫ انين‬anīn plaintive sound, wail; groan, (gram.)
moan(ing) ‫ مَؤنث‬mu’annat (gram.) feminine (adj.)
‫ انا‬ana I ‫ انثروبولوجيا‬antrōbōlōjiyā anthropology
‫ اناني‬anānī egotistic; egoistic(al), selfish ‫ انجاص‬injās (syr.) pear
‫ انانية‬anānīya egoism, selfishness ‫( انجلترا‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā England
‫ الَناضل‬al-anāḍul Anatolia ‫ الَنجليز‬al-ingəlīz the English
‫ اناناس‬anānas pineapple ‫ انجليزى‬ingəlīzī English; Englishman
‫ انب‬II to blame, censure, reprehend, upbraid (‫ه‬ ‫ انجيل‬injil pl. ‫ اناجيل‬anajīl2 gospel
‫ انجيلى‬injīlī evangelical; evangelist
‫ تأنيب‬ta’nīb blame, censure, rebuke
‫ انجيلية‬injīlīya evangelical creed
‫( انبا‬pronounced ambā) Abba, a high
ecclesiastic title of the Coptic Church, ‫ الَندلس‬al-andalus Spain
preceding the names of metropolitans, ‫ اندونيسيا‬indūnīsiyā Indonesia
bishops, patriarchs, and saints (< Άββα)
‫ انس‬anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be
‫ انبار‬anbār pl. ‫ انابر‬anābir2, ‫ انابير‬anābīr2 companionable, sociable, nice, friendly,
warehouse, storehouse, storeroom 29 genial; ‫ انس به‬to like s.o.’s company, like to
‫( انباشي‬Turk. onbaşı) onbašī a mil. rank: be together with s.o.; to be or get on
corporal (formerly, Eg.); ‫وكيل انباشي‬ intimate terms (‫ ب‬or ‫ الى‬with s.o.); to be
approx.: private first class (Eg.) used, accustomed, habituated (‫ الى‬to); to
perceive, notice, find (‫ هـ‬a quality, ‫ مَن‬,‫في‬
‫ انبوبة‬,‫ انبوب‬see ‫نب‬ in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, recognize
‫ انبيق‬inbīq alembic (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ في‬in, at)│ ‫(انس لحديثه‬li-ḥadītihī) to
like to listen to s.o. II to put at ease; to
‫ انت‬an-ta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); pl.
tame III to be friendly, nice (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
m. ‫ انتم‬antum, f. ‫ انتن‬antunna you (2nd
entertain, amuse (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to keep s.o. (‫)ه‬
pers. pl. and polite form of address); dual
company; to entertain, delight, amuse (‫ه‬
‫ انتما‬antumā both of you
s.o.); to perceive, discern, make out (with
‫ انتذا‬anta-dā it’s you! the eyes; ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to sense (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ انتيكخانة‬antīkḳāna museum find, see, notice, observe, e.g., ‫آنس فيه الكفاية‬
he saw that be was duly qualified, that he
‫ انتيكة‬antīka pl. -āt (eg.) old, old-fashioned, was a capable man V to become incarnate
outmoded (Son of God) X to be sociable,
‫ انتمون‬antimūn antimony companionable; to get on familiar terms,
become intimate; to become tame; to be
‫ انث‬anuta u (‫ انوثة‬unūta) to be or become friendly, nice, kind (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
feminine, womanly, womanish, effeminate accommodate o.s., accustom o.s., settle
II to make feminine; to effeminate, make down; to be familiar, familiarize o.s.,
effeminate; to put into the feminine form acquaint o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ الى‬with); to inform
(gram.) V to become feminine (also o.s., gather information (‫ ب‬ahout); to take
gram.) into consideration, take into account,
‫ انثى‬untā pl. ‫ اناث‬ināt, ‫ اناثى‬anātā bring into play (‫ ب‬s.th.), draw upon s.th. (
feminine; female; a female (of animals); ‫ا‬ ‫ ;)ب‬to listen (‫ ل‬to s.th.), heed (‫ ب‬an
‫ لَنثيان‬al-untayān the testicles opinion)
‫ انس‬uns sociability; intimacy, familiarity, ‫ انف‬anf pl. ‫ آناف‬ānāf, ‫ انوف‬unūf nose; spur (of a
friendly atmosphere mountain); pride│ ‫ رغم انفه‬ragma anfihi in
defiance of him, to spite him; ‫كسر انفه‬
‫ انسى‬unsī: ‫( كعب انسى‬ka‘b) talus, inner
(anfahū) to humiliate s.o., to put s.o.'s
anklebone (anat.)
nose out of joint; ‫ شامَح الَنف‬stuck-up,
‫ انس‬ins (coll.) man, mankind, human haughty, proud
‫ انفى‬anfī nasal
‫ انسي‬insī human; human being
‫ انفة‬anafa pride; rejection; disdain (‫ مَن‬of
‫ ناس‬nās (coll.) and ‫ اناس‬unās people s.th.)
‫ ناسوت‬nāsūt mankind, humanity 30 ‫ انوف‬anūf proud, haughty, stuck-up,
‫ اناسى‬anāsīy (pl.) people, human beings, supercilious, disdainful
humans ‫ استئناف‬isti’nāf fresh start,
‫ انيس‬anīs close, intimate; close friend; recommencement, renewal, resumption,
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, reopening (also, of a legal case); appeal
courteous (jur.)│ ‫( قدم استئنافا‬qaddama) to appeal,
make an appeal (jur.)
‫ انسان‬insan man, human being│ ‫انسان‬
‫ العين‬i. al-‘ain pupil (of the eye) ‫ استئنافى‬isti’nāfī of appeal, appellate;
‫ استئنافيا‬isti’nāfīyan by appeal
‫ انسانة‬insāna woman
‫ آنف‬ānif preceding, above│ ‫آنف الذكر‬
‫ انسانى‬insānī human; humane; (dikr) preceding, above, above-mentioned;
humanitarian, philanthropist ‫ آنفا‬ānifan previously, above, in the
‫ انسانية‬insānīya humanity, humaneness; foregoing
politeness, civility; mankind, the human ‫ مَؤتنف‬mu’tanaf primordial, virginal state;
race beginning
‫ مَؤانسة‬mu’ānasa intimacy, familiarity, ‫( انفرس‬Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in N
friendliness, geniality, cordiality; Belgium)
sociability; conviviality
‫ انفلونزا‬influwanzā influenza, grippe
‫ ايناس‬īnās exhilaration; friendliness,
geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordiality; ‫ انق‬aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce,
sociability comely, pretty; to be happy (‫ ب‬about), be
delighted (‫ ب‬by) IV to please (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ ‫يؤنقه‬
‫ تأنس‬ta’annus incarnation (Chr.) ‫( الشيء‬šai’u) he likes the thing V to apply
‫ ائتناس‬I’tinās social life, sociability o.s. eagerly and meticulously (‫ فى‬to); to be
meticulous, fastidious, finical; to be chic,
‫ آنسة‬ānisa pl. -āt, ‫ اوانس‬awānis2 young elegant
lady, miss
‫ اناقة‬anāqa elegance
‫ مَأنوس‬ma’nūs familiar, accustomed
‫ انيق‬anīq neat, trim, spruce, comely,
‫ مَستأنس‬musta’nis tame pretty; elegant, chic
‫( انش‬Engl.) inš inch ‫ انوق‬anūq Egyptian vulture (Neophron
‫( انشوجة‬It. acciuga) anšūga (eg.) anchovy perenopterus)│ ‫ اعز مَن بيض الَنوق‬a‘azz2
min baiḍi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs of a
‫ انطاكية‬anṯākiya2 Antioch (ancient city in Syria;
vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than hens’
now Antakya, in S Turkey)
teeth (proverbially for s.th. rare)
‫ انطولوجى‬onṯōlōjī ontologic(al) (philos.)
‫ تأنق‬ta’annuq elegance 31
‫ انف‬anifa a (anaf) to disdain, scorn (‫ مَن‬s.th., ‫ان‬
‫ مَؤنق‬mu’anniq, ‫ مَونق‬mūniq pretty,
to do s.th.); to reject haughtily (‫ هـ‬s.th.) X
comely, winsome, nice, pleasing
to resume, renew, recommence (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
(jur.) to appeal (‫ هـ‬a sentence) ‫ مَتأنق‬muta’anniq chic, elegant
‫ انقره‬anqara Ankara ‫ انيميا‬anīmiyā anemia│○ ‫ انيميا خبيثة‬pernicious
‫ انقليس‬anqalīs eel anemia (med.)
‫ آنك‬ānuk lead (metal) ‫ آه‬āhi! ‫ آها‬āhan! (interj.) oh!
‫ انكشارى‬inkišārī pl. -īya Janizary ‫ اهب‬II to prepare, make ready, equip (‫ ه‬,‫ل هـ‬
‫ انكلترة‬,‫( انكلترا‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā, ingiltera s.o., s.th. for) V to be ready, be prepared;
England to prepare o.s., get ready; to equip s.o., be
equipped (‫ ل‬for)
‫ انكلوسكسون‬al-anglosaksūn the Anglo-Saxons
‫ اهبة‬uhba pl. ‫ اهب‬uhab preparation,
‫ انكلوسكسونية‬al-anglosaksūnīya Anglo- preparedness, readiness, alertness;
Saxondom equipment, outfit, gear│ ‫ اهبة الحرب‬u. al-
‫ الَنكليز‬al-inglīz the Engliah ḥarb military equipment; ‫على اهبة الرحيل‬
ready to set out; ‫ على اهبة الَستعداد‬fully
‫ انكليزى‬inglīzī English; Englishman prepared; on the alert (mil.); ‫ أخذ اهبته‬to
‫ انكليس‬ankalīs eel make one's preparations, get ready
‫ الَنام‬al-anām and ‫( النام‬coll.) mankind, the ‫ اهاب‬ihāb skin, hide
human race ‫ تأهب‬ta’ahhub preparedness, readiness;
‫ انموذج‬unmūdaj model, pattern; type, example; (pl. -āt) preparation
sample, specimen ‫ مَتأهب‬muta’ahhib ready, prepared
‫ انمون‬anamūn anemone (bot.) ‫ اهل‬ahala u (‫ اهول‬uhūl) to take a wife, get
‫ انى‬anā i to mature, become ripe; to draw married; -- ahila a to be on familiar terms
near, approach, come (esp. time)│ ‫انى له ان‬ (‫ ب‬with); -- pas. uhila to be inhabited, be
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative populated (region, place) II to make fit or
statements: ‫ الم يأن‬a-lam ya'ni? isn't it suited, to fit, qualify (‫ ه‬,‫ ل هـ‬s.o., s.th. for);
about time ...? V to act slowly, proceed to make possible (‫ هـ ل‬for s.o. s.th.),
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient X enable (‫ هـ ل‬s.o. to do s.th.), make
to take one's time, hesitate (‫ فى‬in, with); to accessible (‫ هـ ل‬to s.o. s.th.); to welcome (
wait ‫ ب‬s.o.) V to be or become fit, suited,
qualified (‫ ل‬for s.th.); to 32 take a wife; to
‫ انى‬anan pl. ‫ آناء‬ānā’ (span of) time,
marry, get married X to deserve merit (‫هـ‬
period│ ‫(فى آناء الليل‬laili) all night long; ‫آناء‬
s.th.), be worthy (‫ هـ‬of)
‫ الليل واطراف النهار‬ānā’a l-laili wa-aṯrāfa n-
nahār by day and by night ‫ اهل‬ahl pl. –ūn, ‫ اهال‬ahālin relatives,
folks, family; kin, kinfolk; wife; (with
‫ اناة‬anāh deliberateness; perseverance,
foll. genit.) people, members, followers,
patience│ ‫ طول الَناة‬ṯūl al-a. long-
adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants;
suffering, great patience; ‫ طويل الَناة‬long-
deserving, worthy (‫ ل‬of s.th.); fit, suited,
suffering (adj.)
qualified (‫ ل‬for); pl. ‫ الهالى‬,‫ الهلون‬the
‫ اناء‬inā’ pl. ‫ آنية‬āniya, ‫اوان‬awānin2 vessel, natives, the native population│ ‫ اهل البيت‬a.
container, receptacle│ ‫ آنية الطعام‬a.. aṯ- al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) of the
ṯa‘ām table utensils, dishes; mess kit family; the Prophet's family; ‫ اهل الدار‬the
‫ تأن‬ta’annin slowness, deliberateness people living in the house; ‫ اهل الحرفة‬a. al-
ḥirfa people of the trade; ‫ اهل الحلف‬a. al-
‫ مَتأن‬muta’annin slow, unhurried, ḥilf people pledged by oath, members of a
deliberate sworn confederacy; ‫ اهل الخبرة‬a. al-ḳibra
‫ انى‬annā (interrog. part.) where ... from? why people of experience, experts; ‫اهل السفسطة‬
is it that ... ? why? Where? (place and a. al-safsata Sophists; ‫ اهل السنة‬a. as-sunna
direction); how? wherever; however│ ‫وانى‬ the adherents of the Sunna, the Sunnis; ‫اهل‬
َ‫ له ال‬... (allā) and why shouldn't he ... ? ‫ المدر والوبر‬a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the
resident population and the nomads; ‫اهل‬
‫ انيسون‬anīsūn, ‫ آنيسون‬aniseed ‫ الوجاهة‬a. al-wajāha people of rank and
high social standing; ‫ اهلا وسهل‬ahlan wa- ‫( اوت‬Fr. août) August (month; mağr.)
sahlan welcome! ‫ اهلا بك‬ahlan bika ‫( اوتوبيس‬Fr. autobus) otobīs autobus, bus
welcome to youl ‫ له في دارنا اهل‬he is a
welcome guest in our house ‫( اوتجراف‬Fr.) otogrāf pl. -āt autograph
‫ اهلي‬ahlī domestic, family (adj.); ‫ اوتوقراطي‬oṯūqrāṯī autocratic
native, resident; indigenous; home, ‫( اوتومَاتيكي‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
national│ ‫ بنك اهلي‬national bank (Eg.);
‫( حرب اهلية‬ḥarb) civil war; ‫مَحكمة اهلية‬ ‫( اوتومَوبيل‬Fr.) otombīl automobile
(maḥkama) indigenous court (Eg.); ‫القضاء‬ ‫( اوتيل‬Fr.) ōtēl pl. -āt hotel
‫( الهلي‬qaḍā’) jurisdiction of indigenous
courts; ‫( النتاج الهلي‬intāj) domestic ‫ اوج‬auj highest point, acme, pinnacle;
production; ‫( وقف اهلي‬waqf) family wakf culmination, climax; apogee (astron.);
peak (fig.; of power. of fame) 33
‫ اهلية‬ahlīya aptitude, fitness,
suitableness, competence; qualification │ ‫ا‬ ‫ آح‬āḥ albumen, eggwhite
‫ لهلية القانونية‬the civil rights; ‫كامَل الهلية‬ O ‫ آحين‬āḥīn albumin
legally competent; ‫ عديم الهلية‬legally
(‫ آد )اود‬āda u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, crook (
incompetent, under tutelage
‫ هـ‬s.th.); to burden, oppress, weigh down (
‫ آهل‬ahil and ‫ مَأهول‬ma’hūl inhabited, ‫ هـ‬s.o.); -- ‫ اود‬awida a (awad) to bend; to
populated (region, place) be bent V to bend; to bow
‫ مَؤهلت‬mu’ahhilāt qualifications, ‫ اودة‬auda burden, load
abilities, aptitudes
‫ اود‬awad: ‫ قام باوده‬to provide for s.o.’s needs,
‫ مَتأهل‬muta’ahhil married stand by s.o. in time of need; ‫أقام اوده‬
‫ مَستأهل‬musta’hil worthy, deserving, (awadahū) do.; to support s.o., furnish s.o.
meriting; entitled with the means of subsistence

‫ اهليلج‬ihlīlaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of ‫ اوار‬uwār heat, blaze; thirst

Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse ‫ اوربا‬urubbā Europe
‫ اوربي‬urubbī Europesn
‫ اهليلجي‬ihlīlajī elliptic(al)
‫ اورشليم‬ūrušalīm2 Jerusalem
‫ او‬au or; (with foll. subj.) unless except that
(‫ اورطة )= ارطة‬urṯa pl. ‫ ارط‬uraṯ battalion
(‫ آب )اوب‬āba u (aub, ‫ اوبة‬auba, ‫ اياب‬iyab) to (formerly, Eg.; mil.)
return; ‫ ب آب‬to catch, contract, suffer,
‫ اورغوي‬uruguwāy Uruguay
incur s.th., be in for s.th., be left with, get
one’s share of ‫( اوركسترا‬It.) arkestrā orchestra
‫ مَن كل اوب‬min kulli aubin from all sides ‫( اورنيك‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ ارانيك‬arānīk2
or directions; ‫( مَن كل اوب وصوب‬ṣaubin) do. sample, specimen; model, pattern; form,
‫ اوبة‬auba return
‫ اوروبا‬urubbā, ‫ اوروﭙا‬Europe
‫ اياب‬iyāb return │ ‫ ذهابا وايابا‬dahāban
wa-iyaban there and back; back and forth, ‫ اوروبي‬urubbī Europesn
up and down ‫ اوروجواي‬uruguwāy Uruguay
‫ مَآب‬ma’āb place to which one returns; ‫ اوز‬II (eg.) to ridicule (‫ على‬s.o.), make fun of
(used as verbal noun:) return │ ‫ذهوب ومَآب‬ s.o. (‫)على‬
coming and going
‫ اوز‬iwazz (col1.; n. un.) goose, geese
‫ آب‬look up alphabetically
‫ آس‬ās myrtle; see also alphabetically
‫ اوبرا‬and ‫( اوبرا‬It. opera) ōpərā opera; opera
house ‫ اوستراليا‬usturāliyā Australia
‫( اوبريت‬Fr.) ōpərēt operetta ‫( اوستريا‬It.) austriyā Austria
‫ اوسلو‬Oslo radio; ‫ آلة رافعة‬hoisting machine, crane,
derrick; pump; ‫ آلة التسخين‬and ‫آلة مَسخنة‬
‫ اوسطى‬ūsṯā see ‫اسطى‬
(musaḳḳina) heater; ‫آلة التصوير‬
‫ اوشية‬ūšīya pl. ‫ اواش‬awāšin prayer, oration (photographic) camera; ‫ آلة الطباعة‬printing
(Copt.-Chr.) press; ‫ آلة الغسل‬a. al-gasl washing machine;
‫ آفة‬āfa pl. -āt harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, ‫ آلة التفريخ‬incubator; ‫ آلة الَستقبال‬receiver,
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic receiving set (radio); ‫( آلة مَقطرة‬muqaṯṯira)
distilling apparatus, still; ‫ آلة الكتابة‬and ‫آلة‬
‫ مَؤوف‬ma’ūf stricken by an epidemic ‫ كاتبة‬typewriter; ‫ آلة لعب القمار‬a. la‘b al-
‫( اوفرول‬Engl.) ovirōl overalls qimār slot machine; ‫( آلة مَوسيقية‬mūsīqīya)
musical instrument; ‫ آلة التنبيه‬alarm; siren
(‫ آق )اوق‬āqa u to bring s.o. (‫ )على‬bad luck, horn (of an automobile); ‫آلة صماء‬
cause discomfort or hardship (‫ على‬to) II to (ṣammā’) (fig.) tool, creature, puppet
burden (‫ ه‬s.o.) with s.th. unpleasant,
troublesome or difficult ‫ آلى‬ālī mechanic(al); mechanized;
motorized; instrumental; organic│ ‫مَحراث‬
‫ اوقة‬see ‫اقة‬ ‫( آلي‬miḥrat) motor plow; ‫القوات اللية‬
‫ اويقات‬uwaiqāt (dimin. of ‫ )اوقات‬short times; (quwāt) motorized troops; ‫حركة آلية‬
good times (ḥaraka) a mechanical movement
‫ اويقيانوس‬,‫اويقيانس‬ oqiyānus, oqiyānūs ocean ‫ آلية‬ālīya mechanics
‫ اوقية‬ūqīya pl. -āt ounce, a weight of varying ‫ آلاتى‬ālātī pl. ‫ آلاتية‬ālātīya (eg.) musician;
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; singer
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g) ‫ اول‬awwal2, f. ‫ اولى‬ūlā, pl. m. -ūn, ‫اوائل‬
‫( اوكازيون‬Fr. occasion) okazyōn clearing sale, awā’il2 first; foremost, most important,
special sale principal, chief, main; first part,
beginning; (with def. article also) earlier,
‫ اوكرانيا‬ukrānīya Ukraine
previous, former; see a1so under │‫ولى‬
‫( اوكسجين‬Fr. oxygène) oksižēn oxygen ‫( الَنسان الَول‬insān) primitive man; ‫طبيب اول‬
(‫ آل )اول‬āla u (aul, ‫ مَآل‬ma’āl) to return, revert ( physician-in-chief; ‫ الَولون‬,‫ الَوائل‬the
‫ الى‬to); to go back, be attributed, be forebears, forefathers, ancestors; ‫اوائل الشهر‬
attributable (‫ الى‬to), spring, derive (‫الى‬ a. aš-šahr the first ten days of a month,
from); to lead, conduce, tend (‫ الى‬to), beginning of a month; ‫ لاول مَرة‬li-awwali
result eventually (‫ الى‬in); to come or go marratin or ‫ للمرة الَولى‬for the first time; ‫مَن‬
eventually (‫ الى‬to s.o.), pass into the hands ‫ مَن اوائله‬,‫ اوله‬since its beginnings, from the
of (‫ آل المَر الى │ )الى‬the long and the short very beginning; ‫( مَن اوله الى آخره‬āḳirihī)
of it was that ... ; ‫( آل به المطاف الى‬maṯāfu) from beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫اول‬
he eventually got to the point where ... II ‫ الَمَر‬awwala l-amr at first, in the
to interpret, explain (‫ هـ‬s.th.) beginning; ‫ الَول فالَول‬each time the first
available; ‫( اول مَا‬awwala) the moment
‫ آل‬āl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; when, just when; at the very outset of; ‫اكثر‬
companions, partisans, people; mirage, ‫( مَن الَول‬aḳtara) more than before
َ‫ اول‬awwalan first, firstly, in the first
‫ آلة‬āla pl. -āt instrument, utensil; tool; place; at first, in the beginning│ ‫اولَ باول‬
apparatus; device, implement, appliance; and َ‫ اولَ فأول‬by and by, gradually, one after
machine│ ‫ آلَت الحس‬ā. al-ḥiss sensory the other, one by one; ‫ اولَ واخيرا‬and َ‫اول‬
organs; ‫( آلة بخارية‬buḳārīya) steam engine; ‫( وآخرا‬āḳiran) first and I~st, altogether;
‫ آلة الجر‬ā. al-jarr tractor; ‫آلة جهنمية‬ simply and solely, merely
(jahannamīya) infernal machine; ‫آلة حربية‬
(ḥarbīya) instrument of war; 34 ‫آلة التحريك‬ ‫ اولى‬awwalī prime, primary, primordial,
motor, engine; ‫ آلة حاسبة‬calculating original, initial, first; elemental,
machine; ‫ آلة الحياكة‬a. al-ḥiyāka power fundamental, basic, principal, chief, main;
loom; ‫ آلة الخياطة‬sewing machine; ‫آلة راديو‬ elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval│
‫( مَدرسة اولية‬madrasa) elementary school,
grade school; ‫( مَواد اولية‬mawādd) raw ‫ اوان‬awān pl. ‫ آونة‬āwina time│ ‫قبل اوانه‬
materials; ‫‘( عدد اولى‬adad) prime number; prematurely; ‫ في اوانه‬at the right time,
‫( فاتورة اولية‬fātūra) pro forma invoice timely, seasonably, ‫ في غير اوانه‬at the
wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; ‫بين‬
‫ اولية‬awwalīya pl. -āt fundamental truth,
‫ الونة‬from time to time; ‫بين الونة والَخرى‬
axiom; primary constituent, essential
(uḳrā) and ‫( آونة وأخرى‬āwinatan, uḳrā) at
component, element; precedence; priority
times, sometimes; ‫ آونة – وأخرى‬sometimes
‫ ايل‬ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pl. ‫ ايائل‬ayā’il2 stag – sometimes, at times – at times; ‫فات الَوان‬
‫ ايالة‬iyāla pl. -āt province; regency (fāta) it is too late; ‫( آن الَوان‬āna) the time
has come, it is time (‫ ل‬for, to do s.th.)
‫ ايلولة‬ailūla title deed (jur.) 2
‫ايوان‬look up alphabetically
‫ مَآل‬ma’āl end; outcome, final issue,
upshot; result, consequence│ ‫في الحال وفي‬ ‫ اونباشى‬onbašī corporal, see ‫انباشى‬
‫ المآل‬at present and in the future (‫ آه )اوه‬āha u and II to moan, sigh V to moan,
‫ تأويل‬ta’wīl pl. -āt interpretation, sigh; to sigh with admiration (‫ ل‬over),
explanation exclaim “ah!”

‫ اولَء‬ulā’i, ‫ اولَئك‬,‫ اولئك‬ulā’ika these; ‫ اوه‬awwah (interj.) oh!

those, pl. of the demonstr. pron. ‫ ذا‬and ‫ذلك‬ ‫ آه‬āhi, ‫آهـ‬āhan, ‫ اواه‬awwāhi oh!
‫ اولمبى‬olimbī Olympic│ ‫الَلعاب الَولمبية‬the ‫ آهة‬āha pl. -āt sigh, moan; pl. ‫ آهات‬sighs
Olympic games of admiration; rapturous exclamations
‫ اولمبياد‬olimbiyād Olympiad ‫ تأوه‬ta’awwuh moaning. sighing;
‫ اولو‬ulū (pl. of ‫ )ذو‬owners, possessors, people admiring exclamation; plaintive sound,
(with foll.genit.: of)│ ‫اولو الَمَر‬u. l-amr wail
rulers, powerful leaders; ‫ اولو الحل والعقد‬u. l- ‫ اوى‬awā i to seek refuge, seek shelter (‫ الى‬at a
ḥall wa-l-'aqd (lit.: masters of solving and place); to go (‫ الى‬to bed); to betake o.s.,
binding) do.; ‫ اولو الشأن‬u. š-ša’n the repair (‫ الى‬to a place); to shelter, house,
responsible people put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as a
‫ اوام‬uwām thirst guest (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.) II to shelter, lodge,
put up, accommodate, receive as a guest (‫ه‬
‫ اوم‬ohm (el.) 35 s.o.) IV to seek shelter (‫ الى‬at a place), to
‫ اومَنيبوس‬omnībūs omnibus, bus retire (‫ الى‬to a place); to betake o.s., repair
(‫ الى‬to a place); to shelter, house, put up,
‫ آن‬ān time; ‫ الآن‬al-āna now│ ‫ فى آن‬and ‫فى آن‬ lodge, accommodate (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ واحد‬at the same time, simultaneously; ‫مَن‬
‫( آن الى آخر‬āḳara) from time to time; ‫مَا بين‬ ‫ ايواء‬īwā’ accommodation, lodging,
‫( آن وآخر‬wa-āḳara) and ‫ آنا بعد آن‬sometimes, housing, sheltering
at times, now and then: once in a while; ‫آنا‬ ‫ مَأوى‬ma’wan pl. ‫ مَآو‬ma’āwin place of
‫ فآنا‬gradually, by and by, little by little; -- ‫آنا‬ refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting
‫( وآونة‬āwinatan) sometimes -- sometimes, place; dwelling, habitation│ ‫مَأوى ليلى‬
at times -- at times; ‫ قبل الآن‬qabla l-āna (lailī) shelter for the night; doss house
before, previously, formerly; ‫ للآن‬li-l-āna
and ‫ حتى الآن‬ḥattā l-āna until now, hitherto, ‫ ابن آوى‬ibn āwā pl. ‫ بنات آوى‬banāt a.
so far; ‫ بعد الآن‬ba‘da l-āna from now on, jackal
henceforth, in the future; ‫ مَن الآن فصاعدا‬min 1
‫ آية‬āya, coll. ‫ آي‬āy, pl. -āt sign, token, mark;
al-āna fa-ṣā‘idan do. miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model,
‫ آنئذ‬āna’idin that day, at that time, then exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (‫ فى‬of,
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse,
‫ آنذاك‬ānadāka that day, at that time, then ‫( آي الذكر الحكيم‬āy ad-dikr) the verses of the
‫ اون‬aun calmness, serenity, gentleness Koran; passage (in a book), utterance,
saying, word; ‫( آيات‬with foll. genit.) moat
solemn assurances (of love, of gratitude)
‫ اى‬ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit ‫ اياس‬iyās despair
‫ اى‬ī yes (with foll. ‫ وا‬yes indeed! Yes, by ‫( ايشرب‬Fr. écharp,) sash
God!) (‫ آض )ايض‬āḍa i to return, revert (‫ الى‬to s.th.); to
‫ اى‬ayy, f. ‫ اية‬ayya (with foll. genit. or suffix) become (‫ الى‬s.th.)
which? what? what kind of? Whoever, ‫ ايضا‬aiḍan also, too, as well, likewise,
whosoever; any, every, no matter what ... ; equally; again; in addition, besides,
(with neg.) no; ‫ ايما‬ayyumā whatever, moreover
whatsoever│‫ ايا كان‬,‫ اية كانت‬ayyan kāna,
ayyatan kānat whoever he (or she) is, no ‫ ايطاليا‬īṯālīyā Italy
matter who he (or she) is; ‫ اي مَن كان‬ayyu ‫ ايطالى‬īṯālī Italian; (pl. -ūn) an Italian
man kāna whoever it may be, whosoever;
‫( على اي حال‬ayyi ḥālin) in any case, at any ‫( ايقونة‬Gr. είκών) īqūna and ‫ ايقونية‬īqūnīya pl.
36 rate, at all events, by all means; ‫اى واحد‬ -āt icon (Chr.)
ayyu wāḥidin any one; ‫ ان له شأنا اى شأن‬inna ‫ ايك‬aik (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬thicket, jungle
lahū ša’nan ayya ša’nin it is of the 1
greatest importance (lit.: it is of ‫ ايل‬and ‫ ايالة‬see ‫اول‬
importance, and of what importance!); 2
‫ ايلول‬ailūl2 September (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
‫ اعجب به ايما اعجاب‬u‘jiba bihi ayyama 3
‫ ايلولة‬ailūla title deed (jur.)
i‘jābin how much he admired him! he
admired him greatly; ‫اقبل عليه ايما اقبال‬ (‫ آم )ايم‬āma i: ‫( آم مَن زوجته‬zaujatihī) to lose
aqbala ‘alaihi ayyama iqbālin he showed one's wife, become or be a widower, ‫آمَت‬
the greatest interest in it ‫( مَن زوجها‬zaujiha) to lose one’s husband,
become or be a widow
‫ ايا‬iyyā with nominal suffix to express the
accusative│‫ اياك ان‬take care not to ..., be ‫ ايمة‬aima, ‫ ايوم‬uyūm and ‫ تأيم‬ta’ayyum
careful not to ...; ‫ اياك و‬,‫ اياك مَن‬beware of ... widowhood
! ‫( واياك‬dial. wayyāk), ‫( واياه‬wayyāh) with ‫ ايم‬ayyim pl. ‫ ايائم‬ayā’im2, ‫ ايامَى‬ayāmā
you, with him widower, widow
‫ ايار‬see 2‫اير‬ ‫ ايوم‬aiwam2 see ‫يوم‬
‫ ايد‬II to back, support (‫ه‬, s.o., ‫ هـ‬a claim, an ‫ ايما‬ayyumā see 4‫ اي‬ayy
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate,
endorse (‫ هـ‬news, a. judgment, etc.) V = (‫ آن )اين‬āna i to come, approach, draw near
pass. of II (time)│ ‫( آن الَوان‬awān) the time has
come: ‫ آن له ان‬it’s time for him to ...
‫ تأييد‬ta’yīd corroboration, confirmation,
endorsement, backing, support ‫ آن‬see ‫اون‬
‫( ايدروجين‬Fr. Hydrogène) idrožēn hydrogen ‫ اين‬aina where? (= at or to what place?)│ ‫مَن‬
‫ اين‬min aina where … from? ‫ الى اين‬where?
‫( قنبلة ايدروجينية‬qunbula) hydrogen bomb (= to what place?) ‫ اين نحن مَن‬how far we
‫ اير‬air pl. ‫ ايور‬uyūr penis still are from … worlds separate us
2 from ... (fig.); ‫ اين هذا مَن ذاك‬what is this
‫ ايار‬ayyār2 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
compared with that! 37
‫ ايران‬īrān Iran, Persia
‫ الَين‬al-ainu the where; space (philos.)
‫ ايرانى‬īrānī Iranian, Persian; (pl. -ūn) a Persian,
‫ اينما‬ainamā wherever
an Iranian
‫ ايان‬ayyāna when? (conj.) when
‫ ايرلندا‬irlandā Ireland
‫اين‬II to ionize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to be ionized (el.)
‫ ايرلندى‬irlandī Irish; (pl. -ūn) Irishman
‫ ايون‬iyōn pl. -āt ion
‫( ايريال‬Engl.) ēriyāl aerial, antenna
‫ تأيين‬ta’yīn ionization
‫ ايزيس‬īzīs Isis
‫ مَتأين‬muta’ayyin ionized
‫ ايس‬ayisa a (‫ اياس‬iyās) to despair (‫ مَن‬of s.th.)
‫ ايه‬īhi, īha, īhin (interj.) well! now then! All ‫ بؤبؤ‬bu’bu’ root, source, origin; core, heart,
right! inmost part; pupil of the eye, also ‫بؤبؤ لعين‬
b. al-‘ain
‫ ايها‬ayyuhā, with fem. also ‫ ايتها‬ayyatuhā
(vocative particle) O ... ! ‫ بابل‬bābil2 Babel, Babylon
‫ ايوب‬ayyūb2 Job ‫ بابلى‬bābilī Babylonian
‫ الَيوبيون‬al-ayyūbīyūn the Ayubites ‫ بابه‬bābih the second month of the Coptic
‫ ايوم‬aiwam2 see ‫يوم‬
1 ‫ بابوج‬bābūj pl. ‫ بوابج‬bawābij2 slipper
‫ايون‬see 2‫اين‬
2 ‫ بابور‬bābūr pl. -āt, ‫ بوابير‬bawābīr2 (=‫)وابور‬
‫ ايوان‬īwān pl. -āt recess-like sitting room with
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer
a raised floor, usually opening on the main
room or courtyard through an arcade; ‫ بابونج‬bābūnaj camomile (bot.)
estrade ‫ باتسته‬bati.ta batiste
‫ باثولوجى‬batōlōjī pathologic(al)
‫ب‬ ‫ باثولوجيا‬batōlōjiyā pathology
‫ ب‬abbreviation of ‫ باب‬chapter ‫ باذنجان‬bādijān and ‫ بيذنجان‬baidinjān (coll.; n.
‫ ب‬bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); with un. ‫ ة‬pl. -āt eggplant, aubergine 38
(indicating connection, association, 1
‫ بار‬bār pl. -āt bar; taproom
attendance); with, through, by means of 2
‫ بأر‬ba’ara a to dig a well
(designating instrumentality or agency,
also with pass. = by); for (= at the price ‫ بئر‬bi'r f., pl. ‫ آبار‬ābār, ‫ بئار‬bi’ār well,
of); by (= to the amount of); by spring
(introducing an oath)│‫ بالليل‬bi-l-lail at (by) ‫ بؤرة‬bu’ra pl. ‫ بؤر‬bu’ar center, seat
night, ‫ بالنهار‬bi-n-nahār during the (fig.); site; pit; abyss
daytime, by day; ‫ شمالَ بشرق‬šamālan bi-
šarqin northeast; ‫ فبها ونعمت‬fa-bihā wa- ‫( باراشوت‬Fr. parachute) bārāšūt parachute
ni’mat in that case it’s all right; ‫ ليس بي ان‬it ‫ باراغواى‬bārāguwāy Paraguay
is not my intention to ... ; ‫ هذا بذاك‬hādā bi-
dāka now we are even, we are quits; ‫قبل‬ ‫ باربوني‬see ‫بربونى‬
‫( مَجيئه بساعة‬majī’ihī) an hour before his ‫( باركيه‬Fr.) barkēh parquet, parquetry floor
arrival; ‫“ ب‬with” frequently gives
‫ بارنامَج‬see ‫برنامَج‬
causative meaning to a verb, e.g., ‫نهض‬
‫( بشيء‬lit.: to rise with s.t‫ا‬., i.e.) to boost, ‫ بارة‬bāra pl. -āt para (coin)
further, promote s.th.; ‫ بلغ به الى‬to cause s.o. ‫ بارود‬bārūd saltpeter; gunpowder
to arrive at, lead s.o. to; for its use as
copula after negations, etc., see grammar; ‫ بارودة‬bārūda pl. ‫ بواريد‬bawārīd2 rifle,
‫ بل‬bi-lā without; ‫ بما ان‬bi-mā anna in view carbine
of the fact that; since, as, inasmuch as, ‫ باريس‬bārīs2 Paris
because; ‫ بما فيه‬bi-mā fīhi including
‫ باريسى‬bārīsī Parisian
‫ باء‬bā’ name of the letter ‫ب‬
‫ باز‬bāz pl. ‫ بيزان‬bīzān and ‫ بأز‬ba’z pl. ‫بؤوز‬
‫ بابا‬bābā pl. ‫ بابوات‬bābawāt, ‫ باباوات‬pope; papa, bu’ūz, ‫ بئزان‬bi’zān falcon
father, daddy
‫ بازار‬bāzār pl. –āt bazaar
‫ بابوى‬bābawī, ‫ باباوى‬papal
‫ بازلت‬bāzalt basalt
‫ بابوية‬bābawīya papacy
‫ بازوبند‬bāzūband bracelet
‫بأبأ‬ba’ba’a to say “papa” (child)
‫ بؤس‬ba’usa u (‫ بأس‬ba’s) to be strong, brave,
intrepid; -- ‫ بئس‬ba’isa a (‫ بؤس‬bu’s) to be
miserable, wretched VI to feign misery or ‫ بالة‬bala pl. -āt bundle, bale
distress VIII to be sad, worried, grieved ‫ بالطو‬balṯō pl. ‫ بالطوات‬balṯowāt, ‫ بلاطي‬balātī
‫ بئس الرجل‬bi’sa r-rajulu what an evil overcoat; paletot
man! ‫( بالو‬It. ballo ball, dance
‫ بأس‬ba’s strength, fortitude, courage, ‫ بالون‬bālūn) balloon
intrepidity (as verbal noun of ‫بؤس‬
ba’usa); harm, hurt, injury, impairment, ‫ جزر الباليار‬juzur al-bāliyār the Balearic Islands
detriment, wrong│ ‫شديد البأس‬courageous, ‫( باليه‬Fr.) bālēh ballet
brave, intrepid; ‫( لَ بأس‬ba’sa) there is no
objection to it; unobjectionable; not bad, ‫ بامَيا‬and ‫ بامَية‬bāmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus
rather important, considerable, e.g., ‫كميات‬ esculentus L., bot., a popular vegetable in
‫( لَ بأس بها‬kammīyāt) considerable Egypt)
quantities; ‫( لَ بأس‬ba'sa) never mind! it ‫ بان‬see ‫بون‬
doesn't matter! it's all right! ‫ لَ بأس ان‬it
doesn't matter that ... ; ‫ اى بأس؟‬ayyu ‫ شاشة بانورامَية‬šāša bānōrāmīya (= Fr. écran
ba'sin? what does it matter! what of it! ‫ليس‬ panoramique) cinemascope screen
‫( عليه بأس مَن‬ba’sun) he will be none the ‫ بؤونة‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
worse for ... ; ‫( لَ بأس عليك‬ba’sa) it won't do calendar
you any harm! don't worry! don't be afraid
‫ باى‬bāy, f. ‫ باية‬bāya pl. -āt formerly, in Tunisia,
‫ بنات بئس‬banātu bi's calamities, a title after the names of the members of
adversities, misfortunes the Bey's family
‫ بئس‬bu’s, ‫ بأساء‬ba’sā’, ‫ بؤس‬bu’ūs and ‫بؤسى‬
‫ دار الباى‬dār al-bāy (formerly) the
bu’sā pl. ‫ ابؤس‬ab’us misery, wretchedness,
Tunisian government
suffering, distress
‫ بئيس‬ba’īs pl. ‫ بؤساء‬bu’asā’2 miserable, ‫ ببر‬babr pl. ‫ ببور‬bubūr tiger
wretched ‫ ببغاء‬babgā2 (and babbayā’2) pl. ‫ببغاوات‬
‫ بائس‬bā’is miserable, wretched babgāwāt parrot
‫( باستيل‬Fr.) bastē1 pastel
‫ باسل‬bāsīl bacilli ‫ بت‬batta u i (batt) to cut off, sever (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ باش‬bāš senior, chief (in compounds) complete, finish, achieve, accomplish,
‫ باشجاويش‬bašcāwīš and ‫ باشجاويش‬approx.: carry out (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to fix, settle, determine
master sergeant (formerly, Eg.) (‫ هـ‬s.th.), decide (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ فى‬on s.th.) II to
‫ باشحكيم‬bāšḥakīm physician-in-chief adjudge, adjudicate, award (‫ هـ‬s.th.) VII to
‫ باشريش‬bāšrayyis a naval rank, approx.: be cut off; to be finished, be done; to be
petty officer 3rd class (Eg.) decided│‫ قد انبت الَمَر بينه وبينهم‬it's all over
‫ باشكاتب‬bāškātib chief clerk between him and them, they are through
‫ باشمفتى‬bāšmuftī chief mufti (Tun.) with each other
‫ باشمفتش‬bāamšmufattiš chief inspector ‫ بت‬batt settlement, decision; ‫ بتا‬battan
‫ باشمهندس‬bāšmuhandis chief engineer definitely, once and for all
‫ باشا‬bāšā pl. ‫ باشوات‬bāšawāt (‫ )باشاوات‬pasha
‫ باشق‬bāšaq, bāšiq pl. ‫ بواشق‬bawāšiq2 sparrow ‫ بتة‬batta pl. -āt adjudication, award;
hawk final decision; ‫ البتة‬al-battata and ‫بتة‬
‫ الباشقرد‬al-bāšqird the Bashkirs battatan definitely, positively, decidedly,
‫ باشكير‬see ‫بشكير‬ esp. with negations: absolutely not,
‫( باص‬Engl.) bāṣ pl. -āt bus, autobus definitely not
‫ باطون‬bātūn concrete, béton 39 ‫ بتى‬battī definite, definitive
‫ باغة‬bāgā celluloid; tortoise shell ‫ بتية‬battiya, bittīya pl. ‫ بتاتى‬batātīy barrel;
‫ الباكستان‬al-bākistān Pakistan tub

‫ باكستانى‬bākistānī Pakistani (adj. and n.) ‫ بتاتا‬batātan decidedly, definitely,

positively, categorically, unquestionably,
‫ بال‬bāl whale (zool.) absolutely
‫ تبتيت‬tabtīt adjudication, award peer around; ‫ بث اللغام‬to plant, or lay,
mines IV to let (‫ ه‬s.o.) in on a secret (‫)هـ‬
‫ بات‬bātt definite, definitive│‫مَنع بات‬
VII to be spread; to be scattered
(man‘) categorical interdiction
1 ‫ بث‬batta spreading, dissemina.tion,
‫ بتر‬batara u (batr) to cut off, sever (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
propagation; grief, sorrow
to amputate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to mutilate, render
fragmentarily (‫ هـ‬a text) VII to be cut off, ‫ بثر‬batara i (batira a) and V to break out with
be severed, be amputated pimples or pustules (skin)
‫ بتر‬batr cutting off, severance, ‫ بثر‬batr pl. ‫ بثور‬butūr (n. un. ‫ بثرة‬batra
separation; amputation pl. batarāt) pimples, pustules
‫ ابتر‬abtar2 curtailed, docked, clipped, ‫ بثر‬batir, ‫ بثير‬batīr pustulate, pimpled
trimmed; imperfect, defective, ‫ بثق‬bataqa i u (with ‫ النهر‬an-nahra) to open
incomplete; without offspring flood gates so that the river will overflow
‫ بتار‬battār cutting, sharp its banks VII to break forth, burst out, well
out, pour out, gush out; to emanate,
‫ باتر‬bātir cutting, sharp
proceed, spring (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬from)
‫ مَبتور‬mabtūr broken, abrupt,
‫ انبثاق‬outpouring, effusion, outpour, outburst;
unconnected; fragmentary, incomplete
‫ بتراء‬bitrā’2, batrā’2 Petra (ancient city of
‫ بجح‬bajiḥa a (bajaḥ) to rejoice (‫ ب‬at) V to
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
vaunt, flaunt (‫ ب‬s.th.), boast, brag (‫ ب‬of)
SW Jordan)
‫ تبجح‬tabajjuj bragging, braggery
‫ بترك‬batrak patriarch
‫ مَتبجح‬mutabajjij braggart
‫ بترول‬batrūl, bitrōl petroleum
‫ بجدة‬bajda, bujda root, source. heart, essence,
‫ ابتع‬abta‘2 an assonant intensifier of ‫ اجمع‬ajma‘2
basis│‫ بجدة المَر‬the heart of the matter, the
all, altogether, whole, entire
actual state of affairs, the true facts; ‫هو ابن‬
‫ باتع‬bāti‘ strong; full, whole, entire 40 ‫( بجدتها‬ibn bujdatihā) he knows the job
‫ بتك‬II to cut off (‫ هـ‬s.th.) from the ground up, he is the right man for
‫ بتل‬batala i u (batl) and II to cut off, sever (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to make final, close, settle, make ‫ ابجر‬abiar2 obese, corpulent
conclusive, clinch (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to retire ‫ بجس‬bajasa u i (bajs) and II to open a passage
from the world and devote one's life to (for the water), cause (the water) to flow
God (‫ ;)الى ا‬to be pious, chaste and self- V and VII to flow freely, pour forth
denying; to live in chastity VII to be cut copiously, gush out
off, be curtailed, be docked
‫ بجس‬bajs, ‫ بجيس‬bajīs flowing freely,
‫ بتول‬batūl virgin; ‫ البتول‬the Virgin Mary streaming
‫ بتولي‬batūlī virginal ‫ بجع‬baja‘ (n. un. ‫ )ة‬pelican
‫ بتولية‬batūlīya virginity ‫ بجل‬II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with
‫ مَتبتل‬mutabattil an ascetic, a. recluse; a deference (‫ ه‬s.o.), show respect (‫ هـ‬to s.o.);
pious, godly man to give precedence (‫ على هـ‬or ‫ ه‬to s.o. or
s.th. over) V to be honored, be revered, be
َ‫ بتول‬batūlā birch tree venerated
‫ بث‬batta (batt) to spread, unroll, unfold (‫هـ‬ ‫ بجل‬bajal syphilis (ir.)
s.th., e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to disseminate, propagate, spread (‫هـ‬ ‫ تبجيل‬tabjīl veneration, reverence;
s.th., e.g., a spirit, an ideology, a doctrine); deference, respect
to sprinkle (‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. on); to let s.o. (‫ه‬, also ‫ مَبجل‬mubajjal revered, respected;
‫ )ل‬in on s.th. (‫هـ‬, esp. on a secret); to venerable
broadcast, transmit by radio │‫ بث العيون‬to
‫ بجم‬bajama i (bajm, ‫ بجوم‬bujūm) to be ‫ مَباحثة‬mubāḥata pl. -āt negotiation,
speechless, dumfounded parley, conference, talk, discussion
‫ بجن‬II to clinch (‫ هـ‬a nail) ‫ باحث‬bāḥit pl. -ūn and ‫ بحاث‬buḥḥāt
scholar, research worker; examiner,
‫ بح‬baḥḥa a (baḥḥ, ‫ بحح‬baḥaḥ, ‫ بحوح‬buḥūḥ, ‫بحاح‬
baḥāḥ, ‫ بحوحة‬buḥūḥa, ‫ بحاحة‬baḥāḥa) to be
or become hoarse, be raucous, husky, ‫ بحثر‬baḥtara to disperse, scatter (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
harsh (voice) II and IV to make hoarse (‫ه‬ waste, squander, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II
s.o.) tabaḥtara pass. of I
‫ بحة‬buḥḥa hoarseness ‫ بحثر‬baḥtara waste, dissipation
‫ ابح‬abaḥḥ hoarse ‫ مَبحثر‬mubaḥtir squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift
‫ مَبحوح‬mabḥūḥ hoarse 41 ‫ بحر‬baḥira a to be startled, be bewildered
(with fright)
‫ بحبح‬II tabaḥbaḥa to be prosperous, live in
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.s. have a ‫ بحر‬II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do.;
good time to embark, go on board; to put to sea, set
sail, sail, depart (ship); to go downstream,
‫ بحبوح‬baḥbūḥ gay, merry
be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) V to
‫ بحبوحة‬buḥbūḥa middle; life of ease and penetrate deeply, delve (‫ في‬into); to study
comfort, prosperity, affluence│ ‫في بحبوحة‬ thoroughly (‫ في‬a subject) X = V
‫ بحر‬baḥr pl. ‫ بحار‬biḥār, ‫بحور‬, buḥūr, ‫ابحار‬
‫ مَبحبح‬mubaḥbaḥ well-to-do, prosperous; abḥār, ‫ ابحر‬abḥur sea; large river; a noble.,
enjoying an easy, comfortable life or great, man (whose magnanimity or
‫ بحت‬baḥt pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, also knowledge is comparable to the vastness
‫ بحت المَر; بحتا‬baḥan merely, solely, purely, of the sea); meter (poet.) │ ‫ في بحر‬in the
exclusively, nothing but ... course of, during, ‫( في بحر سنتين‬sanatain) in
the course of two years, within two years;
‫ بحتر‬buḥtur stocky, pudgy, thickset ‫( البحر البيض المتوسط‬abyaḍ, mutawassiṯ) the
‫ بحتري‬buḥturī stocky, pudgy, thickset Mediterranean (sometimes shortened to ‫الب‬
‫ بحر البلطيق ;)حر البيض‬b. al-balṯīq the Baltic
‫ بحث‬baḥata a (baḥt) to look, search (‫ هـ‬or ‫عن‬ Sea; ‫ بحر الجنوب‬b. al-janūb the South Seas;
for s.th.), seek (‫ هـ‬or ‫ عن‬s.th.); to do ‫ البحر الحمر‬the Red Sea (also ‫ بحر القلزم‬b. al-
research; to investigate, examine, study, qulzum); ‫ بحر القزر‬b. al-ḳazar the Caspian
explore (‫ هـ‬or ‫ عن‬s.th., less frequently with Sea (also ‫ بحر الروم ;)البحر الكسبياتي‬b. ar-rūm
‫ في‬or ‫)على‬, look into (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ;)عن‬to discuss ( the Mediterranean; ‫( البحر السود‬aswad) the
‫ هـ‬a subject, a question) III to discuss (‫ه‬ Black Sea; ‫ بحر الظلمات‬b. aẓ-ẓulumāt the
with s.o., ‫ في‬a question) VI to have a ‫هـ‬tlantic; ‫ بحر لوط‬b. lūṯ and ‫البحر الميت‬
discussion, discuss together; to confer, (mayyit) the Dead Sea; ‫( بحر النيل‬eg.) the
have a talk (‫ مَع‬with s.o., ‫ في‬about) Nile
‫ بحث‬baḥt pl. ‫ بحوث‬buḥūt, ‫ ابحاث‬,‫ بحوثات‬abḥāt ‫ البحرين‬al-baḥrain the Bahrein Islands
search (‫ عن‬for), quest (‫ عن‬of);
examination, study; research; ‫ بحراني‬baḥrānī of the Bahrein Islands; ‫الب‬
investigation, exploration; discussion; ‫ حارنة‬al-baḥārina the inhabitants of the
treatise; (pl. ‫ )ابحاث‬study, scientific report ( Bahrein Islands
‫ في‬on) ‫ بحري‬baḥrī sea (adj.), marine; maritime;
‫ بحاث‬baḥḥāt scholar, research worker nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.)
northern, baḥrīya (with foll. genit.) north
‫ بحاثة‬baḥḥāta eminent scholar 42 of; (pl. -ūn, ‫ )ة‬sailor, seaman, mariner│
‫ مَبحث‬mabḥāt pl. ‫ مَباحث‬mabāḥit subject, ‫ بحري مَاهر‬approx.: seaman apprentice
theme, field of investigation or discussion, (Eg.); ‫( القوات البحرية‬qūwāt) the naval
object of research; research, study, forces; ‫( نباتات بحرية‬nabātāt) marine flora,
examination; investigation water plants
‫ بحرية‬baḥrīya navy ‫ تبخر‬tabaḳḳur evaporation, vaporization
‫ بحرة‬baḥra pond, pool ‫ باخرة‬balfira pl. ‫ بواخر‬bawāḳir2 steamer,
‫ بحار‬baḥḥār pl. -ūn, ‫ بحارة‬baḥḥāra
seaman, mariner, sailor; pl. ‫ بحارة‬crew (of a ‫ بويخرة‬buwaiḳira small steamboat
ship, of an airplane) ‫ بخس‬baḳasa a (baks) to decrease, diminish,
‫ بحيرة‬buḥaira pl. -āt, ‫ بحائر‬baḥā’ir2 lake; reduce (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to lessen (e.g., ‫قيمته‬
(tun.)'vegetable garden, truck garden qīmatahū the value of s.th.); to disregard,
neglect, fail to heed (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بحران‬buḥrān crisis (of an illness);
climax, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy) ‫ بخس‬baḳs too little, too low; very low
‫ تبحر‬tabaḥḥur deep penetration, delving
(‫ في‬into a subject), thorough study (‫ في‬of) ‫ باخس‬baḳis small, little, trifling,
‫ مَتبحر‬mutabaḥḥir thoroughly familiar (
‫ في‬with); profound, erudite, searching, ‫ بخشيش‬baḳšīš pl. ‫ بخاشيش‬baḳāšīš 2 tip, gratuity
penetrating ‫ بخع‬baḳa‘a a (baḳ‘) with ‫ نفسه‬: to kill o.s. (with
‫ بحلق‬baḥlaqa: ‫‘( بحلق عينيه‬ainaihi) to stare, gaze grief, anger, rage)
(‫ في‬at) ‫ ابخق‬abḳaq2 f. ‫ بخقاء‬baḳqā’2 one-eyed
‫ بخ بخ‬baḳ baḳ excellent! well done! Bravo! ‫ بخل‬baḳila a (baḳal), baḳula u (buḳl) to be
‫ بخ‬baḳḳa u (baḳḳ) to snore; to spout, spurt, niggardly, be stingy (‫ ب‬with s.th., ‫ عن‬or ‫عل‬
squirt (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to sprinkle, splatter (‫ب هـ‬ ‫ ى‬with regard to s.o.), scrimp (‫ على‬,‫ عن‬s.o.,
s.th. with) ‫ ب‬for), stint (‫ ب‬in, ‫ عن‬or ‫ على‬s.o.), withhold
(‫ على‬,‫ عن‬from s.o., ‫ ب‬s.th.) VI to give
‫ بخاخة‬baḳḳāḳa nozzle
reluctantly, grudgingly (‫ على‬,‫ عن‬to s.o., y
‫ بخيخة‬buḳḳēḳa squirt, syringe s.th.)
‫ مَبخة‬mibaḳḳa nozzle ‫ بخل‬buḳl avarice, cupidity, greed 43
‫ بخت‬baḳt luck; a kind of lottery│ ‫قليل البخت‬ ‫ بخيل‬baḳīl pl. ‫ بخلء‬avaricious, greedy;
unIucky; ‫ سوء البخت‬bad luck miser, skinflint
‫ بخيت‬baḳīt lucky, fortunate ‫ مَبخلة‬mabḳala cause of avarice, that
‫ مَبخوت‬mabḳūt lucky, fortunate which arouses avarice or greed

‫ بختر‬II tabaḳtara to strut, prance ‫ بخنق‬buḳnuq pl. ‫ بخانق‬baḳāniq2 kerchief, veil

(to cover the head)
‫ بخر‬II to vaporize, evaporate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
fumigate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disinfect (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ بد‬badda u (budd) to distribute, spread,
perfume with incense, expose to aromatic disperse II to divide, distribute, spread,
smoke (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to evaporate (water); to scatter, disperse (‫• هـ‬.th.); to remove,
volatilize, tum into smoke or haze; to eliminate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to waste, squander,
perfume 0.8., or be perfumed, with incense fritter away, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V pass. of
II; X to be independent, proceed
‫ بخار‬buḳār pl. -āt, ‫ ابخرة‬abḳira vapor, independently (‫ ب‬in, e.g., in one's opinion,
fume; steam i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, head-
‫ بخاري‬buḳārī steam (adj.), steam-driven strong); to possess alone monopolize (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to take possession (‫ هـ‬of s.o.), seize,
‫ بخور‬baḳūr incense; frankincense│ ‫بخور‬ grip, overwhelm, overcome (‫ هـ‬s.o.; said
‫ مَريم‬b. maryam cyclamen (bot.) of a feeling, of an impulse); to dispose
‫ ابخر‬abḳar2 suffering from halitosis arbitrarily, highhandedly (‫ ب‬of s.th.); to
rule despotically, tyrannically,
‫ مَبخرة‬mabḳara pl. ‫ مَباخر‬mabāḳir2 (also
autocratically (‫ ب‬over)
-āt) censer; thurible; fumigator
‫ بد‬budd way out, escape│ ‫اذا لم يكن بد مَن‬
‫ تبخير‬tabḳīr fumigation
‫( ان‬buddun) if it is inevitable that ... ; ‫لَ بد‬
(budda) definitely, certainly, inevitably, ‫ بداءة‬badā’a beginning, start; first step,
without fail; by all means; ‫ لَ بد مَن‬it is first instance│ ‫ بداءة بدء‬badā’ata bad’in
necessary, inescapable, unavoidable, right at the outset, at the very beginning
inevitable, ‫ لَ بد له مَنه‬he simply must do it, ‫ بدائي‬budā’ī primitive
he can't get around it; ‫ مَن كل بد‬min kulli
buddin in any case, at any rate ‫ مَبدأ‬mabda' pl. ‫ مَبادئ‬mabādi’2
beginning, start, starting point; basis,
‫ اباديد‬abādīd 2 (pl.) scattered foundation; principle; invention; pl.
‫ تبديد‬tabdīd scattering, dispersal, principles, convictions (of a person);
dispersion; removal, elimination; waste, ideology; rudiments. fundamental
dissipation concepts, elements│ ‫كتب المبادئ‬kutub al-m.
elementary books 44
‫ استبداد‬istibdād arbitrariness, high-
handedness; despotism; autocracy; ‫ مَبدئي‬mabda’ī original, initial;
absolutism fundamental, basic; ‫ مَبدئيا‬mabda’īyan
originally; in principle
‫ استبدادي‬istibdādī arbitrary, highhanded,
autocratic, despotic; ‫ استبداديات‬istibdādīyāt ‫ ابتدائي‬ibtidā’ī beginning, start; novitiate
arbitrary acts (Chr.)│ ‫ ابتداء مَن‬ibtidā’an min from,
beginning ... , as of (with foll. date)
‫ مَبدد‬mubaddid scatterer, disperser;
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift ‫ ابتدائي‬ibtidā’ī initial; preparatory,
elementary, primary; of first instance
‫ مَستبد‬mustabidd arbitrary, highhanded,
(jur.); original, primitive│‫مَحكمة ابتدائية‬
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; autocrat,
(maḥkama) court of first instance; ‫التعليم‬
tyrant, despot│‫( مَستبد برأيه‬bira’yihī)
‫ الَبتدائى‬elementary education; ‫مَدرسة ابتدائية‬
opinionated, obstinate, headstrong
(madrasa) lower grades of a high school,
‫ بدأ‬bada’a a (‫ بدأ‬bad’) to begin, start (‫ ب‬or ‫في‬ approx.: junior high school (as
with s.th., ‫ هـ‬s.th.; ‫ ه‬with s.o.; with foll. distinguished from ‫شهادة ابتدائية ;)ثانوية‬
imperf.: to do s.th. or doing s.th. (šahāda) approx.: junior high school
respectively); to set in, begin, start, arise, graduation certificate
spring up, crop up II to put (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫على‬
‫ بادئ‬bādi’ beginning, starting│ ‫بادئ المَر‬
before s.th. else), give precedence or
badi'a l-amr and ‫ في بادئ المَر‬in the
priority (‫ هـ‬to s.th., ‫ على‬over s.th. else) III
beginning, at first; ‫ في بادئ الرأي‬right away,
to begin, start (‫ ب‬s.th., ‫ ه‬with regard to
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly;
s.o.), make the first step, take the initiative
‫ بادئ ذي بدء‬badi’a dī bad’in above all, first
or lead (‫ ب‬in s.th., ‫ ه‬toward s.o.) e.g., ‫بادأه‬
of all, in the first place, primarily; ‫البادئ‬
‫( بالكلم‬kalām) to accost s.o., speak first to
‫ ذكره‬al-badi’u dikruhu (the person or
s.o. IV to do or produce first (‫ هـ‬s.th.).
thing) mentioned at the outset, the first-
bring out (‫ هـ‬s.th. new)│ ‫مَا يبدئ ومَا يعيد‬mā
yubdi’u wa-mā yu‘īd he can't think of a
blessed thing to say; ‫ يبدئ ويعيد‬he says or ‫ مَبتدئ‬mubtadi’ beginning; beginner;
does everything conceivable VIII to begin, novice (Chr.)
start (‫ ب‬with s.th.) ‫ مَبتدأ‬mubtada' beginning, start; (gram.)
‫ بدء‬bad’ beginning, start│‫ مَنذ البدء‬from subject of 8 nominal clause
the (very) beginning; ‫‘( فعله عودا وبدءا‬audan 1
‫ بدر‬badara u to come unexpectedly, by
wa-bad’an) ‫‘( عوده على بدئه‬audahū ‘alā surprise; to escape (‫ مَن‬s.o.; e.g., words in
bad’ihī) or ‫( عودا الى بدء‬ilā bad’in) he did it excitement) III to come to s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind,
all over again, he began anew occur to s.o. (t) all of a sudden, strike s.o.
‫ بدأة‬bad’a, ‫ بديئة‬badī’a, ‫ بداية‬bidāya (idea, notion); to embark, enter (‫ الى‬upon
beginning, start│‫ في بداية المَر‬in the s.th.) or set out (‫ الى‬to do s.th.) without
beginning, at first delay; to rush, hurry (‫ الى‬to s.o., to a
place); to hurry up (", with s.th.), ‫بادر الى‬
with foll. verbal noun: to do s.th.
promptly, without delay, hasten to do s.th.; ‫ بدعة‬bid‘a pl. ‫ بدع‬bida‘ innovation.
to fall upon s.o (‫ )ه‬with (‫)ب‬, accost, assail, novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pl.
surprise (‫ ب ه‬s.o. with s.th.; e.g., ‫بادره بكلم‬ creations (of fashion, of art)│ ‫ اهل البدع‬ahl
‫ غليظ‬to snap rudely at s.o.); to react, al-b. heretics
respond (‫ الى‬to s.th.)│ ‫بادر الى انجاز الوعد‬ ‫ بديع‬badi', ‫ بدع‬bud‘ unprecedented,
(injāzi l-wa‘d) to set out to fulfill a marvelous, wonderful, amazing,
promise VI ‫( تبادر الى الذهن‬dihn) to suggest admirable, singular, unique; creator│ ‫علم‬
itself strongly, be obvious; to appear at ‫‘ البديع‬ilm al-b. the art or science of
first glance as if (‫تبادر الى ذهني أن ;)أن‬ metaphors and (in general) of good style
(dihnī) it occurred to me all of a sudden
that ... ; ‫( تبادر الى الفهم‬fahm) to be ‫ بديعة‬badī‘a pl. ‫ بدائع‬badā’i‘2 an
immediately understood VIII to hurry, astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a
rush, hasten (‫ هـ‬to); to get ahead of s.o. (‫)ه‬, wonder; original creation
anticipate, forestall (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ابتدرها قائل‬ ‫ بديعي‬badī‘ī rhetorical
before she could say a word he
exclaimed ... ‫ ابدع‬abda‘2 more amazing, more
exceptional; of even greater originality
‫ بدر‬badr, pl. ‫ بدور‬budūr full moon
‫ ابداع‬ibdā‘ creation, fashioning, shaping;
‫ بدرة‬badra pl. badarāt, ‫ بدار‬bidār huge a marvelous, unique achievement;
amount of money (formerly = 10,000 uniqueness, singularity, originality;
dirhams)│‫ بدرات المَوال‬enormous sums of creative ability
O ‫ ابداعي‬ibdā‘ī romantic (lit.)
‫ بدار‬badārī hurry! quick!
O ‫ ابداعية‬ibdā‘īya romanticism (lit.)
‫ مَبادرة‬mubādara undertaking, enterprise
‫ مَبدع‬mubdi‘ producing, creating;
‫ بادرة‬bādira pl. ‫ بوادر‬bawadir2 herald, creative; creator; exceptional, unique,
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first outstanding (in an achievement, esp. of an
indication, sign; unforeseen act; stirring, artist)
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); blunder,
mistake; ‫ بوادر‬stirrings, impulses│‫بادرة خير‬ ‫ مَبتدع‬mubtadi‘ innovator; creator; heretic
b. ḳairin a good, or generous, impulse ‫ بيدق‬look up alphabetically
2 2
‫ بيدر‬baidar pl. ‫ بيادر‬bayādir threshing floor ‫ بدل‬badala u to replace (‫ ب هـ‬s.th. by),
‫ بدروم‬and ‫( بدرون‬Turk. bodrum) badrūm, exchange (‫ ب هـ‬s.th. for) II to change, alter
badrūn pl. -āt basement (‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. to), convert (‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. into); to
substitute (‫ هـ‬for s.th., ‫ ب‬or ‫ مَن‬s.th.),
‫ بدع‬bada‘a a (bad‘) to introduce, originate, exchange, give in exchange (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ب‬or
start, do for the first time (‫ هـ‬s.th.), be the ‫ مَن‬for); to change (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to exchange
first to do s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to devise, contrive, (‫ هـ ه‬with s.o. s.th.) IV to replace (‫ ب هـ‬s.th.
invent (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II to accuse of heresy (‫ه‬ by), exchange (‫ ب هـ‬for s.th. s.th. else); to
s.o.) IV = I; to create (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to achieve compensate (‫ هـ ب ه‬s.o. for s.th. with s.th.
unique, excellent results (‫ في‬in); to be else), give s.o. (‫ )ه‬s. th. (‫ )هـ‬in exchange
amazing, outstanding (‫ في‬in s.th.) VIII to for (‫ )ب‬V to change; to be exchanged VI
invent, contrive, devise, think up (‫ هـ‬s.th.) to exchange (‫ هـ‬s.th., also words, views,
X to regard as novel, as unprecedented (‫هـ‬ greetings) X to exchange, receive in
s.th.) exchange, trade, barter (‫ ب هـ‬and ‫ هـ ب‬s.th.
‫ بدع‬bad‘ innovation, novelty; creation│ for); to replace (‫ هـ ب‬and ‫ هـ ب‬s.th. by),
‫ بدعا وعودا‬bad‘an wa-‘audan repeatedly 45 substitute (‫ ب هـ‬and ‫ هـ ب‬for s.th. s.th. else)
‫ بدع‬bid‘ pl. ‫ ابداع‬abdā‘ innovator; new, ‫ بدم‬badal pl. ‫ ابدال‬abdāl substitute,
original; unprecedented, novel│‫ لَ بدع‬lā alternate, replacement; equivalent.
bid‘a no wonder! ‫ لَ بدع ان‬lā bid‘a an no compensation, setoff; reimbursement,
wonder that ... ; ‫ بدع مَن‬s.th. else than; recompense, allowance; price. rate;
unlike, different from (gram.) appositional substantive standing
for another substantive│‫ بدل الجراية‬b. al- ‫ بدن‬badan pl. ‫ ابدان‬abdān, ‫ ابدن‬abdun
jirāya allowance for food; ‫ بدل السفرية‬b. as- body, trunk, torso
safarīya travel allowance; ‫بدل الَشتراك‬ ‫ بدني‬badani bodily, corporal, physical,
subscription rate; ‫ بدل التمثيل‬expense somatic
account, expense allowance
‫ بدانة‬badāna corpulence, obesity
‫ بدل‬badala (prep.) inetead of, in place
of, in lieu of ‫ بدين‬badīn pl. ‫ بدن‬budun stout, corpulent,
fat, obese
‫ بدلَ مَن‬badalan min in place of, instead
of, in lieu of ‫ بدونة‬budūna corpulence, obesity
‫ بدلة‬badla pl. badalāt, ‫ بدل‬bidal suit (of ‫ بادن‬bādin pl. ‫ بدن‬budn stout, corpulent,
clothes); costume│‫ بدلة الحمام‬b. al- fat, obese
ḥammām bathing suit; ‫( بدلة رسمية‬rasmīya) ‫ بده‬badaha a to come, descend suddenly
uniform; ‫( بدلة تشريفاتية‬tašrīfātīya) full- (‫ ه‬upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (‫ ه‬s.o.);
dreas uniform to surprise (‫ ه‬s.o.) with s.th. (‫ )ب‬III to
‫ بدلية‬badalīya compensation, smart appear suddenly, unexpectedly (‫ ب ه‬before
money s.o. with s.th.) VIII to extemporize,
improvise, do offhand, on the spur of the
‫ بدال‬badāla (prep.) instead of, ‫بدال مَا‬ moment (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
(conj.) instead of (being, doing, etc.)
‫ بداهة‬badāha spontaneity, spontaneous
‫ بديل‬badīl pl. ‫ بدلَء‬budalā’ 2 substitute, occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way,
alternate (‫ عن‬or ‫ مَن‬for); stand-in, double naturalness, matter-of-factness; ‫بداهة‬
(theat.); (f. ‫ )ة‬serving as a replacement or badāhatan and ‫ بالبداهة‬all by itself,
substitute│ ‫( مَفرزة بديلة‬mafraza) reserve spontaneously
detachment (mil.)
‫ بديهة‬badīha s.th. sudden or unexpected;
‫ بدال‬baddāl grocer; money-changer improvisation; impulse, inspiration,
‫ بدالة‬baddāla culvert; pipeline; telephone spontaneous intuition; intuitive
exchange, central understanding or insight, empathy,
instinctive grasp, perceptive faculty│ ‫على‬
□ ‫ مَبادل‬mabādil2 see ‫بدل‬
‫ البداهية‬all by itself, spontaneously; offhand;
‫ تبديل‬tabdīl change, alteration 46 ‫ حاضر البديهة‬quick-witted, quick at
‫ مَبادلة‬mubādala pl. -āt exchange│ ‫مَبادلَت‬ repartee; ‫ بديهة حاضرة‬presence of mind
‫( تجارية‬tijārīya) commercial exchange, ‫ بديهي‬badīhī and ‫ بدهي‬badahī intuitive,
trade relations self-evident, a priori (adj.)
‫ ابدال‬ibdāl exchange, interchange, ‫ بديهية‬badīhīya pl. -āt an axiom, a
replacement (‫ ب‬by), substitution (‫ ب‬of); fundamental or self-evident truth; truism,
change; phonetic change commonplace, platitude
‫ تبدل‬tabaddul change, shift, turn; ‫ بدائه‬badii'ih' fundamental or selfevident
transformation; transmutation, conversion truths
‫ تبادل‬tabādul (mutual) exchange│ ‫تبادل‬ (‫ بدا )بدو‬badā u to appear, show, become
‫ السلم‬t. as-salam exchange of greetings, ‫تباد‬ evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to
‫ ل الخواطر‬thought transference, telepathy light; to be obvious; to seem good,
‫ استبدال‬istibdāl exchange, replacement, acceptable, proper (‫ ل‬to s.o.) III to shaw,
substitution display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare
openly│‫‘( بادى بالعداوة‬adāwa) to show open
‫ مَبدل‬mubdil: ‫ مَبدل الَسطوانات‬m. al- hostility IV to disclose, reveal, manifest,
usṯuwānāt automatic record changer show, display, evince (‫ هـ‬s.th.), to
‫ مَتبادل‬mutabādil mutual, reciprocal demonstrate, bring out, bring to light,
make visible (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to express, utter,
‫ بدن‬baduna u and badana u to be fat, corpulent voice (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( ابدى رأيه في‬ra'yahū) to
express one's opinion about; ‫ابدى رغبة‬ ‫ بذر‬badara u (badr) to sow, disseminate (‫هـ‬
(ragbatan) to expreas a wish or desire V = s.th., seed, also fig. = to spread) II to
I, to live in the desert VI to pose as a waste, squander, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
Bedouin ‫ بذر‬badr pl. ‫ بذور‬budūr, ‫ بذار‬bidār seeds,
‫ بدو‬badw desert; nomads, Bedouins seed; seedling; pl. ‫ بذور‬pips, pits, stones
(of fruit)
‫ بدوي‬badawī Bedouin, nomadic; rural (as
distinguished from urban); a Bedouin ‫ بذرة‬badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip,
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ cell
‫ بدوية‬badawīya pl. -āt Bedouin woman,
(of a development, and the like)
Bedouin girl
‫ بذار‬bidār seedtime
‫ بداة‬badaJl pl. ‫ بدوات‬badawāt whim,
caprice; ill-humor ‫ تبذير‬tabdīr waste, squandering,
‫ بداوة‬badāwa and bidāwa desert life,
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 47 ‫ مَبذر‬mubaddir squanderer, wastrel,
‫ بيداء‬baidā’2 desert, steppe, wilderness,
wild ‫ بيذق‬look up alphabetically
‫ ابداء‬ibdā’ expression, manifestation, ‫ بذل‬badala i u (badl) to give or spend freely,
declaration generously (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to sacrifice (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to expend (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to offer, grant (‫هـ‬
‫ باد‬bādin apparent, evident, obvious,
s.th.)│ ‫( بذل جهده‬jahdahū) to take pains; ‫بذل‬
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pl. ‫بداة‬
‫ مَجهودا‬do.; ‫( بذل كل مَساعدة‬kulla
budāh Bedouins
musā‘adatin) to grant every assistance; ‫بذل‬
‫ بادية‬bādiya desert, semidesert, steppe; ‫ المساعى‬to make efforts; ‫ بذل الطاعة ل‬to obey
peasantry; (pl. ‫ بواد‬bawādin) nomads, s.o., defer to s.o.; ‫( بذل كل غال‬kulla gālin)
Bdouins and ‫ بذل الغالى والرخيص في سبيل‬to spare no
‫ بداية‬bidāya = ‫بداءة‬ effort, go to any length, give everything,
pay any price for or in order to; ‫بذل مَاء‬
‫ بذ‬badda u (badd) to get the better of (‫)ه‬, beat, ‫( وجهه‬mā’a wajhihī) to sacrifice one's
surpass (s.o.) honor; (‫ عن فلان‬or) ‫ بذل نفسه دون فلن‬to
‫ بذ‬badd and bādd slovenly, untidy, sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; ‫( بذل وسعه‬wus‘ahū) to
shabby, filthy, squalid do one’s utmost, do one’s best V to fritter
away one’s fortune, be over-generous; to
‫ بذاذة‬badāda slovenliness, untidiness, prostitute o.s. (woman); to display
shabbiness, dirtiness, filth common, vulgar manners VIII to wear out
‫ بذأ‬bada’a a to revile, abuse (‫ على‬s.o.), rail ( in common service, make trite, vulgar,
‫ على‬at s.o.); -- ‫ بذئ‬badi’a a, ‫ بذؤ‬badu’a u to commonplace, to hackney (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
be obscene, bawdy abuse (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to express o.s. in a vulgar
manner, use vulgar language; ‫ ابتذل نفسه‬to
‫ بذئ‬badī’ disgusting, loathsome,
degrade o.s. demean o.s., sacrifice one's
nauseous, foul, dirty, obscene, bawdy,
‫ بذل‬badl giving, spending; sacrifice,
‫ بذاء‬badā’ and ‫ بذاءة‬badā’a obscenity,
surrender, abandonment; expenditure;
ribaldry, foulness (of language); disgust,
offering, granting
loathing, aversion, contempt
‫ بذلة‬badla suit (of clothes)
‫ بذخ‬badaḳa a to be haughty, proud
‫ مَبذل‬mibdal pl. ‫ مَباذل‬mabādil2 slipper; pl.
‫ بذخ‬badaḳ luxury, pomp, splendor;
‫ مَباذل‬casual clothing worn around home│
haughtiness, pride
‫ فلن في مَباذله‬so-and-so in his private life
‫ باذخ‬bādiḳ pl. ‫ بواذخ‬bawādiḳ2 high, lofty;
‫ ابتذال‬ibtidāl triteners, commonness,
proud, haughty
commonplaceness; banality; debasement,
‫ باذل‬bādil spender 48 ‫ برانى‬barrānī outside, outer, exterior,
external; foreign, alien
‫ مَتبذل‬mutabaddil vulgar, common
‫ بر‬burr wheat
‫ مَبتذل‬mubtadal trite, hackneyed, banal,
common, vulgar; everyday, commonplace ‫ برأ‬bara’a a (‫ برء‬bar’) to create (‫ هـ‬s.th., said
(adj.) of God)
‫ بر‬barra (1st pers. perf. barirtu, barartu) a I ‫ برء‬bar’ creation
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; to ‫ برية‬barīya pl. -āt, ‫ برايا‬barāyā creation
be kind (‫ ه‬or ‫ ب‬to s.o.); to be charitable, (= that which is created); creature; see
beneficent, do good (‫ ب‬to s.o.); to obey (‫ه‬ also 2 ‫بر‬.
s.o., esp. God); to treat with reverence, to
honor (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬the parents); to be honest, ‫~ البارى‬J~I aI-bari' the Creator (God)
truthful; to be true, valid (sworn 2
‫ برئ‬bari’a a (‫ براءة‬barā’a) to be or become
statement); to keep (‫ ب‬a promise, an oath) free, be cleared (‫ مَن‬from, esp. from guilt
II to warrant, justify, vindicate; to acquit, blame, etc., ‫ الى‬toward s.o.); to recover (‫مَن‬
absolve, exonerate, exculpate, clear (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬ from an illness) II to free, clear, acquit,
s.o., s.th.)│ ‫( برر وجهه‬wajhahū) to justify absolve, exculpate (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ مَن‬from
o.s. by IV to carry out, fulfill (‫ هـ‬s.th., a suspicion, blame, guilt)│ ‫برأ ساحة الرجل‬
promise, an oath) V to justify o.s.; to be (sāḥata r-rajul) he acquitted the man IV to
justified acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate (‫ه‬
‫ بر‬birr reverence, piety; righteousness, s.o.); to cause to recover, cure, heal (‫ه‬
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness; s.o.)│ ‫( ابرأ ذمَته‬dimmatahū) to clear s.o. or
charitable gift o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or o.s. V to
clear o.s. (‫ مَن‬from suspicion, from a
‫ بر‬barr and ‫ بار‬bārr pl. ‫ ابرار‬abrār and ‫بر‬ charge), free o.s. (‫ مَن‬from responsibility,
‫ رة‬barara reverent, dutiful (‫ ب‬toward), etc.), rid o.s. (‫ مَن‬of); to declare o.s.
devoted (‫ ب‬to); pious, godly, upright, innocent, wash one’s hands (‫ مَن‬of); to be
righteous.; kind acquitted X to restore to health, cure, heal
‫ مَبرة‬mabarra pl. -āt and ‫ مَبار‬mabar2 (‫ ه‬s.o.); to free o.s. (‫ مَن‬from), rid o.s. (‫مَن‬
good deed, act of charity, benefaction; of)
philanthropic organization; charitable ‫ برء‬bur’ and burū’ convalescence,
institution, home or hospital set up with recovery
private funds
‫ برئ‬barī’ pl. ‫ ابرياء‬abriyā’2, ‫ براء‬burā’,
‫ تبرير‬tabrīr justification, vindication birā’ free, exempt (‫ مَن‬from), devoid (‫مَن‬
‫ بار‬bārr reverent, faithful and devoted; of); guiltless, innocent; guileless,
see also under ‫ بر‬barr above harmless; healthy, sound 49
‫ مَبرور‬mabrūr (accepted into the grace of ‫ براء‬barā’ free, exempt (‫ مَن‬from)│ ‫ذمَته‬
the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a deceased ‫( براء مَن‬dimmatuM) he is innocent of ...
person) ‫ براءة‬barā’a being free; disavowal,
‫ مَبرر‬mubarrir pl. -āt justification; withdrawal; innocence, guiltlessness;
excuse│‫( لَ مَبرر له‬mubarrira) unjustifiable naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness; (pl. -āt)
2 license, diploma, patent│ ‫براءة اختراع‬
‫ بر‬barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma,
patent on an invention; ‫براءة التنفيذ‬
mainland; open country; ‫ برا‬barran out,
exequatur (a written authorization of a
outside│ ‫ برا وبحرا‬barran wa-baḥran by
consular officer, issued by the government
land and sea
to which he is accredited); ‫ براءة الثقة‬b. at-
‫ برى‬barrī terrestrial, land (adj.); wild (of tiqa (Tun.) credentials (dipl.); ‫على براءة‬
plants and animals)│ ‫سيارة برية مَائية‬ harmless; without guilt, innocent
(sayyāra, mā’īya) amphibious vehicle
‫ تبرئة‬tabri’a freeing, exemption;
ā‫ برية‬barrīya pl. ‫ برارى‬barāarīy open acquittal, absolution, discharge,
country, steppe, desert; see also 1 ‫برأ‬ exoneration
‫ مَبارأة‬mubāra’a mubarat, divorce by ‫ برتقال‬burtuqāl, ‫ برتقان‬burtuqān orange
mutual consent of husband and wife, ‫ برتقالى‬burtuqālī, ‫ برتقانى‬burtuqānī
either of them waiving all claims by way orange, orange-colored
of compensation (Isl. Law)
‫ برثن‬burtun, pl. ‫ براثن‬barātin claw, talon
‫ ابراء‬ibrā’ acquittal, absolution, release;
release of a debtor from his liabilities, ‫ برج‬V to display, show, play up her charms
remission of debt (Isl. Law) (woman); to adorn herself, make herself
pretty (woman)
‫ استبراء‬istibrā’: ‫ استبراء الحمل‬ist. al-ḥamal
the ceremony of selecting and purifying ‫ برج‬burj pl. ‫ بروج‬burūj, ‫ ابراج‬abrāj tower;
the Host before Mass (Copt.-Chr.) castle; sign of the zodiac│ ‫ برج الحمام‬b. al-
ḥamām pigeon house, dovecot; ‫ برج المياه‬b.
‫ براجواى‬baraguwāy Paraguay al-miyāh water tower
‫ البرازيل‬al-bərāzīl Brazil 2
‫ بارجة‬bārija pl. ‫ بوارج‬bawārij warship,
‫( براسيرى‬Fr. brasserie) brāseri beer parlor, battleship; barge
taproom 1
‫لعب البرجاس‬la‘b al-birjās a kind of equestrian
‫ براغ‬Prague contest, joust, tournament
‫( برافان‬Fr. paravent) baravān folding screen ‫ البرجيس‬al-birjīs Jupiter (astron.)
‫ براهما‬bərahmā Brahma ‫ برجل‬barjal pl. ‫ براجل‬barāhil2 compass, (pair
of) dividers 50
‫ بربة‬birba and ‫ بربا‬birbā pl. ‫ برابى‬barābī
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins ‫ برجمة‬burjuma pl. ‫ براجم‬barājim2 knuckle,
doting back to ancient Egypt (eg.); finger joint
labyrinth, maze ‫ برح‬bariḥa a (‫ براح‬barāḥ) to leave (‫ هـ‬or ‫ مَن‬a
‫ بربخ‬barbaḳ pl. ‫ برابخ‬barābiḳ water pipe, drain, place, ‫ الى‬for), depart (‫ هـ‬from, ‫ الى‬on one’s
culvert, sewer pipe way to); with neg.: to continue to be (= ‫زا‬
‫ مَا برح في│)ل‬he is still in ... ; ‫مَا برح غنيا‬
‫ بربر‬barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large
(ganīyan) he is still rich; ‫( برح الخفاء‬ḳafā’)
crowd), jabber, mutter, prattle
the matter hall come out, has become
‫ البربر‬al-barbar the Berbers generally known; ‫ غدا وبرح‬to come and go
‫ بربرى‬barbarī Berber (adj.); barbaric, II to beset, harass, trouble, molest (‫ ب‬s.o.)
uncivilized; -- (pl. ‫ برابرة‬barābira) a III to leave (‫ هـ‬a place, ‫ الى‬for), depart (‫هـ‬
Berber; a barbarian from, ‫ الى‬on one's way to)

‫ بربرية‬barbarīya barbar(ian)ism, ‫ براح‬departure; cessation, stop; a wide,

barbarity, savagery, cruelty empty tract of land, vast expanse, vastness;
‫ براحا‬barāḥan openly and plainly, patently
‫ مَتبربر‬mutabarbir barbaric, uncivilized
‫ تباريح‬tabārīh2 agonies, torments (e.g., of
‫ بربيس‬look up alphabetically longing, of passion)
‫ بربيش‬barbīš (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an ‫ مَبارحة‬mubāraḥa departure
enema, etc.)
‫ بارح‬bāriḥ (showing the left side. i.e.)
‫ بربط‬barbata to splash, paddle, dabble (in ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as
water) opposed to ‫ البارح ;)سانح‬al-bāriḥa yesterday
‫( بربونى‬It. barbone) barbūnī, also ‫ بربون‬red ‫ البارحة‬al-bāriḥata yesterday│ ‫الليلة‬
mullet (Mullus barbatus; zool.) ‫( البارحة‬lailata) last night; ‫اول البارحة‬
‫ بربى‬see ‫بربة‬ awwala l-b. the day before yesterday. two
days ago
‫ بربيس‬barbīs barbel (zool.)
‫ مَبرح‬mubarriḥ, violent, intense,
‫ برتغال‬burtugāl Portugal excruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains)
‫ برتغالى‬burtugālī Portuguese
‫ مَبرح به‬mubarraḥ bihi stricken. afflicted, ‫ برد‬burd pl. ‫ ابراد‬abrād garment
tormented ‫ بردة‬burda Mohammed's outer garment
‫ برد‬barada u to be or become cold; to ‫ برداية‬burdāya curtain, drape 51
cool, cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to
cool, chill (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to soothe. alleviate (‫هـ‬ ‫ برد‬IV to send by mail, to mail (‫ هـ‬a letter)
pain); -- baruda to be or become cold II to ‫ بريد‬barīd post, mail│‫( البريد الجوى‬jawwī)
make cold (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to refrigerate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); air mail
to cool, chill (‫ هـ‬s.th., also fig.); to soothe,
alleviate (‫ هـ‬pain) V to refresh o.s., cool ‫ بريدى‬barīdī postal; messenger, courier;
o.s. off; to be soothed, be alleviated VIII to mailman
become cold, cool off 5
‫ بارود‬look up alphabetically
‫ برد‬bard coldness, chilliness, coolness; 6
‫ بردى‬bardī, burdī papyrus (bot.)
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh
‫ بردية‬bardīya pl. -āt papyrus│‫علم البرديات‬
‫ برد‬barad hail, ‫ بردة‬barada (n. un.) ‘ilm al-b. papyrology
‫ برداق‬bardāq pl. ‫ براديق‬barādīq2 jug, pitcher
‫ برود‬barūd collyrium
‫ لعب البردج‬la‘b al-b. bridge (game)
‫ برود‬burūd coldness, coolness,
chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity ‫ بردخ‬bardaḳa to polish, burnish (‫ هـ‬s.th.)

‫ برودة‬burūda coldness, coolness, □ ‫بردعة = برذعة‬

chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity│ ‫بردقان = برتقان‬
‫ برودة الدم‬b. ad-dam cold-bloodedness
‫ بردقوش‬bardaqūš (=‫ )مَردقوش‬marjoram
‫ بردية‬bardīya ague, feverish chill; see
‫( بردورة‬Fr. bordure) badūra curbstone, curb
also below
‫ برذعة‬barda‘a pl. ‫ براذع‬barādi‘2 saddle, pack-
‫ برداء‬buradā’ 2 ague, feverish chill
saddle (for donkeys and camels)
‫ برادة‬barrāda cold-storage plant;
‫ براذعى‬barādi‘ī maker of donkey saddle,
refrigerator, icebox
‫ تبريد‬tabrīd cooling, chilling; cold
‫ برذون‬birdaun pl. ‫ براذين‬barādīn2 work horse
storage, refrigeration; alleviation,
jade, nag
mitigation│‫ جهاد التبريد‬jahāz at-t. cold-
storage plant, refrigerator; ‫غرفة التبريد‬ ‫ برز‬baraza u to come out, show, appear, come
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude,
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to
‫ بارد‬bārid cold; cool, chilly; easy; weak;
surpass, excel (‫ على‬s.o.) II to cause to
stupid, inane, silly, dull; dunce,
come out, bring out, expose, show, set off,
blockhead│‫( الحرب الباردة‬ḥarb) the cold
accentuate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to excel, surpass ( ‫فى‬
war; ‫ غنيمة باردة‬an easy prey; ‫‘( عيش بارد‬aiš)
‫ على‬s.o. in), stand out (‫ فى‬for), distinguish
an easy life; ‫( حجة باردة‬ḥujja) a weak
o.s. (‫ في‬by) III to meet in combat or duel (‫ه‬
argument; ‫( تبغ بارد‬tibg) light, mild tobacco
s.o.); to compete in a contest (‫ ه‬with s.o.)
‫ مَبرد‬mubarrid cooling, refreshing; pl. IV to cause to come out, bring out,
-āt refreshments (beverages, etc.) expose, make manifest (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ مَبرد‬mubarrad cooled, chilled publish, bring out (‫ هـ‬a book, etc.); to
present, show (‫ هـ‬e.g., an identity card) V
‫ برد‬barada u to file (‫ هـ‬a piece of metal, etc.) to evacuate the bowels VI to vie, contend
‫ براد‬barrād fitter (of machinery) ‫ بروز‬burūz prominence, projection,
‫ برادة‬birāda fitter's trade or work protrusion
‫ برادة‬burāda iron filings ‫ براز‬birāz excrement, feces; competition,
contest, match (in sports); duel
‫ مَبرد‬mibrad pl. ‫ مَبارد‬mabcirid2 file, rasp
‫ بريزة‬buraiza (birēza; eg.) ten-piaster ‫ برشمجية‬buršamjīya riveting
coin 1
‫ برص‬bariṣa a (baraṣ) to be a leper
‫ ابرز‬abraz more marked, more ‫ برص‬burṣ wall gecko (Tarentola
distinctive; more prominent mauritanica, zool.)
‫ مَبارزة‬mubāraza competition, contest, ‫ برص‬baraṣ leprosy
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing
‫ ابراص‬abraṣ2 leprous; leper│‫سام ابرص‬
‫ ابراز‬ibrāz bringing out, displaying, sāmm a. wall gecko
setting off, accentuation; production;
presentation ‫ برصة‬burṣa stock exchange
‫ بارز‬bāriz protruding, projecting, salient; ‫ برض‬baraḍa u (‫ بروض‬burūḍ) to germinate,
raised, embossed, in relief; marked, sprout (plant)
distinct, conspicuous; prominent ‫ برطوز‬barṯūz: ‫ برطوز البحرية‬b. a1-baḥrīya
(personality) forecastle, crew quarters (on a merchant
‫ مَبرز‬mubarriz surpassing (‫ على‬s.o.), vessel)
superior (‫ على‬to s.o.); winner. victor (in ‫ برطع‬barṯa‘a (‫ برطعة‬barṯa‘a) to gallop
‫ برطل‬barṯala (‫ برطلة‬barṯala) to bribe (‫ ه‬s.o.) II
‫ مَبارز‬mubāriz competitor, contender; tabarṯala to take bribes, be venal
combatant, fighter; fencer
‫ برطيل‬birṯīl pl. ‫ براطيل‬barāṯīl2 bribe
‫( بريز‬Fr. prise) brīz pl. -āt (plug) socket, wall- 1
plug, outlet (syr.); ‫ بريزة‬barīza pl. ‫برائز‬ ‫ برطم‬barṯama to rave, talk irrationally
barā’iz2 do. (eg.) ‫ برطوم‬burṯūm, barṯūm trunk of an
‫ ابريز‬look up alphabetically elephant
‫ برزان‬barazān trumpet ‫ برطمان‬barṯamān pl. -āt (syr. eg.) tall earthen
or glass vessel (for preserves, oil. etc.)
‫ برزخ‬barzaḳ pl. ‫ برازخ‬barāziḳ interval, gap,
break, partition, bar, obstruction; isthmus ‫ برع‬bara‘a a to surpass excel (‫ ه‬s.o.); (also
baru‘a u) to distinguish o.s., be skilful,
‫ برزوق‬burzūq sidewalk proficient V to contribute. Give, donate (‫ب‬
‫ برسام‬birsām pleurisy s.th.); to undertake (voluntarily, ‫ ب‬s.th.).
2 volunteer (‫ ب‬or), be prepared, willing (‫ب‬
‫ ابريسم‬look up alphabetically to do s.th.); to be ready, be on hand (‫ب‬
‫ برسيم‬birsīm clover, specif., berseem, Egyptian with)
clover (Trifolium alexandrinum bot.) ‫ براعة‬barā‘a skill, proficiency;
‫ برش‬burš pl. ‫ ابراش‬abrāš mat efficiency, capability, capacity
‫ ابرش‬abraš2 spotted, speckled 52 ‫ بروعة‬burū‘a superior skill, outstanding
1 proficiency
‫ برش‬look up alphabetically
‫ تبرع‬tabarru‘ pl. -āt gift, donation;
‫ برشت‬birišt: ‫( بيض برشت‬baiḍ) soft-boiled eggs
‫ برشلونة‬baršīlōna Barcelona (seaport in NE
‫ بارع‬bāri‘ skilled, skillful, proficient,
capable. efficient; brilliant, outstanding
‫ برشم‬baršama to stare, gaze (‫ الى‬at s.th.); to (work of art)
rivet (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ برعم‬bar‘ama to bud, burgeon, sprout
‫ برشمة‬baršama riveting
‫ برعم‬bur‘um pl. ‫ براعم‬barā‘im2 and ‫برعوم‬
‫ برشام‬buršām and ‫( برشان‬n. un. ‫ )ة‬pl. -āt bur‘ūm pl. ‫ براعيم‬bard'im' bud, burgeon;
wafer; Host (Chr.) blossom, flower
‫ برشامَة‬buršāma rivet
‫ برشامَجى‬buršāmjī riveter
‫ برغوث‬burgūt pl. ‫ براغيث‬barāgīt2 f1ea; pl. ‫براغي‬ embellish (‫ هـ‬s.th.; ‫ قوله‬one’s speech) II
‫( ث‬syr.) small silver coins│ ‫ برغوث البحر‬b. tabargaša reflex. and pass. of I
a1-baḥr shrimp (zool.) ‫ برقش‬birqiš finch
‫ برغش‬bargaš (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬gnat(s), midge(s) ‫ برقش‬barqaša colorful medley, variety,
‫ برغل‬burgul cooked, parched and crushed variegation
wheat, served together with other food ‫ مَبرقش‬mubarqaš colorful, variegated,
(eg., syr.) many-colored
‫( برغى‬Turk. ‫ بورغى‬burğų) burgī pl. ‫براغى‬ ‫ برقع‬barqa‘a to veil, drape (‫هـ‬, s.o., s.th.) II
barāgī screw tabarqa‘a to put on a veil, veil o.s.
‫ برفير‬birfīr pl. ‫ برافير‬barāfīr2 purple ‫ برقع‬burqu‘ pl. ‫ براقع‬barāqi‘2 veil (worn
‫ بروفة‬look up alphabetically by women; long, leaving the eyes
1 exposed)
‫ برق‬baraqa u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash│
‫( برقت السماء‬samā’u) there was lightning IV ‫ برقوق‬barqūq (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬plum
= I; to emit bolts of lightning (cloud); to 1
‫ برك‬baraka u to kneel down II and IV to make
flash up, light up; to brighten (face); to (‫ هـ‬the camel) kneel down II to invoke a
cable, wire, telegraph (‫ الى‬to) blessing (‫ على‬or ‫ فى‬on s.th., ‫ ل‬on s.th.) III
‫ برق‬barq pl. ‫ بروق‬burūq lightning; flash to bless (‫ فى‬or ‫ ه‬s.th., also ‫ ل‬or ‫)على‬, invoke
of lightning; telegraph│ ‫( برق خلب‬ḳullab) a blessing on; to give one's blessing (‫ هـ‬to
lightning without a downpour, used fig. s.th.), sanction (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to be blessed (‫ب‬
e.g.. of s.o. given to making promises by); to enjoy (‫ ب‬s.th.), find pleasure,
without ever living up to them 53 delight (‫ ب‬in); to ask s.o.’s (‫ )ب‬blessing VI
to be blessed, be praised; ... ‫ تبارك‬tabāraka
‫ برقى‬barqī telegraphic, telegraph- (in
... God bless …! X to be blessed
‫ بركة‬birka pl. ‫ برك‬birak pond, small lake;
‫ برقية‬barqīya pl. -āt telegram, wire, cable
puddle, pool│ ‫ بركة السباحة‬b. as-sibāḥa
‫ بريق‬barīq pl. ‫ برائق‬barā’iq2 glitter, shine, swimming pool
gloss, luster│‫( ذو بريق مَعدني‬ma‘dinī)
‫ بركة‬baraka pl. -āt blessing,
lustered, coated with metallic luster
benediction│ ‫قلة البركة‬qillat al-b.
‫ براق‬burāq Alborak, name of the misfortune, bad luck
creature on which Mohammed made his
‫ ابرك‬abrak2 more blessed
ascension to the seven heavens (‫)مَعراج‬
‫ تبريك‬tabrīk pl. -āt good wish; blessing,
‫ براق‬barrāq shining, lustrous, sparkling,
flashing, glittering, twinkling
‫ مَبارك‬mubārak blessed, fortunate, lucky
‫ مَبرق‬mabraq glitter, flash│‫فى مَبرق الصبح‬
fī m. iṣ-ṣbḥ with the first rays of the ‫ براريك‬barārīk2 (mor.) barracks
morning sun ‫ بركار‬birkār compass, (pair of) divideers
‫ بارق‬bāriq: ‫ بارق‬b. al-amal glimpse of ‫ بركان‬burkān pl. ‫ براكين‬barākīn2 volcano
‫ بركانى‬burkānī volcanic
‫ بارقة‬bāriqa pl. ‫ بوارق‬bawāriq2 gleam,
twinkle ‫ برلمان‬barlamān parliament
‫ مَبرق‬mubriq: ‫ مَبرق كاتب‬teletype ‫ برلمانى‬barlamānī parliamentary
‫ البرقة‬al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya) ‫ برلمانية‬barlamānīya parliamentarianism
‫ ابريق‬look up alphabetically ‫( برلنتى‬It. brillante) brillantī brilliant, diamond
‫ استبرق‬look up alphabetically ‫ برلين‬barlīn Berlin
‫ برقش‬barqaša (‫ برقش‬barqš) to variegate, paint ‫ برم‬barima a (baram) to be or become weary,
or daub with many colors (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to tired (‫ ب‬of), be fed up, be bored (‫ ب‬with),
find annoying, wearisome (‫ ب‬s.th.) V to ‫( برمَاننت‬Engl.) barmanant permanent wave│
feel annoyed (‫ ب‬by), be displeased (‫ب‬ ‫برمَاننت على البارد‬cold wave (in hair)
with); to be fed up (‫ ب‬with), be sick and ‫ برمَق‬barmaq pl. ‫ برامَق‬barāmiq2 baluster; spike
tired (‫ب‬of, also ‫ ;)مَن‬to be impatient, (of a wheel)
discontented, dissatisfied; to grieve, be
pained 54 ‫ برمَهات‬baramhāt the seventh month of the
Coptic calendar
‫ برم‬barim weary, tired (‫ ب‬of), disgusted (
‫ ب‬at, with); dissatisfied, discontented ‫ برمَنكهام‬Birmingham
‫ تبرم‬tabarrum weariness, boredom, ‫ برمَودة‬barmūda the eighth month of the Coptic
disgust; discontent, dissatisfaction; calendar
uneasiness, discomfort, annoyance ‫ برمَيل‬barmīl pl. ‫ برامَيل‬barāmīl2 barrel; keg,
‫ مَتبرم‬mutabarrim cross, peevish, vexed, cask; tun
annoyed ‫ برنية‬barnīya pl. ‫ برانى‬barānīy clay vessel
‫ برم‬barama u (barm) to twist, twine (‫ هـ‬a ‫ برنامَج‬barnāmaj pl. ‫ برامَج‬barāmij2 program,
rope); to shape (‫ هـ‬s.th.) round and long; to plan, schedule; roster, list, index;
roll up (‫ هـ‬the sleeves); to settle, establish, curriculum
confirm (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV to twist, twine (‫ هـ‬a
rope); to settle, establish, confirm (‫ هـ‬s.th.); ‫ برنجك‬burunjuk gauze, crepe
to conclude (‫ هـ‬a pact); to confirm (‫ هـ‬a 1
‫ برنس‬burnus pl. ‫ برانس‬barānis2 (also ‫برنوس‬
judicial judgment); to ratify (‫ هـ‬a treaty, a barnūs, burnūs pl. ‫ برانيس‬baranīs2)
bill) VII to be settled, be established, be burnoose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble
confirmed; to be twisted, be twined (of Coptic priests)│ ‫ برنس الحمام‬b. al-
‫ برامَة‬barrāma pl. -āt drilling machine ḥammām bathrobe
‫ بريم‬barīm rope; string, cord, twine ‫ برانسى‬barānisī pl. -īya maker of
‫ بريمة‬barrīma pl. –āt drill, borer, gimlet, 2
‫ جبال البرانس‬jibāl al-barānis the Pyrenees
auger, bit; ○ corkscrew ‫برم‬
‫ برنس‬brins prince
○ ‫ بريمية‬barrīmīya spirochete ‫ برنسيسة‬brinsēsa princess
‫ ابرام‬ibrām settlement, establishment; ‫ برنط‬II tabarnaṯa to wear a hat
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.);
ratification│‫ مَحكمة النقض والَبرام‬maḥkamat ‫ برنطية‬burnaiṯa pl. -āt, ‫ برانيط‬barānīt2
an-naqḍ wa-l-i. Court of Cassation (Eg.) (European) hat (men’s and women’s);
lamp shade
‫ مَبروم‬mabrūm:○‫( سلك مَبروم‬silk) wire ‫ برهة‬burha pl. burahāt, ‫ بره‬burah a while, a
rope, cable time; short time; instant, moment; ‫برهة‬
‫ مَبرم‬mubram firm, strong; irrevocable, burllatan a little while│ ‫( برهتين‬after two
definitely established; confirmed, ratified│ moments =) in a short time
‫( قضاء مَبرم‬qaḍā’) inescapable fate; ‫بصورة‬ □ ‫ برهم‬barham (syr.) = ‫ مَرهم‬marham
‫ مَبرمَة‬irrevocably
‫ برهمن‬barahman pl. ‫ براهمة‬barāhima Brahman
‫ برمَة‬burma pl. ‫ برم‬buram, ‫ برام‬birām 55
earthenware pot
‫ برهمية‬barahmīya Brahmanism
‫ برمَا‬burmā Burma
‫ برهن‬barhana to prove, demonstrate (‫ على‬or ‫عن‬
‫ برمَائى‬barmā’ī amphibious│‫دبابة برمَائية‬ s.th.)
(dabbāba) amphibious tank (mil.) ‫ برهن‬burhān pl. ‫ براهين‬barāhīn2 proof
‫ برهنة‬barhana proving, demonstration
○ ‫ برمَائية‬barmā’īya amphibian ‫ بروة‬bawa waste, scrap
‫ بروتستانتي‬brotostantī Protestant; (pl. -ūn) a
‫ بروتستانتية‬brotostantīya Protestantism ‫ بريطانيا‬barīṯāniyā, biriṯāniyā Britain, ‫بريطانيا‬
‫( الكبرى‬uẓmā) Great Britain
‫( بروتستو‬It. protesto) brotostō protest (of a bill
of exchange) ‫ بريطاني‬barīṯānī, biriṯānī British;
‫ بورتوكول‬brotokōl protocol
‫ بز‬bazza u (bazz) to take away, steal, wrest,
‫ بروتون‬proton
snatch (‫ هـ ه‬from s.o. s.th.). rob, strip (‫هـ ه‬
‫ بوجرام‬brogrām program s.o. of s.th.); to defeat, beat, outstrip, excel
‫ بروجى‬burūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler (‫ ه‬s.o.), triumph, be victorious (‫ ه‬over)
VIII to take away, steal, pilfer (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ بروز‬barwaza to frame take away, snatch (‫ هـ‬money, ‫ مَن‬from s.o.);
‫ برواز‬barwāz, birwāz pl. ‫ براويز‬barāwīz2 frame to rob, fleece (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ ابتز امَوال الناس‬to lift
money out of people’s pockets, relieve
‫( بروسيا‬It. Prussia) burūsiyā Prussia people of their money
‫ بروسي‬burūsī Prussian ‫ ابتزاز‬ibtizāz theft, robbery; fleecing,
‫ بروفة‬and ‫( بروﭬـة‬It. prova) brōva, brōfa pl. robbing (of s.o.)
-āt test. experiment; proof sheet; 2
‫ بز‬bazza u to bud, burgeon
‫ بز‬buzz, bizz pl. ‫ بزاز‬bizāz, ‫ ابزاز‬abzāz
‫( برونز‬Fr.) bronz bronze nipple, mammilla (of the female breast);
‫ برونزى‬bronzi bronze, bronzy│ ‫العصر‬ teat, female breast 56
‫‘( البرونزى‬aṣr) the Bronze Age 3
‫ بز‬bazz pl. ‫ بزوز‬buzūz linen; cloth, dry goods
‫ برى‬barā i (bary) to trim, shape (‫ هـ‬s.th.), nib ( ‫ بزة‬bizza clothing, clothes, attire;
‫ هـ‬a pen), sharpen (‫ هـ‬a pencil); to scratch uniform│‫( بزة رسمية‬rasmīya) uniform
off, scrape off (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to exhaust, tire
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (‫ ه‬s.o.), ‫ بزاز‬bazzāz draper, cloth merchant
sap the strength of (‫ )ه‬III to vie, compete (‫ه‬ ‫ بزازة‬bizāza cloth trade
with s.o.). try to outstrip (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to vie,
compete, contend, be rivals; to meet in a ‫ بزبوز‬bazbūz pl. ‫ بزابيز‬bazābīz2 nozzle, spout
contest, try each other’s strength (esp. in ‫ بزر‬bazara i (bazr) to sow
games and sports) VII to be trimmed, be
‫ بزر‬bizr pl. ‫ بزور‬buzūr seed(s); pl. ‫ابزار‬
nibbed, be sharpened; to defy, oppose (‫ل‬
abzār and ‫ ابازير‬abāzīr2 spice
s.o.); to undertake, take in hand (‫ ل‬s.th.),
set out to do s.th. (‫)ل‬, enter, embark (‫ل‬ ‫ بزرة‬bizra (n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, pit,
upon); to break forth (‫ مَن‬from); to get stone (of fruit); germ
going; to break out, lot fly, explode (with ‫ بزار‬bazzār seedsman
words, esp. in anger or excitement)
‫ بزيرة‬buzaira pl. -āt spore (bot.)
‫ برى‬baran dust, earth
‫ بزغ‬bazaga u to break forth, come out; to
‫ براية‬barrāya, ‫ براية الَفلم‬b. al-aqlām dawn (day); to rise (sun)
pencil sharpener
‫ بزوغ‬buzūg appearance, emergence; rise
‫ مَبراة‬mibrāh pocketknife (of the sun)
‫ مَباراة‬mubārāh pl. ‫ مَباريات‬mubārayāt ‫ بزق‬bazaqa u (bazq) to spit
contest tournament, match (in games and
sports); competition, rivalry ‫ بزاق‬buzāq spit, spittle, saliva
‫ اعط القوس باريها‬:‫ بار‬a‘ṯi l-qausa bāriyahā ‫ بزاقة‬bazzāqa snail; cobra
give the bow to him who knows how to ‫ مَبزقة‬mibzaqa pl. ‫ مَبازق‬mabāziq2
shape it, i.e. always ask an expert spittoon, cuspidor
‫ مَتبار‬mutabārin participant in a contest, 1
‫بزل‬bazala u (bazl) to split (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to pierce
contestant, contender; competitor, rival (‫ هـ‬s.th.), make a hole (‫ هـ‬in); to tap,broach
‫ برية‬see 1‫ برأ‬and 2‫بر‬
(‫ هـ‬s.th.; a cask); to puncture, tap (‫ ه‬s.o.; s.th.); to unfold, unroll (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to grant,
med.); to clear, filter (‫ هـ‬a liquid) offer, present (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to submit, state, set
forth, expound, explain (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ل‬or ‫على‬
‫ بزل‬bazl puncture, tapping, paracentesis
to s.o.); to flog (‫ ه‬s.o.; Nejd); to please
delight (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ ‫( بسط ذراعيه‬dirā‘aihi) to
‫ بزال‬buzāl bung (of a cask) spread one’s arms; 57 ‫بسط يد المساعدة ل‬
‫ مَبزل‬mibzal pl. ‫ مَبازل‬mabazil 2 spile, (yada l-musā‘ada) to extend helping hand
spigot, tap; cock, faucet to s.o.; ‫ بسط المائدة‬to lay the table; -- basuṯa
u (‫ بساطة‬basāta) to be simple,
‫( بزلة‬It. piselli) bizilla and ‫ بزلا‬green peas openhearted, frank, candid II to spread,
‫ ابزيم‬ibzīm pl. ‫ ابازم‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp spread out, extend, expand (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
level, flatten (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to simplify, make
‫ بزمَوت‬bizmūt bismuth simple (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to set forth, state,
‫ بزنطى‬bizanṯī Byzantine expound, explain; to be sincere (‫ ب ه‬with
s.th. about or in s.th.), confess frankly (‫ب ه‬
‫ باز‬bāzin pl. ‫ بزاة‬buzāh, ‫ بواز‬bawāzin, ‫بيزان‬
to s.o. s.th.) V to be spread, be unrolled,
bīzān falcon
be spread out, be extended; to speak at
‫ بس‬bass and ‫ بسة‬bassa pl. ‫ بساس‬bassās cat great length (‫ فى‬about), enlarge (‫ فى‬on),
‫ بسأ‬basa’a a (‫ بسء‬bas’) to treat amicably (‫ب‬ treat exhaustively, expound in detail (‫ فى‬a
s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiar terms ( theme); to be friendly, communicative,
‫ ب‬with) sociable, behave unceremoniously, be
completely at ease│ ‫ تبسط في الحديث‬to talk
‫ بسارابيا‬besārābiyā Bessarabia freely, without formality VII to spread,
‫ بسباس‬basbās, ‫ بسباسة‬basbāsa (eg.) mace (bot.); extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, be
(magr.) fennel delighted, be or become happy
‫ بسبوسة‬basbāsa (eg.) pastry made of ‫ بسط‬basṯ, extension, spreading,
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil unrolling, unfolding; presentation,
statement, explanation, exposition;
‫( بستيلية‬Fr.) bastīliya pastilles, lozenges cheering, delighting, delectation;
‫ بستان‬bustān pl. ‫ بساتين‬basātīn2 garden amusement; (Eg.) numerator (of a
fraction)│ ‫ بسط اليد‬b. al-yad avarice, greed,
‫ بستانى‬bustānī gardener; garden (adj.);
‫ بسطة‬basṯa extension, extent, expanse;
‫ بستنة‬bastana gardening, horticulture
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abilities;
‫( بستون‬Fr. piston) bistōn, ‫( بستن‬Engl.) bistan excess, abundance; (pl. -āt) statement,
pl. ‫ بساتن‬basātin2 piston exposition, presentation; -- (pl. ‫ بساط‬bisāṯ)
‫( بستون‬It. bastone) bastūnī spades (suit of landing (of staircase); estrade, dais,
playing cards) platform (eg.)

‫ بسخة‬basḳa Easter; Passion Week (Chr.) ‫ بساط‬bisāṯ pl. -āt, ‫ ابسطة‬absiṯa, ‫ بسط‬busuṯ
carpet, rug│ ‫ بساط الرحمة‬b. ar-raḥma
‫ بسر‬basara u (‫ بسور‬busūr) to scowl, frown; -- winding sheet, shroud; ‫ وضع( مَسألة‬or) ‫طرح‬
basara u (basr) and VIII to begin too ‫( على بساط البحث‬mas‘alata, baḥtan) to raise
early (‫ هـ‬with), take premature action, be a question, bring a question on the carpet,
rash (‫ هـ‬in s.th.) also ‫( على بساط المناقشة‬b. il-munāqaša) for
‫ بسر‬busr (n. un. ‫ )ة‬pl. ‫ بسار‬bisār unripe discussion; ‫ طوى البساط بما فيه‬to bring the
dates matter to an end, settle it once and for all
‫ باسور‬bāsūr pl. ‫ بواسير‬bawāsīr2 ‫ بسيط‬basīṯ pl. ‫ بسطاء‬busaṯā’2 simple;
hemorrhoids plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, modest,
inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; ‫ البسيط‬name
‫ بسط‬basaṯ u (basṯ) to spread, spread out (‫هـ‬ of a poetical meter; pl. ‫ بسطاء‬simple souls),
s.th.); to level, flatten (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to enlarge, ingenuous people│‫ بسيط اليدين‬b. al-yadain
expand (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to stretch out, extend (‫هـ‬ (pl. ‫ بسط‬busuṯ) generous, openhanded
‫ البسيطة‬al-basīṯa the earth, the world ‫ بسم‬basam i (basm), V and VIII to smile
‫ بسائط‬basā’iṯ2 elements; simple remedies, ‫ بسم‬basma pl. basamāt smile
medicinal plants; basic facts ‫ بسام‬bassām smiling
‫ بساطة‬basāṯa simplicity, plainness ‫ مَبسم‬mabsim, pl. ‫ مَباسم‬mabāsim2 mouth;
O ‫ ابسوطة‬ubsūṯa pl. ‫ اباسيط‬abāsīṯ2 rim, mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes,
felly (of a wheel) etc.)
‫ ابسط‬absaṯ2 simpler; wider, more ‫ ابتسام‬ibtisām and (n. vic.) ‫ ابتسامَة‬pl. -āt
extensive smile
‫ تبسيط‬tabsīṯ simplification ‫ بسمل‬basmala to utter the invocation ‫بسم ا‬
‫“ الرحمن الرحيم‬In the name of God, the
‫ انبساط‬inbisāṯ (n. vic. ‫ )ة‬extensity,
Benificent, the Merciful”
extensiveness, extension; expansion,
expanse; joy. delight, happiness, gaiety, ‫ بسمل‬basmala utterance of the above
cheerfulness invocation; the invocation itself
‫‘ عضلة باسطة‬aḍla bāsiṯa extensor (anat.) ‫ بسينة‬busaina kitty
‫ مَبسوط‬mabsūṯ extended, outstretched; ‫ بسيكولوجى‬psikolōjī psychological(aI)
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; ‫ بش‬bašša a (bašš, ‫ بشاشة‬bašāša) to display a
detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, happy, friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile;
gay; feeling well, in good health; (tun.) to be friendly (‫ ل‬to s.o.). give s.o. (‫ )ل‬a
well-to-do smile
‫ مَنبسط‬munbasiṯ extending, spreading; ‫ بشوش‬bašūš, baššāš smiling, friendly,
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface cheerful
‫( بسطرمَة‬Turk.) basṯurma a kind of jerked, ‫ بشاشة‬bašāša smile; happy mien
salted meat (eg.) ‫ باش‬bāšš smiling, happy; friendly, kind
‫ البوسفور‬al-busfūr the Bosporus ‫ بشت‬bušt (Nejd, Baḥr., Ir.) a kind of cloak, =
‫ بسق‬basaqa a (‫ بسوق‬busūq) to be high, tall, ‫‘ عباءة‬abā’a
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass (‫ ه‬or ‫على‬ ‫ بشتة‬bišta (eg.) woolen cloak worn by
s.o.) Egyptian peasants
‫ باسق‬bāiq high, tall, lofty, towering 1
‫ بشر‬bašar i, bašira a to rejoice, be delighted,
‫ مَنبسق‬munbasiq high, tall, lofty, be happy (‫ ب‬at s.th.) II to announce (as
towering good news; ‫ ب ه‬to s.o. s.th.); to bring news
(‫ ب ه‬to s.o. of s.th.); to spread, propagate,
‫( بسكليت‬Fr. bicyclette) biskilēt, baskilēt bicycle
preach (‫ ب‬s.th.; a religion, a doctrine)│ ‫بش‬
‫( بسكوت‬It. biscotto) baskūt biscuit ‫(ر نفسه ب‬nafsahū) to indulge in the happy
‫ بسكويت‬baskawīt biscuit hope that … IV to rejoice (at good news)
X to rejoice, be delighted, be happy (‫ ب‬at
‫ بسل‬basula u (‫ بسالة‬basāla) to be brave, s.th., esp. at good news), welcome, (‫ب‬
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to s.th.); to take as good omen (‫ ب‬s.th.)│ ‫استب‬
be reckless, defy death 58 ‫( شر به خيرا‬ḳairan) to regard s.th. as
‫ بسالة‬basāla courage, intrepidity auspicious
‫ استبسال‬istibsāl death defiance ‫ بشر‬bišr joy
‫ بسالة‬bāsil pl. ‫ بسلاء‬busalā’2, ‫بواسل‬ ‫ بشر‬bušr glad tidings
bawāsil2 brave, fearless, intrepid ‫ بشرى‬bušrā glad tidings, good news
‫ مَسبسل‬mustabsil death-defying, heroic ‫ بشارة‬bišāra pl. -āt, ‫ بشائر‬bašā’ir2 good
‫بسلة‬bisilla peace news, glad tidings; annunciation,
prophecy; gospel; ‫ بشائر‬good omens,
propitious signs│ ‫‘ عيد البشارة‬īd al-b. the ‫ بشروش‬bašrūš flamingo
Annunciation, the Day of Our Lady (Chr.) ‫ بشع‬baši‘a a (‫ بشاعة‬bašā‘a) to be ugly,
‫ بشير‬bašīr pl. ‫ بشراء‬bušarā’ bring.r of loathsome II to make ugly, disfigure,
glad tidings, messenger, herald, harbinger, distort (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disparage, run down (‫هـ‬
forerunner, precursor; evangelist (Chr.) s.th.) X to regard as ugly, find ugly or
repugnant (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ تبشير‬tabšīr announcement (of glad
tidings); preaching of the Gospel; ‫ بشع‬baši‘ ugly; offensive, disgusting,
evangelization, missionary activity distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
‫ تبشيري‬tabšīrī missionary ‫ بشاعة‬bašā‘a ugly; offensive, disgusting,
2 distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
‫ تباشير‬tabāšīr foretokens, prognostics,
omens, first signs or indications, heralds ‫ بشاعة‬bašā‘a ugliness
(fig.); beginnings, dawn│ ‫ تباشير الفجر‬t. al- ‫ ابشع‬abša2 uglier; more repulsive
fajr the first shimmer of aurora, the first
glimpse of dawn ‫ باشق‬look up alphabetically
‫ مَبشر‬mubaššir pl. -āt announcer, ‫( بشقه‬eg.; Turk. baška; invar.) different
messenger (of glad tidings); evangelist ‫ بشك‬VIII to lie, prevaricate
(Chr.); preacher; missionary (Chr.)
‫ بشاك‬baššāk liar
‫ مَستبشر‬mustabšir happy, cheerful
‫ ابتشاك‬ibtišāk lie, deceit, trickery
‫ بشر‬bašara u to peel (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to scrape off, 1
shave off, scratch off (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to grate, ‫ بشكور‬baškūr pl. ‫ بشاكير‬bašākīr2 poker, fire
shred (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to touch (‫ هـ‬s.th.), be in iron
direct contact (‫ هـ‬with s.th.); to have 2
‫ بشكير‬balkir pl. ‫ بشاكير‬bašākīr2 towel
sexual intercourse (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to attend,
apply o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ ب‬to s.th.), take up, take ‫( بشلة‬It.) bišilla pl. -āt bacillus
in hand, pursue, practice, carry out (‫هـ‬ ‫ بشم‬bašima a (bašam) to feel nauseated, be
s.th., job, a task, etc.) 59 disgusted (‫ مَن‬by s.th.), be fed up (‫ مَن‬with)
‫ بشر‬bašar man, human being; men, IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust (‫ ه‬s.o.)
mankind ‫ بشم‬bašam surfeit, satiety, loathing, disgust
‫ بشرى‬bašarī human; human being; ‫ بشمار‬bašmār (tun.) lacework, trimmings
epidermal, skin (adj.)│ ‫طبيب بشرى‬
‫ بشامَرى‬bašāmirī (tun.) laceworker, lace-
‫ بشرة‬bašara outer skin, epidermis,
‫ بشمق‬bašmaq slipper (worn by fuqahā’ and
cuticle; skin; complexion
‫ بشرية‬bašarīya, mankind, human race
‫ بشنة‬bašna (magr.) sorghum, millet
‫ مَبشرة‬mibšara pl. ‫ مَباشر‬mabāšir scraper,
‫ بشنس‬bašan the ninth month of the Coptic
‫ مَباشرة‬mubāšara pursuit, practice; direct,
‫ بشنوقة‬bašnūqa pl. ‫ بشانيق‬bašānīq2 kerchief tied
physical cause (Isl. Law); mubāšaratan
under the chin (pal.)
immediately, directly
‫ بشنين‬bašnīn lotus
‫ مَبشور‬mabšūr: ‫( جبنة مَبشورة‬jubna)
shredded cheese ‫ بص‬baṣṣa i (baṣṣ, ‫ بصيص‬basīṣ) to glow,
sparkle, glitter, shine; -- (eg.) u to look
‫ مَباشر‬mubāšir pl. -ūn direct, immediate;
practitioner, pursuer, operator; director; O ‫ بصة‬baṣṣ embers
manager (Eg.); court usher (Syr.); (mil.) ‫ بصيص‬baṣīṣ glow, shine; glimpse, ray
approx.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939)│ ‫غير‬ (e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining
‫( مَباشر‬iṣābāt) directs
‫ بصائص‬baṣā’iṣ lustrous, shining; (eg.) ‫ كان على بصيرة مَن‬to have insight into s.th.,
spy, detective be informed about s.th.; ‫نافذ البصيرة‬
discerning, clear-sighted, perspicacious,
‫ بصبص‬baṣbaṣa (‫ بصبصة‬baṣbaṣa) to wag (‫بذنبه‬
sharp-witted; ‫ نفاذ البصيرة‬nafād al.-b. sharp
bi-danabihi its tail); (eg.) to ogle, make
discernment, perspicacity
sheep’s eyes, cast amorous glances
‫ ابصر‬abṣar2 more discerning
‫ بصخة‬baṣḳa see ‫بسخة‬
2 ‫ تبصرة‬tabṣira enlightenment; instruction,
‫ بصر‬baṣura a (baṣar) to look, see; to realize,
understand, comprehend, grasp (‫ ب‬s.th.) II
to make (‫ ه‬s.o.) understand or realize (‫هـ‬ ‫ تبصر‬tabaṣṣur reflection, consideration;
or ‫ ب‬s.th.), make (‫ ه‬s.o.) aware (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬of penetration, clear-sightedness,
s.th.); to enlighten 60 (‫ هـ ه‬or ‫ ب ه‬s.o. on or perspicacity
as to s.th.); to tell, inform (‫ هـ ه‬or ‫ ب ه‬s.o. ‫ باصرة‬bāṣira pl. ‫ بواصر‬bawāṣir2 eye
about) IV to see (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to make
out, behold, perceive, discern, notice (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬ ‫ البصرة‬al-baṣra Basra (port in S Iraq)
s.o., s.th.), set eyes on (‫)هـ ه‬, catch sight of ‫ بصق‬baṣaqa u to spit (‫ على‬on s.o.)
(‫ ه‬.‫ ;)هـ‬to recognize (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to
reflect (‫ ب‬on). ponder (‫ ب‬s.th.) V to look ( ‫ بصقة‬baṣqa (n. vic.) expectoration;
‫ هـ‬at), regard (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to reflect (‫ فى‬on (expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva
s.th.), ponder (‫ فى‬s.th.) X to have the ‫ بصاق‬buṣaq spit, spittle, saliva
faculty of visual perception, be able to
see; to be endowed with reason, be ‫ مَبصقة‬mibṣaqa spittoon, cuspidor
rational, reasonable, intelligent; to reflect ( ‫ بصل‬baṣal (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬onion(s); bulb(s)│
‫ فى‬on s.th.), ponder (‫ فى‬s.th.) ‫ بصل الفار‬b. al-fa’r sea onion (Scilla verna)
‫ بصر‬baṣar pl. ‫ ابصار‬abṣār vision, eye-sight; ‫ بصلى‬baṣālī bulbous
glance, look; insight; sight, discernment,
‫ بصيلة‬buṣaila pl. -āt, ‫ بصيلة الشعر‬b. aš-
perception│‫ قصير البصر‬shortsighted,
ša‘r bulb of the hair (anat.)
myopic; ‫ لمح البصر‬lamḥ al-b.glance of the
eye; ‫ دون لمح البصر‬,‫ في لمح البصر‬,‫كلمح البصر‬ ‫ بصم‬baṣama u (baṣm) to print, imprint (‫هـ‬
(dūna), ‫( في اقل لمح البصر‬aqalIa) in the s.th.); to stamp (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to make, or leave,
twinkling of an eye, in a moment, in a an imprint (‫ هـ‬on)
flash. instantly; ‫( على مَدى البصر‬madā) ‫ بصمة‬baṣma pl. baṣamāt imprint,
within sight; ‫ له بصر ب فى‬is impression│ ‫بصمة الختم‬b. al-ḳatm stamp
knowledgeable, in, h. is familiar with imprint, stamp; ‫ بصمة الَصابع‬fingerprint
‫ بصرى‬baṣarī optic(al), visual, ocular ‫ بصوة‬baṣwa embers
‫ بصريات‬baṣarīyāt optics ‫ بض‬baḍḍ tender-skinned
‫ بصارة‬basāra perception, discernment; ‫ بضع‬baḍa‘a a (baḍ‘) to cut, slash or slit open (
perspicacity, acuteness of the mind, sharp- ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to cut up, carve up, dissect,
wittedness anatomize ( s.th.); to amputate (surg.) II to
‫ بصير‬baṣīr pl. ‫ بصراء‬buṣarā’2 endowed cut up, carve up, dissect, anatomize III to
with eyesight; acutely aware (‫ ب‬of), sleep (‫ ها‬with a woman) IV to invest
having insight (‫ ب‬into); possessing capital (‫ )هـ‬profitably in a commercial
knowledge or understanding (‫ ب‬of), enterprise V pass. of n; to trade; to shop,
discerning, discriminating, versed, make purchase X to trade 61
knowledgeable, proficient (‫ ب‬in), ‫ بضع‬baḍ‘ amputation
acquainted (‫ ب‬with s.th.);
‫ بضع‬biḍ‘ (commonly, with genit. pl. of
‫ بصيرة‬baṣīra pl. ‫( بصائر‬keen) insight, f. nouns, ‫ بضعة‬with genit. pl. of m. nouns;
penetration, discernment, understanding, in classical Arabic ‫ بضع‬with both genders)
(power of) mental perception, mental some, a few, several
vision│‫ عن بصيرة‬deliberately, knowingly;
‫ بضعة‬biḍ‘a pl. ‫ بضائع‬baḍā’i‘ piece (of ‫ ابطاء‬ibṯā’ slowing down, retardation,
meat); meat; see also biḍ‘ above deceleration, reduction of speed; tarrying,
delay; slowness│ ‫ دون ابطاء‬without delay
‫ بضع‬buḍ‘ vulva
‫ تباطؤ‬tabātu’ slowness; slowing down,
‫ بضاعة‬biḍā‘a pl. ‫ بضائع‬baḍā’i2 goods,
merchandise, wares, commodities; that
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to ‫ بطارية‬baṯṯārīya pl. -āt battery (el. and mil.)
&how, with which he is endowed (also ‫ بطاطا‬baṯāṯā, ‫ بطاطا‬baṯāṯā sweet potato, yam
attributes, qualities)│ ‫ قطار البضاعة‬freight
train; ‫ اخرج مَا عنده مَن بضاعة‬he said what he ‫ بطاطس‬baṯāṯis potatoes
had intended to say ‫ بطاقة‬see ‫بطق‬
‫ مَبضع‬mibḍa‘ pl. ‫ مَباضع‬mabāḍi‘2 ‫ بطبط‬baṯbaṯa (‫ بطبطة‬baṯbaṯa) to quack (duck)
dissecting knife, scalpel
‫ بطح‬baṯaḥa a (baṯḥ) to prostrate, lay low, fell,
‫ ابضاع‬ibḍā‘ mandate for the throw to the ground, throw down (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬
management of affairs (lsl. Law); s.o., s.th.) V and VII to he prostrated, be
partnership in a limited company, capital laid low; to lie prostrate, sprawl, stretch
investment out; to extend, stretch; to lie
‫ مَبضع‬mubḍi‘ pl. -ūn limited partner ‫ ابطح‬abṯaḥ2 flat, level; (pl. ‫ اباطح‬abāṯiḥ2)
(com.) basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a wadi
‫ مَستبضع‬mustabḍi‘ manager, managing ‫ بطحاء‬baṯḥā’ pl. ‫ بطاح‬biṯāḥ, ‫بطحاوات‬
agent (Isl. Law) baṯḥawāt basin-shaped valley; plain, level
‫ بط‬baṯṯ (n. un. ‫ )ة‬duck; ‫ بطة‬baṯṯa leather flask│ land, flatland, open country; (tun.) public
‫ بطة الساق‬calf (of the leg) square
‫ بطؤ‬baṯu’a u (‫ بطء‬buṯ’, ‫ بطاء‬biṯā’, ‫ بطاءة‬baṯa’a) ‫ بطيحة‬baṯīḥa pl. ‫ بطائح‬baṯā’iḥ wide bed of
to he slow; to he slowgoing, slow-footed, a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow and
slow-paced; to tarry, linger, wait, hesitate broad body of water
II to retard, slow down, delay, hold up ( ‫ب‬ ‫ مَنبطح‬munbaṯiḥ prostrate; flat, level;
‫ على‬s.o. in s.th.) IV to slow down, level land, plain 62
decelerate, retard, delay, hold up (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to he slow, go or drive slowly, slow down; ‫ بطيخ‬biṯṯīḳ, baṯṯīḳ (n. un. ‫ )ة‬melon, water-
to be late (‫ عن‬for s.th., in meeting s.o.), melon; baṯṯīḳ hub (of a wheel; syr.)
keep s.o. (‫ )عن‬waiting V to be slow, tardy ( ‫ مَبطخة‬mabṯaḳa melon patch
‫ فى‬in) VI to he slow, leisurely, unhurried; 1
to go, drive, act or proceed slowly, ‫ بطر‬baṯira a (baṯar) to be wild, wanton,
leisurely; to he slowgoing, slow-footed, reckless; to be proud, vain; to be
slow-paced; to slow down X to find slow ( discontented (‫ هـ‬with s.th.); to disregard (‫هـ‬
‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to have to wait a long time s.th.) IV to make reckless
(‫ ه‬for s.o.), be kept waiting (‫ ه‬by s.o.) ‫ بطر‬baṯar wantonness, cockiness,
‫ بطء‬buṯ’ slowness, tardiness│ ‫ببطء‬ arrogance, hubris, pride, vanity
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly ‫ اباطرة‬abāṯira (pl.) bona vivants,
‫ بطئ‬baṯI’ pl. ‫ بطاء‬biṯā’ slow, unhurried; playboys, epicures
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced; 2
‫ البطراء‬al-baṯrā’ Petra (ancient city of
tardy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual, Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
imperceptible│O ‫ بطىء التردد‬b. at- SW Jordan)
taraddud of low frequency (el.)
‫ بطرخ‬baṯraḳ pl. ‫ بطارخ‬baṯāriḳ2 roe (of fish)
‫ ابطأ‬abṯa’2 slower│ ‫ابطأ مَن غراب نوح‬
‫ بطرس‬buṯrus Peter
(gurābi nūḥ) tardier than Noah’s raven,
i.e., slower than a ten years’ itch ‫ بطرشيل‬baṯrašīl and ‫ بطرشين‬baṯrašīn stole
(proverbially of s.o. who ia very tardy) (Chr.)
‫ بطريق‬biṯrīq pl. ‫ بطارقة‬baṯāriqa, ‫ بطاريق‬baṯārīq2 ‫ باطل‬bāṯil nugatory, vain, futile; false,
patrician; Romaean general; penguin untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless;
(zool.) worthless; invalid, null, void; deception,
lie, falsehood; ‫ بالباطل‬and ‫ باطلا‬bāṯila
‫ بطرك‬baṯrak, ‫ بطريك‬baṯrīk, ‫ بطريرك‬baṯriyark pl.
falsely; futilely, in vain; pl. ‫ اباطيل‬abāṯīl2
‫ بطاركة‬baṯārika Patriarch (as. an
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle
ecclesiastic title, Chr.)
talk, prattle
‫ بطركية‬baṯrakīya, ‫ بطريركية‬baṯriyarkīya
‫ مَبطل‬mubṯil prattler, windbag; liar
patriarchate (Chr.)
‫ مَبطل‬mubṯal nugatory, futile, vain
‫ بطش‬baṯaša i u (baṯš) to attack with violence;
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (‫ ب‬or ‫;)فى‬ ‫ مَتبطل‬mutabaṯṯil unemployed
to knock out (‫ ه‬s.o.); to hit, strike (‫ ب‬s.th.). 2
‫ بطل‬baṯula u (‫ بطالة‬baṯāla, ‫ بطولة‬buṯūla) to be
land with a thud (‫ ب‬on) brave, be heroic, be a hero
‫ بطش‬baṯš strength, power, force, ‫ بطل‬baṯal pl. ‫ ابطال‬abṯāl brave, heroic; hero;
violence; courage, valor, bravery; champion, pioneer; hero, protagonist (of a
oppression, tyranny narrative, etc.), lead, star 63 (of a play);
‫ بطشة‬baṯša impact champion (athlet.)│ ‫ بطل العالم‬b. Al-‘alam
world champion
‫ بطاقة‬biṯāqa pl. –āt, ‫ بطائق‬baṯā’iq2 slip (of
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket; ‫ بطلة‬baṯala heroine (of a narrative),
label│ ‫بطاقة الزيارة‬calling card; ‫بطاقة شخصية‬ female lead, star (of a play); woman
(šaḳṣīya) and ‫ بطاقة التعريف‬identity card; champion (athlet..)
‫ بطاقة المواد الغذائية‬b. al-mawādd al-gidā’īya, ‫ بطالة‬baṯāla bravery, valor, heroism
‫ بطاقة التموين‬food ration card; ‫ بطاقة المعايدة‬b.
al-mu‘āyada greeting card ‫ بطولة‬buṯūla bravery, valor, heroism;
1 leading role, starring role (theater, film);
‫ بطل‬baṯala u (buṯl, ‫ بطلان‬buṯlān) to be or championship (athlet.)│ ‫البطولة العالمية‬
become null, void, invalid, false, (‘ālamīya) and ‫ بطولة العالم‬b. al-‘ālam world
untenable, vain, futile, worthless; to be championship (athlet.); ‫ دور البطولة‬the part
abolished, fall into disuse, become or role of the hero, leading role
obsolete; to cease, stop, be discontinued;
to be inactive. be oat of work II to thwart, ‫ بطالسة‬baṯālisa Ptolemies
foil, frustrate, make ineffective counteract, ‫ بطم‬buṯm, buṯūm terebinth (bot.)
neutralize, nullify, invalidate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to 1
abolish, cancel, annul, suppress (‫ هـ‬s.th.) ‫ بطن‬baṯana u (baṯn, ‫ بطون‬bulan) to he hidden,
IV = II; to talk idly, prattle; to paralyze, concealed, to hide; -- baṯuna u (‫بطانة‬
immobilize, hold down, pin down (‫ ه‬the baṯāna) to be paunchy II to line (‫ هـ‬a
opponent) garment, ‫ ب هـ‬s.th. with); to cover the
inside (‫ ب هـ‬of s.th. with), hang, face, fill (
‫ بطل‬buṯl nullity; uselessness, futility. ‫ ب هـ‬s.th. with) IV to hide, conceal, harbor
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to be lined, have a lining
‫ بطالة‬biṯāla and baṯāla idleness, (garment); to penetrate, delve (‫ هـ‬into),
inactivity; free time, time off, holidays, become absorbed, engrossed (‫ هـ‬in) X to
vacations; unemployment penetrate, delve (‫ هـ‬into), become
absorbed, engrossed (‫ هـ‬in); to try to
‫ بطال‬baṯṯāl pl. –ūn idle, inactive; fathom (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to fathom (‫ هـ‬s.th.), get to
unemployed, out of work the bottom of (‫ ;)هـ‬to have profound
‫ بطلان‬buṯlān nullity; uselessness, futility, knowledge (‫ هـ‬of s.th.), know thoroughly,
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity know inside out (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ابطال‬ibṯāl thwarting, frustration, ‫ بطن‬baṯn pl. ‫ بطون‬buṯūn, ‫ ابطن‬abṯun belly,
invalidation; ruin, destruction; abolition, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior, inside,
cancellation inner portion; depth│ ‫ بطن القدم‬b. al-qadam
sole of the foot; ‫ بطن الكف‬b. al-kaff palm of
the hand; ‫ رقص البطن‬and ‫ رقص البطون‬raqṣ ‫ بظر‬baẓr pl. ‫ بظور‬buẓur clitoris (anat.) 64
al-b. belly dance; ‫( فى بطن‬baṯni) in, within, ‫ بعبع‬bu‘bu‘ pl. ‫ بعابع‬ba‘ābi‘2 bugaboo, bogey
in the midst of; ‫ فى بطون‬inside, within, in;
‫( ولدت بطنا واحدا‬waladat) she gave birth ‫ بعث‬ba‘ata a (ba‘t) to send, send out, dispatah
only once; ‫( بطنا لظهر‬li-ẓahrin) upside (‫ الى ب‬or ‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o. or s.th. to); to forward (
down ‫ الى ب‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th. to); to delegate (‫ ب‬or ‫ه الى‬
s.o. to); to emit (‫ ب‬or ‫ هـ‬s. th.); to evoke,
‫ بطنى‬baṯnī ventral, abdominal arouse, call forth, awaken (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to stir
‫ بطن‬baṯin paunchy up, provoke, bring on (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to revive,
resuscitate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to resurrect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫مَن‬
‫ بطنة‬biṯna gluttony; overeating,
‫ الموت‬from death); to incite, induce (‫ على‬to
s.th.), instigate, (‫ على‬s.th.); to cause (‫على‬
‫ بطان‬biṯān pl. ‫ ابطنة‬abṯina girth (of a s.th.; e.g., astonishment)│‫بعث اليه هزة الخوف‬
camel) (hazzat al-ḳauf) to scare the wits out of
‫ بطانة‬biṯāna pl. ‫ بطائن‬baṯā’in2 inside, s.o.; ‫( بعث روح الحياة في‬rūḥa l-ḥayāh) to
inner side; lining (of a garment); retinue, breathe life into s.th. or s.o., revive s.th.
suite, entourage│ ‫ فى بطانة‬among, amidst; VII to be Bent out, be emitted, be
within dispatched, be delegated; to be triggered,
be caused, be provoked; to be resurrected
‫ بطين‬baṯīn pl. ‫ بطان‬biṯān and ‫مَبطان‬ (‫ مَن الموت‬from death); to originate (‫ مَن‬in),
mibṯān, paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout; come (‫ مَن‬from), be caused (‫ مَن‬by); to
gluttonous emanate (fragrance); to arise, spring,
‫ بطين‬buṯain ventricle (of the heart; anat.) proceed, develop (‫ مَن‬from), grow out of (
‫ ;)مَن‬to set out to do s.th. (with foll.
‫ بطانية‬baṯṯānīya pl. -āt, ‫ بطاطين‬baṯāṯīn2 imperf.) VIII to send, dispatch (‫ ه‬s.o.)
cover; blanket; quilt
‫ بعث‬ba‘t sending out, emission,
‫ باطن‬bāṯin pl. ‫ بواطن‬bawāṯin2 inner, dispatching, delegation, etc.; resurrection;
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden, pl. ‫ بعوث‬bu‘ūt delegations, deputations│
secret; ‫ الباطنة‬coastal plain of E Oman; ‫باطنا‬ ‫ حزب البعث‬ḥizb al-b. approx.: Renaissance
bāṯinan inwardly, secretly│ ‫ باطن الكف‬b. Party, a political party with strong socialist
al-kaff palm of the hand; ‫ باطن القدم‬b. al- tendencies; ‫ يوم البعث‬Day of Resurrection
qadam sole of the foot; ‫ فى باطن الَمَر‬at (from the dead)
bottom, after all, really; ‫ بواطن الَمَر‬the
factors, circumstances or reasons at the ‫ بعثة‬ba‘ta pl. ba‘atāt delegation,
bottom of s.th.; ‫ بواطن الَرض‬b. al-arḍ the deputation, mission; expedition; student
secret depths of the earth exchange; group of exchange students;
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise│ ‫بعثة‬
‫ باطني‬bāṯinī internal│ ‫مَرض باطني‬ ‫‘( عسكرية‬askarīya) military mission; ‫بعثة‬
(maraḍ) internal disease; ‫( الطب الباطني‬ṯibb) ‫ دبلومَاسية‬diplomatic mission; ‫بعثة اثرية‬
internal medicine (atarīya) archaeological expedition; ‫رئيس‬
‫ الباطنية‬al-bāṯinīya name of a school of ‫ البعثة‬ra’īs al-b. chief of mission (dipl.)
thought in Islam, characterized by ‫ باعوث‬bā‘ūt Easter (Chr.)
divining a hidden, secret meaning in the
revealed texts ‫ مَبعث‬mab‘at sending, forwarding,
dispatch; emission; awakening, arousal; --
‫ مَبطون‬mabṯūn affected with a gastric or (pl. ‫ مَباعث‬mabā‘it2) cause; factor
intestinal ailment
‫ باعث‬bā‘it pl. ‫ بواعث‬bawā‘it2 incentive,
‫ مَبطن‬mubaṯṯan lined; filled (‫ ب‬with) inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause,
‫ بطن‬II (tun.) to full (‫ هـ‬s.th.) occasion
‫( باطان‬Span. batán) bāṯān fulling mill ‫ مَبعوث‬mab‘ūt dispatched, delegated;
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy (in
‫ باطية‬bāṯiya pl. ‫ بواط‬bawāṯin pitcher, jug
the Ottoman Empire)
‫ بظ‬baẓẓa u to spout, gush out, well out
‫ مَنبعث‬munba‘at source, point of origin
‫ بعثر‬ba‘tara (‫ بعثرة‬ba‘tara) to scatter, strew
around, fling about (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disarrange,
throw into disorder (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to squander,
waste, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II tabatara pass.
‫ مَبعثر‬muba‘tar scattered, widespread
‫ بعج‬ba‘aja a (ba‘j) to slit open (‫ هـ‬the belly); to
groove, dent, notch (‫ هـ‬s.th.) VII to have
indentations or notches; to be bruised,
dented, bumpy; to get battered
‫ مَنبعج‬munba‘ij notched, indented
‫ بعد‬ba‘uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away, far
off; to keep away, keep one’s distance (‫عن‬
from); to go far beyond (‫)عن‬, exceed by
far (‫ عن‬s.th.); to be remote, improbable,
unlikely│‫ بعد به عن‬he kept him away from;
‫ لَ يبعد ان‬it is not unlikely that ... II to
remove (‫ ه‬s.o.); to banish, exile, expatriate
(‫ ه‬s.o.) III to cause a separation (‫بين‬
between)│‫ باعد بين فلن وبين الشيء‬to prevent
s.o. from attaining s.th.; ‫باعد بين اجفانه‬
(ajfānihī) to stare wide-eyed IV to remove
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to take away (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
eliminate (‫ هـ‬s.th.), do away with (‫ ;)هـ‬to
send away, dismiss (‫ ه‬s.o.); to expatriate,
banish, exile (‫ ه‬s.o.); to exclude, make
unlikely, improbable, impossible (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to go or move far away; to go very far (‫فى‬
in or with s.th.) VI to be separated, lie
apart, lie at some distance from one
another; to separate, part company,
become estranged; to move away, go
away, withdraw, depart (‫ عن‬from); to keep intervals VIII to move or go away; to keep
away, keep one’s distance (‫ عن‬from); to away, withdraw (‫ عن‬from); to quit, leave,
quit, leave, avoid (‫ عن‬s.th.); to follow in avoid (‫ عن‬s.th.); to leave out of
regular 65 consideration, disregard (‫ عن‬s.th.) X to
single out, set aside (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to think
remote, farfetched (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to regard as
unlikely (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disqualify (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بعد‬bu‘d remoteness, farness; (pl. ‫ابعاد‬
ab‘ād) distance; dimension; interval
(mus.)│ ‫ على بعد‬and ‫ على البعد‬in the distance,
far off; ‫ على بعد مَئة مَتر‬at a distance of 100
meters; ‫ عن بعد‬and ‫ مَن بعد‬from a distance,
from afar; ‫ ذو ثلثة ابعاد‬three-dimensional;
‫ قياس الَبعاد‬qiyās al-a. linear measure; ‫بعد‬
‫ الهمة‬b. al-himma high aspirations,
loftiness of purpose; ‫ بعد الشقة‬b. aš-šiqqa
wide interval, wide gap; ‫ بعد الصيت‬b. aṣ-ṣīt
renown, fame, celebrity; ‫ بعد الصوت‬b. aṣ-
ṣaut do.; ‫ بعد النظر‬b. an-naẓar far ‫ تبعيد‬tab‘īd banishment
sightedness, foresight; ‫ بعدا‬bu‘dan li away ‫ بعاد‬bi‘ād distance
with ... !
‫ مَباعدة‬mubā‘ada sowing of dissension,
‫ بعد‬ba‘du then, thereupon; afterwards, estrangement, alienation
later, after that, in the following; still,
yet│ ‫ فيما بعد‬afterwards, later; ‫ امَا بعد‬see 1;‫امَا‬ ‫ ابعاد‬ib‘ād removal, separation, isolation;
‫ هو بعد صغير‬he is only a small boy, be is elimination; expatriation, banishment,
still young; ‫( لم يأت بعد‬ya’ti) he hasn’t come deportation
yet ‫ تباعد‬tabā‘ud interdistance; mutual
‫ بعد‬ba‘da (prep.) after; in addition to, estrangement
beside; aside from│ ‫ بعد كونه‬... (kaunihī) ‫ مَبعد‬mub‘ad deported; deportee
aside from the fact that he is ... ; ‫بعد ذلك‬
afterwards, after that, later (on); besides, ‫ مَتباعد‬mutabā‘id separate│ ‫في فترات‬
moreover; ‫ بعد ذاك‬besides, moreover; ‫بعد ان‬ ‫( مَتباعدة‬fatarāt) in wide intervals; ‫في فترات‬
ba‘da an (conj.) after; ‫( اذ‬id), ‫ بعد مَا‬and ‫مَن‬ ‫( مَتباعدة مَن الزمَن‬zaman) at infrequent
‫( بعد مَا‬ba‘di) do.; ‫( سفه مَا بعده سفه‬safahun) intervals, from time to time
the height of stupidity ‫ مَستبعد‬mustab‘ad improbable, unlikely
‫ بعدئذ‬ba‘da’idin then, thereafter, 66
thereupon, after that, afterwards 1
‫ بعر‬ba‘r, ba‘ar, droppings, dung (of animals)
‫ بعيد‬ba‘īd pl. ‫ بعداء‬bu‘adā’, ‫ بعد‬bu‘ud, ‫بعدا‬ 2
‫ بعير‬ba‘īr pl. ‫ ابعرة‬ab‘ira, ‫ بعران‬bu‘ran, ‫اباعر‬
‫ ن‬ba‘dān, ‫ بعاد‬bi‘ād distant, far away, fur abā‘ir2, ‫ بعارين‬ba‘ārīn2 camel
(or from); remote, outlying, out-of-the-
way; far-reaching, extensive; farfetched, ‫ بعزق‬ba‘zaqa (‫ بعزقة‬ba‘zaqa) to scatter,
improbable, unlikely; unusual, strange, dissipate, squander, waste (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
odd, queer; incompatible, inconsistent (‫عن‬ ‫ مَبعزق‬muba'ziq squanderer, spendthrift,
with)│ ‫ مَن بعيد‬from afar, from a distance; wastrel
‫‘( مَنذ عهد بعيد‬ahd) along time ago; ‫بعيد الَثر‬
‫ بعض‬II to divide into parts or portions (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
b. al-atar of far-reaching consequence; ‫بعيد‬
V to be divided, be divisible
‫ التاريخ‬remote in time, going way back in
history, ancient; ‫ بعيد الشأر‬b. aš-ša’w high- ‫ بعض‬ba‘ḍ part, portion; one; some, a
minded, bold; ‫ بعيد الشقة‬b. aš-šiqqa far few; a little of, some of│ ‫ بعض العلماء‬b.
apart; ‫ بعيد الغور‬b. al-gaur deep; al-‘ulamā’ one (or Borne) of the scholars;
unfathomable; ‫ بعيد المدى‬b. al-madā long- ‫( رفعنا بعضهم فوق بعض‬rafa‘na) we have
distance, long-range; extensive, far- exalted some of them above the others; ‫البع‬
reaching; ‫ بعيد النظر‬b. an-naẓar farsighted; ‫ ض—البعض الخر‬some—some, a few
farseeing; ‫ بعيد المنال‬b. al-manāl hardly others; ‫ بعضهم بعضا‬one another, each other,
attainable, hard to get at; ‫ ذهب بعيدا‬to go far mutually, reciprocally; ‫ بعضه فى بعض‬one in
away, go to distant land.; ‫ تطلع الى بعيد‬to the other, within one another; ‫بعض الشيء‬
look off into the distance ba‘ḍa š-šai’ to some extent, somewhat, a
little, rather; ‫( مَاثلة بعض المماثلة‬ba‘ḍa l-m.)
‫ بعيد‬bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon
he resembled him somewhat, to some
extent; ‫( مَنذ قرن وبعض قرن‬qarn) for the last
‫ ابعد‬ab‘ad2 pl. ‫ اباعد‬abā‘d2 farther, hundred years and more
remoter, more distant; more extensive;
‫ بعوض‬ba‘ūḍ (n. un. ‫ )ة‬gnats, mosquitoes
less likely, more improbable; pl. ‫اباعد‬
abā‘d2 very distant relative│ ‫الشرق الَبعد‬ ‫ تبعيض‬tab‘īḍ division, partition.
(šarq) the Far East; ‫ الَبعد‬the absent one portioning
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who is ‫ بعكوكة‬bu‘kūka club, society
being criticized or blamed for s.th.; also
when referring to the 1st and 2nd persons) ‫ بعل‬ba‘l the god Baal; land or plants thriving
on natural water supply; -- (pl. ‫ بعول‬bu‘ū,
‫ ابعادية‬ab‘adīya pl. -āt country estate ‫ بعولة‬bu‘ūla) lord; husband
‫ بعلة‬ba'w wife ‫ بغل‬bagl pl. ‫ بغال‬bigāl, ‫ ابغال‬abgal mule; ‫بغلة‬
bagla pl. bagalāt female mule│ ‫بغال القنطرة‬
‫ بعلى‬ba‘l, unirrigated (land. plants)
b. al-qanṯara the piers of the bridge
‫ بعلبك‬ba‘lbakk2 Baalbek (ancient Heliopolis,
‫ بغال‬baggāl pl. -ūn mule driver, muleteer
village in E Lebanon)
‫ بغت‬bagata a (bagt, ‫ بغتة‬bagta) to come
‫ بغى‬bagā i (‫ بغاء‬bugā’) to seek, desire, covet,
unexpectedly, descend unawares (‫ ه‬upon
seek to attain (‫ هـ‬s.th.), wish for s.th. (‫;)هـ‬
s.o.) III do.; to surprise (. s.o.) VII to be
-- (bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly (‫ على‬s.o.)
taken by surprise; to be taken aback, be
, to oppress (‫ على‬s.o.), commit outrage (
aghast, he nonplused
‫ على‬upon); to whore, fornicate VII ‫ ينبغى‬it
‫ بغتة‬bagta surprising event, surprise; is desirable, necessary; it is proper,
bagtatan, ‫ على بغتة‬bagtatin all of a sudden, appropriate, seemly, it ought to be, should
suddenly, surprisingly be; with ‫له‬: it behooves him, with ‫عليه‬: he
‫ مَباغتة‬mubāgata sudden arrival, must, he should, he ought to VIII to seek,
surprising incident or event, surprise; desire (‫ هـ‬s.th.), aspire (‫ هـ‬to s.th.), strive (
sudden attack, raid ‫ هـ‬for)

‫ بغاث‬bugāt pl. ‫ بغثان‬bigtan small birds ‫ بغى‬bagy infringement, outrage,

injustice, wrong
‫ بغادة‬see ‫بوغادة‬
‫ بغى‬bagīy pl. ‫ بغايا‬bagāyā whore,
‫ بغدد‬II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's prostitute
weight around, be fresh (properly, to
behave like one from Baghdad) ‫ بغية‬bugya object of desire, wish, desire,
bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, for the
‫ بغداد‬bagdād2 Baghdad purpose of
‫ بغدادى‬bagdādī pl. -ūn, ‫ بغاددة‬bagādida a ‫ بغاء‬bigā’ prostitution
native of Baghdad
‫ بغاء‬bugā’ wish(ing), desire, endeavor,
‫ بغش‬bagaša a: ‫( بغشت السماء‬samā’u) there was effort
a light shower
‫ مَبغى‬mabgan pl. ‫ مَباغ‬mabāgin brothel
‫ بغشة‬bagša light rain shower
‫ مَباغ‬mabāgin coveted things, desiderata,
‫ بغشة‬bugša = ‫بقشة‬ wishes, desires
‫ بغاشة‬bagāša stuffed pastry made of flour, ‫ ابتغاء‬ibtigā’ desire, wish; ibtigā’a
eggs and butter (prep.) for the purpose of
‫ بغض‬bagiḍa a, baguḍa u (bugḍ, ‫ بغاضة‬bagāḍa) ‫ باغ‬bāgin pl. ‫ بغاة‬bugāh desiring,
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make (‫ه‬ coveting, striving; committing outrages,
s.o.) hateful (‫ الى‬to s.o.) III to loathe, oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant
detest, hate (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to loathe, detest,
hate (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to hate each other ‫ مَبتغى‬mubtagan aspired goal, aspiration,
desire, endeavor, effort
‫ بغض‬bugḍ, ‫ بغضة‬bigḍa and ‫بغضاء‬
bagḍā’2 hatred, hate ‫ بفتة‬bafta calico, Indian cotton cloth

‫ بغيض‬bagīḍ, hateful, odious (‫ الى‬to s.o.), ‫ بفتيك‬biftēk beefsteak

loathsome, abominable 1
‫ بق‬baqq (n. un. ‫ )ة‬bedbug, chinch│‫شجرة البق‬
‫ تباغض‬tabāguḍ mutual hatred elm (bol.)
‫ مَبغوض‬mabgūḍ detested, hateful, odious ‫ بق‬baqqa u (baqq) to give off in abundance

‫ مَبغض‬mubgiḍ pl. -ūn hater; -- mubgaḍ ‫ بقاق‬baqqāq garrulous, loquacious,

detested, hateful, odious chatterbox, prattler
‫ بقبق‬baqbaqa (‫ بقبقة‬baqbaqa) to gurgle, bubble,
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle
‫ بقباق‬baqbāq garrulous, loquacious, ‫ بقي‬baqiya a (‫ بقاء‬baqā’) to remain, stay,
chatterbox, prattler continue to be (‫ على‬in a state or condition);
to keep up, maintain (‫ على‬a state or
‫ بقبوقة‬baqbūqa blister (of the skin)
condition); to be left behind, be left over;
‫ بقجة‬buqja pl. ‫ بقج‬buqaj bundle, pack, package to last, continue, go on; (with foll. imperf.
‫ بقدونس‬baqdūnis, baqdūnas parsley or part.) to continue to do s.th., keep doing
s.th.; to become│‫( لم يبق طفل‬yabqa ṯiflan)
‫ بقر‬baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open ( he is no longer a child II to leave, leave
‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV do. over, leave behind (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV to make (‫ه‬
‫ بقر‬baqar (coll.) bovines, cattle; n. un. ‫بق‬ s.o.) stay; to retain, leave unchanged,
‫ رة‬baqara pl. -āt cow leave as it is, preserve, maintain, keep up (
‫ هـ‬s.th.); to leave, leave over, leave behind
‫ بقرى‬baqarī bovine, cattle-, cow- (in (‫ هـ‬s.th. ‫ ه‬s.o.); to leave untouched, save,
compounds) spare (‫ على‬s.o., s.th., e.g., s.o.’s life) V to
‫ بقار‬baqqār pl. ‫ ة‬cowhand, cowboy remain, stay, continue to be (‫ على‬in a state
or condition); to be left, be left over X to
‫ بقس‬baqs box, boxwood (bot.)
make stay, ask to stay, hold back, detain (‫ه‬
‫ بقسمات‬buqsumāt rusk, zwieback; biscuit s.o.); to spare, save, protect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هـ‬
‫ بقشة‬buqša Yemenite copper coin s.th.); to preserve (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to retain, keep
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to store, put away (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بقشيش‬baqšīš pl. ‫ بقاشيش‬baqāšīš2 present of
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh ‫ بقية‬baqīya pl. ‫ بقايا‬baqāyā remainder,
rest; remnant, residue│ ‫ بقية الدول‬b. ad-
‫ بقع‬II to spot, stain, smudge; (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to duwal the remaining countries, the rest of
become stained, get smudged; to be the countries; ‫( البقية الباقية‬bāqiya) the last
spotted, stained remnant
‫ بقعة‬buq‘a pl. ‫ بقع‬buqa‘, ‫ بقاع‬biqā‘ spot, ‫ بقاء‬baqā’ remaining, staying, lingering,
blot, smudge, stain; place, spot, site, plot. abiding; continuation, continuance,
patch, lot duration; survival, continuation of
‫ ابقع‬abqa‘2 spotted, speckled existence after life; immortality, eternal
life; existence; permanence│‫ دار البقاء‬the
‫ باقعة‬bāqi‘a pl. ‫ بواقع‬bawāqi‘ sly dog, hereafter
shrewd fellow
‫ ابقى‬abqā more lasting. more durable.
‫ بقل‬baqala u (baql) to sprout (plant) more permanent; better preserving;
‫ بقل‬baql (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬pl. ‫ بقول‬buqūl, ‫ابقال‬ conducive to longer wear. better
abqāl herbs, potherbs, greens, herbaceous protecting
plants, specif., legumes│ ‫ الفصيلة البقلية‬the ‫ ابقاء‬ibqā’ continuation, retention;
Leguminosae; ‫ البقلة الباردة‬hyacinth bean maintenance, conservation, preservation│
(Dolichos lablab L.), ‫( البقلة الحمقاء‬ḥamqā’) ‫ ابقاء الحالة على مَا كانت عليه‬maintenance of the
purslane (bot.), ‫( البقلة الذهبية‬dahabīya) status quo
garden orach (bot.), ‫بقلة الخطاطيف‬
celandine (bot.), ‫ بقلة الملك‬b. al-malik ‫ استبقاء‬istibqā’ continuation, retention;
common fumitory (bot.) 68 maintenance, conservation, preservation
‫ بقال‬baqqāl pl. -ūn ‫ بقالة‬baqqāla ‫ باق‬bāqin staying; remaining; left;
greengrocer; grocer remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing,
permanent, unending; surviving; living
‫ بقالة‬biqāla the grocery business on; everlasting, eternal (God)│ ‫الباقيات‬
‫ بقلاوة‬baqlāwa, ‫ بقلاوا‬a kind of Turkish delight, ‫ الصالحات‬the good works
pastry made of puff paste with honey and ‫ مَتبق‬mutabaqqin residue, remnant,
almonds or pistachios remainder, rest
‫ بقام‬baqqām brazilwood
‫ بك‬bē (Eg. pronunciation) pl. ‫ بكوات‬bakawāt, ‫ بكرة‬bukra pl. ‫ بكر‬bukar early morning;
‫ بهوات‬bahawāt bey (title of courtesy; cf. ‫ بكرة‬bukratan early in the morning;
‫)بيك‬ tomorrow; on the following day, next day
‫ بكوية‬bekawīya rank of a bey ‫ بكير‬bakīr coming early; early,
premature; precocious
‫ بكيء‬bakī’ pl. ‫ بكاء‬bikā’ having or giving little,
sparing (e.g., of words) ‫ بكور‬bakūr and ‫ باكور‬bākūr coming early;
early, premature; precocious
‫ بكاسين‬bikāsīn bécassine, snipe (zool.)
‫ بكور‬bukūr earliness, prematureness,
‫( بكالوريا‬Fr. baccalauréat) bakālōriyā
premature arrival│ ‫‘( بكورى فى العود‬aud)
baccalaureate, bachelor’s degree
my early return
‫ بكالوريوس‬bakālōriyūs bachelor (academic
‫ بكارة‬bakāara virginity
‫ بكارة‬bakkāra pulley (mech.)│ ‫بكارة مَركبة‬
‫( بكباشى‬Turk. binbaşı) bimbāšī, bikbāšī major
(murakkaba) set of pulleys, block and
(mil; formerly, Eg.)
‫ بكت‬to censure, blame (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بكورة‬bukūra and ‫ بكورية‬bukūrīya
‫ تبكيت‬tabkīt blame, reproach│ ‫تبكيت‬ primogeniture
‫ الضمير‬remorse
‫ باكورة‬bakūra pl. ‫ بواكير‬bawākīr2
‫ بكتيرى‬baktērī bacterial, caused by bacteria firstlings; first results, first fruits;
‫ بكتيريا‬baktēriyā bacteria beginning, rise, dawn; (with foll. genit.)
initial, early, first; pl. ‫ بواكير‬first signs or
‫ بكر‬bakara u to set out early in the morning, indications; initial symptoms; heralds,
get up early; to come early (‫ الى‬to), be harbingers (fig.)│ ‫ باكورة الفواكه‬early fruit;
early (‫ الى‬at) II do.; ‫ بكر فى‬and ‫ بكر ب‬with ‫ كان باكورة اعماله‬the first thing he did was...
foll. verbal noun: to do s.th. early,
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be ‫ ابكر‬abkar2 rising earlier
ahead of s.o. (‫)ه‬, anticipate, forestall (‫ه‬ ‫ مَبكر‬mibkār precocious
s.o.) IV = I; VIII to be the first to take (‫هـ‬
‫ ابتكار‬ibtikār pl. -āt novelty, innovation;
s.th.), be the first to embark (69 ‫ هـ‬on
creation; invention; origination, first
s.th.); to deflower (‫ ها‬a girl): to invent (‫هـ‬
production; initiative; creativity,
s.th.); to create, originate, start (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
originality; pl. ‫ ابتكارات‬specif., creations of
‫ بكر‬bakr pl. ‫ ابكر‬abkur, ‫ بكران‬bukrān fashion, fashion designs
young camel
‫ باكر‬bākir early; premature; ‫ باكرا‬bākiran
‫ بكر‬bikr pl. ‫ ابكار‬abkār first-born, eldest; in the morning; early (adv.)│‫فى الصباح الباكر‬
firstling: unprecedented, novel, new; (ṣabāḥ) early in the morning; ‫ الى الباكر‬till
virgin; virginal tomorrow
‫ بكرى‬bikrī first-born, first ‫ باكرة‬bākira pl. ‫ بواكر‬bawākir2 firstlings,
‫ بكرية‬bikrīya primogeniture first produce, early fruits, early
vegetables; pl. first indications or
‫ بكرة‬bakra and bakara pl. ‫ بكر‬bakar, -āt symptoms, heralds, harbingers
reel; pulley (mech.); spool, coil; winch,
windlass│ ‫ خيط بكرة‬ḳaiṯ b. thread ‫ مَبكر‬mubakkir doing early; early;│ ‫مَبكرا‬
mubakkiran early in the morning, early
‫ بكرة‬bakra: ‫‘ على بكرة ابيهم‬alā bakrati
abīhim, ‫ عن بكرة ابيهم‬and ‫ عن بكرتهم‬all ‫ مَبتكر‬mubtakir creator; creative;
without exception, all of them, all inventor; -- mubtakar newly created,
together; ‫ خرجت الجماهير عن بكرتها‬the crowd novel, new, original; (pl. -āt) creation,
went forth as one man specif., fashion creation, invention│ ‫ثوب‬
‫( مَبتكر‬taub) original design, model. dress
‫ بكرج‬bakraj pl. ‫ بكارج‬bakārij2 kettle, coffee pot
‫ بكسماط‬,‫بكسماد‬, see ‫بقسمات‬ ‫ بل‬balal moisture, humidity; moistness,
dampness, wetness
‫ بكل‬II to buckle, buckle up, button up (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to fold, cross (‫ هـ‬the arms) ‫ بليل‬balīl a moist, cool wind
‫ بكلة‬bukla pl. ‫ بكل‬bukal, -āt buckle ‫ بليلة‬balīla (eg.) dish made of stewed
maize and sugar
‫( بكلاه‬It. baccalá) bakalāh codfish
‫ ابلل‬iblāl recovery, convalescence,
‫ بكلوريوس‬bakalōriyūs bachelor (academic
‫ بل‬taballul moistness, dampness,
‫ بكم‬bakima a to be dumb: -- bakuma u to be
silent, hold one’s tongue IV to silence (‫ه‬
s.o.) V to become silent; to become dumb ‫ مَبلول‬mablūl, ‫ مَبلل‬muballal, ‫ مَبتل‬mubtall
moist, damp, wet
‫ بكم‬bakam dumbness
‫ بلى‬billī (from Fr. bille): ‫( كرسي بلى‬kursī) ball
‫ ابكم‬abkam2, f. ‫ بكماء‬bakmā’, pl. ‫ بكم‬bukm
dumb 70
‫ بلا‬see 2‫ب‬
‫ بكوات‬and ‫ بكوية‬see ‫بك‬
‫ ﭙلاتين‬,‫ بلاتين‬blātī., plātīn platinum
‫ بكى‬bakā i (‫ بكاء‬bukā’, ‫ بكى‬bukan) to cry, weep (
‫ على‬over); to bemoan, lament, bewail (‫ه‬ ‫( بلج‬Fr. plage) blāž beach
s.o.), mourn (‫ ه‬for) II and IV to make (‫ه‬ ‫ بلجرا‬balagrā pellagra
s.o.) cry X to move (‫ ه‬s.o.) to tears, make (
‫ ه‬s.o.) cry ‫ بلرج‬balāraj stork
‫ بكاء‬bakkā’ given to weeping frequently, ‫( بلستيك‬Fr. p1astique) blāstīk plastik
tearful, lachrymose ‫ بلط‬see ‫بلط‬
‫ حائط المبكى‬ḥā’iṯ al-mabkā the Wailing ‫( بلك‬Engl. plug) spark plug (ir.)
Wall (in Jerusalem)
‫ بلنة‬,‫ بلان‬see ‫بلن‬
‫ باكية‬bākiya pl. ‫ بواك‬bawākin wailing-
woman, hired mourner; (eg.) arch, arcade ‫ بلبط‬balbaṯa to gurgle
‫ باك‬bākin pl. ‫ بكاة‬bukāh weeping, crying; ‫ بلبل‬balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or
weeper, wailer, mourner restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble,
confuse (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.) II tabalbala to feel
‫ مَبك‬mubkin, mubakkin, causing tears, uneasy, be anxious; to be or become
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable confused, get all mixed up
‫ بكين‬bikīn Peking ‫ بلبلة‬balbala pl. ‫ بلابل‬balābil2 anxiety,
‫ بل‬bal (also with foll. ‫ و‬wa-) nay, --rather... ; uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle,
(and) even; but, however, yet jumble, chaos
‫ بل‬balla u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet (‫هـ‬ ‫ بلبال‬balbāl anxiety, uneasiness, concern
s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.);--balla i to recover (‫مَن مَرض‬ ‫ بلابل‬balabil2 anxieties, apprehensions
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make
wet (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to recover (‫مَن مَرض‬ ‫ تبلبل‬tabalbul muddle, confusion│ ‫بلبل‬
from an illness) V and VIII to be ‫ الَلسنة‬t. al-alsina confusion of tongues (at
moistened, be wetted; to become wet the tower of Babel)
‫ بل‬ball moistening, wetting; moisture ‫ بلبل‬bulbul pl. ‫ بلابل‬balabil2 nightingale
‫ بل‬bill recovery, convalescence, ‫ بلج‬balaja u (‫ بلوج‬bulūj) to shine; to dawn
recuperation (morning, aurora); -- balija a (balaj) to be
happy, be glad (‫ ب‬about), be delighted (‫ب‬
‫ بلة‬billa moisture, humidity│ ‫مَا زاد الطين‬ at) IV to shine (sun) V and VII = balaja
‫ بلة‬mā zālda ṯ-ṯīna billatan what made
things even worse ... ‫ ابلج‬ablaj2 gay, serene, bright, clear, fair,
nice, beautiful
‫ انبلاج الفجر‬inbilāj al-fajr daybreak ‫ بلشون‬balašūn heron (zool.)
‫ بلجيكا‬beljīka Belgium ‫ بلص‬balaṣa u (balš) and II to extort wring
forcibly (‫ مَن ه‬from s.o. s.th.); to blackmail
‫ بلجيكى‬beljīkī Belgian (adj. and n.)
(‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بلح‬balaḥ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬dates (bot.)
‫ بلص‬balṣ extortion, blackmail; forcible
‫ بلد‬baluda u (‫ بلادة‬balada) to be stupid, idiotic, imposition of taxes
dull-witted II to acclimatize, habituate (‫هـ‬ 2
‫ بلاص‬ballāṣ pl. ‫ بلليص‬balālīṣ2 (eg.)
s.th., to a country or region) V pass. of II;
earthenware jar
to become .tupid, be.otted, lapse into a
state of idiocy; to show o.s. from the ‫ بلط‬II to pave (‫ هـ‬s.th., with flagstones or tiles)
stupid side VI to feign stupidity ‫ بلاط‬balāṯ pavement, tiled floor; floor
‫ بلد‬balad m. and f., pl. ‫ بلاد‬bilād country; tiles; palace; pl. ‫ ابلطة‬abliṯa floor tiles│‫البلا‬
town, city; place, community, village; ‫بلاد‬ ‫( ط الملكى‬malakī) the royal court; ‫حداد البلاط‬
country; ‫ بلدان‬buldān countries│ ‫بلاد الحبش‬ ḥidād al-b. court mourning
b. al-ḥabaš Ethiopia; ‫ بلد الصين‬b. aṣ-ṣīn ‫ بلطة‬balāṯa floor tile; flagstone,
China; ‫ بلد الهند‬b. al-hind India slabstone; paving stone
‫ بلدة‬balda town, city; place, community, ‫ تبليط‬tablīṯ paving, tile-laying
village; rural community; township
‫ مَبلط‬muballaṯ paved, tiled
‫ بلدى‬baladī native, indigenous, home (as
opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow) ‫ بلوط‬ballūṯ oak; acorn
citizen, compatriot, countryman; a native; 3
‫ بلطة‬balta pl. -āt, ‫ بلط‬bulaṯ ax
communal, municipal│ ‫( مَجلس بلدى‬majlis)
city council, local council ‫ بلطجى‬balṯajī pl. -īya engineer, sapper,
pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer,
‫ بلدية‬baladīya pl. -āt township, panderer, pimp; sponger, hanger-on,
community, rural community; ward, parasite
district (of a city); municipality, municipal 4
council, local authority ‫ بلطة‬balaṯa balata gum
‫ بليد‬balīd and ‫ ابلد‬ablad2 stupid, doltish, ‫( بلطو‬Fr. paletot) balṯō pl. –āt, ‫ بلطى‬balāṯī
dull-witted, idiotic paletot, overcoat
‫ بلدة‬balāda stupidity, silliness ‫ بلطى‬bulṯī bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish
of the Nile
‫ تبلد‬taballud idiocy, dullness, obtuseness,
apathy ‫ بلطيق‬al-.balṯīq the Baltic countries│ ‫بحر البلطيق‬
baḥr al-b. the Baltic Sea
‫ مَتبلد‬mutaballid besotted, dull, stupid
‫ بلوظة‬bālūẓa hand pres.; (eg.) a kind of cream
‫ ابليز‬look up alphabetically made of cornstarch, lemon juice and
‫ ابليس‬pl. ‫ ابالسة‬look up alphabetically honey, or the like
‫ بلسان‬ba1asān balsam, balm; balsam tree; black ‫ بلع‬bala‘a and bali‘a a (bal‘) to swallow,
older (bot.) swallow up (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to gulp down (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to put up (‫ هـ‬with s.th.), swallow,
‫ بلسم‬balsam pl. ‫ بلاسم‬balāsim2 balsam, balm stomach, brook (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( بلع ريقه‬rīqahū)
‫ بلسم‬balsamī balsamic, balmy lit.: to swallow one’s saliva, i.e., to catch
one’s breath, take a little rest, have a
‫ بلشف‬balšafa to Bolshevize II tabalšafa to be
break; to restrain o.s., hold back (said of
one in a rage) II and IV to make (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بلشفة‬balšafa Bolshevization swallow (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( بلعه ريقه‬rīqahū) to
‫ بلشفى‬bulšifī pl. ‫ بلاشفة‬balāšifa grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I
Bolshevist(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist ‫ بلعة‬bal‘a large bite, big gulp
‫ بلشفية‬bulšifīya Bolshevism
‫ بلاعة‬ballā‘a, ‫ بلوعة‬ballū‘a pl. –āt, ‫بلاليع‬ announce, state, disclose (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
ba1ālī‘2 sink, drain inform (‫ عن‬against s.o.), report, denounce
(‫ عن‬s.o.)│‫ ابلغ البوليس ب‬to report s.th. to the
‫ بالوعة‬bālū‘a pl. –āt, ‫ بواليع‬bawālī‘2 sewer,
police V to content o.s., be content (‫ب‬
sink, drain
with); to eke out an existence; to still
‫ بلعم‬bul‘um pl. ‫ بلاعم‬balā‘im2 and ‫ بلعوم‬bul‘ūm one’s hunger (‫ ب‬with), eat (‫ ب‬s.th.): to b.
pl. ‫ بلعيم‬balā‘īm2 pharynx (anat.); ‫بلعوم‬ delivered, be transmitted
gullet, esophagus (anat.)
‫ سمعا لَ بلاغا‬sam‘an lā balāgan! may it be
‫ بلغ‬balaga u (‫ بلوغ‬bulūg) to reach (‫ ه‬s.o. ‫هـ‬ heard but not fulfilled, i.e. God forbid!
s.th.), get (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬to), arrive (‫ هـ‬at); to come, (used at the mention of s.th. unpleasant)
amount (‫ هـ‬to), be worth (‫ هـ‬so and so
‫ بلغة‬bulga and ‫ بلاغ‬balāg sufficiency,
much); to come to s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬ears; to attain
competency, adequacy (see also 2 ‫بلغة‬
puberty (boy); to ripen, mature (fruit, or
the like); to come of age; to exhaust, wear
out (‫ مَن‬s.o.); to act (‫ مَن‬upon s.o.), have its ‫ بلاغ‬balāg pl. -āt communication,
effect (‫ مَن‬on), affect (‫ مَن‬s.o.); to go far (‫فى‬ information, message, report;
‫ مَن‬, in s.th.), attain a high degree (‫ مَن‬,‫ فى‬of announcement, proclamation;
s.th.)│ ‫بلغ به الى‬to make s.o. or s.th. get to communiqué; statement; notification (of
or arrive at, lead or take s.o. or s.th. to, get the police)│‫ بلغ اخير‬ultimatum
s.o. or s.th. to the point where, ‫بلغ به الترنح‬ ‫ بليغ‬balīg pl. ‫ بلغاء‬bulagā’ eloquent;
‫( ان‬tarannuḥ) he began to reel so violently intense, lasting, deep, profound (e.g., an
that ... ; ‫( بلغ الَمَر مَبلغ الجد‬mablaga l-jidd) impression); serious, grave (e.g., an
the matter became serious; ‫ بلغ السيل الزبى‬b. injury)
s-sailu z-zubā the matter reached a climax,
things came to a head; ‫بلغ مَبلغ الرجال‬ ‫ بلوغ‬bulūg reaching, attainment, arrival
(mablaga r-rijāl) to be sexually mature, (at); maturity, legal majority
attain manhood, come of age; ‫بلغ اشده‬ ‫ بلاغة‬balāga eloquence; art, of good
(ašuddahū) to attain full maturity, come of style, art of composition; literature│ ‫علم‬
age; to reach its climax; ‫بلغ فى الشيء مَبلغا‬ ‫‘ البلاغة‬ilm al-b. rhetoric
(mablagan) to attain a high degree of s.th.;
‫( حين بلغت بذكرياتي هذا المبلغ‬ḥīna, dikrayātī, ‫ ابلغ‬ablag2 intenser, deeper, more lasting;
mablaga) when I had come to this point in more serious, graver
my reminiscences; ‫( بلغ مَنه كل مَبلغ‬kulla ‫ مَبلغ‬mablag pl. ‫ مَبالغ‬mabālig2 amount,
mablagin) to work havoc on s.o.; ‫بلغ مَنتهاه‬ sum of money; extent, scope, range; (see
(muntahāhū) to reach its climax, come to also examples under ‫ بلغ‬I)│ ‫( مَبلغ اسمى‬ismī)
a head II to make (‫ ه‬s.o.) reach or attain (‫هـ‬ nominal par; ‫( المبالغ المودعة‬mūda‘a) the
s.th.); to take bring (‫ الى هـ‬s.th. to s.o.) see deposits (at a bank); ‫ليتبين مَبلغ قولى مَن الجد‬
that s.th. (‫ )هـ‬gets (‫ الى‬to); to convey, (li-yatabayyana, qaulī, jidd) in order to
transmit, impart, communicate, report (‫هـ ه‬ find, out to what extent my words were
to s.o. s.th.); to inform, notify (‫ هـ ه‬s.o. of meant seriously
s.th.), tell, let know (‫ هـ ه‬s.o. about); to
‫ تبليغ‬tablīg pl. -āt conveyance,
report (‫ عن‬about), give an account of (‫;)عن‬
transmission, delivery (‫ الى‬to s.o.);
to inform (‫ عن‬against s.o.), report,
information (‫ عن‬about); report,
denounce (‫ عن‬s.o.)│ ‫ بلغ رسالة‬to fulfill a
notification (‫ عن‬of); communication,
mission, ‫ بلغه سلمَى‬ballighu salāmī give
announcement, notice│ ‫كتاب التبليغ‬
him my best regards! III to exaggerate (‫فى‬
in s.th.); to overdo. do too long (‫ فى‬s.th.);
to go to greatest lengths, do one’s utmost ( ‫ مَبالغة‬mubalaga pl. -āt exaggeration
‫ فى‬in) IV to make (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.) reach or ‫ ابلاغ‬iblāg conveyance, transmission
attain (‫ الى‬s.th.); to make (‫ هـ‬s.th.) amount (
‫ الى‬to), raise (‫ هـ‬an amount, a salary, ‫ الى‬to); ‫ بالغ‬bālig extensive, far-reaching;
to inform, notify (‫ ب‬or ‫ عن‬s.o. of s.th.), considerable; serious (wound), deep,
tell, let know (‫ ب‬or ‫ عن ه‬s.o. about); to profound, violent, vehement (feelings),
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally ‫ ابله‬ablah2 stupid, doltish, dull-witted;
major idiotic
‫ مَبلغ‬muballig bearer (of news), ‫ بلهارسيا‬bilkarsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
messenger; informer, denouncer; detective (med.)
‫ بلغة‬bulga, balga pl. -āt, bulag slipper of ‫ بلهنية‬bulahniya abundance, wealth, variety (of
yellow leather earthly possessions)
‫ بلغاريا‬bulgāriyā Bulgaria ‫ بلهوان‬see ‫بهلوان‬
‫ بلغارى‬bugārī Bulgarian (adj. and n.) 2
□ ‫ بلهون‬bulhōn pl. ‫ بلهين‬balāhīn2 (= ‫ابو الهول‬
‫ بلغم‬balgam phlegm; (pl. ‫ بلاغم‬balagim2) eg.) sphinx
expectoration, sputum (‫ بلو‬and ‫ بل )بلى‬balā u (balw, ‫ بلء‬balā’) to test,
‫ بلغمى‬balgamī phlegmatic; phlegmy, try, put to the test (‫ هـ‬s.o., • s.tb.); to know
mucous from long experience (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to afltict (
‫ هـ‬s.o.); -- ‫ بلى‬baliya a (‫ بلى‬bilan, ‫ بلء‬balā’)
‫ بلف‬balafa i (balf) to bluff II do.
to be or become old, worn, shabby
‫ بلف‬balf, ‫ بلفة‬balfa bluff (clothes); to dwindle away, vanish; to
‫ ابلق‬ablaq2 piebald deteriorate, decline, become decrepit; to
disintegrate (a corpse), decay, rot, spoil III
‫ بلقيس‬bilqīs2 Muslim name of the Queen of to care, be concerned (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬about), be
Sheba mindful (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬of s.o., of s.th.); to pay
‫ البلقان‬al-balqān the Balkans attention (‫ ب‬or ‫ هـ‬to), mind, heed, take into
consideration, take into account (‫ ب‬or ‫هـ‬
‫ بلقانى‬balqānī Balkan s.th.); to take notice (‫ ب‬of)│‫ مَا ابالى‬mā
‫ بلقع‬balqa‘ and ‫ بلقعة‬balqa‘a pl. ‫ بلاقع‬balāqi‘2 ubālī, ‫ لَ ابالى‬I don’t care! I don’t mind! it's
wasteland all right with me! ‫( لَ يبالى‬as a relat. clause)
unconcerned, heedless, careless, reckless
‫ بلك‬see ‫بلوك‬ IV to try, test, put to the test (‫ هـ‬s.o.); to
‫ بلكون‬balkōn balcony make experienced, harden, inure (‫ ه‬s.o.;
1 said of trials, experiences); to work havoc
‫ بلم‬balam anchovy
(‫ هـ‬on s.th.); to wear out (‫ هـ‬s.th.) │ ‫ابلى بلء‬
‫ بلم‬balam pl. ‫ ابلام‬ablām sailing barge (ir.) ‫( حسنا‬balā’an ḥasanan) to stand the test; to
‫ بلم‬IV to be silent, hold one's tongue prove o.s. brave (in war) VIII to try,
tempt, put to the test (‫ هـ‬s.o.); to afflict ( ‫ب‬
‫ بلان‬ballān bathhouse attendant; name of a ‫ ه‬s.o. with), visit (‫ ب ه‬on s.o. s.th.); pass.
plant growing near stagnant waters ubtuliya to become or be afflicted (‫ ب‬with,
‫ بلانة‬ballāna female bathhouse attendant; by), suffer (‫ ب‬from)
lady's maid ‫ بلى‬bilan decline, deterioration; decay,
‫ بلنسية‬balansiya Valencia (region and city in E putrefaction, decomposition; worn
Spain) condition; wear; shabbiness
‫ بلين‬pl. ‫ بللين‬look up alphabetically ‫ بلي‬balīy worn, old, shabby, threadbare;
decrepit, dilapidated, decaying,
‫ بله‬baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded VI to decomposed, rotten
feign foolishness, pretend to be stupid X
to deem (‫ هـ‬s.o.) stupid or simple-minded ‫ بلية‬balīya pl. ‫ بليا‬balāyā trial,
tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress,
‫ بله‬balah and ‫ بلاهة‬balāha stupidity, misfortune, calamity
foolishness, simple-mindedness; idiocy,
imbecility│‫( بلاهة مَبكرة‬mubakkira) ‫ بلء‬balā’ trial. tribulation, visitation,
dementia praecox affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge,
plague; creditable performance, bravery,
‫ بله‬balha let alone, not to speak of, not to gallantry, heroic action│‫( بلء حسن‬ḥasan)
favor, blessing, grace (of God); good ‫ بليسيه‬bilīsēh plissé, pleating
performance 1
‫ بلين‬ballīn pl. ‫ بللين‬balālīn2 pallium, liturgical
‫ بلوى‬balwā trial; tribulation, visitation, vestment of a bishop worn over the
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity; chasuble (Chr.); monk's robe (Copt.·Chr.)
necessity, need│‫‘( عمت البلوى‬ammat) it has 2
‫ بليون‬balyūn pl. ‫ بلايين‬balayīn (U.S.) billion,
become a general necessity (G.B.) milliard; (U.S.) trillion, (G.B.)
‫ مَبالَة‬mubālāh consideration, regard, billion
heed, attention│ ‫لَ مَبالَة‬lā-mubālāh ‫ بم‬bamm lowest string of a musical instrument
indifference, unconcern, carelessness
‫ بمباغ‬bumbāg, ‫ بمباغة‬bumbāga bow tie
‫ ابتلء‬ibtilā’ trial, tribulation, affliction,
visitation ‫ بمباى‬bombāy Bombay
‫ بال‬bālin old, worn, worn out; shabby, ‫ بامَية‬look up alphabetically
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit, 1
‫ بن‬V ‫ تبنى‬to adopt as son (‫ ه‬s.o.); to adopt.
dilapidated; decayed, rotten; obsolete, embrace (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ابن‬ibn pl. ‫ ابناء‬abnā’, ‫ بنون‬banūn son;
‫ مَبال‬mubālin observant, heedful, mindful descendant. scion; offspring, son (of a
(‫ ب‬of)│ ‫غير مَبال ب‬heedless of nation or people)│ ‫ ابن آدم‬pl. ‫( بنو آدم‬son of
‫ مَبتلى‬mubtalan (less correctly ‫مَبتل‬ Adam) man, human being; ‫ ابن آوى‬ibn āwā
mubtalin) afflicted (‫ ب‬with, by), suffering jackal; ‫ ابن البلد‬ibn a1-balad local
(‫ ب‬from) inhabitant, native; ‫ ابناء البلد‬natives, native
population; ‫ ابن الحرب‬ibn al-ḥarb warrior;
‫ بلور‬II tabalwara to crystalize; to be soldier; warlike, bellicose; ‫ابن السبيل‬
crystalized; to be covered with crystals wayfarer, wanderer; 50 ‫ ابن خمسين سنة‬years
‫ بلور‬ballūr, billaur pl. -āt crystal; crystal old; ‫ ابن ساعته‬ibn sā‘atihī temporal,
glass, flint glass, glass│O ‫بلور صخرى‬ transient, passing; ‫ ابن صلبه‬ibn ṣulbihī his
(ṣaḳrī) rock crystal, transparent quartz own son; ‫ ابن عرس‬ibn ‘irs weasel; ‫بنو مَاء‬
‫ السماء‬banū mā’ as-samā’ the Arsbs; ‫بنو‬
‫ بلورة‬billaura (n. un.) pl. -āt crystal;
‫ سويف‬Beni Suef (city in Egypt, S of Cairo)
crystal glass, flint glass, glass; tube
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a ‫ ابنة‬ibna and ‫ بنت‬bint pl. ‫ بنات‬banāt
detector; radio); (syr., pronounced daughter; ‫ بنت‬girl│ ‫ ابنة العم‬i. al-‘amm
ballōra) negative (phot.) (female) cousin; periphrastically for wife:
‫ ابنة عمك‬your wife; ‫ بنت الفك‬b. a1-fikr pl. ‫بنا‬
‫ بلورى‬ballūrī, billaurī crystalline; crystal
‫ ت الَفكار‬thought, idea; ‫ بنات الَرض‬b. a1-
arḍ insects and worms; ‫ بنات بئس‬b. bi’s
‫ بلورية‬ballūrīya, billaurīya pl. -āt lense calamities, afflictions; ‫ بنات الدهر‬b. ad-dahr
(opt.) do.; ‫ بنت الشفه‬b. aš-šafa word; ‫ بنات الصدر‬b.
‫ مَبلور‬mubalwar: ‫ فواكه مَبلورة‬candied aṣ-ṣadr worries, fears, anxieties; ‫بنات وردان‬
fruits 75 b. wardāna earth worms, rainworms

‫( بلوز‬Fr. blouse) bəlūz, bəlūza pl. –āt blouse ‫ بني‬bunaiya my little son

‫( بلوك‬Turk. bölük) bulūk pl. -āt company (mil.; ‫ بنوة‬bunuwwa sonship, filiation
Eg.)│ ‫بلوك امَين‬b. amīn (mil.) approx.: ‫ بنوى‬banawi filial
quartermaster sergeant (formerly, Eg.)
‫ تبن‬tabannin adoption (also fig., e.g. of
‫ بلون‬ballūn balloon ideas, principles, etc.)
‫ بلى‬balā yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely 2
‫ بن‬bunn coffee beans, coffee
‫ بلى‬baliya etc., see ‫بلو‬ ‫ بنى‬bunnī coffee-colored, brown
‫( بلياتشو‬It. paglaccio) palyatšō clown, buffoon ‫ بنان‬banān finger tips│ ‫( يشار عليه ببنان‬yušāru
‫( بلياردو‬It. bigliardo) bilyardō billiards lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, i.e., he is
famous man; ‫ انا طوع بنانك‬anā tau‘a ‫ بنزهير‬banzahīr bezoar, bezoar stone
banānika I am at your disposal, I am at ‫ بنزين‬banzīn, benzīn gasoline, benzine
your service
‫( بنس‬Engl.) pence
‫ بنادورة‬banādōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro)
tomato(es) ‫ بنسلين‬benisilīn penicillin
‫ بنارس‬banāris2 Banaras or Benares (the Holy ‫( بنسيه‬Fr. pensée) banēh pansy (bot.)
City of the Hindus, in N India) ‫ بنسيون‬bansiyōn pl. -āt boardinghouse;
‫ بنباشى‬see ‫بكباشى‬ boarding school
‫ بنت‬see 1 ‫بن‬ ‫ بنصر‬binṣir f., pl. ‫ بناصر‬banāsir2 ring finger
‫ بنتو‬bintū napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 20 ‫ بنط‬bunṯ pl. ‫ بنوط‬bunūṯ point (stock market)
francs) ‫ بنطلون‬banṯalūn (from It. pantaloni) pl. –āt
‫ بنج‬II to dope, narcoticize (with banj; ‫ ه‬s.o.); to trousers, pants
anesthetize (. s.o.) ‫ بنغازى‬bangāzī Bengasi (city in NE Libya,
‫ بنج‬banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger; capital of Cyrenaica)
bot); an anesthetic, a narcotic ‫ البنغال‬al-bangāl Bengal (region, NE Indian
‫ البنجاب‬al-banjāb the Punjab (region, NW subcontinent)
Indian subcontinent) ‫ بنفسج‬banafsaj (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬violet (bot.)
‫ بنجر‬banjar red beet (eg.) ‫ بنفسجى‬banafsajī violetlike, violetish;
‫ بند‬band pl. ‫ بنود‬bunūd article, clause, violet (adj.)│ ‫ فوق البنفسجى‬or ‫وراء البنفسجى‬
paragraph (of a. la.w, contract, etc.); ultraviolet
banner; large body of troops
‫ بنفش‬banfaš, banafš amethyst (min.)
‫ بندر‬bandar pl. ‫ بنادر‬banādir2 seaport;
commercial center; district capital (Eg.); ‫بن‬ ‫ بنقة‬binaqa and ‫ بنيقة‬banīqa gore, gusset (of a
‫ ادر‬see also under ‫ بنديرة‬below│ ‫بندر عباس‬ shirt or garment)
‘abbās Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran) 1
‫ بنك‬bunk root, core, heart, best part│ ‫بنك العمر‬
‫ بندورة‬look up alphabetically b. al-‘umr the prime of life, the best years
‫ بندق‬bunduq (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬pl. ‫ بنادق‬banādiq2 ‫ بنك‬bank pl. ‫ بنوك‬bunūk bank, banking house│
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; ‫بندقة‬ ‫ بنك التسليف‬credit bank; ‫ بنك التوفير‬deposit
hazelnut, filbert; bullet bank; ‫ بنك الدم‬b. ad-dam blood bank; ‫البنك‬
‫( الدولى‬daulī) the World Bank
‫ بندقى‬bunduqī Venetian sequin 3
‫ مَبنك‬mubannak stranded
‫ بندقية‬bunduqīya pl. ‫ بنادق‬banādiq2 rifle, 4
gun│ ‫ بندقية رش‬b. rašš shotgun ‫ مَحنك مَبنك‬muḥannak mubannak shrewd, sly,
‫ البندقية‬al.bunduqīya Venice
‫( بنكنوت‬Engl.) banknōt banknote
‫ بندقانى‬bunduqani pl. -ūn, ‫ بنادقة‬banādiqa
a Venitian ‫ بنوة‬and ‫ بنوى‬see 1‫بن‬
‫ بندوق‬bundūq pl. ‫ بناديق‬banādīq2 bastard ‫( بنوار‬Fr. baignoire) banwār baignoire, theater
box of the lowest tier
‫ بندورة‬banadōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro) 1
tomatoes ‫ بنى‬bana i (‫ بناء‬binā’, ‫ بنيان‬bunyān) and VIII to
build, erect, construct, set up (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫ احمر بندورى‬aḥmar2 banadōrī tomato-red build, establish, rest (‫ على هـ‬s.th. on); to
‫( بندول‬Fr. pendule) bandūl pendulum consummate the marriage (‫ بها‬and ‫عليها‬
with a woman); pass. buniya, ubtuniya to
‫( بنديرة‬Span. bandera) bandēra pl. ‫بنادر‬
be based, be built, rest (‫ على‬on)│ ‫بنى كلمة‬
banadir2 pennon, flag, banner
‫( على‬kalimalan) to give a word an
‫ بنور‬bannūr (= ‫ بلور‬ballūr) glass
indeclinable ending in (a certain vowel or descend unexpectedly (‫ ه‬upon s.o.); to
a vowelless consonant; gram.) V see 1 ‫بن‬ startle, stagger, flabbergast (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to
surprise, astonish, amaze (‫ هـ‬s.o.) VII = I
‫ بناء‬binā’ building, construction,
erection, setting up; structure (also, e.g., ‫ بهت‬buht and ‫ بهتان‬buhtān slander, false
of an organism), setup, make-up; (pl. ‫ابنية‬ accusation; lie, untruth
abniya) building, structure, edifice│ ‫اعادة‬ ‫ بهتة‬bahta perplexity, amazement,
‫ البناء‬i‘ādat al-b. reconstruction; ‫البناء الحر‬ bewilderment, stupefaction
(ḥurr) Freemaaonry; ‫ بناء على‬binā’an ‘alā
according to, in accordance with, on the ‫ باهت‬bāhit pale, pallid, faded (color);
basis of, by virtue of, on the strength of; perplexed, aghast
‫ بناء على هذا‬accordingly, thus ‫ مَبهوت‬mabhūt perplexed, astonished,
‫ بنائى‬binā’ī constructional, building amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast
(used attributively); architectural; ‫ بهج‬bahija a to be glad, he bappy (‫ ب‬about),
structural he delighted (‫ ب‬at); -- bahuja u to be
‫ بنية‬binya, bunya pl. ‫ بنى‬binan, bunan beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden,
structure, setup, make-up; binya build, delight, make happy (‫ ب‬s.o.) VIII to be
frame, physique, physical constitution│ glad, be happy (‫ ب‬about), be delighted (‫ب‬
‫ ضعيف البنية‬of delicate constitution; ‫صحيح‬ at)
‫ البنية‬and ‫ سليم البنية‬of sound constitution, ‫ بهجة‬bahja splendor, magnificence,
healthy; ‫ قوي البنية‬qawīy al-b. husky, sturdy beauty, resplendence; joy, delight│ ‫بهجة‬
‫ بناء‬bannā’ pl. -ūn builder; mason; ‫ الَنظار‬delight of the eyes, welcome sight
constructive│ ‫(بناء حر‬ḥurr) Freemason ‫ بهج‬bahij, ‫ بهيج‬bahīj magnificent,
‫ بناية‬bināya pl. -āt building, structure, splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous;
edifice delightful
‫ بنيان‬bunyān building, construction, ‫ مَبهجة‬mabhaja a moment of happiness
erection, setting up; building, structure, and joy
edifice; physique, stature ‫ مَباهج‬mabāhij joys, delights; pleasures,
‫ مَبنى‬mabnan pl. ‫ مَبان‬mabānin building, amusements, diversions; splendid things;
construction, erection, setting up; splendor, pomp, magnificence
building, structure. edifice; form; ‫ ابتهاج‬ibtihāj joy, rejoicing, delight (‫ ب‬at)
foundation, fundament, basis │ ‫الرأى‬
‫( والمبنى‬ra’y) content and form ‫ مَبهج‬mubhij pleasant, charming,
‫ تبن‬tabannin see 1 ‫بن‬
‫ مَبتهج‬mubtahij happy, glad, delighted
‫ بان‬bānin pl. ‫ بناة‬bunāh builder
‫ بهدل‬bahdala to insult (‫ ه‬s.o.); to treat
‫ مَبنى‬mabnīy built, set up. erected; contemptuously, meanly (‫ ه‬s.o.); to expose
founded, based, resting (‫ على‬on); fixed, (‫ ه‬s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock (‫ه‬
established; indeclinable; ending of s.o.) II tabahdala pass. of I
indeclinably (‫ على‬in; gram.)
‫ بهدلة‬bahdala insult, affront, abuse,
‫( ﭙنى‬Engl.) penny outrage; meanness; triteness, insipidity
‫( بنيو‬It. bagno) banyō batb, bathtub ‫ مَبهدل‬mubahdal maltreated, oppressed,
‫ بهت‬bahita a, bahuta u and pass. buhita (baht) miserable
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered, ‫ بهر‬bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine; to
startled, perplexed, flabbergasted, dazzle, overwhelm (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.o.’s eyes)│
speechless; -- bahita to be or become pale, ‫شيء يبهر الَبصار‬a dazzling, overwhelming
fade (color); -- bahata a to astonish, thing; -- pass. buhira to be out of breath,
amaze, bewilder, startle, stagger, to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be
flabbergast (‫ ه‬s.o.); (‫ بهتان‬buhtān) to smitten with blindness; to. be out of breath
slander, defame (‫ ه‬s.o.) III to come or
VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, present in ‫ بهل‬bahala a (bahl) to curse (‫ ه‬s.o.) V and VI
a dazzling light (‫ ب‬s.th.) to curse one another VIII to supplicate,
pray humbly (to God)
‫ بهر‬bahr deception, dazzlement (‫ ب‬by)
‫ ابهل‬abhal savin (Juniperus sabina; bot.)
‫ بهر‬buhr difficult respiration, labored
breathing ‫ ابتهال‬ibtihāl supplication, prayer
‫ بهر‬bahra (n. vic.) being dazzled, ‫ باهل‬bāhil pl. ‫ بهل‬buhl, buhhal free,
dazzlement independent
‫ بهرة‬buhra middle, center│ ‫ فى بهرة‬... ‫ بهلول‬buhlūl, bahlūl pl. ‫ بهاليل‬bahālīl2 buffoon,
amidst jester, clown, fool
‫ ابهر‬abhar2 more brilliant, more ‫ بهلوان‬bahlawān pl. -āt, -īya acrobat, tumbler,
magnificent equilibrist, ropedancer, tightrope walker
‫ ابهر‬abhar2 aorta (anat.) ‫ بهلوانى‬bahlawānī acrobatic│ ‫حركات‬
‫( بهلوانية‬ḥarakāt) acrobatics; antics, capers
‫ بهار‬bahār pl. -āt spice
of a tumbler; ‫( طيران بهلوانى‬ṯayarān) aerial
‫ ابتهار‬ibtihār dazzling display, show (‫ب‬ acrobatics, stunt flying
of s.th.)
‫ بهم‬IV to make obscure, dubious, unintelligible
‫ باهر‬bāhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V and X to be obscure,
‫ مَبهور‬mabhūr breathless, out of breath, ambiguous, unintelligible (‫ على‬to s.o.)
panting ‫ بهمة‬bahma lamb, sheep
‫ بهرج‬bahraja (‫ بهرج‬bahraja) to adorn, deck ‫ بهيم‬bahīm pl. ‫ بهم‬buhum jet-black
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive
‫ بهيمة‬bahīma pl. ‫ بهائم‬bahā’im beast,
brightness (‫ هـ‬to); to glamorize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
animal, quadruped; pl. livestock, cattle,
reject as false (‫ ه‬a witness); to fake,
(large) domestic animals
counterfeit (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II tabahraja to adorn
o.s., spruce o.s. up, dress up; to be fake ‫ بهيمى‬bahīmī animal, bestial, brutish
‫ بهرج‬bahraj false, spurious, fake, sham, ‫ بهيمية‬bahīmīya brutishness, bestiality,
worthless, bad; counterfeit money; tinsel, brutality
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff ‫ ابهام‬ibhām obscurity; vagueness,
‫ بهرجة‬bahraja empty show, hollow ambiguity
pomp ‫ ابهام‬ibhām pl. ‫ اباهيم‬abāhīm2 thumb; big
‫ بهرجان‬bahrajan tinsel, frippery toe
‫ مَبهرج‬mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy, ‫ باهم‬bāhim big toe
ornate, ostentatious; trashy, rubbishy, ‫ مَبهم‬mubham obscure, dark, cryptic,
cheap, inartistic doubtful, vague, ambiguous│ ‫عدد مَبهم‬
‫ بهريز‬bahrīz (eg.) a soup (‘adad) abstract number (math.); O ‫العصب‬
‫‘( المبهم‬aṣab) the vagus (anat.); ‫الَسم المبهم‬
‫ بهظ‬bahaza a (bahz) to oppress weigh down (‫ه‬
(ism) the demonstrative pronoun (gram.)
s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily (‫ هـ‬on
s.o.) IV do. (‫ بها )بهو‬bahā u, bahuwa u and ‫ بهى‬bahiya a (
‫ بهاء‬bahā’) to be beautiful III to vie,
‫ باهظ‬bāhiẓ heavy, oppressive, trying;
compete (‫ ب ه‬with s.o. in s.th.); to pride
excessive, exorbitant, enormous;
o.s. (‫ ب‬on)‫ و‬be proud (‫ ب‬of), boast (‫ ب‬of,
expensive, costly
‫ ب ه‬to s.o. of s.th.) VI to compete with one
‫ بهق‬bahaq a kind of lichen (bot.); herpetic another; to be proud (‫ ب‬of), pride o.s. (‫ب‬
eruption, tetter; vitiligo alba, a mild form on)
of leprosy (med.)
‫ بهو‬bahw pl. ‫ ابهاء‬abhā’ hall; parlor,
drawing room, reception hall
‫ بهى‬bahīy beautiful, magnificent, s.th., terminate, close s.th.; ‫( مَن باب الفضل‬b.
splendid; brilliant, radiant, shining il-faḍl) as a favor; ‫(مَن باب اولى‬aulā) with
all the more reason, the more so; ‫فى هذا‬
‫ بهاء‬bahā’ beauty, magnificence,
‫ الباب‬about this matter, about this; ‫مَن باب‬
splendor; brilliancy
‫( الضرورة ان‬b. iḍ-ḍarūra) it is necessary
‫ بهائى‬bahā’ī Bahai (adj.); (pl. -ūn) an that ... ; ‫( هذا ليس مَن باب الصدفة‬b. iṣ-ṣudfa)
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai that’s no coincidence; ‫ كان مَن باب‬or ‫دخل في‬
‫ ابهى‬abhā more splendid, more brilliant ‫( باب‬with foll. genit.) to belong to, fall
under; ‫ فريد في بابه‬unique of its kind; ‫طلع‬
‫ مَباهاة‬mubāhāh and ‫ تباه‬tabāhin pride, ‫ على باب ا‬to pursue one's livelihood, earn
vainglory, boastfulness one’s bread 80
‫ بهوات‬see ‫بك‬ ‫ بابة‬bāba pl. -āt kind, sort, class,
(‫ باء )بوء‬bā’a u to come again, return; to category
come back (‫ ب‬with s.th.), bring back, ‫ بواب‬bawwāb pl. -ūn doorman,
yield, bring in (‫ ب‬s.th.)│‫ باء بالخيبة‬or ‫بالفشل‬ gatekeeper
(ḳaiba, fašal) to fail II to provide
accommodations (‫ ل‬and ‫ ه‬for s.o., ‫ هـ‬at a ‫ بوابة‬biwāba office of gatekeeper
place), put up (‫ ل‬or ‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬at)│‫بوأ مَكانا‬ ‫ بوابة‬bawwāba pl. -āt (large) gate,
(makānan) to take a place, settle down, portal│‫ بوابة القنطرة‬b. al-qanṯara lock gate
live or stay at a place IV to provide
‫ تبويب‬tabwīb division into chapters,
accommodations (‫ ه‬for s.o., ‫ هـ‬at a place);
sectioning, classification, systematic
to settle down, reside, live (‫ ب‬at a place) V
arrangement, grouping
to settle down (‫ هـ‬at a place), occupy (
‫ مَركزا‬markazan a place), hold (‫مَقامَا‬ ‫ مَبوب‬mubawwab arranged in groups,
maqāman a position)│‫( تبوأ مَكانا‬makānan) classed, classified
to gain ground, become generally ‫ بوبلين‬boblīn poplin
accepted; ‫‘( تبوأ العرش‬arš) to ascend the
throne; ‫( تبوأ الحكم‬ḥukm) to come to power, ‫( بوبينة‬Fr. bobine) bobīna spool, reel
take over power ‫ بويت‬see ‫بيت‬
‫ بيئة‬bī’a pl. -āt (usually pronounced ‫ بوتاس‬,‫( بوتاسا‬It. potasa) būtāsā, būtās potash
bai’a) pl. -āt residence, domicile, seat;
situation; surroundings, environment, ‫ بوتقة‬būtaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa)
milieu; home, habitat crucible, melting pot│‫في بوتقة الزمَان‬
(zamān) in the melting pot of time
‫ مَباءة‬mabā’a place to which s.th. comes;
abode, dwelling, habitation ‫( بوجية‬Fr. bougie) bužīh pl. -āt spark plug (eg.)
‫ تبوء‬tabawwu’: ‫ تبوء العرش‬t. al-‘arš (‫ باح )بوح‬bāḥa u (bauḥ) to become known, be
accession to the throne revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret); to
reveal, disclose, divulge (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th., a
‫ بوب‬II to divide into chapters or sections (‫هـ‬ secret; ‫ الى‬and ‫ ل‬to s.o.) IV to disclose,
s.th.); to arrange in groups, arrange reveal (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to release,
systematically, class, classify (‫ هـ‬s.th.) abandon, make public property, declare
‫ باب‬bāb pl. ‫ ابواب‬abwāb, ‫ بيبان‬bībān ownerless (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to permit, allow, leave
door;; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; (s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to justify, warrant (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
chapter, section, column, rubric; group, X to reveal (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to regard as public
class, category; field, domain (fig.)│ ‫الباب‬ property, as ownerless, as fair game; to
‫ العالى‬the Sublime Porte; ‫ باب المندب‬b. al- deem permissible, lawful (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to hurt
mandab Bab el Mandeb (strait between (‫ حرمَته‬ḥurmatahū s.o.’s honor); to take
SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); ‫على الَبواب‬ possession (‫ هـ‬of), appropriate, take as
near, imminent; ‫ فتح بابا جديدا‬to open up a booty (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to seize, confiscate (‫هـ‬
new way, a new possibility; ‫ فتح باب‬futiḥa s.th.)│‫( استباح دمَه‬damahū) to proscribe,
bāb ... was (were) begun, ... got under outlaw s.o.
way; ‫( قفل باب الشيء‬qafala) to put an end to
‫ بوح‬bauḥ divulgence, disclosure (of a girl could not get a husband II to let lie
secret); confession fallow (‫ هـ‬land); to make unprofitable,
useless (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV to destroy
‫ بوح‬būḥ wide, open space; courtyard;
hall ‫ بور‬būr uncultivated, fallow│ ‫ارض بور‬
(arḍ), pl. ‫( اراض بور‬arāḍin) fallow land,
‫ باحة‬bāḥa pl. -āt wide, open space; open
place, square, plaza; courtyard; hall
‫ اباحة‬ibāḥa divulgence, disclosure (of a ‫ بوار‬bawār perdition, ruin│ ‫ دار البوار‬hell
secret); permission, authorization; ‫ بائر‬bā’ir uncultivated, fallow (land)
‫ بورانى‬baurānī (eg.) a vegetable stew
‫ اباحى‬ibāḥī licentious, unrestrained,
‫ بور سعيد‬būr sa‘īd Port Said (seaport in NE
uninhibited; anarchist; freethinker
‫ اباحية‬ibāḥīya freethinking, libertinism;
‫ بور سودان‬būr sūdān Port Sudan (seaport in NE
‫ استباحة‬istibāḥa appropriation, capture,
‫ بورتوريكو‬burturīkū Puerto Rico
seizure; spoliation, confiscation
‫ بورتغال‬burtugāl Portugal
‫ مَباح‬mubāḥ permitted, allowed,
permissible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate; ‫ بورصة‬būrṣa pl. -āt stock exhange
open to everyone, permitted for all, free; ‫ بور فؤاد‬Port Fuad (seaport in NE Egypt,
ownerless (1.1. Law); indifferent (said of opposite Port Said)
actions for which neither reward nor
punishment is to be expected, but which ‫ بورق‬bauraq borax
are permissible, pl. ‫ مَباحات‬indifferent, ‫ بورمَا‬burma Burma
permissible actions, Isl. Law) 1
‫( بورى‬Turk. boru) būrī trumpet, bugle
(‫ باخ )بوخ‬bāḳa u to abate, subside, let up,
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade, ‫ بوروجى‬biūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to spoil 2
‫ بورى‬būrī (pl. ‫ بوارى‬bawārī) striped mullet
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) (Mugil cephalus; zool.)
‫ بواخ‬buwāḳ evaporation, exhalation, 3
‫( بوريه‬Fr.) būrēh purée
vapor, steam 1
‫ بوز‬II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen
‫ تبويخ‬tabwīḳ: ‫ تبويخ النكتة‬an-nukta the
‫ بوز‬būz pl. ‫ ابواز‬abwāz muzzle, snout
spoiling of the point of a story
‫ تبويزة‬tabwīza sullen mien
□ ‫ بايخ‬bāyiḳ spoiled, bad; vapid, insipid,
stale (also, e.g., of a joke) ‫ مَبوز‬mubawwaz sullen, glum
‫ بوخارست‬būḳārest Bucharest ‫ بوز‬būz, ‫ بوزة‬bum ice cream
‫( بودرة‬Fr. poudre) būdra powder ‫بوزة‬būza a beerlike beverage
‫ بودقة‬būdaqa pl. ‫ بوادق‬bawādiq2 crucible, 4
‫باز‬bāz pl. ‫ ابواز‬abwāz, ‫ بيزان‬bīzān falcon
melting pot 1
‫ بوس‬būs bus
‫ بوذا‬būdā Buddha 2
‫ بوس(( باس‬bāsa u (baus) to kiss (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بوذى‬būdī Buddhistic; Buddhist ‫ بوسة‬bausa, būsa kiss
‫ بوذية‬būdīya Buddhism ‫( بوستو‬It. busto) bustū corset
(‫ بار )بور‬bāra u (baur, ‫ بوار‬bawār) to perish; to ‫ بوستة‬,‫( بوسطة‬It. posta) busṯa, busta post, mail
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be
futile, unsuccessful, unprofitable, lead to ‫ البوسفور‬al-busfūr the Bosporus
nothing (work); to be unsalable, be dead (‫ باش )بوش‬bāša u (bauš) to be boisterous,
stock (merchandise)│‫( بارت البنات‬bint) the shout, roar (crowd) II do.
‫ بوش‬bauš pl. ‫ اوباش‬aubāš (for ‫ )ابواش‬mob. ‫( بوكسكاف‬Engl.) bokəkāf box calf
rabble 1
(‫ بال )بول‬bāl u (baul) and V to make water,
‫ بوص‬būṣ (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬reed urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to
‫ بوصة‬būṣa pl. -āt inch
2 ‫ بول‬baul pl. ‫ ابوال‬abwāl urine│ ‫مَرض البول‬
‫ بوص‬būṣ pl. ‫ ابواص‬abwāṣ, linen or silk fabric
‫ السكرى‬maraḍ al-b. as-sukarī diabetes
‫( بوصلة‬It. bussola) bōṣla compass
‫ بولى‬baulī uric, urinary, urinous│ ‫المسالك‬
‫ بوطة‬būṯa crucible, melting pot ‫ البولية‬the urinary passages; ‫الَمَراض البولية‬
‫ بوظة‬būẓa a beerlike beverage diseases of the kidney and urinary
bladder; ‫( تسمم بولى‬tasammum) uremia
‫ بوع‬bū‘ metatarsal bone (anat.)│ ‫لَ يعرف الكوع‬ (med.)
‫ مَن البوع‬h‫ ث‬wouldn’t know his knee from
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid ‫ بيلة‬bīla: O ‫( بيلة آحانية‬āḥīnīya)
person) albuminuria; O ‫( بيلة دمَوية‬damawīya)
hematuria (med.)
‫ باع‬bā‘ pl. ‫ ابواع‬abwā‘ the span of the
outspread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4 ‫ بوالة‬bawwāla public lavatory
ḍirā‘ mi‘mārīya = 3 m│ ‫ طويل الباع‬mighty, ‫ مَبولة‬mabwala pl. ‫ مَباول‬mabāwil2 urinal;
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable; a diuretic; -- mibwala chamber pot; toilet,
generous, liberal; ‫ قصير الباع‬powerless, water closet
helpless, impotent, weak, incapable;
‫ استبوال‬istibwāl: O ‫ استبوال‬ist. ad-dam
niggardly, stingy; ‫ قصير الباع‬impotence,
uremia (med.)
weakness; incapability (‫ عن‬of); ‫بالباع والذراع‬
with might and main ‫ بال‬bāl state, condition; heart, mind; notice,
1 regard, attention│‫ ذو بال‬significant,
‫ بوغ‬II to surprise
notable, considerable, important, serious,
‫ باغة‬bāga celluloid; tortoise shell grave; ‫ فراغ البال‬farāg al-b. leisure; ‫مَشغول‬
‫ بوغادة‬būgāda and ‫ بوغاضة‬būgāḍa potash, lye ‫ البال‬anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried.;
‫ طويل البال‬long-suffering, patient; ‫ مَا باله‬...
‫ بوغاز‬būgāz pl. ‫ بواغيز‬bawāgīiz2 strait(s); (with verb) why is it that he (it) ... ?
harbor│ ‫بوغاز الدردنيل‬the Dardanelles why ... ? ‫ مَا بالك‬how about you? what do
‫( بوفيه‬Fr. buffet) būfēh buffet; bar; sideboard you think? ‫ خل باله‬ḳalā bāluhū his mind is
at rest, he has no worries; ‫ خطر بباله‬it
‫ بوق‬II to blow the trumpet occurred to him, it came to his mind; ‫اعطى‬
‫ بوق‬būq pl. -āt, ‫ ابواق‬abwāq trumpet, (‫ جعل( باله الى )ل‬،‫( )القى‬a‘ṯā, alqā, ja‘ala) to
bugle; fanfare; horn (of an automobile, of turn one’s mind to, give one’s attention to,
a gramophone); acoustic signaling device; pay attention to, take into account, be
megaphone; mouthpiece, spokesman; mindful of, bear in mind, heed s.th.; ‫لم يلق‬
duplicity, treachery, betrayal│ ‫بوق الصوت‬ َ‫ لقولى بال‬lam yulqi li-qaulī bālan he didn't
b. aṣ-ṣaut or ‫ بوق الراديو‬loudspeaker pay any attention to what I said; ‫لَ يقل عنه‬
(radio); O ‫( بوق رحمى‬raḥimi) oviduct, َ‫( بال‬yaqillu) no less significant than this
Fallopian tube (anat.) 3
‫ بول‬būl postage stamp
‫ بواق‬bawwāq trumpeter, bugler 4
‫ بال‬bāl whale (zool.)
‫ باقة‬bāqa bundle; bunch of flowers, 5
‫ بالة‬look up alphabetically
nosegay, bouquet
□ ‫ بولَد‬būlād (= ‫ )فولَذ‬steel
‫ بائقة‬bā’iqa pl. ‫ بوائق‬bawā’iq2 misfortune,
calamity ‫ بولصة‬see ‫بوليسة‬
‫ بوقال‬būqāl, ‫ بوقالة‬būqala pl. ‫ بواقيل‬bawāqīl2 ‫ بولَق‬būlāq2 a district of Cairo
vessel without handles, mug ‫ بولندة‬bōlanda Poland
‫ بوكسفورد‬boksəford patrol wagon, paddy ‫ بولندى‬bōlandī Polish; (pl. -ūn) Pole
wagon, Black Maria
‫ بولو‬bōlō polo ‫ بيب‬bīb pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a
reservoir or tank)
‫( بولونيا‬It. Polonia) būlūniya Poland
‫ بيبة‬bība (Western) smoking pipe
‫ بولوني‬būlūnī Polish; Pole
1 (‫ بات )بيت‬bāta i (‫ مَبيت‬mabīt) to pass or spend
‫( بوليس‬Fr. police) būlīs police│‫ بوليس الداب‬vice
the night; to stay overnight; to become; to
squad; ‫( البوليس الجنائى‬jinā’ī) criminal
be (‫ فى‬in a situation); with foll. imperf.: to
police; ‫( البوليس الحربى‬ḥarbī) military
get into a situation. Get to the point
police; ‫( البوليس السرى‬sirrī) secret police;
where; to continue to do s.th., go on or
‫ بوليس المرور‬traffic police
keep doing s.th., stick to s.th. II to brood
‫ رواية بوليسية‬riwāya būlīsīya detective (by night; ‫ هـ‬about s.th.); to contrive, hatch
story (‫ هـ‬an evil plan, ‫ ل‬against s.o.), plot (‫ل‬
‫ بوليسة‬and ‫( بوليصة‬Fr. police) būlīsā, būlīṣa pl. against s.o.); to put up for the night (‫ه‬
‫ بوالص‬bawāliṣ2, ‫ بوالس‬bawālis2 certificate s.o.)│‫( بيت فى الصف‬ṣaff; eg.) to flunk, fail
of insurance, policy│‫ بوليسة الشحن‬b. aš- promotion (pupil) IV to put up for the
šaḥn bill of lading night (‫ ه‬s.o.)

‫ بوليفيا‬būlīfiyā Bolivia ‫ بيت‬bait pl. ‫ بيوت‬buyūt, ‫ بيوتات‬buyūtāt

house, building; tent (of nomads); room;
‫ بوليفى‬būlīfī Bolivian apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; case,
O ‫ داء البولينا‬dā’ al-baulīnā uremia box, covering, sheath; pl. ‫ بيوتات‬large,
respectable houses; respectable families;
‫ بوم‬būm (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬pl. ‫ ابوام‬abwām owl (pl. ‫ ابيات‬abyāt) verse│ ‫ بيت الَبرة‬b. al-ibra
‫ بون‬baun, būn interval, distance; difference (navigator’s) compass; ‫ اهل البيت‬ahl al-b.
2 family, specif., the family of the Prophet;
‫ بان‬coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬ben tree (Moringa; bot.;
‫ اهل البيوتات‬people from good, respectable
horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera; bot.);
families; ‫( بيوتات تجارية‬tijārīya) commercial
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L.;
houses; ‫( البيت الحرام‬ḥaram) the Kaaba; ‫بيت‬
‫ الخلء‬b. al-ḳalā’ and ‫ بيت الَدب‬b. al-adab
‫ بونسايرس‬Buenos Aires toilet, water closet; ‫ بيت الداء‬origin or seat
‫( بونى‬Engl.) bōnī pl. ‫ بوانى‬bawānī pony of the disease; ‫( بيت ريفى‬rīfī) country
house; ‫ بيت القصيدة‬and ‫( بيت القصيد‬the
‫ باه‬bāh coitus; sexual potency; sexuality essential, principal verse of the kasidah,
‫( بوهيميا‬Engl.) bōhīmiyā Bohemia i.e.) the quintessence; the gist, the
essential, the hit of s.th.; s.th. that stands
‫ بوهيمي‬bōhēmī Bohemian (adj. and n.) out from the rest, the right thing; ‫بيت لحم‬
‫ بوهيمية‬bōhēmīya Bohemianism, baitalaḥm2 Bethlehem; ‫ البيت الملك‬the ruling
Bohemian life house; ‫ بيت المال‬treasure house; fisc,
treasury, exchequer (Isl. Law); (Tun.)
‫ بؤونة‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
administration of vacant Muslim states
‫ بيتى‬baitī domestic, private, home, of the
‫( بوية‬Turk. boya) bōya paint; shoe polish house, house- (in compounds);
‫ بوياجى‬,‫( بويجى‬eg.) boyagī house painter, domesticated (animals); home made
painter; shoeshine, bootblack ‫ بويت‬buwait pl. -āt small house; small
‫ بية‬bayya = ‫ باية‬look up alphabetically tent

‫ بيئة‬see ‫بوء‬ ‫ بيات‬bayyāt pl. -ūn and ‫ بياتة‬bayyāta

boarder (student); (pl. -ūn) pupil of a
‫ بيادة‬biyāda infantry (Eg.) boarding school (tun.)
‫ بيادى‬biyādī infantryman, foot soldier ‫ بيوت‬bayyūt stale, old
‫ بيانو‬,‫ بيانة‬,‫ بيان‬biyān, biyāna, biyānō pl. ‫بيانات‬ ‫ مَبيت‬mabīt overnight stop, overnight
biyānāt piano stay; shelter for the night
‫ بائت‬bā’it stale, old; (eg.) not promoted, ‫ بيزنطي‬bīzanṯī Byzantine
‫( فى الصف‬ṣaff) in school ‫ بيسون‬bīsōn bison
‫ مَبيت‬mubayyit plotter, schemer, intrigant (‫ باض )بيض‬bāḍa i to lay eggs (also ‫ ;)هـ‬to stay,
‫ بيجامَا‬bījāmā and ‫ بيجامَة‬bījāma pajama settle down, be or become resident (‫ ب‬at a
1 place)│ ‫( باض بالمكان وفرخ‬wa-farraḳa) to be
(‫ باد )بيد‬bāda i to perish, die, pass away,
born and grow up in a place; to establish
become extinct IV to destroy, exterminate,
itself and spread (plague) II to make
extirpate (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.)
white, paint white, whitewash, whiten (‫هـ‬
‫ بيد ان‬baida anna although, whereas; s.th.); to bleach, blanch (‫ هـ‬s.th., textiles,
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet, laundry, rice, etc.); to tin, tinplate (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
however, but, ... though to make a fair copy (‫ هـ‬of s.th.)│ ‫بيض‬
‫ بيداء‬baidā’2 pl. ‫ بيد‬bīd, ‫ بيداوات‬baidawāt ‫(الوجه‬wajhahū) to make s.o. appear
desert, steppe, wilderness blameless, in a favorable light, to
whitewash, exculpate, vindicate, justify
‫ ابادة‬ibāda annihilation, extermination, s.o., play s.o. up, make much of s.o.; to
eradication, extirpation honor s.o., show honor to s.o.; ‫بيض الله‬
‫ بائد‬bā’id passing, transitory, temporal; ‫ وجهه‬may God make him happy! ‫لَ يبيض مَن‬
past, bygone ‫ صحيفته‬this doesn't show him in a
favorable light V pass. of II; IX to be or
‫ مَبيد‬mubīd destructive, annihilative; (pl. become white
-āt) means of extermination│ ‫مَبيدات حشرية‬
(ḥašarīya) insecticides ‫ بيض‬baiḍ pl. ‫ بيوض‬buyūḍ eggs
‫ بيادة‬look up alphabetically ‫ بيضة‬baiḍa (n. un.) pl. -āt egg; testicle; helmet;
main part, substance, essence│ ‫بيضة الديك‬
‫ بيدر‬baidar pl. ‫ بيادر‬bayādir2 threshing floor b. ad-dīik (the egg of a rooster i.e.) an
‫ بيدق‬baidaq (and ‫ )بيذق‬pl. ‫ بيادق‬bayādiq2 pawn impossible or extraordinary thing; ‫بيضة البلد‬
(in chess) b. al-balad a man held in high esteem in
his community; ‫( فى بيضة النهار‬b. in-nahār)
‫ بيذنجان‬see ‫ باذنجان‬alphabetically
in broad daylight; ‫ بيضة الصيف‬b. aṣ-ṣaif
□ ‫ بيارة‬bayyāra pl. -āt (pal.) irrigation wheel; the hottest part of the summer; ‫بيضة الَسلم‬
plantation the territory or pale of Islam; ‫الدفاع عن بيضة‬
‫ بيرة‬,‫( بيرا‬It. birra) bīrā, bīra beer│‫مَصنع البيرا‬ ‫ عن بيضة الوطن‬85 ,‫( الدين‬b. id-dīn, b. il-
maṣna‘ al-b. brewery waṯan) defense of the faith, of the country;
‫ بيضة الخدر‬b. al-ḳidr a woman seluded from
‫ بيرق‬bairaq pl. ‫ بايرق‬bayāriq2 flag, banner, the outside world, a chaste, respectable
standard woman
‫ بيرقدار‬bairaqdār color-bearer, standard- ‫ بيضى‬baiḍī, ‫ بيضوى‬baiḍawī and ‫بيضاوى‬
bearer baiḍāwī egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate
‫( جبال البيرنيه‬Fr. Pyrénées) jibāl al-bīrinēh the ‫ بييضة‬buyaiḍa and ‫ بويضة‬buwaiḍa pl. -āt
Pyrenees small egg, ovule; ovum
‫ بيرو‬bērū Peru ‫ بياض‬bayāḍ white, whiteness:
‫( بيرو‬Fr. bureau) bīrō pl. -āt office, bureau whitewash; -- (pl. -āt) barren, desolate,
uncultivated land, wasteland: gap, blank
‫ بيروت‬bairūt2 Beirut (capital of Lebanon) space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma
‫ بيروتى‬bairūtī pl. ‫ بوارتة‬bawārita, ‫بيارتة‬ (med.); linen, pl. ‫ بياضات‬linen goods,
bayārita a native or inhabitant of Beirut linens; (syr.) milk, butter, and eggs│ ‫بياض‬
‫ البيت‬b. al-bait white of egg, albumen: ‫بياض‬
‫ بيروقراطى‬bīruqrāṯī bureaucratic
‫ العين‬b. al-‘ain the white of the eye: ‫بياض‬
‫ بيروقراطية‬bīrūqrāṯīya bureaucracy; red tape ‫ النهار‬b. an-nahār daylight, (acc.) by day,
‫ بيزنطيا‬bīzanṯiyā Byzantium during the daytime; ‫بياض يومَه وسواد ليله‬
bayāḍa yaumihi wa-sawāda lailihi by day
and by night: ‫ بياض الوجه‬b. al-wajh tine to offer for sale (‫ هـ‬s.th.) VI to agree on the
character, good reputation; ‫سمك بياض‬ terms of a sale, conclude a bargain VII to
samak b. a Nile fish (eg.); ‫ على بياض‬blank, be sold, be for sale VIII to buy, purchase (
free from writing, printing or marks, ‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from s.o. and ‫ هـ ه‬from s.o.
uninscribed; (‫ ارتدى‬or) ‫( لبس البياض‬labisa, s.th.)│ ‫( لَ ابتاع مَنه ولَ ابيعه‬abtā‘u, abī‘uhū)
irtada) to dress in white I don't trust him
‫ بيوض‬bayūḍ pl. ‫ بيض‬buyūḍ, bīḍ (egg-) ‫ بيع‬bai‘ pl. ‫ بيوع‬buyū‘,‫ بيوعات‬buyū‘āt
laying sale│‫ للبيع‬for sale; ‫ بيوعات( جبرية‬or) ‫بيوع‬
(jabrīya) forced sales, compulsory sale by
‫ ابيض‬abyaḍ2, f. ‫ بيضاء‬baiḍā’2, pl. ‫ بيض‬bīḍ
auction: ‫( بيع بالجملة‬jumla) wholesale sale;
white; bright; clean, shiny, polished;
‫( بيع بالخيار‬ḳiyār) optional sale (Isl. Law);
blameless, noble, sincere (character);
‫( بيع لخر راغب‬li-āḳir rāgibīn) sale to the
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pl. ‫البيضان‬
highest bidder; ‫ بيع العينة‬b. al-‘īna credit
al-bīḍān the white race; ‫ الَبيض‬white of
operation (Isl. Law)
egg, albumen│ ‫( ارض بيضاء‬arḍ) barren,
uncultivated land, wasteland; ‫ثورة بيضاء‬ ‫ بيعة‬bai‘a agreement, arrangement;
(ṯaura) peaceful, bloodless revolution; business deal, commercial transaction,
‫( الخيط الَبيض‬ḳaiṯ) first light of dawn; ‫الذهب‬ bargain; sale; purchase; homage│‫على البيعة‬
‫( الَبيض‬dahab) platinum; ‫ بالسلح الَبيض‬with into the bargain
cold steel; ‫( صحيفته بيضاء‬ṣaḥīfatuhū) his
‫ بياع‬bayyā‘ salesman, merchant, dealer,
reputation is good: he has noble de.ds to commission agent, middleman
his credit, he has a noble character; ‫صحف‬
‫( بيضاء‬ṣuḥuf) noble, glorious deeds: ‫اكذوبة‬ ‫ مَبيع‬mabī‘ sale, pl. -āt sales (esp. on the
‫( بيضاء‬ukdūba) white lie, fih: ‫ليلة بيضاء‬ stock market)
(laila) a sleepless night, a night spent ‫ مَبايعة‬mubāya‘a pl. -āt conclusion of
awake: ‫( الموت الَبيض‬maut) natural death; ‫يد‬ contract; homage; pledge of allegiance;
‫( بيضاء‬yad) beneficent hand, benefaction transaction
‫ مَبيض‬mabīḍ, mibyaḍ ovary (anat.) ‫ ابتياع‬ibtiyā‘ purchase
‫ تبييضة‬tabyīḍa fair copy ‫ بائع‬bā’i‘2 pl. ‫ باعة‬bā‘a seller, vendor;
O ‫ ابيضاض‬ibyiḍāḍ leukemia (med.) dealer, merchant; salesman
‫ بائض‬bā’iḍ pl. ‫ بوائض‬bawā’iḍ2 (egg-) ‫ بائعة‬bā’i‘a saleswoman
laying ‫ مَبيع‬mabī‘ and ‫ مَباع‬mubā‘ sold
‫ مَبيض‬mubayyiḍ pl. -ūn whitewasher; ‫ مَبتاع‬mubtā‘ buyer, purchaser
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of 2
fair copy) ‫ بيعة‬bai‘a pl. -āt, ‫ بيع‬biya‘ (Chr.) church;
‫ مَبيضة‬mubayyaḍa fair copy
‫ بيك‬bē (eg.), bēg, bēk pl. ‫ بيكوات‬bēgawāt (syr.)
‫ بيطر‬baiṯara to practice veterinary science; to bey (title of courtesy); cf. ‫بك‬
shoe (‫ هـ‬a horse)
‫ بيكوية‬bīkawīya rank of bey
‫ بيطار‬baiṯar pl. ‫ بياطرة‬bayātira
veterinarian; farrier ‫ بيكار‬bīkār compass, (pair of) dividers
‫ بيطرى‬baiṯarī veterinary│‫الطب البيطرى‬ ‫ بيكباشى‬see ‫بكباشى‬
(ṯibb) veterinary medicine; ‫طبيب بيطرى‬ ‫( بيكه‬Fr.) bīkeh plqué (fabric)
veterinarian 1
‫( بيل‬Fr. bille) bīl ball│‫ كرسى بيل‬kursī b. ball
‫ بيطرة‬baiṯara veterinary science; farriery bearing
(‫ باع )بيع‬bā‘a i (bai‘,‫ مَبيع‬mabī‘) to sell (‫ هـ‬s.th., 2
‫ بيلة‬bīla see ‫بول‬
‫ ه‬or ‫ ل‬to s.o., ‫ ب‬for a price) III to make a
contract (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to pay homage (‫ ه‬to ‫ بيلسان‬bailasān black elder (bot.)
s.o.); to acknowledge as sovereign or ‫ بيلهارسيا‬bilharsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
leader (‫ ه‬s.o.), pledge allegiance (‫ ه‬to) IV (med.)
‫( بيليه‬Fr. bille) bīlya pl. -āt little ball, marble from among them, from their midst; ‫بين بين‬
something between, a cross, a mixture, a
‫ بيمارستان‬bīmāristān hospltal; lunatic asylum
combination; neither good nor bad,
(‫ بان )بين‬bāna i (‫ بيان‬bayān) to be or become medium, tolerable; ‫ شيء بين بين‬something
plain, evident, come out, come to light; to between, a cross, a mixture, a
be clear (‫ ل‬to s.o.); (‫ بين‬bain, ‫بينونة‬ combination; ‫( بين وقت وآخر‬waqt, āḳar), ‫بين‬
bainūna) to part, be separated (‫ مَن‬from) II ‫( فترة وأخرى‬fatra, uḳrā) at times, from time
to make clear, plain, visible, evident (‫هـ‬ to time
s.th.); to announce (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to state (‫هـ‬
‫ مَا بين‬mā-baina look up alphabetically
s.th.); to show, demonstrate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
explain, expound, elucidate (‫ هـ‬s.th.), ‫ بينا‬bainā, ‫ بينما‬bainamā (conj.) while;
throw light (‫ هـ‬on) III to part, go away (‫ه‬ whereas
from), leave (‫ ه‬s.o.); to differ, be different ‫ بين‬bayyin clear, plain, evident, obvious,
(‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬from), be unlike s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to patent; (pl. ‫ ابنياء‬abyinā’2) eloquent
contradict (‫ هـ‬s.th.), be contrary (‫ هـ‬to); to
conflict, be at variance, be inconsistent (‫هـ‬ ‫ بيان‬bayān pl. -āt clearness, plainness,
with s.th.) IV to explain, expound, patency, obviousness; statement,
elucidate (‫ ل هـ‬s.th. to s.o.); to separate, declaration, announcement; manifestation;
sift, distinguish (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from); to be explanation, elucidation, illustration;
clear, plain, evident V to be or become information, news; (official) report.
clear, intelligible (‫ ل‬to s.o.); to turn out, (official) statement; enumeration, index,
prove in the end, appear, become evident; list; eloquence; ‫ البيان‬the Koran; see also
to follow (‫ مَن‬from), be explained (‫ مَن‬by); alphabetically│‫ بيان الحقيقة‬correction
to be clearly distinguished (‫ مَن‬from); to (journ.); ‫( غني عن البيان‬ganīy) self-
seek to ascertain (‫ هـ‬s.th.), try to get at the explanatory, self-evident; ‫‘ علم البيان‬ilm al-
mct8 (‫ هـ‬of); to eye or examine critically, b. rhetoric; ‫‘ عطف البيان‬aṯf al-b. explicative
scrutinize (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to look, peer (‫هـ‬ apposition (gram.)
at); to see through s.th. (‫)هـ‬, see clearly, ‫ بيانى‬bayānī explanatory, illustrative;
perceive, notice, discover, find out (‫هـ‬ rhetorical
s.th.); to distinguish (‫ مَن هـ‬s.th. from) VI to
differ, be different, be opposed, be ‫ بينة‬bayyina pl. -āt clear proof,
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; to indisputable evidence; evidence (Isl.
vary, differ, fluctuate (‫ بين‬between two Law); a document serving &8 evidence│
amounts or limits) X to be or become ‫( بينة ظرفية‬ẓarfīya) circumstantial evidence;
clear, plain, evident; to Bee, know, ‫ على بينة‬as has been proved; ‫كان على بينة مَن‬
perceive, notice (‫ هـ‬s.th.); pass. ustubīna to to be fully aware of; to he well-informed,
follow clearly, be clearly seen (‫ مَن‬from) well-posted, up-to-date about
‫ بين‬bain separation, division; interval; ‫ ابين‬abyan2 clearer, more distinct, more
difference│‫ ذات البين‬enmity, disunion, obvious
discord; ‫ فى البين‬meantime, meanwhile ‫ تبيان‬tibyān exposition, demonstration,
‫ بين‬baina (prep.) or ‫ فيما بين‬fī-ma b. explanation, illustration
between; among, amidst│‫ – بين – و‬either -- ‫ تبيين‬tabyīn and ‫ ابانة‬ibāna exposition,
or, partly -- partly, e.g., ‫كان القوم بين صامَت‬ demonstration, explanation, illustration
‫( ومَتكلم‬ṣāmitin wa-mutakallimin) the crowd
was divided among those who were silent ‫ تباين‬tabayun difference, unlikeness,
and those who talked; ‫( بين يديه‬yadaihi) in dissimilarity, disparity
front of him, before him, in his presence; ‫ تباينى‬tabāyunī different, differing,
with him. on him, in his possession, e.g., َ‫ل‬ conflicting
‫( سلح بين يديه‬silāḥa) he hasn’t got a
‫ بائن‬bā’in clear, plain, evident, obvious,
weapon on him, he is unarmed; ‫فيما بين ذلك‬
patent; final, irrevocable (divorce; Isl.
meanwhile, in the meantime; ‫فيما بينى وبين‬
Law); of great length│‫ بائن الطول‬b. aṯ-ṯūl
‫ نفسى‬in my heart, at heart, inwardly; ‫بين‬
towering, of unusual height (person)
‫ ذراعيه‬in his arms; ‫ مَن بينهم‬min bainihim
‫ بائنة‬bā’ina bride’s dowry ‫ تب‬tabba i (tabb, ‫ تبب‬tabab, ‫ تباب‬tabāb) to
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be
‫ مَبيونة‬mabyūna distance
stabilized, be or become stable; to be
‫ مَبين‬mubīn clear, plain, evident, obvious, settled, established, well-ordered, regular,
patent│‫ الكتاب المبين‬the Koran normal; to progress well│‫استتب له الَمَر‬
‫ مَتباين‬mutabāyin dissimilar, unlike, everything went well with him
differential, differing, varying ‫ تبا له‬tabban lahū may evil befall him!
‫ بيانة‬,‫ بيان‬look up alphabetically may he perish!

‫ بينباشى‬see ‫بكباشى‬ ‫ استتباب‬istitbāb normalcy, regularity,

orderliness, order; stability; favorable
‫ بينتو‬see ‫بنتو‬ course or development
‫ بيه‬bēh = ‫بك‬ ‫ التبت‬at-tibt Tibet
‫( بيوريه‬Engl.) biyūrē purée ‫ تبر‬tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (‫هـ‬
‫( بيوريه‬Fr. pyorrhée) biyōrēh pyorrhea (med.) s.th.)
‫ تبر‬tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold
nuggets; ore
‫ت‬ ‫ تبار‬tabār ruin, destruction
‫ ت‬abbreviation of ‫ تلفون‬telephone ‫ تبرية‬tibrīya dandruff
‫ ت‬ta (particle introducing oaths) by, ‫ تال‬ta- ‫ تبريز‬tabrīz2 Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital of
llāhi by God! Azerbaijan province)
‫ تاء‬tā’ name of the letter‫ت‬ ‫ تبع‬tabi‘a a (taba‘,‫ تباعة‬tabā‘a) to follow,
‫ تابوت‬tābūt pl. ‫ توابيت‬tawābīt box, case, chest, succeed (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), come after s.o. or
coffer; casket, coffin, sarcophagus│ ‫تابوت‬ s.th. (‫ ه‬,‫ ;)هـ‬to trail, track (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th) go
‫ العهد‬t. al-‘ahd ark of the covenant; ‫تابوت‬ after s.o. or s.th. (‫ ه‬,‫ ;)هـ‬to walk behind s.o.
‫ رفع المياه‬t. raf‘ al-miyāh Archimedean (‫ ;)ه‬to pursue (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to keep, adhere,
screw; ‫ تابوت الساقية‬t. as-āqiya scoop wheel, stick (‫ هـ‬to s.th.), observe (‫ هـ‬s.th; to
Persian wheel follow, take (‫ هـ‬a road), enter upon (‫ هـ‬a
road or course); to comply (‫ هـ‬with s.th.);
‫ تابيوكا‬tābiyōkā tapioca
to belong, pertain (‫ هـ‬to); to be
‫ تأتأ‬ta’ta’a to stammer (with fright) subordinate, be attached (‫ ه‬to s.o.), be
‫ تاج‬see ‫توج‬ under s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬authority or command, be
under s.o. (‫( تبع الدروس│)ه‬durūsa) to attend
‫ تؤدة‬see ‫وأد‬ classes regularly III to follow (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o.
‫ تأر‬IV ‫( اتأر البصر‬baṣara) to stare (‫ ه‬or ‫ الى‬at s.th.; also = to keep one's mind or eyes on,
s.o.) e.g., on a development); to agree, concur (
‫ ه‬with s.o., ‫ على‬in s.th.), be in agreement or
‫ تارة‬see ‫تور‬ conformity (‫ على‬,‫ هـ‬with); to pursue, chase,
‫ تازة‬tāza (= ‫ )طازة‬fresh, tender, new follow up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to continue (‫هـ‬
s.th.; ‫ سيره‬sairahū on one’s way), go on (‫هـ‬
‫ تاك‬taka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ذاك‬ with or in) IV to cause to succeed or
dāka (dual nom. ‫ تانك‬tānika, genit., acc. follow (in time, rank, etc.); to place (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ تينك‬tainika) under s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬authority or command,
‫ توءم‬,‫ توأم‬tau’am, f. ‫ة‬, pl. ‫ توائم‬tawā’im2 twin subordinate (‫ ه ه‬to s.o. s.o., ‫ هـ هـ‬to s.th.
s.th.) V to follow (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. fig.: a
‫ التامَيز‬at-tāmīz the Thames
topic, a development, the news, etc., = to
‫ تاى‬tay (tun., alg.) tea│‫ تاى احمر‬black tea watch, study); to pursue, trail, track (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬
‫ تايور‬tāyōr and ‫ تايير‬tāyēr (Fr. tailleur) pl. -āt s.o., s.th.); to trace (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to be
ladies’ tailored suit, tailleur subordinate (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬to), be attached (‫ ه‬to
s.o.) VI to follow in succession, be
successive or consecutive, come or ‫ اتباع‬itbā‘ (gram.) intensification by
happen successively; to form an repeating a word with its initial consonant
uninterrupted sequence VIII to follow, changed, such as katīr batīr
succeed (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), come after (‫ ه‬,‫;)هـ‬ ‫ تتبع‬tatabu‘ following (esp. fig., of an
to make (‫ هـ‬s.th.) be succeeded or followed argument, of a development, see V
(‫ ب‬by s.th. else); to prosecute (‫ ه‬s.o.), take above); pursuit; prosecution; succession,
legal action (‫ ه‬against); to follow, obey, course│‫ التتبع التاريخى‬the course of history; ‫ت‬
heed, observe, bear in mind (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫‘( تبعات عدلية‬adlīya) legal action,
pursue (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to examine, investigate, prosecution
study (‫ هـ‬s.th.); pass. uttubi‘a to have or
find followers, adherents (‫ على‬for s.th., ‫ تتابع‬tatābu‘ sucession; relay (athlet.); ‫بالت‬
e.g., for an idea)│‫( اتبع سياسة‬siyāsatan) to ‫ تابع‬consecutively, successively, in
pursue a policy; ‫( اتبع يمينه‬yamīnahū) to succession; serially, in serialized form
keep (to the) right X to make (‫ ه‬s.o.) ‫ اتباع‬ittibā‘ following; pursuit (e.g., of a
follow, ask (‫ ه‬s.o.) to follow; to seduce (‫ه‬ policy); adherence (to), compliance
s.o.); to have as its consequence, (with), observance (of); ‫ اتباعا ل‬ittibā‘an li
engender, entail (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to subordinate to according to, in accordance or conformity
o.s., make subservient to o.s. (‫ هـ‬s.th.) with, pursuant to, in observance of
‫ تبع‬taba‘ succession; subordinateness, O ‫ اتباعى‬ittibā‘ī classical
dependency: following. Followers;
subordinate, subservient (‫ ل‬to s.th.): ‫بالتبع‬ O ‫ اتباعية‬ittibā‘īya classicism
successively, consecutively; ‫ تبعا ل‬taba‘an ‫ تابع‬tābi‘ pl. ‫ تبعة‬taba‘a, ‫ تباع‬tubbā‘
li according to, in accordance with, following, succeeding, subsequent;
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in subsidiary, dependent; minor, secondary;
consequence of, as the result of; (pl. ‫اتباع‬ subordinate (‫ ل‬to s.o.), under s.o. (‫;)ل‬
atbā‘) follower, companion, adherent, belonging (‫ ل‬to); subject to s.o.’s (‫)ل‬
partisan; subject, national, citizen; authority or competence; adherent (‫ ل‬to)
appertaining, appurtenant, pertinent, following (‫ ل‬s.o. or s.th.); -- (pl. ‫اتباع‬
incident atbā‘) adherent, follower, partisan;
‫ تبعى‬taba‘ī: ‫‘( عقوبة تبعية‬uqūba) incidental subject, citizen, national; subordinate,
punishment (jur.) servant; factotum; (pl. ‫ )توابع‬appositive
(gram.); appendix, addendum,
‫ تبعة‬tabi‘a pl. -āt consequence; supplement; O function (math.)│ ‫الدول‬
responsibility, irresponsibleness│ ‫القى التبعة‬ ‫( التابعة‬duwal) the satellite countries
‫( على‬alqā) to make s.o. or s.th. responsible
‫ تابعة‬tābi‘a pl. ‫ توابع‬tawābi‘2 female
‫ تبيع‬tabī‘ pl. ‫ تباع‬tibā‘ following attached, attendant, woman servant; a female
attending, adjunct; -- (pl. ‫ تبائع‬tabā’i‘2) demon who accompanies women;
follower, adherent, partisan; aide, help, appurtenance, dependency; consequence,
assistant, attendant, servant effect, result; responsibility; pl. ‫توابع‬
‫ تبعية‬taba‘īya pl. -āt subordination, dependencies, dependent territories; O
subjection; subordinateness, dependency; satellites (pol.), = ‫( الدول التوابع‬duwal) the
citizenship, nationality; ‫بالتبعية‬ satellite countries
subsequently, afterwards; consequently, ‫ تابعية‬tābi‘īya nationality, citizenship
hence, therefore, accordingly
‫ مَتبوع‬matbū‘ followed, succeeded (‫ب‬
‫ تباعا‬tibā‘an in succession, successively, by); one to whom service or obedience is
consecutively, one after the other, one by rendered, a leader, a principal (as
one distinguished from ‫ تابع‬subordinate) 90
‫ مَتابعة‬mutāba‘a following, pursuing, ‫ مَتتابع‬mutatābi‘ successive, consecutive
pursuit, prosecution; continuation
‫ مَتبع‬muttaba‘ observed, adhered to,
complied with (e.g. regulation, custom);
followed, traveled (road, course)
‫ تبغ‬tibg pl. ‫ تبوغ‬tubūg tobaooo ‫ مَتجر‬matjar pl. ‫ مَتاجر‬matājir2 bussiness,
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store,
‫ تبل‬tabala i to consume, waste, make sick (‫ه‬
s.o.; said of love) II, III and ‫ توبل‬taubala to
spice, season (‫ هـ‬s.th) ‫ مَتجرى‬matjar commercial, trade, trading,
business (used attributively)
‫ تابل‬tābal, tābil pl. ‫ توابل‬tawābil2
coriander (bot.); spice, condiment, ‫ اتجار‬ittijār trade, business (‫ ب‬in s.th)
seasoning ‫ تاجر‬tājir pl. ‫ تجار‬tujjār, tijār merchant,
‫ تبولة‬tabbūla (syr., leb.) a kind of salad trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman│ ‫تا‬
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion, ‫جر الجملة‬t. al-jumla wholesale dealer; ‫تاجر‬
lemon juice, spices, and oil ‫ التجزئة‬t. at-tajzi’a and ‫ تاجر القطاعى‬t. al-
qiṯā‘ī retailer
‫ مَتبول‬matbūl (Iove-)sick, weak, ravaged,
consumed ‫ بضاعة تاجرة‬biḍā‘a tājira salable,
marketable merchandise
‫ مَتبل‬mutabbal spiced, seasoned,
flavored; (syr., leb.) stuffed with a mixture ‫ تجاه‬tujāha (prep.) in front of, opposite, face to
of rice, chopped meat and various spices, face with, facing
e.g., ‫ بذنجان مَتبل‬stuffed eggplant ‫ تحت‬taḥta (prep.) under; below, beneath,
‫( تبلوه‬Fr. tableau) tablōh pl. -āt a painting underneath│ ‫( تحت‬tajriba) on probation;
in an experimental state; ‫ تحت التحضير‬in
‫ تبن‬tibn straw
preparation; ‫( تحت الحفظ‬ḥifẓ) in custody,
‫ تبنى‬tibnī straw-colored, flaxen under guard; ‫( تحت السداد‬sadād), ‫تحت التسديد‬
‫ تبان‬tabbān straw vendor due, outstanding, unsettled, unpaid (com.);
‫ تحت السلح‬under arms; ‫تحت سمعهم‬
‫ درب التابنة‬darb at-tabbāna the Milky (sam‘ihim) in their hearing, for them to
Way hear; ‫( تحت التسوية‬taswiya) outstanding,
‫ مَتبن‬matban pl. ‫ مَتابن‬matābin2 straw- unpaid, unsettled (com.); ‫تحت اشراف‬
stack (išrāfi) under the patronage or
superintendence of; ‫تحت الشعور‬
‫ تبيوكا‬tabiyōkā tapioca subconscious; ‫( تحت تصرفه‬taṣarrufihī) at
‫ التتر‬at-tatar and ‫ التتار‬at-tatar the Tatars his disposal; ‫( تحت الطبع‬ṯab‘) in press; ‫تحت‬
‫‘( عنوان‬unwāni) under the title of; ‫تحت اعيننا‬
‫ تترى‬tatarī Tatarian; Tatar
(a‘yuninā) before our eyes; ‫ تحت التمرين‬in
‫ تترى‬tatra (from ‫ )وتر‬one after the other, training; ‫( تحت اليد‬yad) in hand, at hand,
successively, in succession available, handy; ‫ تحت يده‬in his power; ‫مَن‬
‫ تتك‬titik trigger ‫ تحت‬min taḥt from under, from beneath;
‫ تتن‬tutun tobacco
‫ تحت‬taḥtu (adv.) below, beneath,
‫ تتنوس‬tetanūs tetanus (med.) underneath
‫ تجر‬tajara u and VIII to trade, do business; to ‫ تحتانى‬taḥtānī lower, under- (in
deal (‫ فى‬or ‫ ب‬in s.th.) III do. (‫ ه‬with s.o.) compounds)│ ‫مَلبس تحتانية‬underwear
‫ تجارة‬tijāra commerce; traffic, trade; ‫ تحف‬IV to present (‫ ب ه‬or ‫ هـ ه‬s.o. with s.th)
‫ تحفة‬tuḥfa pl. ‫ تحف‬tuḥaf gift, present;
‫ تجارى‬tijārī commercial, mercantile, gem (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of virtu,
trade, trading, business, (used objet d'art; work of art│‫( تحفة فنية‬fannīya)
attributively); commercialized│‫بيت تجارى‬ unique work of art
(bait) commercial house, business house;
‫( الحركة التجارية‬ḥaraka) trade, traffic; ‫شركة‬ ‫ مَتحف‬matḥaf pl. ‫ مَتاحف‬matāḥif2
‫( تجارية‬širka) trading company; ‫اتفاق تجارى‬ museum│ ‫ مَتحف الشمع‬m. aš-šam‘
(ittifāq) trade agreement waxworks
‫ تخ‬taḳḳa u to become sour, ferment (dough)
‫تخت‬pl. tuḳūt bed, couch; bench; seat; sofa; ‫ تربة‬turba pl. ‫ ترب‬turab dust; earth, dirt;
chest, case, box, coffer, cabinet; wardrobe; ground (also fig.); soil; grave, tomb;
platform, dais; band, orchestra│ ‫تخت‬ graveyard, cemetery, burial ground
‫الملك‬t. al-mulk throne; royal residence, ‫ تربى‬turabī pl. -īya (eg.) gravedigger
capital; ‫ تخت المملكة‬t. al-mamlaka capital
(of a country) ‫ تراب‬turāb pl. ‫ اتربة‬atriba, ‫ تربان‬tirbān
dust, earth, dirt; ground, soil
‫ تختروان‬,‫ تخت روان‬taḳtaruwān,
taḳtarawān mule-borne litter ‫ ترابى‬turābī dusty; dustlike, powdery;
2 earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray
‫ تختة‬taḳta board; desk; blackboard
‫ تختخ‬taḳtaḳa to rot, decay O ‫ ترابة‬turāba cement
‫ تخم‬taḳima a to suffer from indigestion, feel ‫ تريبة‬tarība pl. ‫ ترائب‬tarā’ib2 chest,
sick from overeating IV to surfeit, satiate ( thorax
‫ ه‬s.o.) to give (‫ ه‬s.o.) indigestion, make ‫ مَتربة‬matraba poverty, misery,
sick (‫ ه‬s.o.); to overstuff, cloy (‫ ه‬the destitution; (pl. ‫ مَتارب‬matārib2) dirt quarry
stomach) VIII = I
‫ مَترب‬mutrib dusty, dust-covered
‫ تخمة‬tuḳama, tuḳma pl. ‫تخم‬, -āt
‫ تربس‬tarbasa (= ‫ )دربس‬to bolt (‫ هـ‬a door)
indigestion, dyspeptic
‫ ترباس‬tirbās pl. ‫ ترابيس‬tarābis2, ‫ترابس‬
‫ مَتخوم‬matḳūm suffering from
tarābis2 bolt, l&tch (of a door or window)
indigestion, dyspeptic
2 ‫ تربنتين‬tarbantīn turpentine
‫تخم‬taḳama i to fix the limits of (‫)هـ‬, delimit,
limit, confine, bound (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to border ‫( تربيزة‬eg.) tarabēza table
(‫ هـ‬on), be adjacent (‫ هـ‬to s.th.) ‫ تربين‬trbīn pl. -āt turbine
‫ تخم‬taḳm pl. ‫ تخوم‬tuḳūm boundary, ‫ تراث‬see ‫وترث‬
border, borderline, limit
‫ ترتر‬tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg.)
‫ مَتاخم‬mutāḳm neighboring, adjacent
‫ ترجم‬tarjama to translate (‫ هـ‬s.th. ‫ عن‬from one
‫ تدمَر‬tadmur2, usually pronounced tudmur2 language ‫ الى‬to another); to interpret (‫هـ‬
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a s.th.); to treat (‫ هـ‬of s.th.) by way of
small village) explanation, expound (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to write a
‫ تدمَرى‬tadmurī, usually pronounced tudmurī biography (‫ ل‬of s.o., also ‫)ه‬
anyone│ ‫لَ تدمَرى‬nobody, not a living soul ‫ ترجم‬tarjama pl. ‫ تراجم‬tarājim2
‫( ترابيزة‬eg.; tarābēza) pl. -āt table translation; interpretation; biography (also
‫ ;)ترجمة الحياة‬introduction, preface,
‫ تراخومَا‬trāḳōmā trachoma (med.)
foreword (of a book)│ ‫الترجمة السبعينية‬
‫( تراس‬Fr. terrasse) terās terrace (sab‘īnīya) the Septuagint
‫ ترامَواى‬,‫ ترام‬trām, tramwāy tramway ‫ ترجمان‬turjumān pl. ‫ تراجمة‬tarājima, ‫تراجي‬
‫ ترب‬tariba a to be or become dusty, covered ‫ م‬tarājim2 transla.tor, interpreter
with dust II and IV to cover with dust or ,-:;" mutarjim translator, interpreter;
earth (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to be s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mate biographer
or comrade, be of the same age (‫ ه‬as s.o.)
‫ مَترجم‬mutarjam translated│‫مَترجم على الفلم‬
V to be dusty, be covered with dust
(film) synchronized (film)
‫ ترب‬tirb pl. ‫ اتراب‬atrāb person of the
‫ ترح‬tariḥa a (taraḥ) and V to grieve, be sad II
same age, contemporary, mate,
and IV to grieve, distress (‫ ه‬s.o.)
companion, comrade
‫ ترح‬taraḥ pl. ‫ اتراح‬atrāḥ grief, distress,
‫ ترب‬tarib dusty, dust-covered
‫ ترزى‬tarzī pl. ‫ ترزية‬tarzīya (eg.) tailor
‫ ترزية‬tarziya tailoring s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.; as a legacy)│ 93 ‫ تركه يفعل‬to
1 let s.o. do s.th.; ‫ ترك مَكانا الى‬to leave one
‫ تراس‬look up alphabetically
place for (another); ‫( تركه في ذمَته‬fī
‫ ترس‬II to provide with a shield or armor dimmatihī) to leave s.th. in s.o.’s care,
‫ ترس‬turs pl. ‫ اترس‬atrās, ‫ تروس‬turūs leave s.th. to s.o.; ‫ تركه على حاله‬to leave
shield; disk of the sun; -- tirs pl. turūs s.th. or s.o. unchanged, leave s.th. or s.o.
cogwheel, gear│ ‫ صندوق التروس‬ṣundūq al- alone; ‫( تركه وشأنه‬wa-ša’nahū) to leave s.o.
t. gearbox, transmission; ‫ سمك الترس‬samak alone, leave s.o. to his own devices III to
at-turs turbot (zool.) leave (‫ ه‬s.o.); to leave alone (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
leave off hostilities (‫ ه‬against s.o.)
‫ مَترس‬matras, mitras pl. ‫ مَتارس‬matāris2 and ‫مَترا‬
‫ س‬mitrās, pl. ‫ مَتاريس‬matārīs2 bolt, door ‫ ترك‬tark omission, neglect;
latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; esp. pl. relinquishment, abandonment; leaving,
‫ مَتاريس‬barricades leaving behind

‫ ترسانة‬tarsāna, ‫ ترسحانة‬tarsḳāna arsenal; ‫ تركة‬tarika pl. -āt (also tirka) heritage,

shipyard, dockyard legacy, bequest

‫( ترسكل‬Fr. tricycle) tricycle ‫ تريكة‬tarīka pl. ‫ ترائك‬tarā’ik2 old maid,

‫( ترسينة‬It. terrazzino) tarasīna balcony
‫ مَتارك‬mutāraka truce
‫ ترع‬tari‘a a to be or become full (vessel) IV to
fill (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. a vessel) ‫ مَتروك‬matrūk pl. -āt heritage, legacy
‫ ترعة‬tur‘a pl. ‫ ترع‬tura‘, -āt canal; ‫ ترك‬II to Turkify, Turkicize (‫ ه‬s.o.) X to
artificial waterway│ ‫ ترعة الَيراد‬t. al-īrād become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt
feeder, irrigation canal; ‫ترعة التصريف‬ Turkish manners and customs
drainage canal (Eg.); ‫ الترعة الشريفة‬the ‫ الترك‬at-turk and ‫ الاتراك‬al-atrāk the
Residence of the Sultan of Morocco Turks
‫ ترغلة‬,‫ ترغل‬turgul, turgulla turtledove ‫ تركى‬turkī Turkish; Turk; ‫ التركية‬at-
‫ ترف‬tarija a to live in opulence, in luxury IV turkīya theTurkish language
to effeminate (‫ ه‬s.o.); to provide with ‫ تركيا‬turkiya Turkey
opulent means, surround with luxury (‫ه‬
‫ تتريك‬tatrīk Turkification
s.o.) V = I
‫ تركستان‬turkistān2 Turkstan
‫ ترف‬taraf and ‫ ترفة‬turfa luxury,
opulence, affluence; effemination ‫ التركمان‬at-turkumān the Turkmen
‫ ترف‬tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxurious ‫ ترمَبيط‬turumbēt (syr.) pl. -āt (Western) drum; ‫تر‬
‫ مَبيطة‬turumbīṯa (eg.) pl. -āt do.; specif.,
‫ مَترف‬mutraf living in ease and luxury;
bass drum
sumptuous, luxurious; luxuriously
adorned, ornate, overdecorated (‫ ب‬with) ‫ ترمَبطجى‬turumbaṯgi (eg.) drummer; bandsman
‫ ترفاس‬tirfās (magr.) truffle (bot.)
‫ ترمَس‬turmus, ‫ ترمَوس‬turmūs lupine (bot.)
‫ ترفل‬tarfala to strut
‫ ترمَومَتر‬termūmitr thermometer
‫ ترقوة‬tarquwa pl. ‫ تراق‬tarāqin collarbone,
clavicle (anat.) ‫ ترنج‬turunj see ‫ اترنج‬,‫اترج‬
‫ ترك‬taraka u (tark) to let be, leave, relinquish, ‫ تره‬tariha a to concern o.s. with trifles
renounce, give up, forswear (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ ترهة‬turraha pl. -āt sham, mockery,
desist, refrain, abstain (‫ هـ‬from s.th.); to farce; lie, humbug, hoax
leave, quit (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬a place); to leave out,
omit, drop, neglect, pass over, skip (‫هـ‬ ‫( ترواده‬Fr. Troade) tirwāda Troy
s.th.); to leave (‫ ل‬or ‫ الى هـ‬s.th. to); to leave
behind, leave, bequeath, make over (‫هـ‬
‫( تروب‬Engl. troop) squad, platoon; squadron│ ‫ تعس‬ta‘asa a, ta‘isa a to fall, perish; to
‫( تروب سوارى‬sawārī) cavalry squadron become wretched, miserable; ta‘asa and
(Eg.) IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin
‫ ترمَبيتجى = ترمَبطجى‬see under ‫ ترمَبيط‬above
‫ تعس‬ta‘s and ‫ تعاسة‬ta‘āsa wretchedness,
‫ ترياق‬tiryāq theriaca; antidote
‫( تريكو‬Fr.) tricot
‫ تعس‬ta‘is and ‫ تعيس‬ta‘īs pl. ‫ تعساء‬tu‘asā’
‫ تسعة‬tis‘a (f. ‫ تسع‬tis‘) nine wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
‫ تسعة عشر‬tis‘ata ‘ašara, f. ‫ تسع عشرة‬tis‘a ‫ مَتعوس‬mat‘ūs pl. ‫ مَتاعيس‬matā‘is
‘ašrata nineteen wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
‫ تسع‬tus‘ pl. ‫ اتساع‬atsā‘ one ninth, the ‫ تف‬taffa to spit II to say "phew"
ninth part
‫ تف‬tuff dirt under the fingernails; ‫تفا لك‬
‫ تسعون‬tis‘ūn ninety tuffan laka phew! fie on you!
‫ التاسع‬at-tāsi‘ the ninth O ‫ تفافة‬taffāfa spittoon, cuspidor
‫ تشرين الَول‬tišrīn2 al-wwal October, ‫تشرين الثانى‬ ‫ تفتا‬tafettā, ‫ تفتاه‬taffeta
t. at-tānī November (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)
‫ تفاح‬tuffaḥ (call.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬apple(s)
‫ تشيكوسلوفاكيا‬tšekoslovākiyā Czechoslovakia
‫ تفكة‬tufka pl. ‫ تفك‬tufak (ir.) gun, rifle
‫ تشيلى‬tšīlī Chile
‫ تفل‬tafala u i (tafl) to spit
‫ تطوان‬tiṯwān 2 Tetuēn (city in N Morocco)
‫ تفل‬tufl and ‫ تفال‬tufāl spit, spittle, saliva
‫ تع‬abbreviation of ‫تعالى‬, see ‫علو‬
‫ تافل‬tāfil ill-smelling, malodorous
‫ تعب‬ta‘iba a (ta‘ab) to work hard, toil, slave,
‫ مَتفلة‬mitfala spittoon, cuspidor
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become
tired, weary (‫ مَن‬of s.th.) IV to trouble, ‫ تفه‬tafiha a (tafah, ‫ تفاهة‬tafāha, ‫ تفوه‬tufūh) to be
inconvenience (‫ ه‬s.o.); to irk, bother, little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat,
weary, tire, fatigue (‫ ه‬s.o.) tasteless, vapid, insipid
‫ تعب‬ta‘ab pl. ‫ اتعاب‬at‘āb trouble, ‫ تفه‬tafah and ‫ تفه‬tufūh paltriness,
exertion, labor, toil, drudgery; burden, triviality, insignificance
nuisance, inconvenience, discomfort, ‫ تفاهة‬tafāha paltrineBB, triviality,
difficulty, hardship; tiredness, weariness, insignificance flatness, vapidity, insipidity,
fatigue; pl. ‫ اتعاب‬fees, honorarium tastelessness; inanity, stupidity, silliness
‫ تعب‬ta‘ib and ‫ تعبان‬ta‘bān tired, weary, ‫ تفه‬tafih and ‫ تافه‬tāfih little, paltry,
exhausted 94 trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless;
‫ مَتاعب‬matā‘ib2 troubles, pains, efforts; commonplace, common, mediocre; flat,
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties, tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal
troubles; complaints, ailments, ills ‫ تافهة‬tāfiha pl. ‫ توافه‬tawāfih2 worthless
(attending disease); hardships, strains thing; triviality, trifle
‫ مَتعب‬mut‘ib troublesome, inconvenient, ‫ تقاوى‬see ‫قوى‬
toilsome, laborious; burdensome, irksome,
annoying; wearisome, tiresome, tiring; ‫ تقلية‬see ‫قلى‬
tedious, dull, boring ‫ تقن‬IV to perfect, bring to perfection (‫ هـ‬s.th; to
‫ مَتعب‬mut‘ab tired, weary master, know well (‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., a
language), be proficient, skillful, well-
‫ تعتع‬ta‘ta‘a to stammer; to shake (‫ ه‬s.o.); ‫اتعتع‬ versed (‫ هـ‬in s.th.)
itta‘ta‘a to move, stir
‫ تقن‬tiqn skillful, adroit
‫ تعز‬ta‘izz2 Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of
government) ‫ تقانة‬taqāna firmness, solidity; perfection
‫ اتقن‬atqan2 more perfect, more thorough ‫ تلع‬IV to stretch one's neck; to crane (‫ هـ‬the
‫ اتقان‬itqān perfection; thoroughness,
exactitude, precision; thorough skill, ‫ تلعة‬tal‘a pl. ‫ تلاع‬tilā‘ hill, hillside,
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of a mountainside; (torrential) stream
special field, of a language)│ ‫فى غاية الَتقان‬ ‫ تليع‬talī‘ long, outstretched, extended;
to greatest perfection; of excellent high, tall
‫ تلغراف‬tiligrāf, taligrāf pl. -āt telegraph;
‫ مَتقن‬mutqan perfect; exact, precise telegram, wire, cable│‫ ارسل تلغرافا الى‬to
‫ تقى‬taqā i to fear (esp. God) VIII see ‫وقى‬ send a wire to
‫ تقى‬taqīy pl. ‫ اتقياء‬atqiyā’2 God-fearing, ‫ تلغرافى‬tiligrāfī, taligrāfī telegraphic
godly, devout, pious ‫ تلف‬talafa a (talaf) to be annihilated, be
‫ اتقى‬atqā more pious destroyed; to be or become damaged or
spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, go
‫ تقى‬tuqan and ‫ تقوى‬taqwā godliness,
to pieces II to ruin (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to wear out,
devoutness, piety
“finish” (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to destroy, annihilate (
‫تك‬takka u to trample down, trample ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ruin, damage, spoil, break (‫هـ‬
underfoot, crush (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to intoxicate (‫ه‬ s.th.); to waste (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
s.o.; wine)
‫ تلف‬talaf ruin, destruction; ruination,
‫تك‬tikka pl. ‫ تكك‬tikak waistband (in the upper damage, injury, harm.; loss; waste
seam of the trousers) 95
‫ تلفان‬talfān spoiled; useless, worthless,
‫ تك‬takka to tick (clock) good-for-nothing
‫ تكة‬tikka pl. -āt ticking, ticktock (of a ‫ مَتلف‬matlaf, ‫ مَتلفة‬matlafa pl. ‫مَتالف‬
clock), ticking noise matālif2 desert
‫ تكية‬look up alphabetically ‫ مَتلاف‬mitlāl wastrel; ruinous, harmful,
‫ تكوت‬tukūt pl. of Engl. ticket injurious
‫ تكتك‬taktaka to trample down, trample ‫ اتلاف‬itlāf pl. -āt annihilation,
underfoot (‫ هـ‬s.th) destruction; damage, injury, harm
‫ تكتك‬taktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling mass) ‫ تالف‬tālif ruined, damaged, broken;
spoiled, bad
‫ تكتك‬taktaka to tick (clock)
‫ مَتلوف‬matlūf and ‫ مَتلف‬mutlaf ruined,
‫ تكتكة‬taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a damaged, broken; spoiled, bad
clock), ticking noise
‫ مَتلف‬mutlif annihilator, destroyer;
‫ تكتيك‬taktīk tactics injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful,
‫تكية‬takīya pl. ‫ تكايا‬takāyā monastery (of a injurious, noxious
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum ‫ تلفز‬talfaza to televise, transmit by television
(for the invalided or needy)
‫ تلفزة‬talfaza television
‫ تل‬tall pl. ‫ تلل‬tilāl, ‫ اتلل‬atlāl, ‫ تلول‬tulūl hill,
elevation│ ‫تل ابيب‬t. abīb Tel Aviv (city in ‫ اذاعة تلفازية‬iḍāfa talfāẓīya television
W Israel) broadcast, telecast
‫ تل‬tull tulle O ‫ تلفاز‬tilfāz television set

‫ تلاتل‬talātil2 hardships, troubles, adversities ‫( تلفزيون‬Fr. télévision) tilivisyōn television

‫ تليد‬talīd, ‫ تالد‬tālid, ‫ تلاد‬tilād inherited, time- ‫ تلفن‬talfana to telephone

honored, old (possession, property) ‫ تلفون‬tilifūn and ‫ تليفون‬talīfūn pl. –āt telephone
‫ تلسكوب‬tiliskūb telescope ‫ تلقاء‬see ‫لقى‬
‫ تلك‬tilka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ذلك‬
‫ تلم‬talam pl. ‫ اتلم‬atlām (plow) furrow ‫ تليفونى‬talifūnī telephonic, telephone- in
‫ تلمذ‬talmada to take on as, or have for, a pupil
or apprentice (‫ ه‬s.o.); to be or become a ‫ تم‬tamma i to be or beoome complete,
pupil or apprentice (‫ ل‬of s.o., 96 also ‫)على‬, completed, finished, done; to be
receive one’s schooling or training (‫على‬ performed, be accomplished (‫ ل‬by s.o..);
from) II tatalmada to be or become a to come to an end, be or become
pupil or apprentice (‫ ل‬or ‫ على يده‬of s.o.), terminated; to come about, be brought
work as an apprentice (‫ ل‬or ‫ على يده‬under about, be effected, be achieved, come to
s.o.) pass, come off, happen, take place, be or
become a fact; to be on hand, be there,
‫ تلمذة‬talmada school days, college years;
present itself; to persist (‫ على‬in); to
apprenticeship; (time of) probation
continue (‫ على‬s.th. or to do s.th.) II and IV
‫ تلماذ‬tilmād learning, erudition to complete, finish, wind up, conclude,
‫ تلميذ‬tilmīd pl. ‫ تلامَيذ‬talāmīd2, ‫تلامَذة‬ terminate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to make complete,
talamida pupil, student, apprentice; supplement, round out, fill up (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
probationer; trainee; disciple│ ‫تلميذ بحرى‬ carry out, execute, perform, accomplish,
(baḥrī) approx.: chief warrant W-3 (naval achieve (‫ هـ‬s.th.) X to be complete,
rank; Eg.); ‫( تلميذ سفرى‬safarī) approx.: completed, finished
chief warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.) ‫ تمام‬tamām completeness, wholeness,
‫ تلميذة‬tilmīda pl. –āt girl student entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire,
complete, perfect; separate, independent;
‫ تلمسان‬tilimsān2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria) ‫ تمامَا‬tamāman completely, entirely, wholly,
‫ تلمود‬talmūd Talmud perfectly, fully, quite; precisely, exactly│
‫(بدر تمام‬badr) and ‫( قمر تمام‬qamar) full
‫ تله‬taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed, moon; ‫ فى تمام الساعة السادسة‬at 6 o'clock
perplexed, at a loss sharp; ‫( بتمام مَعنى الكلمة‬ma‘nā l-kalima) in
‫ تاله‬tālih and ‫ مَتله‬mutallah at a loss, the full sense of the word; ‫ بالتمام‬entirely,
bewildered, perplexed│‫ تاله العقل‬t. al-‘aql completely
absent-minded, distracted ‫ تميمة‬tamīma pl. ‫ تمائم‬tamā’im2 amulet
((‫ تل )تلو‬talā u (‫ تلو‬tulūw) to follow, succeed; to ‫ اتم‬atamm2 more complete, more perfect
ensue; -- (‫ تلاوة‬tilāwa) to read, read out
loud (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ على‬to s.o..); to recite (‫هـ‬ ‫ تتمة‬tatimma completion;
s.th.) VI to follow one another, be supplementation; supplement
successive ‫ تتميم‬tatmīm completion; perfection;
‫ تلو‬tilwa (prep.) after, upon│ ‫ارسل كتابا تلو‬ consummation, execution, fulfillment,
‫ كتاب‬to send letter after letter realization, effectuation, accomplishment
‫ تلوة‬tilāwa reading; public reading; ‫ اتمام‬itmām completion; perfection;
recital, recitation termination, conclusion; consummation,
execution, fulfillment, realization,
‫ تال‬tālin following, succeeding, effectuation, accomplishment 97
subsequent, next; ‫ بالتالى‬bi-t-tālī then, later,
subsequently; consequently, hence, ‫ استتمام‬istitmām termination, conclusion
therefore, accordingly ‫ تام‬tāmm complete, perfect, entire,
‫ مَتتال‬mutatālin successive, consecutive consummate; of full value, sterling,
‫ تلى‬tallī (tun.) tulle
‫ تمباك‬tumbāk Persian tobacco (esp. for the
‫ تليباثى‬tilībātī telepathy; telepathic narghile)
‫ تليس‬tallīs, tillis pl. ‫ تلليس‬talālīs2 sack ‫ تمتم‬tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to
‫( تليفزيون‬Fr. télévision) tilīvisyōn television recite under one's breath (‫ ب‬s.th)
‫ تليفون‬pl. –āt talīfūn telephone
‫ تمر‬tamr (coll.; n. un. ‫ة‬, pl. tamarat, ‫تمور‬ ‫تهمة‬tuhma pl. ‫ تهم‬tuham accusation, charge;
tumūr) dates, esp. dried ones│ ‫تمر هندى‬ suspicion; insinuation
(hindī) tamarind (bot.) 2
‫ تهامَة‬tihāma2 Tihama, coastal plain along the
‫( تمرجى‬eg. tamargī), ‫ تومَرجى‬,‫ تمورجى‬pl. -ya southwestern and southern shores of the
male nurse, hospital attendant; ‫ تمرجية‬pl. Arabian Peninsula
-āt female nurse ‫ توا‬tawwan right away, at once, immediately;
‫ تموز‬look up alphabetically just (now), this very minute│ ‫للتو‬li-t-tawwi
at once, right away, also with pers. suffix.:
‫ تمساح‬timsāḥ pl. ‫ تماسيح‬tamāsīḥ2 crocodile
‫ لتوى‬li-tawwī, ‫ لتوها‬li-tawwihā (I have, she
‫ تمغة‬tamga stamp; stamp mark│‫ورق تمغة‬ has) just ... ; at once, presently,
waraq t. stamped paper immediately
‫ تمن‬tumman rice ‫( تواليت‬Fr. toilette) tuwālēt toilette
‫ تموز‬tammūz July (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.) ‫ توأم‬see ‫تأم‬
‫ تن‬tunn tuna (zool.) (‫ تاب )توب‬tāba u (‫ توب‬taub, ‫ توبة‬tauba, ‫مَتاب‬
2 2
‫ تينن‬tinnīn pl. ‫ تنانين‬tanānīn sea monster; matāb) to repent, be penitent, do penance,
Draco (astro.); waterspout (meteor.), see with ‫عن‬: to turn from (sin), be converted
also alphabetically from, renounce, forswear s.th.; (said of
God) to restore to His grace, forgive (‫على‬
‫ تانئ‬tāni’ pl. ‫ تناء‬tunnā’ resident s.o.)│‫ تاب الى ا‬to turn to God in
‫ تنباك‬tunbāk (pronounced tumbāk) and ‫تنبك‬ repentance II to induce to repentance or
tumbak Persian tobacco (esp. for the penitence, make repent (‫ ه‬s.o.) X to call on
narghile) s.o. (‫ )ه‬to repent
‫ تنبال‬tinbāl pl. ‫ تنابيل‬tanābīl2 short, of small ‫ توبة‬tauba repentance, penitence,
Stature contrition; penance 98
‫( تنبر‬Fr. timbre) tambar pl. ‫ تنابر‬tanābir2 stamp ‫ تواب‬tawwāb doing penance; repentant,
(magr.) penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful
‫ مَتنبر‬mutambar stamped (magr.)
‫ تائب‬tā’ib repentant, penitent, contrite
‫( تنبل‬Turk. tembel) tambal pl. ‫ تنابلة‬tanābila
lazy ‫ توبل‬see ‫تبل‬
‫( تنجستين‬Fr. tungstène) tongəstēn tungsten ‫ توبوغرافيا‬tobogrāfiyā topography
‫( تندة‬It. tenda) tanda awning, roofing, sun roof ‫ توت‬tūt mulberry tree; mulberry│‫توت ارضى‬
(ardī) and ‫( توت افرنجى‬ifranjī) strawberry;
‫ تنور‬tannūr pl. ‫ تنانير‬tanānīr2 a kind of baking ‫( توت شوكى‬šaukī) and ‫ توت العليق‬t. al-‘ullaiq
oven, a pit, usually clay-lined, for baking raspberry
‫ توت‬tūt the first month of the Coptic calendar
‫ تنورة‬tannūra (syr., leb.) (lady's) skirt
‫ توتيا‬tūtiyā, ‫ توتياء‬tūtiyā’, ‫ توتية‬zinc
‫ تنس‬tennis
‫ توج‬II to crown (‫ ه‬s.o.; also fig. ‫ ب هـ‬s.th. with)
‫ تنك‬tanak tin plate V to be crowned
‫ تنكجى‬tanakjī tinsmith, whitesmith ‫ تاج‬pl. ‫ تيجان‬tījān crown; miter (of a
‫ تنكة‬tanaka pl. -āt tin container, can, pot, bishop)│‫ تاج العمود‬t. al-‘amūd capital of a
jerry can column or pilaster); ‫ تاج الكرة‬t. al-kura
2 calotte
‫ تانك‬tānika see ‫ تاك‬alphabetically
‫ تويج‬tuwaij little crown, coronet
‫ تنيس‬tennis
‫ تتويج‬tatwīj crowning, coronation
‫ تنين‬tannīn tannin, tannic acid
‫ تهته‬tahtaha to stammer, stutter
‫ توجو‬tōgo and ‫ توجولند‬tōgōland (Eg. spelling) be destined, be foreordained, be granted,
Togo (region in W Africa) be given (‫ ل‬to s.o.)│‫( اتيح له التوفيق‬utīḥa) he
met with success, he was successful; ‫اتيح له‬
(‫ تاح )توح‬see ‫تيح‬
‫( الفرصة‬furṣa) he was given the
‫ تارة‬tāratan once; sometimes, at times│ – ‫تارة‬ opportunity, he had the chance .
‫ تارة – طورا‬,‫( تارة‬ṯauran), ‫( تارة – اخرى‬uḳrā)
‫ تيار‬tayyār pl. -āt flow, stream, course, current,
sometimes – sometimes, at times – at
flood; fall (of a stream); movement,
other times
tendency, trend; draft (of air); (el.)
‫ توراة‬taurāh Torah, Pentateuch; Old Testament current│O ‫( تيار مَباشر‬mubāšir) and ‫تيار‬
‫ توربيد‬,‫ تورﭙيد‬turpīd, turbīd torpedo (sub-marine ‫ مَستمر‬mustamirr) direct current; O ‫تيار‬
missile) ‫( مَتناوب‬mutanāwib) and O ‫تيار مَتغير‬
‫ توربين‬turbīn pl. -āt turbine (mutagayyir) alternating current; O ‫تيار‬
‫ مَتذبذب‬mutadabdib) oscillating current
‫ تورتة‬torta pl. -āt pie, tart
(el.); O ‫( يار نابض‬nābiḍ) pulaoting current;
(‫ تاق )توق‬tāqa u (tauq, ‫ توقان‬tawaqān) to long., 99 O ‫( يار سريع التردد‬sarī‘ at-taraddud)
yearn, wish (‫ الى‬for), hanker (‫ الى‬after),
high-frequency current; O ‫تياربطيء التردد‬
desire, crave, covet (‫ الى‬s.th.), strive (‫الى‬
(baṯī’ at-taraddud) low-frequency current;
for), aspire (‫ الى‬to)
O ‫‘( تيار عالى الجهد‬ālī l-jahd) heigh-tension
‫ توق‬tauq, ‫ توقان‬tawaqān longing, current; O ‫( تيار واطئ الجهد‬wāṯI’ al-jahd)
yearning, craving, desire
low-tension current; O ‫( تيار ذاتى‬dātī) self-
‫ تواق‬tawwāq longing, yearning, eager ( induced current
‫ الى‬for), craving (‫ الى‬s.th)
O ‫ مَتار‬matār (Byr.) dynamo, generator
‫ تائق‬tā’iq longing, yearning, eager (‫الى‬
for), craving (‫ الى‬s.th) ‫( تيزة‬Turk. teyze) tēza maternal aunt
‫( توكة امَامَية‬tōka amāmīya; eg.) belt buckle ‫ تيس‬tais pl. ‫ اتياس‬atyās, ‫ تيوس‬tuyūs billy goat
(mil.) ‫ اتيس‬atyās2 foolish, crazy
‫ تول‬tūl tulle ‫ الحمى التيفودية‬al-hummā t-tīfūdīya typhoid
‫ تومَرجى‬see ‫تمرجى‬ fever
‫ تون‬tūn and ‫ تونة‬tūna (zool.) ‫ تيفوس‬tīfūs typhus
‫( تونج‬Turk. tunç) tunj bronze ‫ تيك‬tīka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ذاك‬
‫تونس‬tūnus2 Tunis
‫ تيل‬II (from Turk. tel) to cable, wire, telegraph
‫ تونسى‬tūnisīy pl. ‫ توانسة‬tawānisa Tunisian (syr.)
(adj. and n.)
‫ تيل‬tīl hemp; linen
‫ تونية‬tūniya pl. ‫ توانى‬alb of priests and deacons
(Chr.) ‫ تيلة‬tīla fiber, staple
(‫ تاه )توه‬tāha u and II = (‫ تاه )تيه‬tāha i and II (‫ تام )تيم‬tāma I (taim) to become enslaved,
enthralled by love; to enslave, make
‫ توهة‬tūha daughter blindly subservient (‫ ه‬s.o.; through love) II
‫( تياترو‬It. teatro) tiyātrō theater to enslave, enthrall (love; ‫ ه‬s.o.); to make
blindly subservient, drive out of his mind,
□ ‫ تيتل‬taital pl. ‫ تياتل‬see ‫ثيتل‬
infatuate (‫ ه‬s.o.; love)
‫ تيتنوس‬tītānūs tetanus (med.)
‫ مَتيم‬mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by
(‫ تاح )تيح‬tāḥa i to be destined, be foreordained love), infatuated
(by fate, by God; ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to be granted, 2
‫ تيماء‬taimā’ Taima (oasis in NW Arabia)
be given (‫ ل‬to s.o.) IV to destine,
foreordain (‫ هـ ل‬to s.o. s.th.); to grant, ‫ تيمارجى‬see ‫تمرجى‬
afford, offer (‫ هـ ل‬s.o. s.th.); pass. utīḥa to
‫ تين‬tīn (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬fig │‫( تين شوكي‬šaukī) ‫ ثائر‬tā’ir avenger
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficusindica ‫ ثؤلول‬tu’lūl and ‫ ثؤلولة‬tu’lūla pl. ‫ ثآليل‬ta’ālīl2
Haw.) wart
‫ تينك‬tainika see ‫ تاك‬alphabetically ‫ ثأى‬ta’ā scars
(‫ تاه )تيه‬tāha i to get lost, wander about, 1ose ‫ ثبت‬tabata u (‫ ثبات‬tabāt, ‫ ثبوت‬tubūt) to stand
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable,
(thoughts); to escape (‫ مَن‬s.o.), slip (‫مَن‬ unshakable, firm, strong, stable; to hold
s.o.’s memory); to perish, be destroyed, be out, hold one's ground (‫ ل‬against s.o. or
lost; to be perplexed, startled, astonished; s.th.), be firm, remain firm (‫ ل‬toward s.o.
to be haughty; to swagger, boast, brag (‫على‬ or s.th.), withstand, resist, defy (‫ ل‬s.o. or
to s.o.)│‫ تتيه على وجهه ابتسامَة‬asmile flits s.th.); to be established, be proven (fact);
over his face II to mislead, lead astray (‫ه‬ to remain, stay (‫ ب‬at a place); to maintain
s.o.); to distract, divert (‫ ه‬s.o.); to confuse, (‫ على‬s.th.), keep, stick, adhere (‫ على‬to
confound, bewilder (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV = II s.th.), abide or stand by s.th. (‫ ;على‬e.g., by
‫ تيه‬tīh desert, trackless wilderness; maze, an agreement); to insist (‫ على‬on)│ ‫ثبت فى‬
labyrinth; haughtiness, pride ‫( وجهه‬fī wajhihī) to hold one’s own against
s.o., assert o.s. against s.o. II to fasten,
‫ تياه‬tayyāh straying, stray, wandering;
make fast, fix (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to consolidate,
strengthen (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to stabilize (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
‫ تيهان‬taihān2 straying, stray, wandering; to confirm, corroborate, substantiate (‫هـ‬
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud, s.th.); to appoint permanently (. s.o.; to an
hughty office); to prove, establish (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
‫ تيهاء‬taihā’2 and matāha a trackless, demonstrate, show (‫ بان‬that); to prove
desolate region; ‫ مَتاهة‬maze, labyrinth guilty, convict (‫ على‬a defendant); to
confirm (Chr.)│ ‫(ثبت بصره به‬baṣarahu) to
‫ تائه‬tā’ih straying, stray, wandering, fix one’s eyes on, gaze at; ‫ثبت قدمَيه‬
roving, errant; lost in thought, distracted, (qadamaihi) to gain a foothold IV to
absent-minded; lost, forlorn; infinite; establish, determine (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to assert as
haughty valid or authentic, affirm (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫( تيوليب‬Engl.) tulip confirm, corroborate, substantiate (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to prove (‫ على هـ‬s.th. to s.o.; ‫ ل‬to
s.o., ‫ ان‬that); to demonstrate, show (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to furnish competent evidence (‫هـ‬
‫ث‬ for); to bear witness, attest (‫ هـ‬to); to
‫ ث‬abbreviation of ‫ ثانية‬second (time unit) acknowledge (‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., a qualification,
‫ ثاء‬tā’ name of the letter ‫ث‬ a quality, ‫ ل‬in s.o.), concede (‫ ل هـ‬s.th. to
s.o.); to prove guilty, convict (‫ على‬a
‫ ثئب‬ta’iba a (‫ ثأب‬ta’b) and VI to yawn defendant); to enter, record, register, list (
‫ ثؤباء‬tu’abā’ yawning, yawn; fatigue, ‫ فى هـ‬s.th. in a book, in a rooter, etc.)│ ‫اثبته‬
weariness ‫( فى الورق‬waraq) to put s.th. down in
writing, get s.th. on paper; ‫اثبت الشخص‬
‫ ثأر‬ta’ara a (ta’r) to avenge the blood of (‫ ه‬or (šaḳṣa) to determine s.o.’s identity,
‫)ب‬, take blood revenge (‫ ه‬for 100 s.o. identify s.o.; ‫( اثبت شخصيته‬šaḳṣīyatahū) to
killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. (‫ب ه‬ identify o.s., prove one’s identity V to
on s.o. for, also ‫ مَن‬or ‫ ل‬for) IV and VIII ascertain, verify (‫ فى‬s.th., ‫ هل‬if), make sure
‫ اثأر‬itta’ara to get one’s revenge, be (‫ فى‬of s.th., ‫ هل‬if); to consider carefully (‫فى‬
avenged s.th.), proceed with caution (‫ فى‬in) X to
‫ ثأر‬ta’r pl. -āt ‫ أثآر‬at’ār, ‫ آثار‬ātār revenge, show o.s. stead-fast, persevering; to seek
vengeance, blood revenge; retaliation, to verify (‫ هـ‬s.th.), try to make sure (‫ هـ‬of),
reprisal│‫ أخذ ثأره‬or ‫ أخذ بالثأر‬to take seek confirmation of or reassurance with
revenge, avenge o.s.; ‫ مَباراة الثأر‬mubārāt regard to (‫ ;)هـ‬to ascertain, verify (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
at-t. return match (sports) make sure (‫ هـ‬of s.th.); to find right,
proven or true, see confirmed (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ مَثبوت‬matbūt established, confirmed;
regard as authentic (‫ هـ‬s.th.) certain, sure, positive, assured; proven
‫ ثبت‬tabt firm, fixed, established; ‫ ثبر‬tabara u to destroy, ruin (‫ ه‬s.o.); (‫ ثبور‬tubūr)
steadfast, unflinching; brave to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal and
perseverance (‫ على‬to s.th.), persevere,
‫ ثبت‬tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible
persist (‫ على‬in)
‫ ثبت‬tabat pl. ‫ اثبات‬atbāt list, index, roster
‫ ثبور‬tubūr ruin, destruction│ ‫نادى بالويل‬
‫ ثبات‬tabāt firmness; steadiness, ‫ دعا( والثبور‬or) nādā (da‘ā) bi-l-wail wa-t-t.
constancy, permanence, stability; to wail, burst into loud laments
certainty, sureness; perseverance,
‫ مَثابرة‬mutābara persistence,
persistence, endurance; continuance,
perseverance, endurance; diligence,
maintenance, retention (‫ على‬of s.th.),
adherence (‫ على‬to)
‫ ثبط‬tabaṯa u and II to hold back, keep, prevent
‫ ثبوت‬tubūt constancy, immutability,
(‫ عن ه‬s.o. from doing s.th.); to hinder,
steadiness; permanence, durability;
handicap, impede, slow down, set back (‫هـ‬
certainty, sureness│ ‫ثبوت الشهر‬t. aš-šahr
‫ ه‬, s.o., s.th.); to bring about the failure (‫هـ‬
the official determination of the beginning
of s.th.), frustrate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
of a lunar month
‫ ثبنة‬tubna pl. ‫ ثبن‬tuban lap, fold of a garment
‫ اثبت‬atbat more reliable, firmer, steadier,
(used as a receptacle)
‫ ثبان‬tibān = ‫ ثبنة‬tubna
‫ تثبيت‬tatbīt consolidation, strengthening;
stabilization; confirmation; corroboration, ‫ ثيتل‬look up alphabetically
substantiation│ ‫ سر التثبيت‬sirr at-t. the ‫ ثج‬tajja u to flow coplously
Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.)
‫ ثجاج‬tajjāj coplously flowing, streaming
‫ اثبات‬itbāt establishment; assertion;
confirmation; affirmation, attestation; ‫ ثخن‬taḳuna u to be or become thick, thicken; to
demonstration; proof, evidence; 101 be firm, solid, compact IV to wear out,
registration, entering, listing, recording; exhaust, weaken (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫اثخنه ضربا‬
documentation, authentication, (ḍarban) to wallop s.o., give s.o. a sound
verification│ ‫ شاهد اثبات‬witness for the thrashing; ‫‘( اثخن فى العدو‬aduw) to massacre
prosecution; ‫‘ عبء الَثبات‬ib’ al-i. burden of the enemy; ‫ اثخنه بالجراح‬to weaken s.o. by
proof (jur.) inflicting wounds
‫ اثباتى‬itbātī affirmative, confirmatory, ‫ ثخن‬tiḳan, ‫ ثخانة‬taḳāna, ‫ ثخونة‬tuḳūna
corroborative, positive thickness, density; consistency;
‫ تثبت‬tatabbut ascertainment; verification,
examination, check; careful, cautious ‫ ثخين‬taḳīn pl. ‫ ثخناء‬tuḳanā’2 thick; dense
procedure, circumspection; interment (of ‫ ثدى‬tady and tadyan m. and f., pl. ‫ اثداء‬atdā’
the remains of a saint; Chr.) female breast; udder
‫ ثابت‬tābit firm, fixed, established; ‫ ثر‬tarr abounding in water│ ‫( ثرة مَن الدمَع‬dam‘)
stationary, immovable; steady, invariable, tear-wet, tear-blurred (eye)
constant, stable; permanent, lasting,
durable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a ‫ ثرب‬taraba i (tarb) and II to blame, censure (‫ه‬
constant│ ‫ ثابت الجأش‬t. al-ja’š undismayed, and ‫ على‬s.o.)
fearless, staunch, steadfast; ‫ ثابت العزم‬t. ‫ تثريب‬tatrīb blame, censure, reproof
al-‘azm firmly resolved, determined; ‫امَلك‬
‫ ثابتة‬and ‫ أمَوال ثابتة‬immovable property, real ‫ ثرثر‬tartara (‫ ثرثرة‬tartara) to chatter, prattle
estate, realty; O ‫ ثابت الَتجاه‬t. al-ittijāh ‫ ثرثار‬tartār prattler, chatterbox; ‫ثرثارة‬
unidirectional, rectified (el.) tartāra do. (fem.)
‫ ثابتة‬tābita pl. ‫ ثوابت‬tawābit2 fixed star ‫ ثرثرة‬tartara chatter, prattle
‫ ثرد‬tarada u to crumble and sop (‫ هـ‬bread) ‫ ثغم‬tagam white, whiteness
‫ ثريد‬jarid a dish of sopped bread, meat ‫ ثاغم‬tāgim white (adj.)
and broth (‫ ثغا )ثغو‬tagā u (‫ ثغاء‬tugā’) to bleat (sheep)
‫ مَثرد‬mitrad bowl ‫ ثغاء‬tugā’ bleating, bleat
‫ ثرم‬tarama i (tarm) to knock s.o.’o (‫ )ه‬tooth ‫ ثاغ‬tāgin bleating│ ‫مَا له ثاغية ولَ راغية‬
out; -- tarima a (taram) to have a gap (tagiya) he has absolutely nothing, he is
between two teeth deprived of all resources, prop.: he has
(‫ ثرو‬and ‫ ثرى )ثرى‬tariya a to become wealthy neither a bleating (sheep) nor a braying
IV to become or be rich, wealthy (‫ ب‬or ‫مَن‬ (camel)
through s.th.); to make rich, enrich (‫ ه‬s.o.) ‫ ثفر‬tafar pl. ‫ اثفار‬atfār crupper (of the saddle)
‫ ثفل‬tufl dregs, lees, sediment; residues
‫ ثرى‬taran moist earth; ground, soil│ ‫اين‬
‫ الثرى مَن الثريا‬aina t-t. min t-turayyā ‫ ثفن‬III to associate (‫ ه‬with s.o.), frequent s.o.’s (
(proverbially of things of disproportionate ‫ )هـ‬company; to pursue, practice (‫ ه‬s.th.)
value) what has the ground to do with the ‫ ثفنة‬taftna pl. -āt, ‫ ثفن‬tifan callus,
Pleiades? ‫( طيب ا ثراه‬ṯayyaba) approx.: callosity
may God rest him in peace!
‫ اثفية‬look up alphabetically
‫ ثرى‬tarīy pl. ‫ اثرياء‬atriyā’2 wealthy, rich│
‫ ثرى الحرب‬t. al-ilarb war profiteer, ‫ ثقة‬see ‫وثق‬
nouveau riche ‫ ثقب‬taqaba u (taqb) to bore, or drill, a hole (‫هـ‬
‫ثري‬tarīyāt plantations in s.th.), pierce, puncture, perforate (‫هـ‬
s.th.) II do. II and IV to light, kindle (‫هـ‬
‫ ثروة‬tarwa and ‫ ثروة‬tarā’ fortune, wealth, s.th.) V and VII to be pierced, be
riches│‫ اهل الثروة‬ahl at-t. the rich, the punctured, be perforated
wealthy; ‫( ثروة قومَية‬qaumīya) national
wealth; ‫( ثروة مَائية‬mā’īya) abundance of ‫ ثقب‬taqb piercing, boring, puncture,
water, abundant supply of water (of a perforation; (also tuqb pl. ‫ ثقوب‬tuqūb, ‫اثقاب‬
region) atqāb) hole, puncture, borehole, drill hole
‫ ثريا‬turayyā Pleiades; (also ‫ )ثرية‬pl. ‫ثريات‬ ‫ ثقبة‬tuqba pl. ‫ ثقب‬tuqab hole
turayyāt chandelier ‫ ثقاب‬and ‫‘ عود الثقاب‬ūd al-tiqāb match-
‫ مَثر‬mutr wealthy, rich stick; matches
‫ ثعبان‬tu‘bān pl. ‫ ثعابين‬ta‘ābīn snake│ ‫ ثعبان الماء‬t. ‫ ثقوب‬tuqūb keenness, acuteness (of the
al-mā’ eel mind)
‫ ثعبانى‬tu‘bānī snaky, snakelike, ‫ مَثقب‬mitqab pl. ‫ مَثاقب‬matāqib2 borer,
serpentine; eely drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble,
perforator; drilling machine
‫ مَثعب‬mat‘ab pl. ‫ مَثاعب‬matā‘ib2 drain
‫ اثقاب‬itqāb kindling, lighting
‫ ثعالة‬tu‘āla fox
‫ ثاقب‬dqib penetrating, plercing, sharp
‫ ثعلب‬ta‘lab pl. ‫ ثعالب‬ta‘ālib2 fox│ ‫داء الثعلب‬ (mind, eyes)│ ‫ ثاقب النظر‬t. an-naẓar
alopecia (med.), loss of hair perspicacity; sharp-eyed; ‫ ثاقب الفكر‬t. al-
‫ ثعلبى‬ta‘labī foxy, foxlike fikr sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness;
shrewd, sagacious, sharp-witted
‫ ثعلبة‬ta‘laba vixen; O tetter (med)
‫ ثغر‬tagir pl. ‫ ثغور‬tugūr front tooth; mouth; ‫ ثاقبات‬tāqibāt borers (zool.) 103
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport ‫ ثقف‬taqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (‫ ه‬s.o.); --
‫ ثغرة‬tagra pl. ‫ ثغر‬tugar breach, crevasse, taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart,
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity, clever II to make straight, straighten (‫هـ‬
hollow; narrow mountain trail s.th.); to correct, set right, straighten out (
‫ هـ‬s.th.); to train, form, teach, educate (‫هـ‬ a. weight lifting (athlet.); ‫الثقل النوعى‬
s.o.); to arrest (‫ هـ‬s.o.); to seize, confiscate (nau‘ī) specific gravity
(‫ ه‬s.th.) III to fence (‫ ه‬with s.o.) V to be ‫ ثقل‬tiqal heaviness; sluggishness,
trained, be educated dullness
‫ ثقافة‬taqāfa culture, refinement; ‫ ثقل‬taqal pl. ‫ اثقال‬atqāl load, baggage
education; (pl. -āt) culture, civilization
‫ الثقلان‬at-taqalān the humans and the jinn
‫ ثقافى‬taqāfī educational; intellectual;
cultural│ ‫( مَلحق ثقافى‬mulḥaq) cultural ‫ ثقل‬taqla trouble, inconvenience,
attaché discomfort
‫ ثقيف‬tatqīf cultivation of the mind; ‫ ثقل‬taqala heaviness; sluggishness,
training, education; instruction doltishness; dullness
‫ مَثاقفة‬mutāqafa fencing, art or sport of ‫ ثقيل‬taqīl pl. ‫ ثقلاء‬tuqalā’2, ‫ ثقال‬tiqāl
fencing, swordplay, swordsmanship heavy; weighty, momentous, grave,
serious, important; burdensome,
‫ تثقف‬tataqquf culturedness, culture, troublesome, cumbersome, oppressive;
refinement, education unpleasant, disagreeable, distasteful
‫ مَثقف‬mutaqqaf educated; trained; (person)│ ‫ ثقيل الدم‬t. ad-dam insufferable,
cultured unpleasant, disagreeable (person); ‫ثقيل‬
‫ الروح‬t. ar-rūḥ doltish, dull (person); a
‫ ثقل‬taqula u (tiql, ‫ ثقالة‬taqāla) to be heavy; with
bore; ‫ ثقيل الظل‬t. aẓ-ẓill disagreeable,
‫ ب‬to load or burden s.th., make s.th.
insufferable (person); ‫ ثقيل الفهم‬t. al-fahm
heavy; to be hard to bear (‫ على‬for s.o.),
slow of understanding, slow-witted; ‫ثقيل‬
weigh heavily (‫ على‬on), be burdensome,
‫ السمع‬t. as-sam‘ hard of hearing; ‫صناعة ثقيلة‬
cumbersome, oppressive (‫ على‬to s.o.); to
(ṣinā‘a) heavy industry; ‫ مَاء ثقيل‬heavy
be heavy-handed. sluggish, doltish, dull-
water (phys.)
witted; to be too dull, too sluggish (‫ عن‬for
s.th. to do s.th.), not to bother (or about) II ‫ اثقل‬atqal2 heavier; more oppressive
to make heavy, weight (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to burden, ‫ مَثقال‬mitqāl pl. ‫ مَثاقيل‬matāqīl2 weight
encumber (‫ على‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬with s.th.), (also s.th. placed as an equipoise on the
overburden (‫ على‬s.o.), overtax s.o.’s (‫)على‬ scales of a balance); miskal, a weight (in
strength, ask too much (‫ على‬of s.o.); to Egypt = 24 4.68 = ‫ قراط‬g)│ ‫ مَثقال ذرة‬m. 104
trouble, inconvenience, bother (‫ على‬s.o. ‫ب‬ darra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a
with s.th.), pester, molest (‫ على‬s.o.)│ ‫ثقل‬ tiny amount; a little bit; ‫ مَثقال مَن‬a little of,
‫كاهله‬and ‫( اثقل كاهله‬kāhilahū) to burden s.o. a little bit of
or s.th; ‫ اثقل كاهل الميزان‬to burden the budget
IV to burden (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to oppress, ‫ تثقيل‬tatqīl weighting, burdening;
distress (‫ ه‬s.o.). weigh heavily (‫ ه‬on); to be molestation
hard to bear (‫ ه‬for s.o.)│ ‫اثقل كاهله‬ ‫ تثاقل‬tatāqul sluggishness, dullness
(kāhilahū) see II; VI to become or be
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome ( ‫ مَثقل‬mutaqqal and mutqal burdened,
‫ على‬to s.o.), trouble. oppress (‫ على‬s.o.); to encumbered; overloaded; weighted (‫ب‬
be sluggish. doltish. slow; to be in a bad with s.th.); oppressed (‫ ب‬by); heavy
mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find ‫ مَتثاقل‬mutatāqil sluggish, dull; sullen,
burdensome and turn away (‫ عن‬from grumpy
s.th.); not to bother (‫ عن‬about); to be too
dull, too sluggish (‫ عن‬for s.th., to do s.th.) ‫ ثكل‬takila a (takal) to lose a child (‫)ه‬, also: to
X to find heavy, hard. burdensome, be bereaved of a loved one (‫ )ه‬by death IV
troublesome (‫ هـ‬s.th.), find annoying (‫ ه‬,‫هـ‬ ‫ اثكل الم ولدها‬atkala l-umma waladuhā to
s.o.. s.th.)│‫( استثقل ظله‬ẓillahū) to find s.o. bereave a mother of her son
unbearable, dislike s.o. ‫ ثكل‬takal state of one who has lost a
‫ ثقل‬tiql pl. ‫ اثقال‬atqāl weight; burden friend or relative; mourning over the loss
load; gravity; heaviness│ ‫ رفع الَثقال‬raf‘ al- of a loved one
‫ ثكلن‬taklān (2) bereaved of a child ‫ تثليث‬tatlīt doctrine of the Trinity; Trinity
‫ ثكلى‬taklā bereaved of a child (mother)
‫ تثليثى‬tatlītī trigonometric(al)
‫ ثاكلة‬tākila pl. ‫ ثواكل‬tawākil2 bereaved of
a child (mother) ‫ مَثلث‬mutallat tripled, triple, threefold;
having three diacritical dots (letter);
‫ ثكنة‬tuknā pl. ‫ ثكن‬tukan, -āt barracks (mil.)
triangular; (pl. -āt) triangle (geom.)│ ‫الراية‬
‫ ثل‬talla u (‫ ثلل‬talal) to tear down, destroy, ‫( المثلثة اللوان‬rāya), ‫‘( العلم المثلث‬alam) and ‫الم‬
overthrow, subvert (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. ‫عرشا‬ ‫ ثلث‬the tricolor; ‫( المثلث الحاد‬ḥadd) acute-
‘aršan to topple a throne) VII to be angled triangle; ‫ مَثلث الزوايا‬m. az-zawāyā
subverted, overthrown (throne) triangular; ‫( المثلث المتساوى الساقين‬mutasāwā
‫ ثلة‬tulla pl. ‫ ثلل‬tulal troop, band, party, group s-sāqain) isosceles triangle; ‫المثلث المتساوى‬
(of people); military detachment ‫ الضلع‬equilateral triangle; ‫المثلث القائم‬
right-angled triangle
‫ ثلب‬talaba i (talb) to criticize, run down (‫ه‬
s.o.); to slander, defame (‫ ه‬s.o.) ‫ المثلثات‬al-mutallatāt and ‫حساب المثلثات‬
ḥisāb al-m. trigonometry
‫ ثلب‬talb slander, defamation
‫ ثلج‬talaja u: ‫( ثلجت السماء‬samā’u) it snowed,
‫ مَثلبة‬matlaba pl. ‫ مَثالب‬matālib2 was snowing; -- talija a to be delighted,
shortcoming, defect, blemish, stain, 105 be gladdened (soul, heart; ‫ ب‬by) II to
disgrace cool with ice (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to freeze, turn into
‫ ثالب‬tālib slanderous, defamatory; ice (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV ‫ اثلجت السماء‬it snowed, was
slanderer snowing; to cool, moisten (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫اثلج‬
‫( صدره‬ṣadrahū) to delight, please, gratify
‫ ثلث‬II to triple, make threefold (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to do s.o. V to become icy, turn into ice,
three times (‫ هـ‬s.th.) congeal; to freeze
‫ ثلث‬tult pl. ‫ اثلاث‬atlāt one third; tulut a ‫ ثلج‬talj pl. ‫ ثلوج‬tulūj snow; ice; artificial
sprawling, decorative calligraphic style ice│‫ ندفة الثلج‬nadfat at-t. snowflake
‫ ثلاثة‬talāta (f. ‫ ثلاث‬talāt) three; ‫ ثلثا‬talātan ‫ ثلجى‬taljī snowy, snow- (in compounds);
three times, thrice icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds)
‫ ثلاثى‬talātī tertiary; Tertiary (geol.)│‫مَا قبل‬ ‫ ثليج‬talīj icy
‫ الثلثى‬pre-Tertiary
‫ ثلج‬tallāj pl. -ūn ice vendor
‫ ثلاثة عشر‬talātata ‘ašara, f. ‫ثلاث عشرة‬
talāta ‘ašrata thirteen ‫ ثلجة‬tallāja pl. -āt iceberg, ice floe;
refrigerator, icebox
‫ الثالث‬at-tālit the third; ‫ ثالثا‬tālitan thirdly;
1/60 ‫ ثالثة‬of a second ‫ مَثلجة‬matlaja pl. ‫ مَثالج‬matālij2 icebox,
refrigerator; cold-storage plant
‫ ثلاثون‬talātūn thirty
‫ مَثلوج‬matlūj snow-covered; iced, icy;
‫ الثلثاء‬at-talatā’ and ‫ يوم الثلثاء‬yaum at-t. ‫ مَثلوجات‬frozen food; iced beverages
‫ مَثلج‬mutallaj iced; icy, ice-cold
‫ ثلاث‬tulāt2 and ‫ مَثلث‬mutallat three at a
time ‫ ثلم‬talama i (talm) to blunt, make jagged (‫هـ‬
s.th.), break the edge of (‫ ;)هـ‬to make a
‫ ثلاثى‬tulātī tripartite, consisting of three, breach, gap or opening (‫ هـ‬in a wall); to
(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three defile, sully (‫ هـ‬reputation, honor);
radicals; tri-; trio (mus. )│‫ ثلاثى الزوايا‬t. z- --talima a to be or become jagged, dull,
zawāyā triangular; ‫ ثلاثى الورقات‬t. l- blunt II to blunt (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to become
waraqāt trifoliate blunt VII to be defiled, be discredited
‫ ثالوث‬tālūt Trinity (CM.); trinity, triad; (reputation)
triplet│ ‫ زهرة الثالوث‬zahrat at-t. pansy
‫ ثلم‬talm nick, notch; breach, opening, ‫ ثمل‬tamal intoxication, drunkenness
gap; crock, fissure, rift│‫ ثلم الصيت‬t. aṣ-ṣīt ‫ ثملة‬tamala drunken fit, drunkenness
‫ ثمل‬tamil intoxicated, drunk(en)
‫ ثلمة‬tulma pl. ‫ ثلم‬tulam = talm│ ‫سد ثلمة‬
sadda talmatan to fill a gap; ‫ثلمة لَ تسد‬ ‫ ثمالة‬tumāla residue, remnant, dregs (of a
(tusaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, an liquid), heeltap (of wine); .cum, foam,
irreparable loss froth 106
‫ ثالم‬talim dull, blunt ‫ثمن‬II to appraise, asses, estimate (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
determine the price or value (‫ هـ‬of s.th.); to
‫ مَثلوم‬matlūm defiled, sullied (reputation, price (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫ لَ ثمل‬lā yutammanu
honor) invaluable, inestimable, priceless
‫ مَثلم‬mutatallim blunted, blunt; cracking ‫ ثمن‬pl. ‫ اثمن‬atmān, ‫ اثمنة‬atmina price,
(voice) cost; value│‫( الثمن الصلى‬aṣlī) cost price; ‫الث‬
‫ مَنثلم الصيت‬muntalim aṣ-ṣīt of ill repute, ‫( من الساسى‬asāsī) par, nominal value
of dubious reputation ‫ ثمين‬tamīn costly, precious, valuable
‫ ثم‬tamma there ‫ ثم‬min tamma hence, therefore, ‫ اثمن‬atman2 costlier, more precious,
for that reason more valuable
‫ ثم‬tumma then, thereupon; furthermore, ‫ تثمين‬tatmīn estimated, appraisal,
moreover; and again, and once more assessment, valuation, rating
(emphatically in repetition)│‫كل ثم كل‬
(kallā) no and a hundred times no! ‫مَن ثم‬ ‫ مَثمون‬matmūn object of value
min tamma then, thereupon ‫ مَثمن‬mutammin estimator, appraiser│
‫ ثمة‬tammata (‫ )ثمت‬there; there is│‫ليس ثمة‬ ‫ خبير مَثمن‬assessor
there isn't ‫ مَثمن‬mutamman prized, valued,
‫ ثمام‬tumām a grass│‫( على طرف الثمام‬ṯarafi valuable, precious
t-t.) within easy reach, handy; ‫جعله على‬ ‫ مَثمن‬mutmin costly, precious, valuable
‫ طرف الثمام‬he made it readily
understandable, he presented it plsusibly ‫ مَثمن‬mutman object of value
for all 2
‫ ثمانية‬tamāniya (f. ‫ ثمان‬tamānin) eight
‫ اثمد‬look up alphabetically ‫ ثمانية عشر‬tamāniyata ‘ašara, f. ‫ثماني عشرة‬
‫ ثمر‬tamara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit, tamāniya ‘ašrata eighteen
benefit (‫ هـ‬from); to exploit, utilize (‫هـ‬ ‫ ثمن‬pl. ‫ اثمان‬atmān one-eighth
s.th.); to invest profitably (‫ هـ‬money)
‫ ثمنة‬tumna pl. -āt a dry measure (Eg. =
‫ ثمر‬tamar pl. ‫ ثمار‬timār, ‫ اثمار‬atmār 1/3 258. = ‫ قدح‬l; Pal. = ca. 2.25 l)
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit,
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain ‫ ثمانون‬tamānūn eighty

‫ ثمرة‬tamara (n. un. of tamar) pl. -āt ‫ الثامَن‬at-tāmin the eighth

fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit, ‫ مَثمن‬mutamman eightfold; octagonal
‫ ثنة‬tunna pl. ‫ ثنن‬tunan fetlock
‫ استثمار‬istitmār exploitation (also pol.-
‫ ثندوة‬tunduwa pl. ‫ ثناد‬tanādin breast (of the
econ.), utilization, profitable use
‫ مَثمر‬mutmir fruitful, productive,
‫ ثنى‬tanā i (tany) to double, double up, fold,
profitable, lucrative
fold up, fold under (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to bond, flex
‫ مَستثمر‬mustatmir pl. -ūn exploiter (pol.- (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to turn away, dissuade, keep,
econ.); beneficiary prevent, divert (‫ عن ه‬s.o. from)│ ‫ثنى عنان‬
‫ ثمل‬tamila a (tamal) to become drunk IV to ‫‘( فرسه‬ināna farasihī) he galloped off II to
make drunk, intoxicate (‫ ه‬s.o.) double, make double (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to do twice,
repeat (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to pleat, plait (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to O ‫ ثنائية‬tunā’īya dualism; duet, duo
form the dual (‫ هـ‬of a word); to provide (mus.)
with two diacritical dots (‫ هـ‬a letter) IV to ‫ اثنان‬itnāni, f. ‫ اثنتان‬itnatāni two
commend, praise, laud, extol (‫ على‬s.th.,
s.o.), speak appreciatively (‫ على‬of)│ ‫اثنى‬ ‫ اثنا عشر‬itnā ‘ašara, f. ‫ اثنتا عشرة‬itnatā
‫‘( عليه عاطر الثناء‬āṯira tanā’) to speak in the ‘ašrata twelve
most laudatory terms of s.o. V to double, ‫ يوم الَثنين‬yaum al-itnaini and ‫الَثنين‬
become double; to be doubled; to be Monday
repeated; to bond, fold; to be bent, be
folded. be folded up or under; to walk ‫ الثانى‬at-tānī the second; the next; ‫ثانيا‬
with a swinging gait VII to bend, bend up, tāniyan and ‫ ثانية‬tāniyatan secondly; for
down or over, lean, incline, bow; to fold, the second time, once more, again│ ‫ثانى‬
be foldable, be folded back; to turn away ( ‫ اثنين‬t. itnain the second of a pair, pendant,
‫ عن‬from), give up, renounce (‫ عن‬s.th.); to companion piece, match
turn, face (‫ل‬I toward); to apply o.s., turn (‫ال‬ ‫ ثانية‬tāniya pl. ‫ ثوان‬tawānin second (time
‫ ى‬to s.th.); (with foll. imperf.) to set out, unit)
prepare (to do s.th.) X to except, exclude (
‫ مَن ه‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th. or s.o. from), make an ‫ ثانوى‬tānawī secondary; minor│‫امَور ثانوية‬
exception (‫ هـ‬of s.th.) matters of secondary importance, minor
matters; ‫ مَدرسة ثانوية‬secondary school;
‫ ثنى‬tany bonding; folding; turning away, ‫ تسويغ ثانوي‬subletting
dissuasion, keeping, prevention
‫ تثنية‬tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleating;
‫ ثنى‬tiny pl. ‫ اثناء‬atnā’ fold, pleat, plait, doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual;
crease (in cloth); bond, twist│ ‫ثنيا بعد ثنى‬ second sequel (e.g., of a collection of
tinyan ba‘da tinyin from time to time short stories); commendation, praise,
‫ اثناء‬atnā’ (prep.) during; in the course eulogy│ ‫ تثنية الَشتراع‬Deuteronomy
of│‫ فى اثناء‬fī atnā’i do.; ‫ فى تلك‬,‫فى اثناء ذلك‬ ‫ انثناء‬intinā’ bending, flection; flexibility,
‫ اثناء ذلك‬,‫ الَثناء‬in the meantime, during all foldability│ ‫ قابل للانثناء‬foldable, folding
this time, meanwhile
‫ انثناءة‬intinā’a pl. -āt (n. vic.) bend,
‫ ثنية‬tanya pl. tanyāt fold, pleat, plait, flexure, curve
crease (in cloth)
‫ استثناء‬istitnā’ exception, exclusion│ ‫باستث‬
‫ ثنية‬tanya pl. ‫ ثنايا‬tanāyā middle incisor; ‫ ناء‬with the exception of, except; ‫بدون‬
narrow pass; mountain trail│ ‫ فى ثنايا‬in, ‫ استثناء‬without exception
inside, among, between, frequently only a
fuller, rhetorically more elegant ‫ استثنائى‬istitnā’ī exoeptional; ‫استثنائيا‬
expression for "in". e.g., ‫ فى ثنايا نفسه‬in his istitnā’īyan as an exception│ ‫احوال استثنائية‬
heart, inwardly, ‫ فى ثنايا الكتاب‬in the book; emergencies; ‫( جلسة استثنائية‬jalsa)
‫ بين ثنايا‬in, inside, among, between; ‫طلع‬ emergency session
‫ الثنايا‬ṯallā‘ at-t. one with high-flung ‫ مَثنى‬matnīy folded; plaited, pleated;
aspirations 107 doubled
‫ ثناء‬tanā’ commendation, praise, eulogy; ‫ مَثنى‬mutannan ouble, twofold; in the
appreciation dual (gram.)
‫ ثناء‬tunā’2 and ‫ مَثنى‬matnā two at a time ‫ مَستثنى‬mustatnan excepted, excluded (‫مَن‬
‫ ثنوى‬tanawī dualist from)

‫ ثنوية‬tanawīya dualism ‫ ثوة‬see ‫ثوى‬

‫ ثنائى‬tanā’ī laudatory, eulogistic (‫ ثاب )ثوب‬tāba u to return, come back (also,
e.g., a state or condition, ‫ الى‬or ‫ ل‬to s.o.);
‫ ثنائى‬tunā’ī twofold, double, dual, binary, with ‫ب‬: to return s.th. (‫ الى‬to s.o.)│ ‫ثاب الى‬
bi-; biradical (gram.); duet, duo (mus.)│ ‫ نفسه‬to regain consciousness, come to; ‫ثاب‬
‫( مَحرك ثنائى المشوار‬muḥarrik t. l-mišwār) ‫( اليه رشده‬rušduhū) to recover one’s senses
two-cycle engine
II to reward (‫ ه‬s.o.; said of God) IV to ‫ ثور‬taur pl. ‫ ثيران‬tīrān bull, steer; ox;
repay, requite (‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. with); to reward ( Taurus (astron.)│ ‫ شوربة ذيل الثور‬šōrabat
‫ على ه‬s.o. for) X to seek reward dail at-t. oxtail soup
‫ ثوب‬taub pl. ‫ ثياب‬tiyāb, ‫ اثواب‬atwāb ‫ ثورة‬taura excitement, agitation;
garment, dress; cloth, material; (fig.) garb, outbreak, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair,
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask; etc.); eruption (of a volcano); (pl. -āt)
pl. ‫ ثياب‬clothes, clothing, apparel│ ‫ثياب‬ upheaval, uprising, insurrection, riot,
‫ السهرة‬t. as-suhra formal dress, evening rebellion, revolt, revolution│‫ثورة اهلية‬
clothes; ‫ فى ثوب بسيط‬in plain, homely form; (ahlīya) internal strife, civil war
‫ طاهر الثياب‬of flawless character, ‫ ثورى‬taurī revolutionary (adj. and n.)
‫ ثوروى‬taurawī revolutionary (adj. and
‫ ثواب‬tawāb requital, recompense, reward n.)
(for good deeds); (Isl. Law) merit, credit
(arising from a pious deed) ‫ ثوران‬tawarān agitation, excitation,
flare-up, emption, outbreak, outburst, dust
‫ مَثوبة‬matūba requital, recompense, whirl
reward (bestowed by God for good deeds)
‫ مَثار‬matār incentive, stimulus, motive,
‫ مَثاب‬matāb and ‫ مَثابة‬matāba place to spur, occasion, cause│ ‫ مَثار الجدل‬m. al-
which one returns; meeting place; jadal and ‫ مَثار النزاع‬object of controversy,
rendezvous; resort, refuge point of contention
‫ مَثابة‬matāba (with foll. genit.) place or ‫ اثارة‬itāra excitation, stirring up,
time at which s.th. appears or recurs; 108 kindling; agitation, incitement;
manner, mode, fashion; see also preceding provocation, (a)rousing, awakening;
entry│ ‫( بمثابة‬with foll. genit.) like, as; irritation, stimulation
tantamount to, equivalent to, having the
same function as ‫ ثائر‬tā’ir excited, agitated, raving,
2 furious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the
‫ ثئب( تثاوب = تثاءب‬VI) to yawn idiomatic phrase ‫ ثار ثائرة‬see above); (pl. ‫ثوا‬
(‫ ثار )ثور‬tāra u to stir, be stirred up, be ‫ ر‬tuwwār) insurgent, rebel, revolutionary
aroused, be excited; to swirl up, rise ‫ ثائرة‬tā’ira pl. ‫ ثوائر‬tawā’ir2 tumult;
(dust); to arise (question, problem; a excitement, agitation; fury, rage
difficulty, ‫ فى وجهه‬fī wajhihī before s.o.); to
be triggered, be unleashed, break out; to ‫ مَثير‬mutīr exciting; provocative;
revolt, rebel, rise (‫ على‬against); to rage, stimulative, irritative; excitant, irritant,
storm│ ‫( ثار ثائره‬tā’irohū) to fly into a stimulant; instigator; germ, agent; pl.
rage, become furious, flare up IV to ‫ مَثيرات‬stimulants
agitate, excite (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to stimulate ‫ ثوريوم‬tōriyūm thorium (chem.)
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to irritate (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., ‫ ثول‬VII to swarm, crowd, throng (‫ على‬around
feelings), cause, provoke, awaken (‫هـ‬ s.o.); to come over s.o. (‫)على‬
s.th.); to raise, pose, bring up (‫مَسألة‬ ‫ ثول‬law and ‫ ثول النحل‬t. an-nḥl swarm of
mas’alatan a question, a problem)│ ‫اثار‬ bees
‫( ثائرته‬tā’iratahū) to infuriate s.o., excite
s.o. X to excite, stir up, kindle (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ثوم‬tūm (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬garlic
esp. passions); to rouse (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ ثوى‬tawā i (‫ ثواء‬tawā’, ‫ ثوى‬tuwīy, ‫ مَثوى‬matwan)
arouse, awaken (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. feelings); to to stay, live (‫ ب‬at a place); to settle down (
elicit, evoke (‫ هـ‬wails, outcries, ‫ مَن‬from ‫ ب‬at a place); pass. tuwiya to be buried IV
s.o.); to incite, set (‫ على ه‬s.o. against)│ ‫استثا‬ to stay, live; to lodge, put up as a guest (‫ه‬
‫( ر غضبه‬gaḍabahū) to infuriate s.o., make s.o.)
s.o. angry
‫ ثوى‬tawīy guestroom
‫ ثوة‬tūwa pl. ‫ ثوى‬tuwan signpost, road- ‫ جاه‬jāh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory,
sign fame
‫ مَثوى‬matwan pl. ‫ مَثاو‬matāwin abode, ‫ جاوه‬jāwa Java
habitation, dwelling; place of rest ‫ جاوى‬jāwī Javanese; benzoin; (pl. -ūn) a
‫ ثيب‬tayyib pl. -āt a deflowered but unmarried Javanese
woman, widow, divorcée ‫ جاودار‬jāwadār rye
‫ ثيتل‬taital pl. ‫ ثياتل‬tayātil a variety of wild goat ‫ جاويش‬čāwīš sergeant = ‫ شاويش‬,‫شاوش‬
(Capra jaela) 109
‫ جب‬jubb pl. ‫ اجباب‬ajbāb, ‫ جباب‬jibāb well,
cistern; pit
‫ جبة‬jubba pl. ‫ جبب‬jubab, ‫جباب‬, jibāb, ‫جبائب‬
‫ج‬ jabā’ib2 jubbah, a long outer garment,
open in front, with wide sleeves
‫ جبح‬jabḥ pl. ‫ اجبح‬ajbuḥ, ‫ جباح‬jibāḥ, ‫ اجباح‬ajbāḥ
‫ جاثليق‬jātalīq = ‫جثليق‬
‫ جؤجؤ‬ju’ju’ pl. ‫ جآجئ‬ja’āji2 breast; prow, bow
‫ جبخانة‬jabḳāna, jabaḳāna powder magazine;
(of a ship)
ammunition; artillery depot
‫ جأر‬ja’ara a (ja’r, ‫ جؤار‬ju’ār) to low, moo; to
‫ جبر‬jabara u (jabr, ‫ جبور‬jubūr) to set (‫ هـ‬broken
supplicate, pray fervently (‫ الى‬to God)
bones); to restore, bring back to normal (‫هـ‬
‫ جأر‬ja’r, and ‫ جؤار‬ju’ār, lowing, mooing s.th.); to help back on his feet, help up (‫ه‬
(of cattle) s.o.; e.g., on. fallen into poverty); to force,
‫ جاز‬giiz pl. -āt (Eg. spelling) gas compel (‫ على ه‬s.o. to do s.th.)│ ‫جبر خاطره‬
(ḳāoṯirahū) to console, comfort, gratify,
‫ جاز‬jāz jazz oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.) in a conciliatory
‫( جازون‬Fr. gazon, Eg. spelling) gāzōn lawn or kindly manner II to set (‫ هـ‬broken
bones) III to treat with kindness with
‫ جأش‬ja’aša a (ja’š) to be agitated, be friendliness (‫ ه‬s.o.), be nice (‫ ه‬to s.o.) IV to
convulsed (with pain or fright) force, compel (‫ على ه‬s.o. to do s.th.); to
‫ جأش‬ja’š emotional agitation; heart, hold sway (‫ على‬over) V to show o.s.
soul│ ‫ ربط جأشه‬rabaṯa ja’šahū to remain proud, haughty; to act strong, throw one’s
calm, composed, self-possesed; ‫رابط الجأش‬ weight around; to show o.s. strong or
or ‫ ثابت الجأش‬calm, composed, cool, self- powerful, demonstrate one’s strength or
possessed, undismayed; ‫ بجأش رابط‬with power; to be set (broken bones)│ ‫تجبر ا‬
unswerving courage, unflinchingly ‫( بابنك‬bi-bnika) God has demonstrated His
power on your son, i.e., He has taken him
‫ جاكتة‬,‫ جاكته‬and ‫ جاكيته‬žakēta jacket, coat
unto Himself VII to be mended. repaired,
‫ جالون‬galōn gallon restored
‫( جاليرى‬Eg. spelling) galērī gallery (theat.) ‫ جبر‬jabr setting (of broken bones); force,
‫ جام‬jām pl. –āt cup; drinking vessel; bowl compulsion; coercion, duress; power, 110
might; (predestined, inescapable) decree
‫ جامَكية‬jāmakīya pl. -āt, ‫ جوامَك‬jawāmik2 pay of fate; ‫ جبرا‬jab,an forcibly, by force│ ‫علم‬
‫ جامَوس‬jāmūs pl. ‫ جوامَيس‬jawāmīs2 buffalo ‫‘ الجبر‬ilm al-j. algebra; ‫ يوم جبر البحر‬yaum j.
al-baḥr a local holiday of Cairo (the day
‫ جامَوسة‬jāmūsa buffalo cow on which, in former times, the water of the
‫( جانرك‬pronounced žānəreg, from Turk. Nile was channeled into the now-
caneriği; coll.; n. un. žānərgēye) a variety abandoned ḳalīg, or City Canal, thus mar
of small green plum with several stones ‫فى‬ng the beginning of the irrigation
(syr.) season)
‫ جبرى‬jabrī algebraic; compulsory,
forced; -- jabarī an adherent of the
doctrine of predestination and the Mountains (in E Algeria); ‫ جبل جليد‬iceberg;
inescapability of fate; fatalist ‫ جبل سينا‬j. sīnā Mount Sinai; ‫جبل طارق‬
Gibraltar; ‫ جبل نار‬volcano
‫ جبرية‬jabarīya an Islamic school of
thought teaching the inescapability of fate; ‫ جبلى‬jabalī mountainous, hilly; mountain
fatalism (adj.); montane; (pl. -ūn) highlander,
‫ جبار‬jabbār, pl. -ūn, ‫ جبابر‬jabābir2, ‫جبابرة‬
jabābira giant; colossus; tyrant, ‫ جبلاوى‬gabalāwī (eg.) highlander,
oppressor; almighty, omnipotent (God); mountaineer
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; Orion ‫ جبلاية‬gabalāya pl. -āt (eg.) grotto, cave
(astron.)│ ‫ جبار الخطوة‬j. al-ḳuṯ.wa striding
powerfully, ta‫فى‬ng buge strides ‫ جبن‬jabuna u (jubn, ‫ جبانة‬jabāna) to be a
coward, be fearful; to be too much of a
‫ جبارة‬jibāra (art of) bonesetting coward (‫ عن‬to do s.th.), shrink (‫ عن‬from
‫ جبيرة‬jabīra and ‫ جبارة‬jībāra pl. ‫جبائر‬ s.th.) II to cause to curdle (‫ هـ‬milk); to
jabā’ir2 splint (surg.) make into cheese (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to curdle; to
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جبروت‬jabarūt omnipotence; power,
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese
might; tyranny
‫ جبن‬jubn and ‫ جبانة‬jabāna cowardice
‫ جبرياء‬jibriyā’2 pride, haughtiness
‫ جبن‬jubn and ‫ جبنة‬jubna cheese
O ‫ تجبير‬tajbīr, ‫ تجبير العظام‬orthopedics
‫ جبان‬jabān pl. ‫ جبناء‬jubanā’2 coward;
‫ اجبار‬ijbār compulsion, coercion
‫ اجبارى‬ijbārī forced, forcible,
‫ جبان‬jabbān cheese merchant
compulsory, obligatory│‫التجنيد الَجبارى‬
compulsory recruitment; military ‫ جبين‬jabīn pl. ‫ جبن‬jubun, ‫ اجبنة‬ajbina, ‫اجبن‬
conscription ajbun forehead, brow; façade, front; face
‫ مَن جبينى‬min jabīnī I alone; ‫على جبين السماء‬
‫ جابر‬jābir and ‫ مَجبر‬mujabbir, bonesetter
in the sky 111
‫ مَجبور‬majbūr and ‫ مَجبر‬mujbar forced,
‫ جبينى‬jabīnī frontal
‫ اجبن‬ajban2 more cowardly
‫ جبرئيل‬jabra’īl2 ‫ جبريل‬jibrīl2 Gabriel
2 ‫ جبانة‬jabbāna pl. -āt cemetery
‫جبس‬II to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with
plaster (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to put in a cast, set in ‫ تجبين‬tajbīn cheese making, processing
plaster (‫ هـ‬s.th.) into cheese
‫ جبس‬jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris ‫ جبه‬jabaha a to moot, face, confront (‫ ه‬s.o.) III
to face, confront, oppose, defy (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هـ‬
‫ جباسة‬jabbāsa gypsum quarry; plaster
s.th.), show a hold front (‫ ه‬to); to face (‫ هـ‬a
problem, a difficulty)
‫ جبس‬jabas (coll.; n. un. ‫ ;ة‬syr.) watermelon(s)
‫ جبهة‬jabha pl. ‫ جباه‬jibāh, ‫ جبهات‬jabahāt
‫ جبل‬jabala u i (jabl) to mold, form, shape, forehead, brow; front, face, façade;
fashion (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to knead (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to frontline, battle front
create (‫ على ه‬s.o. with a natural disposition
‫ مَجابهة‬mujābaha facing, confrontation,
or propensity for); pass. ‫( جبل على‬jubila) to
be born for, be naturally diaposed to, bave
a propensity for ‫ جبه خانة‬see ‫جبخانة‬
‫ جبلة‬jibla, jibilla pl. -āt natural ‫ جبى‬jabā i (‫ جباية‬jibāya) to collect, raise, levy (
disposition, nature, temper ‫ هـ‬taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. (in
2 prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
‫ جبل‬jabal pl. ‫ جبل‬jibāl, ‫ اجبال‬ajbāl mountain;
‫ ه‬s.o.)
mountains, mountain range│ ‫ جبال الَلب‬j.
al-alb the Alpes; ‫ جبال الَوراس‬the Aurès
‫ جباية‬jibāya raising, levying (of taxes); s.th.); to renounce, forswear, adjure (‫ هـ‬a
(pl. oat) tax, duty, impost belief); to deny (‫ هـ ه‬s.o. his right)│ ‫جحد‬
‫( جميله‬jamīlahū) to he ungrateful to s.o.
‫ جبائي‬jibā’ī tax- (in compounds); fiscal
‫ جحد‬jaḥd denial; repudiation, disavowal,
‫ مَجبى‬majban pl. ‫ مَجاب‬majābin tax,
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ جحود‬juḥūd denial; evasion, dodging,
‫ جاب‬jābin pl. ‫ جباة‬jubāh tax collector,
shirking (of a moral obligation);
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.)
ingratitude; repudiation, disavowal,
conductor (ir.)
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ جابية‬jābiya pl. ‫ جواب‬jawābin pool, basin
‫ جاحد‬jāḥid denier; infidel, unbeliever
‫ جتا‬jatā (abbreviation of ‫ )جيب التمام‬cosine
‫ جحر‬VII to hide in ito hole or den (animal)
‫ جحر‬juḥr pl. ‫ اجحار‬ajḥār, ‫ جحور‬juḥūr
‫ جث‬jatta (jatt) and VIII to tear out, uproot (‫ هـ‬a
hole, den, lair, burrow (of animals) 112
tree, also fig.)
‫ جحش‬jaḥš pl. ‫ جحاش‬jiḥāš, ‫ جحشان‬jiḥšān, ‫اجحاش‬
‫ جثة‬jutta pl. ‫ جثث‬jutat, ‫ اجثاث‬ajtāt body;
ajḥāš young donkey; (pl. ‫ جحوش‬juḥūš)
corpse, cadaver; carcass
trestle, horse
‫ مَجتث‬muitat uprooted (also fig.)
‫ جحشة‬jaša young female donkey
‫ جثل‬jatl thick, dense (esp. hair)
‫ جحظ‬jaḥaẓa a (‫ جحوظ‬juḥūẓ) to bulge, protrude
‫ جثليق‬jitlīq pl. ‫ جثالقة‬jatāliqa catholicos, primate (eyeball)
of the Armenian Church
‫ جحوظ العين‬juḥūz al-‘ain exophthalmic goiter,
‫ جثم‬jatama u i (jatm, ‫ جثوم‬jutūm) to alight, sit, abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to fall or
‫ جحف‬jaḥafa a (jaḥf) to peel off, scrape off (‫هـ‬
lie prone, lie face down; to beset, oppress
s.th.); to sweep away (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to have a
(‫ على‬s.th.)
bias (‫ مَع‬for), side (‫ مَع‬with s.o.) IV to
‫ جثمة‬jatma (n. vic.) motionless sitting or harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.);
lying to ruin. destroy (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to wrong (‫ب‬
‫ جثام‬jutām and ‫ جاثوم‬jātūm nightmare, s.o.)
incubus ‫ اجحاف‬ijḥāf injustice, wrong; bias,
‫ جثمان‬jutmān pl. -āt hody, mortal frame prejudice

‫ جثمانى‬jutmānī hodily, physical, ‫ مَجحف‬mujḥif unjust, unfair; biased,

corporeal prejudiced

‫ جاثم‬jātim pl. ‫ جثم‬juttam squatting, ‫ جحفل‬jaḥfala pl. ‫ جحافل‬jaḥāfil2 multitude,

crouching; perching; prostrate, prone legion, host, large army; army corps
(Syr.); eminent man
(‫ جثا )جثو‬jatā u (jutuw) to kneel, root on the
knees; to bend the knee, genullect; to fall ‫ جحيم‬jaḥīm f. (also m.) fire, hellfire, hell
on one’s knees ‫ جحيمى‬jaḥīmī hellish, infernal
‫ جثو‬jutūw kneeling pooition ‫ جخ‬jaḳḳa (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to boast,
‫ جثوة‬jutwa rock pile, mound; sepulchral brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly ironical)
mound, tumulus ‫ جخاخ‬jaḳḳāḳ boaster, braggart
‫ مَجثى‬majtan hassock 1
‫ جد‬jadd pl. ‫ جدود‬judūd, ‫ اجاد‬ajdād grand-father;
‫ جاث‬jātin kneeling; ‫ الجاثى‬Hercules ancestor, forefather│ ‫( الجد الَعلى‬a‘lā)
(astron.) ancestor

‫ جحد‬jaḥda a (jaiḥd, ‫ جحود‬juḥūd) to negate (‫هـ‬ ‫ جدة‬jadda pl. -āt grandmother

s.th.); to disclaim, disavow, disown, deny 2
‫ جد‬jadda i to be new; to be a recent
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to refuse, reject, repudiate (‫هـ‬ development, have happened lately, have
recently become a fact; to be added, crop unprecedented│‫ الجديدان‬al-jadīdān day and
up or enter as a new factor (circumstances, night; ‫ مَن جديد‬anew, again; (eg.) ‫جديد لنج‬
costs); to appear for the first time (also, gadīd lang brand-new.
e.g., on the stage); to be or become ‫ اجد‬ajadd2 more serious, more intent;
serious, grave; to be weighty, significant, newer, more recent
important; to take ‫ فى‬s.th.) seriously; to
strive earnestly ‫ فى‬for), go out of one’s ‫ تجديد‬tajdīd renewal (also. e.g., of a
way (‫ فى‬to do s.th.), make every effort (‫فى‬ permit); creation of s.th. new origination;
in); to be serious, be in earnest (‫ فى‬about), new presentation, new production (theat.);
mean business; to hurry (‫ فى‬one’s step) II innovation; reorganization, reform;
to renew (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to make anew, remake ( modernization; renovation, restoration,
‫ هـ‬s.th.); to modernize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to restore, remodeling. refitting. reconditioning,
renovate, remodel, refit, recondition, refurbishing; rejuvenation, regeneration;
refurbish (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to be an innovator, a pl. -āt innovations; new achievements
reformer; to feature s.th. new or novel, ‫ تجدد‬tajaddud renewal, regeneration,
produce s.th. new; to rejuvenate, revival
regenerate, revive, freshen up (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
renew, extend (‫ هـ‬a permit); to begin anew, ‫ جاد‬jādd in earnest, earnest; serious (as
repeat (‫ هـ‬s.th.), make a new start (‫ هـ‬in opposed to comic, funny)
s.th.); to try again (‫ حظه‬ḥaẓẓahū one’s ‫ جادة‬jādda pl. –āt, jawādd2 main street;
luck) IV to strive, endeavor, take pains; to street
apply o.s. earnestly and assiduously (‫فى‬
to), be bent, be intent (‫ فى‬on s.th.); to ‫ مَجدود‬majdūd fortunate. lucky
hurry (‫ فى‬one's step); to renew, make new ‫ مَجدد‬mujaddid renewer; innovator;
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to become new, be renewed; to reformer
revive X to be new, be added or enter as a
‫ مَجدد‬mujaddad renewed, extended;
new factor, come newly into existence; to
remodeled, reconditioned, renovated,
make new, renew (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
restored; rejuvenated, regenerated, new,
‫ جد‬iadd pl. ‫ جدود‬judūd good luck, good recent, young
‫ مَجد‬mujidd painstaking, diligent,
‫ جد‬jidd seriousness, earnestness; assiduous
diligence, assiduity, eagerness; ‫ جدا‬jiddan
‫ مَستجد‬mustajidd new, recent; incipient
very, much│ ‫ بجد‬and ‫ مَن جد‬earnestly,
seriously; ‫ جد باهظ‬jiddu bāhiẓin very high ‫ جدب‬jaduba u ‫ جدوبة‬judūba) to be or become
(price); ‫ جد عظيم‬j. ‘aẓīmin very great; dry, arid (soil) IV to suffer from drought,
‫( يختلفون جد الَختلف‬jidda l-iḳtilāf) they poverty or dearth; to be barren, sterile; to
differ widely; ‫( وقف على ساق الجد ل‬sāqi l-j.) come to nothing, go up in smoke, fall flat,
to apply o.s. with diligence to, take pains fizzle out; (syr.) to explode in the barrel
in, make every effort to (shell; mil.)
‫ جدى‬jiddī serious; earnest; ‫ جديا‬jiddīyan ‫ جدب‬jadb drought, barrenness, sterility;
in earnest, earnestly, seriously sterile, barren
‫ جدية‬jiddīya earnestness; seriousness, ‫ جديب‬jadīb and ‫ اجدب‬ajdab2, f. ‫جدباء‬
gravity (of a situation) jadbā’2 barren, sterile
‫ جدة‬jidda newness, recency, novelty; ‫ مَجدب‬mujdib barren, sterile; desolate,
modernness, modernity; O rebirth, arid; unproductive, unprofitable
renaissance ‫ جدث‬jadat pl. ‫ اجداث‬ajdāt grave, tomb
‫ جدة‬judda Jidda (eeaport in W Saudi ‫ جدجد‬judjud pl. ‫ جداجد‬jadājid2 cricket (zool.)
Arabia, on Red Sea) 113
‫ جدر‬jadura u (‫ جدارة‬jadāra) to be fit, suitable,
‫ جديد‬jadīd pl. ‫ جدد‬judud, judad new, proper. appropriate (‫ ب‬for s.o., for s.th.);
recent; renewed; modem; novel, to befit, behoove (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to be
worthy (‫ ب‬of), deserve (‫ ب‬s.th.)│ ‫يجدر ذكره‬ ‫ جدل‬jadal quarrel, argument; debate,
(dikruhū) and ‫ يجدر بالذكر‬it is worth dispute, discussion, controversy│ ‫فرض‬
mentioning ‫ جدلا‬faraḍa jadalan to assume for the sake
of argument, propose as a basis for
‫ جدر‬jadr wall
‫ جدير‬jadīr pl. -ūn ‫ جدراء‬judarā’2 worthy,
‫ جدلى‬jadalī controversial; disputatious;
deserving (‫ ب‬of s.th.); becoming, befitting
a disputant
(‫ ب‬s.th.); proper, suited, suitable fit (‫ب‬
for), appropriate (‫ ب‬to)│ ‫( جدير بالذكر‬dikr) ‫ جدال‬jaddāl and ‫ مَجدال‬mijdāl
worth mentioning disputatious, argumentative; mijdāl see
also below
‫ اجدر‬ajdar worthier; more appropriate;
better suited, more suitable ‫ جديلة‬jadīla pl. ‫ جدائل‬jadā’il2 braid, plait;
‫ جدارة‬jadāra worthiness; fitness,
suitability, aptitude, qualification; ‫ مَجدال‬mijdāl pl. ‫ مَجادل‬majādil2 flagstone,
appropriateness ashlar; see also above under jaddāl
‫ جدار‬jidār pl. ‫ جدر‬judur, ‫ جدران‬judrān ‫ جدال‬jidāl and ‫ مَجادلة‬mujādala pl. –āt
wall quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion,
debate│ ‫( لَ يقبل الجدال‬yaqbalu)
‫ جدارى‬jidārī mural, wall (adj.)
incontestable, indisputable; ‫ لَ جدال‬lā
‫ جدر‬judira (pass.) and II to have smallpox jidāla and ‫ بل جدال‬bi-lā j. incontestably,
‫ جدرى‬judarī, jadarī smallpox indisputably

‫ مَجدور‬majdūr and ‫ مَجدر‬mujaddar ‫ مَجدول‬majdūl tightly twisted; braided,

infected with smallpox; pock-marked plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress of
hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., leg)
‫ مَجدرة‬mujaddara dish made of rice or
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions and ‫ مَجادل‬mujādil disputant, opponent in
oil (eg., syr.) dispute
‫ جدع‬jada‘a a (jad‘) to cut off, amputate (‫هـ‬ ‫ جدول‬jadwal pl. ‫ جداول‬jadāwil2 creek, brook,
s.th., esp. some part of the body) little stream; column; list, roster; index;
chart, table, schedule│‫( جدول دراسى‬dirāsī)
‫ بجدع الَنف‬bi-jad‘i l-anf (prop., at the curriculum; ‫ جدول البورصة‬stock list, ‫خارج‬
cost of having the nose cut off) at any ‫( جدول البورصة‬ḳārija) not quoted (stock
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved exchange); ‫ جدول الاعمال‬agenda; working
‫ اجدع‬ajda‘ mutilated (by having the plan
nose, or the like cut off) 114 (‫ جدا )جدو‬jadā u to give a present (‫ على‬to s.o.)
□ ‫ جدع‬gada‘ (= ‫ جذع‬jada‘) pl. ‫ جدعان‬gid‘ān IV to give as a present (‫ ب على‬s.o. s.th.),
(eg.) young man, young fellow; heman present (‫ ب على‬s.o. with); to be of use, be
useful, profitable│‫( اجدى نفعا‬naf‘an) to be
‫ جدف‬II to curse, blaspheme (‫ على‬s.o., esp. useful; ‫ هذا لَ يجديك‬that won’t help you, that
God) will be of no use (to you); ‫مَا يجدى عنك هذا‬
‫ تجديف‬tajdīf imprecation, blasphemy do.; ‫( لَ يجدى فتيل‬fatīlan) = ‫ لا يغنى فتيل‬see
2 ‫ فتيل‬X to beg for alms; to implore, beg (‫هـ ه‬
‫ جدف‬jadafa i and II to row (o a boat)
s.o. for s.th.), plead (‫ هـ‬for s.th.)
‫ مَجداف‬mijdāf pl. ‫ مَجادف‬majādif2 oar
‫ جداء‬jadā’ advantage, gain (.r for s.o.)
‫ جدل‬jadala u i (jadl) to twist tight, tighten,
‫ جدوى‬jadwā gift, present; advantage,
stretch (‫ هـ‬a rope); to braid, plait (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
benefit, gain│ ‫( بل جدوى‬bi-lā) and ‫على غير‬
the hair, etc.) II to braid, plait, (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III
‫( جدوى‬gairi) of no avail, useless, futile, in
to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to
argue, debate (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to dispute,
contest (‫ فى‬s.th.) VI to quarrel, have an ‫ اجدى‬ajdā more useful, more
argument; to carry on a dispute advantageous
‫ جدى‬jady pl. ‫ جداء‬jidā’, ‫ جديان‬jidyān kid, young magnetism (fig.); lure, enticement│O ‫جاذبي‬
billy goat; Capricorn (astron.); ‫ الجدى‬the ‫ ة الثقل‬j. ataql gravitational force; ‫جاذبية‬
North Star ‫( مَغنطيسية‬magnaṯisūya) magnetism; ‫جاذبية‬
‫ الجنس‬j. al-jins sex appeal
‫ جذ‬jadda u (jadd) to cut off, clip (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ مَجذوب‬majdūb attracted; possessed,
‫ جذاذة‬jadāda pl. -āt slip of paper; pl. ‫جذاذا‬
maniacal, insane; (pl. ‫ مَجاذب‬majādib2)
‫ ت‬small pieces, shreds, scraps, clippings
maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot│ ‫مَستشفى‬
‫ جذب‬jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ المجاذيب‬mustašfā l-m. mental hospital
attract (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to pull out, draw out,
‫ مَتجاذب‬mutajādib mutually attractive;
whip out (‫ هـ‬s.th.), draw (‫ هـ‬a weapon, or
belonging together, inseparable
the like); to appeal, prove attractive (‫ ه‬to
s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, allure (‫ه‬ ‫ مَنجذب‬munjadib attracted; inclined,
s.o.), win (‫ ه‬s.o.) over (‫ اليه‬to one’s side) III tending (‫ الى‬to)
to contend (‫ ه‬with s.o.) at pulling, tugging, ‫ جذر‬jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tear out by the
etc. (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│115 ‫( جاذبه الحبل‬ḥabla) to vie roots (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II do.; to extract the root (‫هـ‬
with s.o.; (to be able) to compete with s.o., of a number; math.); to take root
measure up to s.o., be a match for s.o.;
‫ جاذبه الكلم‬or ‫ جاذبه حديثا‬or ‫جاذبه اطراف الحديث‬ ‫ جذر‬jidr, jadr pl. ‫ جذور‬judūr root (also
(aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) he engaged him in math.); stem, base, lower end; (pl. ‫اجذار‬
conversation, involved him in a ajdār) stub (of a receipt book, or the
discussion; ‫( جاذبه اطراف الحضارة‬aṯrāfa l- like)│ ‫( جذر تربيعى‬tarbī‘ī) square root
ḥaḍāra) to vie with s.o. in culture VI to (math.)
pull back and forth (‫ ه‬s.o.); to contend ( ,‫ه‬ ‫ جذرى‬jidrī, radical, roct (adj.)
‫ هـ‬for); to attract each other│ ‫تجاذبوا اطراف‬
‫( الحديث‬aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) they were deep in ‫ تجذير‬tajdīr evolution, root extraction
conversstion, they were talking together (math.)
VII to be attracted; to be drawn, gravitate ‫ جذع‬jada‘ pl. ‫ جذع‬jud‘ān young man, young
(JI toward, to) VIII to attract (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هـ‬ fellow (cf. □ ‫ جدع‬gada‘); new, incipient│
s.th., ‫ اليه‬to o.s.; also magn.); to allure, ‫( عادت الحرب جذعة‬ḥarbu, jada‘atan) the
entice (‫ ه‬s.o.); to win (‫ ه‬s.o.) over (‫ اليه‬to war broke out again, started all over again;
one's side); to draw, inhale (‫ هـ‬puffs from a ‫( اعاد الَمَر جذعا‬l-amra) he reopened the
cigarette, etc.) whole affair, he reverted to the earlier
‫ جذب‬jadb attraction; gravitation; appeal, status
lure, enticement, captivation│ ‫ اخذ جذبا‬to ‫ جذع‬jid‘ pl. ‫ اجذاع‬ajdā‘, ‫ جذوع‬judū‘ stem,
wrest away, take away by force; ‫الجذب‬ trunk.; stump, tree stump; torso
‫( الجنسى‬jinsī) sex appeal
‫ جذعى‬jid‘ī truncal
‫ جذاب‬jaddāb attractive; magnetic (fig.);
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching, ‫ جذف‬II to row (‫ هـ‬a boat)
engaging; charming, enticing, captivating, ‫ مَجذاف‬mijdāf pl. ‫ مَجاذف‬majādif2 oar
‫ جذل‬jadala a (jadal) to be happy, gay,
‫ اجذب‬ajdab2 more attractive, more exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy,
captivating gladden, cheer (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ انجذاب‬injidāb attraction, inclination, ‫ جذل‬jidl pl. ‫ اجذال‬ajdāl, ‫ جذول‬judūl stump
pronenesa, tendency (of a tree)
‫ اجتذاب‬ijtidāb attraction; enticement, lure ‫ جذيل‬jadīl wooden post on which camels
‫ جاذب‬jādib attractive; magnetic (fig.); rub themselves
winning, fetubing, engaging; charming, ‫ جذل‬jada1 gaiety, hilarity, exuberance,
enticing, captivating, gripping happiness 116
‫ جاذبية‬jādibīya gravitation; attraction; ‫ جذل‬jadil pl. ‫ جذلان‬judlān gay, hilarious,
attractiveness; charm, fascination; cheerful, in high spirits, exuberant, happy
‫ جذلَن‬jadlān2 gay, hilarious, cheerful, in ‫ مَن جرى‬min jarrā because of│ ‫مَن جراك‬
high spirits, exuberaut, happy because of you, on your account, for your
‫ جذم‬ijdama i (jadm) to out off, chop off (‫هـ‬
s.th., esp. a part of the body); to remove, ‫ مَن جراء‬min jarā’i because of, due to│‫مَن‬
ta.ke out, excise (‫ هـ‬e.g., the tonsils, the ‫ جراء أن‬because
appendix; surg.); pass. judima to be ‫ جرار‬jarrār huge, tremendous (army);
afllicted with leprosy potter; (pl. -āt) tractor; tugboat, steam tug,
‫ جذم‬jidm pl. ‫ جذوم‬judūm, ‫ اجذام‬ajdām root towing launch
‫ جذام‬judām leprosy ‫ جارور‬jārūr pl. ‫ جوارير‬jawārīr2 (syr.)
drawer (of a desk, etc.)
‫ جذامَة‬judāma stubble
‫ جارورة‬jārūra (leb.) rake (tool)
‫ اجذام‬ajdām2 pl. ‫ جذامَى‬jadmā mutilated
(from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut off); ‫ جريرة‬jarīr pl. ‫ جرائر‬jarā’ir2 guilt;
leprous; leper offense, outrage, crime│ ‫ مَن جريرة‬min
jarīrati because of, on account of
‫ مَجذوم‬majdūm leprous; leper
‫ جرارة‬jarrāra pl. -āt a variety of
‫ جذمَور‬judmur stump
scorpion; tractor
‫ جذوة‬jadwa, jidwa, judwa pl. ‫ جذى‬jidan, judan,
‫ مَجر‬mijarr trace, tug (of a harness)
‫ جذاء‬jidā’ firebrand; burning log
‫ مَجرة‬majarra galaxy
‫ جر‬jarra u (jarr) to draw, pull (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
drag, tug, haul (‫ هـ‬s.th.): to tow (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ انجرارية‬injirārīya (eg.) towage charges
trail (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to drag along (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); for watercraft
to draw (‫ على هـ‬s.th. on s.o.), bring (‫ هـ‬s.th.) ‫ مَجرور‬majrūr drawn, dragged, towed,
down (‫ على‬upon s.o.); to lead (‫ الى‬to), etc.; word governed by a preposition,
bring on, cause (‫ الى‬s.th.); to entail (‫ هـ‬e.g., word in the genitive form; (pl. ‫مَجارير‬
some evil, ‫ على‬for s.o.); (gram.) to magārir2) drain, sewer (eg.); ‫مَجارير‬
pronounce the final consonant with i, put sewers, sewage system (eg.)
(a word) into tho genitive│‫جر جريرة‬
(jarīratan) to commit an outrage, a crime ( ‫ مَجتر‬mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.)
‫ على‬against s.o.); ‫( جر قيودا‬quyūdan) to be ‫ جرؤ‬jaru’a u (‫ جرأة‬jur’a, ‫ جراءة‬jarā’a) to dare,
in shackles, go shackled; ‫جر النار الى قرصه‬ venture, risk, hazard (‫ على‬s.th.), take the
(qurṣihī) to secure advantages for o.s., risk (‫ على‬of, ‫ ان‬of doing s.th.), have the
feather one’s nest; ‫لَ يجر لسانه بكلمة‬ 117 courage (‫ على‬for s.th.) II to encourage
(lisānahū bi-kalima) he won’t let a word (‫ على ه‬s.o. to s.th.) V to dare, venture, risk.
escape his lips IV to ruminate VII passive hazard (‫ على‬s.th.) VIII to be venturesome,
of I; to be driven; to be swept along, drift, be daring; to become bold, make bold (‫على‬
float│ ‫( انجر الى الوراء‬warā’i) to withdraw, with s.o.); to venture (‫ على‬s.th. or upon
fall back, give way VIII to ruminate│ ‫اجتر‬ s.th.), have the audacity (‫ على‬to do s.th.)
‫( آلَمَه‬ālāmahū) to mull over one’s grief
‫ جرئ‬jarī’ pl. ‫ اجرياء‬ajriyā’2 bold,
‫ جر‬jarr pull(ing), drawing, draft.; courageous (‫ على‬,‫ ب‬in s.th.); forward,
traction, drag(ging), tugging, towage, immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, fool-
hauling; bringing on, causing; genitive│ bardy
‫ حرف الجر‬ḥarf al-j. (gram.) preposition;
‫ وهلم جرا‬wa-halumma jarran and so forth ‫ جرأة‬jur’a and ‫ جراءة‬jarā’a courage,
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence
‫ جرة‬jarra pl. ‫ جرار‬jirār (earthenware) jar
‫ مَجترئ‬mujtari’ bold, forward
‫ جرة‬jarra, jurra trail, track; rut (left by a
wagon)│ ‫ بجرة قلم‬bi-j. qalam with one ‫( جراج‬Fr.) garāž pl. -āt garage (eg.)
stroke of the pen ‫ جرام‬grām gram (eg.)
‫ جرة‬jirra cud (of a ruminant) ‫ جرانيت‬granīt granite (eg.)
‫ جرانيتى‬granītī granitic (eg.) ‫ جربوع‬jarbū‘ (= ‫ )يربوع‬pl. ‫ جرابيع‬jarābī‘2 jerboa
2 ‫ جربندية‬jarabandīya (and ‫ )جرابندية‬knapsack,
‫ جرب‬jariba a (jarab) to be mangy; (eg.) to
fade (color) II to test (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to try, try
out, essay (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to sample (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ جرثوم‬jurtūm, ‫ جرثومَة‬jurtūma pl. ‫ جراثيم‬jarātīm2
rehearse, practice (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to attempt (‫هـ‬ root; origin; germ; microbe, bacillus,
s.th.); to put to the test, try, tempt (‫هـ‬ bacterium│ ‫ تحت الجرثوم‬taḥt al-j.
s.o.)│ ‫ جرب نفسه فى‬to try one’s hand at; ‫جر‬ inframicrobe
‫( ب الَيام‬ayyāma) to gather experience ‫ جراج‬look up alphabetically
‫ جرب‬jarab mange; itch, scabies ‫ جرجر‬jarjara (‫ جرجرة‬jarjara) to gargle; to jerk
‫ جرب‬jarib mangy; scabby or pull back and forth; to trail, drag (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to tow away (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫جرجر خطاه‬
‫ اجرب‬ajrab2, f. ‫ جرباء‬jarbā’2, pl. ‫جرب‬
(ḳuṯāhū) to drag one’s feet, shuffle along
jurb and ‫ جربان‬jarbān2 mangy; scabby
II tajarjara pass. and refl. of I
‫ جراب‬jirāb pl. ‫ اجربة‬ajriba, ‫جرب‬jurub
‫ جرجرة‬jarara gargling; rombling noise;
sack, bag, traveling bag; knapsack;
rumble, clatter (of a wagon)
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scabbard
(for the sword) ‫ جرجر‬jirjir (large, thick) beans
‫ جراب‬jurāb pl. -āt stocking, sock ‫ جرجير‬jirjīr watercress (eg., syr.) 118
‫ جريب‬jarīb a patch of arable land ‫ جرح‬jaraḥa a (jarḥ to wound (‫ ه‬s.o.); to injure,
2 hurt (‫ ه‬s.o.; also fig., the feelings) II to
‫ تجربة‬tajriba pl. ‫ تجارب‬tajārib trial, test;
invalidate (‫ هـ‬teatimony), challenge,
tryout; attempt; practice, rehearsal;
declare unreliahle (‫ ه‬a witness), take
scientific test, experiment; probation; trial,
formal exception (‫ هـ‬,‫ ه‬to) VIII to commit (
tribulation; temptation; experience,
‫ هـ‬an outrage, a crime)│ ‫اجترح السيآت‬
practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also
(sayyi’āt) to do evil things
‫( تجربة مَطبعية‬maṯba‘īya)
‫ جرح‬jurḥ pl. ‫ جراح‬jirāḥ, ‫ جروح‬jurūḥ, ‫جرو‬
‫ تجريب‬tajrīb trial, test(ing); trial,
‫ حات‬jurūḥāt, ‫ اجراح‬ajrāḥ wound, injury,
tribulation; temptation
‫ تجريبى‬tajrībī trial, test (adj.);
‫ جراح‬jarrāḥ pl. -ūn surgeon│‫جراح الَسنان‬
experimental; based on experience,
dental surgeon
empirical│‫‘( علم النفس التجريبى‬ilm an-nafs)
experimental psychology ‫ جراحة‬jirāḥa surgery
O ‫ تجريبية‬tajrībīya empiricism (philos.) ‫ جراحى‬jirāḥī surgical│ ‫عملية جراحية‬
(‘amalīya) surgical operation
‫ مَجرب‬mujarrib experimental; tester;
examiner; tempter ‫ جريح‬jarīḥ pl. ‫ جرحى‬jarḥā wounded,
injured, hurt
‫ مَجرب‬mujarrab tried, tested; proven or
establisbed by experience, time-tested, ‫ تجريح‬tajrīḥ surgery; defamation,
time-tried; experienced, practiced, disparagement
seasoned; man of experience ‫ جارح‬jarīḥ injuring; wounding, stinging,
‫ جورب‬look up alphabeticaUy painful, hurting; rapacious (beast),
‫ جربذة‬jarbada = ‫جربزة‬
‫ جارحة‬jāriḥa pl. ‫ جوارح‬jawāriḥ2
‫ جربز‬jurbuz pl. ‫ جرابزة‬jarābiza impostor,
predatory animal or bird│ ‫ جوارح الطير‬j.
confidence man, swindler
aṯ-ṯair predatory birds
‫ جربزة‬jarbaza (also ‫ )جربذة‬deception,
‫ جوارح‬jawāriḥ2 limbes, extremities (of
the hody)│ ‫ بكل جوارحه‬with might and
main, with all his strength
‫ مَجروح‬majrūḥ pl. ‫ مَجاريح‬majārīḥ2 ‫ مَجرد‬mijrad pl. ‫ مَجارد‬majārid2 scraper
wounded, injured, hurt ‫ تجريد‬tajrīd peeling. paring;
‫ جرد‬jarada u (jard) to peel, pare (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disrobement, stripping; denudation;
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (‫ هـ‬of deprivation; divestment; disarmament;
s.th.); to denude, diveet, strip, bare (‫هـ‬ dispatching (of troops); freeing; isolation;
s.th.); (com.) to take stock; to make an abstraction│‫ تجريد مَن السلح‬disarmament
inventory (‫ البضائع‬of goods on hand) II to 119
peel, pare (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to remove the shell, ‫ تجريدة‬tajrīda pl. -āt ‫ تجاريد‬tajārīd2
peel, rind or husk (‫ هـ‬of s.th.); to denude, military detachment, expeditionary force
divest, strip, dispossess, deprive (‫ مَن هـ‬or ‫ه‬
s.o. or s.th. of); to withhold (‫ مَن ه‬from s.o. ‫ تجرد‬tajarrud freedom (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬from);
s.th.); to draw, unsheathe (‫ السيف‬the isolatedness, isolation; independence,
sword); to unleash (‫ على هـ‬s.th. against impartiality; absoluteness; abstractness,
s.o.); to send, dispatch (‫ هـ‬a military abstraction
detachment, troops, ‫ ضد‬or ‫ على‬against ‫ مَجرد‬mujarrad denuded, bare, naked;
s.o.); to free (‫ مَن هـ‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. from); freed, free (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬from); pure, mere,
to isolate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to abstract (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to nothing more than; sole; very, absolute;
divest (‫ مَن‬ss.o. of his citizenship, of a abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem of
rank, of a vested right, etc.)│ ‫جرده مَن‬ tbe verb (gram.)│with foll. noun in
‫ السلح‬to disarm s.o.; ‫ جرد نفسه مَن‬to free o.s. genitive = mere, sheer, nothing but:) ‫مَجرد‬
from, rid o.s. of, give up s.th. V pass. of II; ‫ لهو‬mujarradu lahwin mere play, just fun;
to strip o.s., rid o.s., get rid (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬of), ‫ بالعين المجردة‬with the naked eye; ‫بمجرد مَا‬
free o.s. (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬from); to be free (‫ مَن‬or bi-mujarradi mā as soon as, at the very
‫ عن‬from, ‫ ل‬for a task); to devote o.s. moment when
exclusively (‫ ل‬to s.th.); to give up,
renounce (‫ مَن‬or ‫ عن‬s.th.); to isolate o.s. ; ‫ جردل‬jardal pl. ‫ جرادل‬jaradil2 bucket, pail
to be absolute ‫ جرذ‬jurad pl. ‫ جرذان‬jirdān, jurdān large rat
‫ جرد‬jard bare, threadbare, shabby, worn; ‫ جرذون‬jirdaun pl. ‫ جراذين‬jarādīn2 large
(com.) inventory; stocktaking rat
‫ جريد‬jarīd without vegetation, barren, 1
‫ جرس‬jarasa i (jars) to ring, toll, knell,
bleak, stark (landscape) (re)sound II to make experienced, inure by
‫ اجراد‬ajrād2, f. ‫ جرداء‬jardā’2, pl. ‫ جرد‬jurd severe trials, sorely try (‫ ه‬s.o.; time,
desolate, bleak, without vegetation; events); to compromise, disgrace,
hairless, bald; threadbare shabby, worn discredit, expose, bring into dierepute (‫ب‬
(garment); open, unprotected (border) s.o.)
‫ جراد‬jarād (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬locust(s)│ ‫جراد‬ ‫ جرس‬jars, jirs sound, tone
‫( الرحال‬raḥḥāl) migratory locust(s); ‫جراد‬ ‫ جرس‬jaras pl. ‫ اجراس‬ajrās bell
‫ البحر‬j. al-baḥr langouste, sea cray-fish; ‫بج‬
‫ رادها‬bi-jarādihā in its entirety ‫ جرسة‬jursa defamation, public exposure;
scandal, disgrac
‫ جريد‬jarīd palm branches stripped of 2
their leaves; jeered, a blunt javelin used in ‫ جرساية‬jirsāya, ‫ جرسية‬jirsīya pl. -āt jersey,
equestrian games woolen sweater; ‫ جرسى‬jersey cloth

‫ جريدة‬jarīda pl. ‫ جرائد‬jarā’id2 (n. un. of ‫ جرش‬jaraša u (jarš) to crush (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to grate,
‫ )جريد‬palm-leaf stalk; list, register, roster, bruise, grind (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
index; newspaper│‫( جريدة يومَية‬yaumīya) ‫ جرش‬jarš a grating, scraping noise
daily newspaper; ‫ جرائد المساء‬j. al-masā’
‫ جريش‬jarīš crushed, bruised, coarsely
the evening papers; ‫ الجريدة الناطقة‬and ‫الجريدة‬
ground; crushed grain; grits
‫ السينمائية‬tho newsreel
‫ جاروشة‬jārūša pl. ‫ جوارش‬jawarīš2 quern,
‫ اجرودى‬ajrūdī (syr.) beardless, hairless
hand mill (for grinding grain)
‫ جرض‬jaraḍa a (jaraḍ): ‫( جرض بريقه‬bi-rīqihī) ‫ الى‬against s.o.), injure, harm, wrong (‫على‬
he choked on his saliva, could not or ‫ الى‬s.o.) II to incriminate, charge with a
swallow his saliva (because of excitement, crime (‫ ه‬s.o.; syr.) IV to commit a crime, to
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, in a sin (‫ على‬or ‫ الى‬against s.o.), do wrong (‫على‬
atate of great agitation, deeply moved; -- or ‫ الى‬to s.o.), harm, wrong (‫ على‬or ‫ الى‬s.o.)
jaraḍa u (jarḍ) to choke, sulfocate (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII = IV
IV ‫( اجرضه بريقه‬cf. I) to alarm s.o., fill s.o. ‫ جرم‬garm pl. ‫ جروم‬gurūm (eg.) long, flat-
with apprehension bottomed sarge, lighter (naut.)
‫ جريض‬jarīḍ: ‫ حال الجريض دون القريض‬ḥāla ‫ جرم‬jirm pl. ‫ اجرام‬ajrām, ‫ جرم‬jurum body;
l.j. dūna l-qarīḍ (proverb; lit.: choking mass, sulk, volume (of a body)│ ‫الَجرام‬
prevented poetry, i.e.) in the face of death ‫( الفلكية‬falakīya) the celestial bodies
one does not think of rhyming (among
other interpretations) ‫ جرم‬iunn pl. ‫ اجرام‬ajrām, ‫ جروم‬jurūm
offense, crime, sin
‫ جرع‬jara‘a a (jar‘) and jari‘a a (jara‘) to
swallow, gulp, devour (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to pour ‫ لَ جرم‬lā jarama surely, certainly, of
down, toss down (‫ هـ‬a drink) II to make (‫ه‬ course
s.o.) swallow (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to gulp down V to ‫ جريم‬jarīm hulking, bulky, huge,
drink (‫ هـ‬s.th.) VIII to swallow, gulp down voluminous, of great size
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جريمة‬jarīma pl. ‫ جرائم‬jarā’im2 crime;
‫ جرعة‬jur‘a, jar‘a pl. ‫ جرع‬jura‘, -āt gulp, offense; sin│( ‫عظمى‬or) ‫جريمة كبرى‬
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.) (kubrā, uẓma) capital offense; ‫قانون الجرائم‬
‫ جرف‬jarafa u (jarf) and VIII to sweep away (‫هـ‬ penal code
s.th.); to wash away (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to shovel ‫ اجرام‬ijrām crime; culpability,
away (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to remove (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to tear delinquency
away, carry off (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to carry along (‫هـ‬
or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th.) VII to be swept away, be ‫ اجرامَى‬ijrāmī criminal
carried away ‫ لحم مَجروم‬laḥm majrūm fillet (meat)
‫ جرف‬jurf, juruf pl. ‫ جروف‬jurūf, ‫اجراف‬ ‫ سنة مَجرمَة‬sana mujarrama an entire year
ajrāf undercut bank or shore; clilf, steep
slope, precipice; bluff (along a river or ‫ مَجرم‬mujrim criminal; (pl. -ūn) a
coast)│ ‫( جرف جليدي‬jalīdī) avalanche criminal; evildoer, culprit, delinquent│‫مَجر‬
‫ م عائد‬recidivous criminal
‫ جرافة‬jarrāfa pl. -āt, ‫ جراريف‬jarārīf 2
rake; harrow ‫ جرامَز‬jarāmiz2 and ‫ جرامَيز‬jarāmīz2
limbs, legs│ ‫( ضم جرامَيزه‬ḍamma) he beat
‫ مَجرف‬majraf pl. ‫ مَجارف‬majārif2 it, he made off
torrent, .trong current
‫ الجرمَان‬al-jarmān the Germanic tribes, the
‫ مَجرفة‬mijrafa shovel, scoop; (syr.) Teutons
mattock; trowel
‫ جرمَانى‬jarmānī Germanic, Teutonic
‫ مَجراف‬mijrāf pl. ‫ مَجارف‬majārīf2 shovel, 1
scoop ‫ جرن‬jurn pl. ‫ اجران‬ajrān (stone) basin; mortar;
(eg.) threshing floor, barn│ ‫ جرن المعمودية‬j.
‫ جارف‬jārif torrential (stream, mountain al-ma‘mūdīya baptismal font
creek); stormy, violent (emotions, 2
passions) 120 ‫ جران‬jirān the front part of a camel’s neck│
‫ ضرب بجرانه‬to become established, take
‫ الجركس‬al-jarkas the Circassians root; ‫( القى عليه جرانه‬alqā, jirānahū) to
‫ جركسى‬jarkasī pl. ‫ جراكسة‬jarākisa apply o.s. to s.th. and adjust to it,
circassian (adj. and n.) accustom o.s. to s.th.
‫ جرم‬jarama i (jarm) to sone (‫ الحم‬al-laḥma the ‫ جرنال‬jurnāl (eg. also gurnāl) pl. ‫ جرانيل‬žarānīl2
meat); -- to commit an offense, a crime, an (eg., garānīl2) journal, newspaper,
outrage (‫ على‬or ‫ الى‬against s.o.), sin (‫ على‬or periodical
‫ جرانيت‬granīt granite motion (‫ هـ‬a project), launch (‫ هـ‬an
undertaking); to channel (‫ على‬or ‫ ل هـ‬s.th.
‫ جرانيتى‬grānītī granitic
to), bestow, settle (‫ على‬or ‫ ل هـ‬s.th. upon
‫ جرو‬jarw (jirw, jurw) pl. ‫ اجر‬ajrin, ‫ جراء‬jirā’, ‫اج‬ s.o.); to impose, inflict (‫ على هـ‬s.th., a
‫ راء‬ajrā’, ‫ اجرية‬ajriya puppy, whelp, cub penalty, on s.o.)│ ‫( اجرى تجربة‬tajribatan)
(of a dog or beast of prey) to carry out an experiment; ‫ اجرى تحقيقا‬to
‫ جروسة‬grōsa gross (= 12 dozen) conduct an investigation; ‫اجرى له اعانة‬
(i‘ānatan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; ‫اجراه‬
‫ جرى‬jarā i (jary) to flow, stream (water); to ‫( مَجرى‬majrā, with foll. genitive) to treat
run; to hurry, rush; to slow (wind); to take s.th. in the same manner as, put s.th. on
place, come to pass, happen, occur; to be equal footing with
under way, be in progress, be going on
(work); to befall (‫ ل‬s.o.), happen (‫ ل‬to); to ‫ جرى‬jary course│‫ جريا على‬jaryan ‘alā in
be in circulation, circulate, be current; to accordance with, according to
wend one’s way (‫ الى‬to), head (‫ على‬for); to ‫ جراك‬min jarāka and min jarā’ika
proceed (‫ على‬in accordance with); to because of you, on your account, for your
follow (‫ مَع‬s.th.), yield, give way (‫ مَع‬to, sake
e.g., to a desire); to entail (‫ ب‬s.th.); (with
‫ جراء‬jarrā’ runner, racer
‫ )وراء‬to run or be after s.th., seek to get
s.th.│ ‫جرى له حديث مَع‬he had a talk with; ‫ جراية‬jirāya pl. -āt daily (food) rations;
‫( جرى مَجراه‬majrāhū) to take the same pay, salary│‫‘ عيش جراية‬ēš girāya (eg.)
course as, be analogous to, follow the coarse bread
same way as, proceed or act in the same ‫ جريان‬jarayāan flow, flux; course;
manner as; ‫( جرى مَنه الشيء مَجرى الدم‬minhu stream
š-šai’u majrā d-dam) it had become
second nature to him; ‫جرى على الالسن‬ ‫ مَجرى‬majra.. pl. ‫ مَجار‬majārin
(alsun) to circulate, make the rounds watercourse, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent
(rumor); 121 ‫ جرى على كل لسان‬to be on or flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel;
everyone’s lip; ‫( جرى على قلمه‬qalamihī) to drain, sewer, pl. sewers, sewage system;
come to s.o.’s pen (e.g, a poem); ‫جرى على‬ power line (el.); current (el.); current (of a
‫( خطة‬ḳiṯṯa) to follow a plan; ‫مَا يجرى عليه‬ stream); guide rail (tech.); course (of
‫‘( العمل‬amalu) the way things are handled, events), progress, passage│‫ مَجرى البول‬m.
what is customary practice; ‫ جرى به العمل‬to l-baul urethra (anat.); ‫ مَجارى التنفس‬m. t-
be in force, be valid, be commonly tanaffus respiratory tract (anat.); ‫مَجرى‬
observed (law, custom); ‫ جرت العادة ب‬to be ‫ الهواء‬m. l-hawā’ air stream, current of air,
customary, be common practice, be a draft; ‫ اخذ مَجراه‬to take its course; See also
common phenomenon, have gained ‫ جرى‬I and IV
vogue; ‫ جرى بالعادة على‬to do s.th. ‫ مَاجريات‬mājarayāt, mājariyāt (pl. of ‫مَا‬
customarily, se in the habit of doing s.th.; ‫( )جرى‬course of) events, happenings
‫ جرت بذلك عادتهم‬that was their habit II to
cause to run│‫( جرى ريقه‬rīqahū) to make ‫ مَجاراة‬mujārāh keeping up (with foll.
s.o.’s mouth water III to concur, agree, be genitive: with); conformity (with foll.
in agreement (‫ ه‬with s.o., ‫ فى‬in s.th.); to genitive: with)│ ‫ مَجاراة ل‬mujārātan li in
keep pace, keep up (‫ ه‬with s.o.; also conformity with, in accordance with,
intellectually); to be able to follow (‫ ه‬s.o.); according to
to go (along) (‫ هـ‬with); to adapt o.s. adjust, ‫ اجراء‬ijrā’ pl. -āt performance (of an
conform (‫ هـ‬to), be guided (‫ هـ‬by) IV to action); execution; enforcement; pl.
cause to flow, make flow (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to measures, steps, proceedings│ ‫اتخذ اجراءات‬
cause to run, set running (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); (ittaḳada) to take measures; ‫اجراءات قانونية‬
to make (‫ هـ‬s.th.) take place or happen, (qānūnīya) legal step, proceedings at law
bring about (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to carry out, execute,
enforce, put into effect, apply (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ جار‬jārin flowing, streaming, running;
e.g., rules, regulations); to carry out, circulating; current, present│ ‫الشهر الجارى‬
perform (‫ هـ‬an action); to Set going, set in (šahr) the current month
‫ جارية‬jāriya pl. –āt, ‫ جوار‬jawārin girl; ‫ جزر‬jazara u (jazr) to slaughter; to kill,
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel butcher (‫ هـ‬an animal); -- i u (jazr) to sink,
fall, drop, ebb (water)
‫ جز‬jazza u (jazz) to cut off, clip (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
shear, shear off (‫ هـ‬s.th.; esp. the wool of ‫ جزر‬jazr slaughter; butchering; ebb (of
sheep) the sea)
‫ جزة‬jizza pl. ‫ جزز‬jizaz, ‫ جزائز‬jazā’iz2 ‫ جزرة‬jazra blood sacrifice
shorn wool, fleece, slip ‫ جزور‬jazūr pl. ‫ جزر‬juzur slaughter camel
‫ جزازة‬juzāza pl. -āt slip of paper; label, ‫ جزار‬jazzār pl. ‫ة‬, -ūn butcher
‫ جزيرة‬jazīra pl. ‫ جزائر‬jazā’ir2, ‫ جزر‬juzur
‫ جزاز‬jazzāz pl. –ūn shearer, woolshearer island│ ‫ شبه جزيرة‬šibhu j. peninsula; ‫الجزيرة‬
‫ مَجز‬mijazz woolshears 122 Al Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopotemia; ‫الجزائ‬
‫ ر‬Algeria; Algiers; ‫ جزيرة العرب‬j. al-‘arab
‫ جزأ‬jaza’a a and VIII to be content, content
Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula; ‫الجزائر‬
o.s. (‫ ب‬with) II to divide, part, separate,
‫( الخالدات‬ḳālidāt) the Canary Islands; ‫الجزيرة‬
break up, cut up, partition (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to
‫( الخضراء‬ḳaḍrā’) Algeciras (seaport in SW
divide, break up, be or become divided; to
be separated, be detached, be partitioned
off; to be divisible, separable (‫ عن‬from) ‫ جزرى‬jazarī insular; (pl. -ūn) islander
‫ جزء‬juz’ pl. ‫ اجزاء‬ajzā’ part, portion; ‫ جزائرى‬jazā’rī pl. -ūn Algerian (adj. and
constituent, component; fraction; division; n.); islander
section; the 30th part of the Koran (= 2 ‫ مَجزر‬majzar pl. ‫ مَجازر‬majāzir2
ḥizb) slaughterhouse, abattoir; butchery
‫ جزئى‬juz’ī partial; minor, trivial, ‫ مَجزرة‬majzara pl. ‫ مَجازر‬majāzir2
insignificant, unimportant; (jur.) minor, butchery; massacre, carnage
petty; ‫ جزئيا‬juz’īyan partly; ‫ جزئيات‬juz’īyāt
details, particulars; trivialities; subordinate ‫جزر‬jazar (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬carrot(s)
partly; divisions, sections (e.g., of a court ‫ جزع‬jazi‘a a (jaza‘, ‫ جزع‬juzū‘) to be or become
of justice)│ ‫( مَواد جزئية‬mawādd) petty anxious, worried, concerned; to be sad,
cases (jur.); ‫( جنح جزئية‬junaḥ) summary unhappy (‫ مَن‬about); to feel regret (‫ على‬for
delicts (jur.); ‫ مَحاكم جزئية‬courts of s.o.), pity (‫ على‬s.o.); to mourn (j. for s.o.)
summary justice; ‫( نيابة جزئية‬niyāba) V to break apart, break, snap
parquet of a summary court; ‫حادثة جزئية‬
minor incident; ‫( تسوية جزئية‬taswiya) part ‫ جزع‬jaz‘ onyx
payment; ‫( الجزئيات والكليات‬kullīyāt) the ‫ جزع‬juz’ axle; shaft (techn.)
particular and general aspects, the minor
and the major issues ‫ جزع‬jaza‘ anxiety, uneasiness,
apprehension, concern; anguish, fear;
‫ جزيء‬juzai’ pl. -āt molecule sadness
‫ اجزائى‬ajzā’ī pl. -ūn pharmacist, druggist ‫ جزع‬jazi‘ restless, impatient; anxious,
‫ اجزاجى‬ajzājī pl. -īya pharmacist, worried, uneasy, apprehensive
druggist ‫ جزع‬jazū‘ and ‫ جازع‬jāzi‘ restless;
‫ اجزائية‬ajzā’īya and ‫ اجزاخانة‬ajzāḳāna pl. impatient; anxious, worried, uneasy,
-āt pharmacy, drugstore apprehensive
‫ تجزئة‬tajzi’a division; partition; ‫ مَجزع‬mujazza‘ marbled, veined;
separation; dissociation; breakdown (into variegated, dappled 123
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation│ ‫ جزف‬III to act at random, blindly,
‫ قابل للتجزئة‬divisisle; ‫ قابلية التجزئة‬divisibility; Indiscriminately, take a chance; to
‫ تاجر التجزئة‬retailer, retail merchant speculate (fin.); to speak vaguely, in
‫ جزدان‬juzdān, jidān pl. -āt wallet; change purse general terms; to risk, stake (‫ ب‬s.th.)│ ‫جاز‬
‫ ف بنفسه‬to risk one’s life; ‫ جازف به فى‬to (pl. ‫ جوازم‬jawāzim2) governing the
plunge s.o. into (some adventure) apocopate form (gram.)
‫ جزاف‬juzāf purchase of a certain amount ‫ مَجزوم‬majzūm cut off. cut short, clipped;
of things (Isl. Law); ‫ جزافا‬juzāfan at decided. settled; (gram.) vowelless (final
random, haphazardly consonant); in the apocopate form
‫ مَجازفة‬mujāzafa rashness, recklessness, ‫ مَنجزم‬munjazim (gram.) in the apocopate
foolhardiness; risk, hazard; adventure, form
venture 2
‫ جزمَة‬jazma pl. –āt, ‫ جزم‬jizam (pair of) shoes
‫ مَجازف‬mujāzif rash, reckless, foolhardy; (pair of) boots│ ‫( جزمَة برباط‬bi-ribāṯ) laced
adventurous; venturesome soots; ‫( جزمَة لماعة‬lammā‘a) patent-leather
2 shoes
‫ جزل‬jazūla u to be considerable, abundant,
plentiful IV ‫‘( اجزل له العطاء‬aṯā’) to give ‫ جزمَجى‬gazmagī (eg.) and ‫جزمَاتى‬
generously, openhandedly, liberally to s.o. gizamātī (eg.), jazmātī (syr.) pl. -īya
VIII to write shorthand shoemaker
‫ جزل‬jazl and ‫ جزيل‬jazīl pl. ‫ جزال‬jizāl ‫ جزى‬jazā i (‫ جزاء‬iazii') to requite, recompense (
abundant, plentiful, ample, much; pure, ‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ على‬for), repay (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫ ب‬or
lucid, eloquent (style)│ ‫ جزل الرأي‬of ‫ على‬s.th.); to reward (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ على‬for);
sound, unerring judgment; ‫شكره شكرا جزيلا‬ to punish (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ على‬for); to satisfy (‫ه‬
šakarahū šukran jazīlan he thanked him s.o.), give satisfaction (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
profusely; ‫ شكرا جزيل‬many thanks! compensate, make up (‫ ب هـ‬for s.th. with
or by); to compensate, offset (‫ عن‬s.th.)│
‫ جزل‬jizla piece, slice
‫( جزاك ا خيرا‬ḳairan) may God bless you
‫ جزالة‬jazāla profusion, abundance; for it!; ‫( جزاه جزاء سنمار‬jazā’a sinimmāra)
(rhet.) purity (of style) he returned to him good for evil III to
‫ مَجتزل‬mujtazil stenographer repay, requite (‫ ب هـ‬s.th. with, ‫ ب ه‬s.o. for),
recompense (‫ ب ه‬s.o. for); to reward (‫على‬
‫ جوزل‬look up alphabetically or ‫ ب ه‬s.o. for); to punish (‫ على‬or ‫ ب ه‬s.o.
‫جزلَن‬juzlān = ‫جزدان‬ for)│ ‫( جزاهم خيرا‬ḳairan) he invoked God’s
reward upon them IV to suffice (‫ ه‬s.o.), do
‫ جزم‬jawma i (jazm) to cut off, cut short, clip ( for s.o. (‫ ;)ه‬to take the place, serve instead
‫ هـ‬s.th.); to judge; to decide. Settle (‫هـ‬ (‫ عن‬of), replace (‫ عن‬s.th.)
s.th.); to be positive (‫ ب‬about), be
absolutely certain (‫ ب‬of s.th.); to assert ‫ جزاء‬jazā’ requital, repayment;
authoritatively (‫ ب‬s.th.); to make up one's recompense, return; compensation, setoff;
mind, decide, resolve (‫ على‬to do s.th.); to 124 amends, reparation; punishment,
impose, make incumbent (‫ على هـ‬s.th. on penalty│ ‫( جزاء نقدي‬naqdī) fine
s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the final ‫ جزائى‬jazā’ī penal
consonant (of a word) without a vowel; to
put (‫ هـ‬a verb) into the apocopate form or ‫ جزية‬jizya pl. ‫ جزى‬jizan, ‫ جزاء‬jizā’ tax;
the imperative tribute; head tax on free non-Muslims
under Muslim rule
‫ جزم‬jazm cutting off, clipping; decision;
resolution, resolve; apodictic judgment; ‫ تجزية‬tajziya reward
(gram.) apocopate form│ ‫علمَة الجزم‬ ‫ مَجازاة‬mujāzāh requital, repayment;
‘alāmat al-j. = jazma punishment
‫ جزمَة‬jazma diacritical mark (o) ‫ جس‬jassa u (jass, ‫ مَجسة‬majassa) to touch, feel,
indicating vowellessness of a final handle (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to palpate, examine by
consonant touch (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to test, sound, probe (‫هـ‬
‫ جازم‬jāzim decisive; peremptory, s.th.); to try to gain information (‫ هـ‬about),
definite, definitive, final; firmly try to find out (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to spy out (‫هـ‬
convinced, absolutely certain (‫ ب‬of s.th.); s.th.)│ ‫( جس نبضه‬nabḍahū) to feel s.o.’s
pulse, (fig.) ‫ جس نبض الشيء‬to probe, sound
out, try to find out s.th. V to try to gain s.th.) VI to dare, venture, risk (‫ على‬s.th.),
information (‫ هـ‬about), try to find out (‫هـ‬ have the audacity (‫ على‬to do s.th.); to be
s.th.); to reconnoiter, scout, explore (‫هـ‬ sold, forward, insolent, impudent (‫على‬
s.th.); to be a spy, engage in espionage; to with s.o.) VIII to span, cross, traverse (‫هـ‬
spy, pry, snoop (‫ على‬on s.o.)│ ‫تجسس له‬ s.th.)
‫( اخبارا‬aḳbāran) to gather information for ‫ جسر‬jisr pl. ‫ اجسر‬ajsur, ‫ جسور‬jusūr
s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to touch, feel, handle bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; --
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to spy out (‫ هـ‬s.th.) (pl. ‫ جسورة‬jusūra) beam, girder; axle,
‫ جس‬jass: ‫ طرى الجس‬ṯarīy al-j. delicate to axletree│ ‫( جسر مَتحرك‬muḥarrik) movable
the touch, having a tender surface, fresh bridge; ‫( جسر مَعلق‬mu‘allaq) suspension
bridge; ‫ جسر عائم‬pontoon bridge, floating
‫ جاسوس‬jāsūs pl. ‫ جواسيس‬jawāsīs2 spy
‫ جاسوسة‬jāsūsa woman spy
‫ جسور‬jasār sold, daring; forward,
‫ جاسوسى‬jāsūsī of espionage, spy- (in insolent, impudent
‫ جسارة‬jasāra boldness, recklessness,
‫ جاسوسية‬jāsūsīya spying, espionage intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
‫ جوسسة‬jausasa spying, espionage ‫ تجاسر‬tajāsur boldness, recklessness,
‫ مَجس‬majass spot which one touches or intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
feels; sense of touch│ ‫ خشن المجس‬ḳašin al- ‫ مَتجاسر‬mutajāsir bold, daring; forward,
m. coarse to the touch, having a rough insolent, impudent 125
‫ جسطن‬see ‫جصطن‬
‫ مَجس‬mijass probe (med.)
‫ جسم‬jasuma u (‫ جسامَة‬jasāma) to be great. Big,
‫ تجسس‬tajassus spying, espionage large. bulky. huge. immense II to make
‫ جاسئ‬jāsi’ hard, rough, rugged corporeal. invest with a body (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
give (‫ هـ‬s.th.) shape or form; to materialize
‫ جسد‬II to make corporeal, invest with a body, (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to cause to stand out. bring out (
embody, incarnate (‫ هـ‬s.th.), give concrete ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to enlarge, magnify (‫ هـ‬s.th.; e.g.,
form (‫ هـ‬to s.th.); to render or represent in microscope); to make big, bulky, huge (‫هـ‬
corporeal form (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to become s.th.); to play up, exaggerate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to
corporeal, assume concrete form, become corporeal, become embodied; to
materialize; to become incarnate (Chr.); to materialize; to assume a form, take shape,
become three-dimensional become tangible or concrete; to be
‫ جسد‬jasad pl. ‫ اجساد‬ajsād body│ ‫عيد الجسد‬ materialized; to become big, large, huge,
‘īd al-j. and ‫ خميس الجسد‬Corpus Christi Day increase in volume, grow in size
(Chr.) ‫ جسم‬pl. ‫ اجسام‬ajsām, ‫ جسوم‬jusūm body
‫ جسدى‬jasadī bodily, fleshly, carnal (also O of an automobile); substance,
matter; mass; form, shape
‫ جسدانى‬jusdānī bodily
‫ جسمى‬iiaa1 bodily, physical; substantial,
‫ تجسد‬taia.snul materialization; incar· material
nation (OM.) ‫ جسيم‬jasīm pl. ‫ جسام‬great, big, large;
‫ مَجسد‬mujassad embodied, corporified voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, immense;
stout, corpulent; weighty, most significant,
‫ مَتجسد‬mutajassid corporeal; incarnate
momentous, prodigious
‫ جسيم‬jusaim pl. -āt particle (phys.);
‫ جسر‬jasara u to span, cross, traverse (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
corpuscle (biol.)
(‫ جسارة‬jasāra, ‫ جسور‬jusūr) to venture, risk
(‫ على‬s.th.), have the courage (‫ على‬to do ‫ اجسم‬ajsam2 more voluminous, larger;
s.th.) II to build a dam or dike; to stouter, more corpulent
embolden, encourage (‫ هـ‬s.o., ‫ على‬to do
‫ جسم‬jasāma size, volume; stoutness, ‫ جصطن‬II tajaṣṯana to lounge, stretch lazily, loll
corpulence ‫ جعة‬ji‘a beer
‫ جسمان‬jusmān body, mass ‫ جعب‬II to corrugate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جسمانى‬jusmānī bodily, physical. ‫ جعبة‬ja‘ba pl. ‫ جعاب‬ji‘āb quiver; tube, pipe; gun
Corporal│‫ التأديب الجسمانى‬corporal barrel; o cartridge pouch (Syr.)│ ‫جعبة اخبار‬
punishment j. aḳbār town gossip (person) 126
‫ تجسيم‬tajsīm embodiment; relief; ‫ جعجع‬ja‘ja‘a (‫ جعجع‬ja‘ja‘a) to clamor, roar,
enlargement, magnification, magnifying shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, explode
power in anger
‫ جسم‬mujassam bodily, corporeal; (math.) ‫ جعجعة‬ja‘ja‘a hubbub, rumpus, clamor,
body; three-dimensional; tangible, roar; creak, clapping noise (of a mill
material, concrete; raised, relieflike, wheel); bluster
standing out in relief (e.g., ‫خريطة مَجسمة‬
relief map); relief; enlarged. Magnified│ ‫ جعجاع‬ja‘jā‘ clamorous, boisterous,
‫( فلم مَجسم‬film) three-dimensional noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person
(stereoscopic) film, 3-D motion picture ‫ جعد‬ja‘uda a (‫ جعودة‬ju‘ūda, ‫ جعادة‬ja‘āda) and V
‫ جسمانية‬jasmānīya Gethseman to become curly, frizzed, kinky, curl
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be
(‫ جسا )جسو‬jasā u to become hard, solid wrinkled II to curl, frizz (‫ هـ‬s.th.; the hair);
‫ جش‬jašša u (jašš) to grind, crush, bruise, grate to wave (‫ هـ‬s.th.; the hair); to crease, pleat,
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) plait (‫ هـ‬cloth); to wrinkle (‫ هـ‬the skin)
‫ جش‬jušša hoarseness, huskiness, raucity ‫ جعد‬ja‘d (or ‫ جعد اليد‬j. al-yad, ‫ جعد الكف‬j.
(of the voice) al-kaff) stingy, niggardly, tightfisted
‫ جشيش‬jašīš ground, grated, crushed ‫ جعدة‬ja‘da curl, lock, ringlet
‫ اجش‬ajašš2, f. ‫ جشاء‬jaššā’2 hoarse, ‫ جعدى‬ja‘dī and ‫ اجعد‬aj‘ad2 curly
husky, raucous (voice) ‫ جعيدى‬gə‘īdī (eg.) bum, loafer, good-for-
‫ جشأ‬II and V to belch, burp nothing
‫ جشاء‬jušā’ and ‫ جشأة‬jaš’a belch(ing), ‫ تجاعيد‬tajā‘īd2 wrinkles, lines (of the
burp(ing) face)
‫ جشار‬jušār livestock ‫ تجعدات‬taja‘‘udāt wrinkles
‫ جشع‬jaši‘a a (jaša‘) and V to be covetous, ‫ مَجعد‬muja‘‘ad curled, frizzed; wavy;
greedy furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ جشع‬jaša‘ greed, avidity, inordinate ‫ مَتجعد‬mutaja‘‘id curled, frizzed; wavy;
desire furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ جشع‬jaši‘ greedy, covetous ‫ جعدنة‬ja‘dana idle talk, gossip (leb.)
‫ جشم‬jašāma a (jašm, ‫ جشامَة‬jašāma) to take ‫ جعر‬ja‘ara a (ja‘r) to drop its manure (animal)
upon o.s. (‫ هـ‬some hardship) II to make (‫ه‬ ‫ ابو جعران‬abū ji‘rān2 scarabaeus; dung
s.o.) suffer or undergo (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to impose beetle
(‫ هـ ه‬on s.o. s.th. difficult), burden (‫ هـ ه‬s.o.
with s.th.) V to take upon o.s., suffer, ‫ جعفر‬ja‘far little river, creek
undergo (‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., hardships) ‫ جعل‬ja‘ala a (ja‘l) to make (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to put,
‫( جشنى‬eg., cf. ‫ ششنى‬šišnī) sample, specimen; place, lay (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to create (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
sampling effect, bring about (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to make (‫هـ هـ‬
s.th. a rule, a principle, or the like, ‫ ه ه‬s.o.,
‫ جص‬II to plaster, whitewash (‫ هـ‬s.th.) e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint (‫ ه ه‬s.o. to
‫ جص‬jiṣṣ gypsum; plaster of Paris an office, rank, or the like); to fix, set (‫هـ هـ‬
a sum, a price, at); to think, deem, believe
(‫ ب ه‬or ‫ ه ه‬s.o. to be …, ‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. to be ...), ‫ جفت‬jift, ‫ ﭽفت‬čift (pronounced šift; eg.) pincers,
take (‫ ب ه‬or ‫ ه ه‬s.o. for, ‫ هـ هـ‬s.th. for); to tweezers; metal clamp│ ‫ جفت شريان‬j.
represent (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ فى صورة‬as, or in the šaryān arterial clamps
form of, s.th. else); to appoint, settle (‫ل هـ‬ ‫( ﭽفتشى‬pronounced šiftišī; eg.) filigree
s.th. for s.o., in s.o.’s favor); to give, grant,
concede (‫ ل هـ‬s.th., an advantage, to s.o.), ‫ جفتلك‬jiftlik farm, country estate; government
put s.o. (‫ )ل‬in the way of s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to land (Pal.)
attribute (‫ هـ ل‬to s.o. s.th.), maintain that ‫ جفر‬jafr, ‫‘ علم الجفر‬ilm al-j. divination,
s.th. (‫ )هـ‬belong. to s.o. (‫ ;)ل‬to entrust ( ‫الى‬ fortunetelling
‫ هـ‬s.th. to s.o.); to put, get (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.,
into a specific state or condition); (with ‫ جفرة‬jufra pl. ‫ جفر‬jufar pit, hole
foll. imperf.) to begin to, set out to│ ‫جعله‬ ‫ جفل‬jafala i u (jafl, ‫ جفول‬jufūl) and IV to start,
‫ يفعل‬to induce s.o. to do; to make s.o. do jump with fright; to shy (horse) II to start,
s.th. (in a narrative); ‫( جعله بمننزلة‬bi- rouse (‫ هـ‬s.th., .s.o.); to scare away (‫ ه‬s.o.)
manzilati) to place s.o. on equal footing
with; ‫( جعله فى مَتناول يده‬fī mutanāwali ‫ جفل‬jafl and ‫ جفول‬jufūl fright, alarm;
yadihī) to bring or put s.th. within s.o.’s shying
reach III to seek to bribe, try to win (‫ب ه‬ ‫( ﭽفلك‬pronounced šiflik; eg.) = ‫جفتلك‬
s.o. with s.th.)
‫ جفن‬pl. ‫ جفون‬jufūn, ‫ اجفان‬ajfān eyelid
‫ جعل‬ju‘l pl. ‫ اجعال‬aj‘āl pay, wages; piece
‫ جفنة‬jafna pl. ‫ جفان‬jifān, ‫ جفنات‬jafanāt
wages; reward, prize
bowl; grapsvine
‫ جعلى‬ju‘līi: ‫( اتفاق جعلى‬ittifāq) piece-work
(‫ جفا )جفو‬jafā u (jafw, ‫ جفاء‬jafā’) to be rough,
coarse; to treat (‫ ه‬s.o.) roughly, harshly; to
‫ جعل‬ju‘al pl. ‫ جعلان‬ji‘lān dung beetle; turn away (. from), shun, avoid, flee (‫ه‬
scarabaeus s.o.) III to treat (‫ ه‬s.o.) roughly, rudely,
‫ جعالة‬ji‘āla, ja‘āla, ju‘āla pl. ‫ جعائل‬ja‘āil2 harshly; to be cruel (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to be cross (
pay, wages; allowance; reward, prize: ‫ ه‬with s.o.); to elude, flee (‫ ه‬s.o.; slumber);
bribe to offend (‫ هـ‬against good taste, one’s
sense of honor, or the like) VI to withdraw
‫ جغرافيا‬jugrāfiyā and ‫ جغرافية‬jugrāfīya (‫ عن‬from), shun, avoid (‫ ه‬s.o.); to loathe (
geography│‫( جغرافية طبيعية‬ṯabī‘īya) ‫ عن‬s.o., s.th.), have an aversion (‫ عن‬to); to
physical geography display rude manners, act the ruffian
‫ جغرافي‬jugrāfī geographical; geographer ‫ جفو‬jafw roughness, harshness
‫ جف‬jaffa (1 pers. perf. jafaftu) i (‫ جفاف‬jafāf, ‫جف‬ ‫ جفوة‬jafwa roughness; estrangement,
‫ وف‬jufūf) to dry, become dry; to dry out II alienation; disagreement, dissension,
to dry, make dry (‫ هـ‬s.th.) quarrel
‫ جفاف‬jafāf dryness; desiccation; drying ‫ جفاء‬jafā’ roughness; harshness;
up; dullness sternness; antipathy, aversion, distaste,
‫تجفاف‬tajfāf pl. ‫ تجافيف‬tajāfīf2 protective loathing; estrangement, alienation
armor ‫ اجفى‬ajfā refraining even more (‫ ل‬from),
‫ تجفيف‬tajfīf drying; desiccation; more averse (‫ ل‬to s.th.)
dehydration; drainage 127 ‫ جاف‬jāfin pl. ‫ جفاة‬jufāh harsh, rough,
‫ جاف‬jāff dry│ ‫( قلم حبر جاف‬qalam ḥibr) coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude
ball-point pen ‫ جاكتة‬look up alphabetically
‫ مَجفف‬mujaffaf dried, desiccated, ‫ جكر‬III (syr.) to tease (‫ ه‬s.o.)
dehydrated; ‫ مَجففات‬dehydrated foods 1
‫ جل‬jalla i (‫ جلل‬jalāl) to be great, lofty,
‫ جفاء‬jufā’ useless, vain, futile│ ‫ذهب جفاء‬ exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too
dahaba jufā’an to be in vain, be of no great (‫ عن‬for), be beyond s.th. (‫)عن‬, be far
avail, pass uselessly
above s.th. (‫‘(جل عن الحصر │)عن‬an il-ḥaṣr) ‫ تجلة‬tajilla and ‫ اجلل‬ijlāl honor,
to be innumerable II to honor, dignify, distinction; esteem, deference, respect;
exalt (‫ ه‬s.o.); to cover (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. the reverence
ground, as snow, plants, etc.); to envelop, 2
‫ جل‬jull rose
wrap, drape, clothe; to border, edge (‫هـ‬
s.th., ‫ ب‬with) IV to honor, dignify, revere, ‫ جلاب‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
venerate, esteem highly, exalt (‫ ه‬s.o.); to ‫( جلتين‬Fr. gélatine) želātīn jelly
deem too high, too exalted (‫ عن‬for s.th.),
consider far beyond s.th. (‫ )عن‬VI to deem ‫( جلسية‬Fr. glacé) glasēh (eg.) kid leather
o.s. far above s.th. (‫ )عن‬X to be great, 1
‫ جلب‬jalaba i u (jalb) to attract (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
exalted, sublime fetch, get, bring (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to
‫ جل‬great, outstanding; bulky import (‫ هـ‬goods); to bring about (‫ هـ‬a
state, condition); to bring (‫ هـ‬harm, shame,
‫ جل‬jull major portion, bulk, majority, etc., ‫ على‬upon s.o.); to gain, win, obtain (‫هـ‬
main part│‫ جله‬julluhū most of it; ‫ جل الَمَة‬j. s.th.); to earn (‫ هـ‬s.th.); (‫ جلوب‬julūb) to scar
al-umma the majority of the people; ‫جل مَا‬ over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; to
‫ فيه‬its main contents; ‫( وجل مَا يقال انه‬jullu) be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain,
that much, at least, can be said that ... acquire (‫ هـ‬s.th.); = II; VII pass. of I VIII
‫ جلل‬jalal important, significant, to procure, bring, fetch, get (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
momentous, weighty draw (‫ هـ‬on s.th.); to import (‫ هـ‬goods) X
to import (‫ هـ‬goods); to fetch, summon,
‫ جلى‬jullā pl. ‫ جلل‬julal matter of great call in (‫ ه‬s.o.); to attract, draw (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o.,
importance, momentous undertaking, s.th.); to seek to attract or win (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o.,
great feat, exploit s.th.); to get, procure (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جلة‬julla, jilla droppings, dung (of ‫ جلب‬jalb bringing, fetching;
animals); julla pl. ‫ جلل‬julal (cannon) ban; procurement; acquisition; importation,
bomb 128 import; causation, bringing on, bringing
‫ جلة‬julla attire, clothing│ ‫الجلة الجبروتية‬ about
(‫( )الكهنوتية‬ḥabrawīya, kahnūtīya) ‫ جلب‬jalab imported; foreign
Episcopal (sacerdotal) vestments (Chr.)
‫ جلب‬jalab and ‫ جلبة‬jalaba clamor; uproar,
‫ جليل‬jalīl pl. ‫ اجلاء‬ajillā’2, ‫ اجلة‬ajilla, ‫جلائل‬ tumult, turmoil
jalā’il2 great, important, significant,
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, ‫ جلبة‬julba scar
sublime; revered, honorable, venerable; ‫ جليب‬jalīb imported, foreign; (pl. ‫جلبى‬
glorious, splendid jalbā, ‫ جلباء‬julabā’2) foreign slave
‫ جلال‬jalāl loftiness, sublimity, ‫ جلاب‬jallāb attractive, captivating;
augustness; splendor, glory importer, trader; see also alphabetically│
‫ جلالة‬jalāla loftiness, sublimity, ‫ جلب العبيد‬slave trader
augustness; majeoty│ ‫صاحب )صاحبة( الجللة‬ ‫ جلابية‬gallābīya (eg.) pl. -at, ‫جلاليب‬
His (Her) Majesty, ‫ جللة الملك‬j. al-malik galālīb2 galabia, a loose, shirtlike garment,
His Majesty, the King the common dreao of the male population
‫ اجل‬ajall2 greater; more sublime; more in Egypt
splendid ‫ جلباب‬below under ‫جلبب‬
‫ مَجلة‬majalla pl. -āt periodical; review, ‫ جلب‬ajlab2 more attractive, more
magazine│ ‫( مَجلة اسبوعية‬usbū‘īya) weekly captivating
magazine; ‫( مَجلة شهرية‬šahrīya) monthly
publication; ‫( مَجلة خاصة ب‬ḳāṣṣa) ‫ مَجلبة‬majlaba pl. ‫ مَجالب‬majālib2
professional journal for a. ; ‫مَجلة الَحكام‬ causative factor, motive, reason, cause,
lawbook, code; ‫ مَجلة القوانين‬do. occasion
‫ استجلاب‬istijlāb procurement, acquisition; ‫ جلدة‬jilda skin, hide; piece of leather;
importation, import; supply; attraction│ race│ ‫ ابن جلدتنا‬ibn jildatinā our
‫ استجلاب السائحين‬promotion of tourist traffic countryman, our fellow tribesman, pl. ‫بنو‬
‫ جلدتنا‬banū j.
‫ جالب‬jālib causative factor, motive,
reason, cause, occasion ‫ جلدى‬jildī dermal, cutaneous, skin
2 (adj.)│ ‫ امَراض جلدية‬skin diseases
‫ جلاب‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
3 ‫ جليدة‬julaida pl. -āt membrane, pellicle;
‫ جلبا‬jalabā jalap (bot.)
O film (phot.)
‫ جلبب‬II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (‫ ب‬with), be
‫ جلد‬jalad enduranos; suffering; patience;
clothed, be clad (‫ ب‬in a garment, also fig.)
‫ جلباب‬jilbāb pl. ‫ جلابيب‬jalābīb2 garment,
‫ جلدة‬jalda lash, stroke with a whip
dress, gown; woman's dress
‫ جليد‬jalīd pl. ‫ جلداء‬juladā’2 staunch,
‫ جلبان‬julubbān chickling vetch, grass pea
steadfast; strong, sturdy
(Lathyrus sativua)
1 ‫ جليد‬jalīd ice│ ‫ جبل جليد‬jabal j. iceberg;
‫ جلجل‬jaljala to reverberate; to resound, ring
‫( قطعة مَن الجليد‬qiṯ‘a) ice floe
out; to rattle; to shake (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جليدى‬jalīdī icy, ice-covered, glacial, ice
‫ جلجل‬juljul pl. ‫ جلاجل‬jalājil2 (little) bell,
(adj.); snow-covered│ ‫‘( العصر الجليدى‬aṣr)
sleigh bell; cowbell; jingle
the Ice Age
‫ جلجلة‬jaljala sound of a bell; loud, shrill
‫ جلود‬jalūd long-suffering, patient
‫ جلاد‬jallād pl. -ūn leather merchant;
‫ مَجلجل‬mujaljil shrill, piercing; ringing,
executioner, hangman
resounding, reverberant
2 ‫ جلادة‬jalāda and ‫ جلودة‬julūda endurance,
‫ جلجلة‬juljula, ‫ جبل الجلجلة‬jabal al-j. Golgotha
‫جلجلان‬juljulān, jiljilān sesame
‫ مَجلدة‬mijlada whip, lash, scourge
‫ جلح‬jaliḥa a (jalaḥ) to be or become bald
‫ تجليد‬tajlīd freezing; bookbinding
‫ اجلح‬ajlaḥ2, f. ‫ جلحاء‬jalḥā’2, pl. ‫ جلح‬julḥ
‫ جلاد‬jilād fight, battle (against)
bald-headed, bald
‫ تجلد‬tajallud endurance, patience
‫ جلخ‬jalaḳa a and II to sharpen (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
whet, hone (‫ هـ‬a knife), strop (‫ هـ‬a razor); ‫ مَجلد‬mujallid: ‫ مَجلد الكتب‬m. al-kutub
to stretch, extend, roll out (‫ هـ‬metal) bookbinder
‫ جلخ‬jalḳ grindstone, whetetone, hone ‫ مَجلد‬mujallad frozen, icy, ice-covered;
bound (book); (pl. -āt) volume (book)
‫ جلد‬jalada i (jald) to whip, flog, lash (‫ ه‬s.o.); --
jalida a to be frozen, freeze; -- jaluda u to ‫ مَجالد‬mujālid pl. -ūn gladiator
be tough, hardy, undismayed, steadfast, ‫ مَتجلد‬mutajallid patient
patient II to bind (‫ هـ‬a book); (to cause) to
freeze (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to fight (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to ‫ جلمز‬jillauz (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬hazelnut; hazel
freeze; to be frozen, be covered with ice V ‫ جلس‬jalasa i (‫ جلوس‬julūs) to sit down (‫ الى‬with
to take heart; to show o.s. tough, hardy, s.o., at a tabl., etc., ‫ على‬on a chair); to sit (
robust; to resign o.s. to patience; to bear, ‫ الى‬with s.o., at a table, ‫ على‬on a chair)│
suffer VI to engage in a sword fight ‫( جلس الى الرسام‬rassām) to sit for a painter
‫ جلد‬jald flogging; -- (pl. ‫ اجلاد‬ajlād) III to sit (‫ ه‬with s.o., next to s.o., in s.o.’s
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy company); to keep s.o. (‫ )ه‬company IV to
ask to sit down, make sit down, eeat (‫ه‬
‫ جلد‬jild pl. ‫ جلود‬julūd, ‫ اجلاد‬ajlād skin, s.o.)
hide; leather│ ‫( جلد سختيان‬suḳtiyān)
morocco; ‫( جلد لماع‬lammā‘) patent leather ‫ جلسة‬jalsa pl. -āt seat (in an auditorium);
session (of parliament, of a committee,
130 of a court, etc.); party, gathering, (iqtiṣādī) economic council: ‫مَجلس قومَى‬
meeting│‫‘ عقد جلسة‬aqada jasatan to (qaumī) national assembly; ‫مَجلس قيادة الثورة‬
convene a session; ‫‘( جلسة عامَة‬āmma) m. qiyādat at-taura Supreme
plenary session Revolutionary Tribunal (Eg.): ‫المجلس الكبير‬
and ‫( المجلس الَكبر‬akbar) the Grand Council
‫ جلسة‬jilsa manner of sitting
(= le Grand Conseil; Tun.); ‫مَجلس اللوردين‬
‫ جليس‬pl. ‫ جلساء‬julasā’2 participant in a the House of Lords: ‫ مَجلس النواب‬m. an-
social gathering; table companion: one nuwwāb lower house, chamber of
with whom one sits together; ‫ جليسه‬the deputies; ‫( مَجلس نيابى‬niyābī) parliament;
man who was at the party with him ‫ مَجلس الجهة‬m. al-jiha approx.: provincial
‫ جليسة‬jalīsa lady companion; fem. of council (= conseil de région; Tun.); ‫مَجلس‬
‫جليس‬ ‫ الوزراء‬m. al-wuzarā’ cabinet, council of
‫ جلوس‬julūs sitting: sitting down;
accession to the throne; pl. of ‫ جالس‬sitting ‫ مَجالسة‬mujālasa social intercourse

‫ مَجلس‬majlis pl. ‫ مَجالس‬majālis2 seat; ‫ جالس‬jālis pl. ‫ جلوس‬julūs, ‫ جلس‬jullās

session room, conference room; party, sitting; pl. ‫ جلس‬participants in a social
gathering, meeting; social gathering: gathering
session, sitting; council meeting; council; ‫ جلط‬jalaṯa i (jalṯ) to chafe, gall, abrade (‫ هـ‬the
concilium; collegium, college: board, skin); to shave (‫ الرأس‬ar-ra’sa the head
committee, commission; administrative
‫ جلطة‬julṯa lump, clot│ ‫جلطة دمَوية‬
board; court, tribunal│‫ فى مَجلسه‬in s.o.’s
(damawīya) blood clot, thrombus
presence, in s.o.’s company; ‫مَجلس التأديب‬
and ‫ مَجلس تأديبى‬disciplinary board; ‫مَجلس‬ ‫ جلف‬jilf pl. ‫ اجلاف‬ajlāf boorish, rude, uncivil
‫ تأسيسى‬constituent assembly; ‫مَجلس آفاقى‬ ‫ جلفط‬jalfaṯa (‫ جلفطة‬jalfaṯa) to calk (‫ هـ‬a ship)
regional court (tribunal régional; Tun.);
‫ مَجلس المَة‬m. al-umma parliament (Ir.); ‫ جلفن‬galfana (eg.) to galvanize
‫ مَجلس المَن‬m. al-amn the Security Council; ‫ جلفنة‬galfana galvanization
‫ مَجلس البلدية‬m. al-baladīya and ‫مَجلس بلدى‬
(baladī) local council, municipal council; ‫ مَجلفن‬mugalfan galvanized
‫ مَجلس الحرب‬m. al-ḥarb war council; ‫مَجلس‬ ‫ جلاقة‬jalāqa: ‫( جلقة قروية‬qarawīya) yokel,
‫( حسبى‬ḥasbī) probate court (for Muslim; bumpkin
Eg.); ‫( مَجلس مَختلط‬muḳtaliṯ) mixed court
(eg.); ‫ مَجلس الدفاع‬defense council; ‫مَجلس‬ ‫ جلم‬jalama i (jalm) to clip, shear off (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ الَدارة‬m. al-idāra administrative board, ‫ جلم‬jalam pl. ‫ اجلام‬ajlām shears
committee of management, directorate;
‫ ابو جلمبو‬abū galambū (eg.) a variety of crab
board of directors (of a corporation or
bank); ‫ مَجلس المديرية‬m. al-mudīrīya ‫ جلمد‬II tajalmada to be petrified
provincial council, provincial parliament ‫ جلمد‬jalmad pl. ‫ جلمَد‬jalāmid2 and ‫جلمود‬
(Eg.); ‫ مَجلس الدولة‬m. ad-daula Supreme julmūd pl. ‫ جلمَيد‬jalāmīd2 rook, bolder
Administrative Court (Eg.); ‫مَجلس روحى‬
(rūḥī) religious court, clerical court (of the ‫ جلنار‬jullanār pomegranate blossom
Coptic Church); ‫ مَجلس شورى الدولة‬m. šūrā (‫ جلو‬and ‫ جل )جلى‬jalā u to clean, polish (
d-daula council of state; ‫مَجلس الشيوخ‬ ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to clear (‫ هـ‬the view); to make
council of elders: Senate (Eg.); ‫مَجلس عدلى‬ clear, make plain, clarity, clear up (‫هـ‬
(‘adlī) court, tribunal (Syr.); (‫ عسكرى‬or) s.th.), throw light on (‫)هـ‬, to reveal, unveil,
‫‘( مَجلس عرفى‬urfī, ‘askarī) court-martial; disclose (‫ هـ‬s.th.), to dislodge, oust,
‫ مَجلس عصبة المَم‬m. ‘uṣbat al-umam Council remove (‫ عن هـ‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. from), to
of the League of Nations; ‫ مَجلس العموم‬the shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.s. (‫ فى‬in
House of Commons; ‫ مَجلس العيان‬m. al- s.th.); to be or become clear, evident,
a‘yān senate (Ir., Jord.); ‫ مَجلس الَقتراع‬draft manifest; to pull out, move out (‫ عن‬of a
board, recruiting commission (mil.); ‫مَجلس‬ place), go away, depart (‫ عن‬from a place),
‫( قروى‬qarawī) local council; ‫مَجلس اقتصادى‬ leave, quit, evacuate (‫ عن‬a place); -- ‫جلى‬
jalā i to polish, burnish (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II to ‫ تجلية‬tajliya: ‫( تجلية الَهية‬ilāhīya) divine
reveal, disclose, bring to light (‫ عن‬or ‫هـ‬ revelation; theophany (Chr.)
s.th.); to show, represent (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), ‫ تجل‬tajallin revelation, manifestation;
IV to remove, dislodge, oust, drive away ( Transfiguration (of Christ)│‫‘ عيد التجلى‬īd
‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.); to evacuate (‫ ه‬s.o. from); at-t. Transfiguration Day (Chr.)
to move away, go away (‫ عن‬from a place),
leave (‫ عن‬a place) V to become clear, ‫ اجتلء‬ijtilā’ contemplation
evident, manifest; to reveal itself, be ‫ استجلء‬istijlā’ clarification, elucidation
revealed, to appear, show, come to light,
come out, manifest itself, to be ‫ جالية‬jāliya pl. -āt, ‫ جوال‬jawālin colony
manifested, be expressed, find expression (of foreigners); colony of emigrants
VII to be clean or cleaned, be polished, be ‫ المجلى‬al-mujallī the winner (in a race)
burnished, to be removed, be dislodged,
be ousted; to move away (‫ عن‬from a ‫ مَتجل‬mutajallin obvious, evident,
place), vacate, evacuate (‫ عن‬a place), to be manifest, patent
dispelled, vanish, go away, pass (crisis, ‫ جلون‬galōn pl. -āt gallon (eg.)
difficulty, etc.), to disappear, to reveal
‫ مَجلون‬mugalwan galvanized (eg.)
itself, be revealed, be disclosed; to be
unveiled (bride), to become manifest, ‫ جلى‬jullā see 1 ‫جل‬
manifest itself; to become clear or plain; ‫ جليوتين‬gilyotīn guillotine (eg.)
to clear up and reveal (‫ عن‬s.th.), to lead,
come (‫ عن‬to), end (‫ عن‬in), to result (‫عن‬ ‫ ج م‬abbreviation of ‫ جنيه مَصرى‬Egyptian pound
in)│‫ مَا ينجلى عنه المَر‬the outcome of the 2
‫ جم‬jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect
matter, what will come of it VIII to reveal, one’s thoughts, concentrate; to rest II and
disclose (‫ هـ‬s.th.), to regard (‫ هـ‬s.th.), look V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to gather;
at (‫ )هـ‬X to seek to clarify (‫ هـ‬s.th.), to to collect one’s thoughts, concentrate; to
clarify, clear up (‫ هـ‬s.th.), throw light (‫هـ‬ rest, relax, seek recreation (‫ مَن‬from); to
on); to uncover, unearth, bring to light, be covered with luxuriant vegetation
find out, discover, detect (‫ هـ‬s.th.) (ground)
‫ ابن جل‬ibn jalā a famous, well-known ‫ جم‬jamm abundant, plentiful; much, a
man, a celebrity great deal of; many, numerous; manifold,
‫ جلى‬jalīy clear, plain, evident, patent, multiple; crowd, group of people│‫جم الثر‬
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; ‫جليا‬ j. al-atar effective, efficacious; ‫احبه حبا جما‬
jalīyan obviously, evidently (aḥabbahū ḥubban) to be more than fond
of; ‫ فوائد جمة‬numerous advantages, ample
‫ جلية‬jalīya pl. ‫ جليا‬jalāyā sure thing, benefits; ‫ جم غفير‬large crowd, throng
plain fact│‫ جلية المَر‬jalīyat al-amr the true
state of the affair ‫ جمام‬jamām rest, relaxation, recreation,
gathering of new strength
‫ اجلى‬ajlā clearer, more obvious, more
distinct ‫ مَجم‬majamm place where s.th. gathers or
flows together│‫مَجم هذا الرأي ومَستجمعه‬
‫ جلوى‬jalwā unveiling (of the bride)│ ‫ليلة‬ (mustajma‘uhū) what this opinion
‫ الجلوة‬lailat al-j. wedding night amounts to
‫ جلء‬jalā’ clarification, elucidation; ‫ تجميم‬tagmīm (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of
clarity, clearness, plainness, distinctness; women)
departure, (e)migration (‫ عن‬from),
evacuation (‫ عن‬of an area; mil.); ‫بجلء‬ ‫ استجماتم‬istijmām collectedness;
clearly, plainly concentration; attentiveness, attentive
reverence; rest, relaxation, recreation
‫ جليان‬jalayān vision, revelation,
apocalypse (Chr.) ‫ جنبازى‬,‫ جمباز‬see ‫ جنبازى‬,‫جنباز‬
‫ مَجال‬majālin (pl. of ‫ مَجلى‬majlan) ‫( جمبرى‬from It. gambero) gambarī, ‫جمرى‬
manifestations gammarī (eg.) shrimp (zool.)
‫ جمجم‬jamjama (‫ جمجمة‬jamjama), ‫جمجم الكلم‬ induration; hardness, inflexibility;
(kalāma) and II tajamjama to articulate deadlock, standstill; inertia, inaction,
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.s. inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity,
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble indifference
‫ جمجمة‬jumjuma pl. ‫ جماجم‬jamājim2 skull, ‫ جمودة‬jumūda solidity, hardness
cranium ‫ تجميد‬tajmīd solidification, hardening;
‫ جمجمى‬jumjumī cranial consolidation; reinforcement (of a
foundation)│‫ تجميد الَمَوال‬t. al-amwāl
‫ جمح‬jamaḥa a (jamḥ, ‫ جماح‬jimāḥ, ‫ جموح‬jumūḥ
freezing of assets
to holt (horse); to he refractory, unruly,
recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be ‫ تجمد‬tajammud freezing; frost;
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her congelation; solidification; coagulation
husband, run away from home (wife) ‫ انجماد‬injimād freezing up or over, icing
‫ جماح‬jimāḥ recalcitrance, defiance; up; ice formation
willfulness ‫ جامَد‬jāmid hard, solid; stiff; rigid;
‫ جموح‬jumūḥ recalcitrance, defiance; motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.)
willfulness defective; dry. dull (book, and the like);
impervious to progress to innovation,
‫ جموح‬jamūḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly,
ossified, ultraconservative; pl. ‫جوامَد‬
jawāmid2 inanimate things, inorganic
‫ جامَح‬jāmiḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly; matter, minerals
indomitable, untamable
‫ مَتجمد‬mutajammid frozen, icy; stiff,
‫ جمد‬jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, ‫ جمود‬jumūd) congealed; coagulated
to freeze; to congeal, harden, stiffen, be or
‫ مَنجمد‬munjamid frozen, icy, ice (adj.);
become hard or solid, solidify; to
arctic│‫( المحيط المنجمد‬muḥīṯ) the Arctic
coagulate, clot (blood); to be rigid,
inflexible (in one’s thinking); to stagnate;
to be apathetic, indolent, dull, indifferent│ ‫جمادى‬jumādā name of the fifth and sixth
‫ جمدت نفسه على‬to be indifferent toward, put months of the Muslim year (‫ جمادى الَولى‬j.
up with, acquiesce in; ‫( جمدت يده‬yaduhū) to al-ūlā Jumada I and ‫ جمادى الخرة‬j. al-āḳira
be niggardly, tightfisted II to freeze, frost, Jumada II)
congeal (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to solidify, coagulate, ‫ جمر‬II to roast (‫ هـ‬meat) VIII to bum incense
harden, stiffen (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to curdle (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to freeze (‫ هـ‬assets V to freeze, become ‫ جمر‬jamr embers, live coal│ ‫كان على احر‬
frozen, turn into ice, freeze up. become ‫( مَن جمر‬aḥarra) to be on tenter-hooks; to
icebound; to freeze to death; to congeal; to be in greatest suspense, be dying with
solidify; to harden, set (e.g., cement); to curiosity
coagulate, clot (blood) VII to freeze up, ‫ جمرة‬jamra (n. un. of ‫ )جمر‬live coal;
become icebound; to freeze, become firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling
frozen, turn to ice resentment; (pl. -āt) carbuncle (med.)│O
‫ جمد‬jamd freezing; congelation, ‫ الجمرة الخبيثة‬anthrax
solidification, coagulation│‫درجة الجمد‬ ‫ جمار‬jummār palm pith, palm core
darajat al-j. freezing point (edible tuber growing at the upper end of
‫ جمد‬jamad ice the palm trunk)
‫ جماد‬jamād pl. -āt a solid; inorganic ‫ مَجمرة‬mijmara pl. ‫ مَجامَر‬majāmir2
body; mineral; inanimate body, inanimate brazier; censer
being; O neuter (gram.) 2
‫ جمرى‬see ‫جمبرى‬
‫ جمود‬jumūd frozen state; solid, compact ‫( جمرك‬eg.) gumruk pl. ‫ جمرك‬gamārik2 customs;
state, compactness, solidity; rigor, rigidity, customhouse│‫ رسم الجمرك‬rasm al-g.
stiffness; inorganic state; hardening, customs duty, tariff
‫ جمركى‬gumrukī customs, tariff (used conference, hold talks (‫ مَع‬,‫ ب‬with s.o.),
attributively)│ ‫( اتحاد جمركى‬ittihād) meet (‫ مَع‬,‫ ب‬s.o.; to concur (‫ على‬in), agree,
customs union be agreed (‫ على‬on s.th.) X to gather,
collect (‫ هـ‬s.th.; also ‫ قواه‬quwāhu one’s
‫ مَجمرك‬mugamrak duty paid
strength, ‫ افكاره‬afkārahū one’s thoughts);
‫ جميز‬jummaiz (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬sycamore (Ficus to summarize, sum up (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
sycomorus; bot.) possess, combine (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جامَوس‬look up alphabetically ‫ جمع‬jam’ gathering; collection;
‫ جمش‬jamaša i u (jamš) to unhair (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II to combination; connection, coupling,
make love, caress, pet joining; accumulation; (arith.) addition;
union, merger, aggregation, integration (
‫ جمع‬jama‘a a (jam‘) to gather (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to ‫ بين‬of) holding together (‫ بين‬of divergent,
collect (‫ هـ‬e.g., money); to unite, combine, separate things); (pl. ‫ جموع‬jumū‘)
bring together (parts into a whole); to put gathering, crowd, throng; gang, troop;
together. join (‫ هـ‬things); to set, compose ( (gram.) plural│ ‫ جمع الشمل‬j. aš-šaml union,
‫ هـ‬type; typ.); to compile (‫ هـ‬a book); to integration; ‫ جمع التكسير‬the broken (=
summarize. sum up (‫ هـ‬s.th.) to rally, internal) plural, ‫ الجمع السالم‬the regular (=
round up (‫ هم‬people); to pile up, amass external) plural; ‫ اسم الجمع‬ism al-j.
accumulate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to assemble (‫هم‬ collective noun (gram.); ‫ جمع اليد‬j. al-yad
several persons); to convoke, convene, fist
call (‫ هـ‬a meeting); to add (‫ هـ‬numbers),
add up (‫ هـ‬a column); (gram.) to make ‫ جمع‬jum‘, ‫ جمع الكف‬j. al-kaff, ‫ جمع اليد‬j. al-
plural, pluralize (‫ هـ‬a word); to unite, link, yad fist, clenched hand│ ‫ بجمع يديه‬with
bring together (‫ بين‬several things or clenched fists
persons); to combine (‫ بين – و‬e.g., both ‫ جمعة‬jum‘a pl. ‫ جمع‬juma‘, -āt week;
strength and courage); to contain, hold, Friday│ ‫ يوم الجمعة‬yaum al-j. Friday; ‫جمعة‬
comprise (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│‫جمع اطراف الشيء‬ ‫ اللَم‬Passion Week; ‫ الجمعة العظيمة‬and ‫يوم‬
(aṯrāfa) to summarize, sum up s.th.; to ‫ الجمعة الحزينة‬Good Friday (Chr.)
give a survey of s.th.; ‫جمع البراعة مَن اطرافها‬
‫ جمعية‬jam‘iya pl. -āt club, association,
(barā‘ata) to be very efficient, do an
society; corporation, organization; 135
excellent job, do superlatively good work;
assembly│‫ جمعية المَم‬j. al-umam League of
‫( جمع شمل القطيع‬šamla l-q.) to round up the
Nations; ‫( جمعية خيرية‬ḳairīya) charitable
herd; ‫( يجمع الكتاب بين صفحاتها‬ṣafaḥātihā) the
organization; ‫ جمعية الَسعاف‬j. al-is‘āf
book contains, lists …; ‫يجمع بيت على بيوت‬
approx.: civil ambulance service; ‫جمعية‬
(yujma‘u) the plural of bait is buyūt II to
(tašrī‘īya) legislative assembly; ‫جمعية‬
pile up, amass, accumulate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
‫‘ عمومَية‬umūmīya) and ‫‘( جمعية عامَة‬āmma)
rally, round up (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ هم‬s.o.); to
general assembly; general meeting;
assemble (‫ هـ‬the parts of a 134 machine)
plenum, plenary session; ‫جمعية تعاونية‬
III to have sexual intercourse (‫ ها‬with a
(ta‘āwunīya) cooperative
woman) IV to agree (‫ على‬on s.th., to do
s.th.); to be agreed (‫ على‬on); to decide ‫ جميع‬jamī‘ (with foll. genitive) total;
unanimously (‫ على‬on), resolve (‫ على‬to do whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ‫جميع الناس‬
s.th.)│‫( اجمعوا امَرهم‬amrahum) they came to all men, all mankind; ‫ الجميع‬all people,
terms, they made a joint decision V to everybody; the public at large; ‫جميعا‬
gather; to assemble, congregate; to rally, jamī‘an in a body, altogether, one and all,
band together, flock together (people); to all of them; entirely, wholly, totally
pile up; to accumulate; to gather into a ‫ جمع‬ajma‘2 pl. -ūn, f. ‫ جمعاء‬jam‘ā’2, pl.
mass, agglomerate; to cluster; to coagulate ‫ جمع‬juma‘2 entire, whole, all`│‫العالم الَسلمَى‬
VIII to be close together; to come ‫( اجمع‬ajma‘a) the entire Islamic world; ‫الدار‬
together, meet, join; to unite, combine (‫ب‬ ‫( جمعاء‬jam‘ā’a) the whole house; ‫ باجمعه‬bi-
with); to assemble, meet, convene (an ajma‘ihī in its entirety, to its full extent,
organization, a committee, etc.); to be or completely, altogether; ‫ جاؤوا باجمعهم‬all of
get together, have a meeting, interview or them came
‫ جماع‬jummā‘ aggregate; total, total rivers); life in a social group, community
amount life, social life; ‫ الَجتماع‬human society│‫اجتم‬
‫ اع الطرق‬ijtimā‘ aṯ-ṯuruq crossroads,
O ‫ جماع كهربائى‬jammā‘ kahrabā‘ī;
intersection, junction; ‫‘ علم الَجتماع‬ilm al-
storage battery
ijt. sociology; ‫ علماء الاجتماع‬sociologists
‫ جماعة‬jamā‘a pl. -āt group (of people);
‫ اجتماعى‬ijtimā‘ī community, group (used
band, gang, party, troop; community;
attributively); social; socialist(ic);
squad (military unit; Eg. 1939)│ ‫جماعات‬
sociological│‫ وزارة الشؤون الاجتماعية‬ministry
‫ وافرادا‬jamā‘ātin wa-afrādan in groups and
for social affairs; ‫ الحالة الاجتماعية‬personal
status; ‫( الخدمَة الَجتماعية‬ḳidma) social
‫ جماعى‬jamā‘ī collective (as opposed to service, social work; ‫المساواة الَجتماعية‬
‫ فردى‬fardī individual) (musāwāh) social equality; ‫الهيئة الَجتماعية‬
‫ مَجمع‬majma‘ pl. ‫ مَجامَع‬majāmi‘2 place (hai’a) human society
where two or more things meet, place or ‫ اجتماعية‬ijtimā‘īya socialism
point of union, junction; meeting,
‫ جامَع‬jāmi‘ comprehensive, extensive,
congregation, convention, assembly; (also
broad, general, universal; collector;
‫ مَجمع علمى‬m. ‘ilmī) academy (scientific);
compiler (of a book); compositor,
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries);
typesetter; (pl. ‫ جوامَع‬jawāmi‘2) mosque│
synod│‫( مَجمع بلدى‬baladī) provincial synod
‫( مَسجد جامَع‬masjid) great, central mosque
(Chr.); ‫( مَجمع اكليركى‬iklīrīkī) clerical synod
where the public prayer is performed on
(of the Coptic Church); ‫ اخذ بمجامَع القلوب‬to
win or captivate the hearts; 135 ‫بمجامَع عينيه‬
bi-m. ‘ainaihi (to look at s.o.) with ‫ جامَعة‬jāmi‘a pl. -āt league, union,
complete concentration, intently association; community; federation;
religious community, communion;
‫ مَجمعى‬majma‘ī academy member,
commonness, community of interests or
purpose; university│O ‫ جامَعة الكهرباء‬j. al-
‫ تجمي‬tajmī‘ assembly, assemblage (of kahrabā’ storage battery, accumulator; َ‫جام‬
the parts of machinery) ‫ عة الَمَم‬j. al-umam League of Nations; َ‫الجام‬
‫ جماع‬jimā‘ sexual intercourse; s.th. ‫( عة الَسلمَية‬islāmīya) Pan-Islamism; ‫الجامَعة‬
comprising or involving another thing or a ‫‘( العربية‬arabīya) and ‫جامَعة الدول العربية‬
number of things│ ‫الخمر جماع الَثم‬al-ḳamr (duwal) the Arab League; ‫جامَعة شعبية‬
j. al-itm wine involves sin, wine (ša‘bīya) university extension, adult
education courses, evening courses
‫ اجماع‬ijmā‘ agreement, unanimity (also
‫ ;)اجماع الرأي‬unanimous resolution (‫ على‬to ‫ جامَعى‬jāmi‘ī academic, collegiate,
do s.th.); (Isl. Law) consensus (of the university (adj.); university graduate
authorities in a legal question; one of the ‫ مَجموع‬majmū‘ collected, gathered;
four uṣūl of Islamic Law)│ ‫بالَجماع‬ totality, whole; total, sum (arith.)│ ‫الحروف‬
unanimously ‫ المجموعة‬matter (typ.); ‫ مَجموع اراضى القطر‬m.
‫ اجماعى‬ijmā‘ī based on general arāḍī l-quṯr the total area of the country;
agreement, unanimous; collective, ‫ مَجموع طوله‬m. ṯūlihī its total length; ‫المجموع‬
universal ‫‘( العصبي‬aṣabī) the nervous system

‫ تجمع‬tajammu‘ pl. -āt coming together, ‫ مَجموعة‬majmū‘a pl. -āt, ‫ مَجامَيع‬majāmī‘2

meeting; gathering; troop concentration; collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps,
crowd, throng, mob; agglomeration; O etc., also of stories); compilation, list;
agglutination (chem.-med.) group {also, e.g., of trees, of islands, etc.);
series (e.g., of articles in a newspaper; O
‫ اجتماع‬ijtimā‘ pl. -āt meeting (‫ ب‬with battery (el.); alliance, league, bloc (e.g., of
s.o.; of a corporate body; of parliament); states); collective, collectivistic
get-together, gathering, assembly; organization; aggregate; complex, block
reunion; rally; convention; conjunction, (of buildings); system; bulletin,
constellation (astron.); confluence (of
periodical│ ‫( المجموعة الشمسية‬šamāīya) the ‫(شرطي‬šarṯīya) conditional clause; ‫جملة‬
solar system; ‫( مَجموعة صناعية‬ṣinā‘īya) ‫( مَعترضة‬mu‘tariḍa) parenthetical clause
syndicate ‫ حساب الجمل‬ḥisāb al-jummal (or jumal)
‫ مَجمع‬mujammi‘ collector (techn.); O use of the letters of the alphabet according
storage battery, accumulator to their numerical value
‫ مَجمع عليه‬mujma‘ ‘alaihi (that which is) ‫ جمال‬jamāl beauty│O ‫‘ علم الجمال‬ilm al-j.
agreed upon, unanimous aesthetics
‫ مَجتمع‬mujtama‘ pl. -āt gathering place, ‫ جميل‬jamīl beautiful, graceful, lovely,
place of assembly; meeting place, comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act,
rendezvous; assembly, gathering, meeting; favor, service, good turn; courtesy│ ‫اعتراف‬
society; human society; community, ‫ مَعرفة الجميل‬,‫ بالجميل‬ma‘rifat al-j. and ‫عرفان‬
commune, collective ‫‘( بالجميل‬irfān) gratitude; ‫نكران‬
‫الجميل‬nukrān al-j. ingratitude; ‫ناكر الجميل‬
‫ جمكية = جامَكية‬look up alphabetically
ungrateful; ‫( حفظ له جميلا‬ḥafiẓa) to keep s.o.
‫ جمل‬jamala u (jaml) to sum up, summarize (‫هـ‬ in fond remembrance, remember s.o. with
s.th.); -- jamula u (‫ جمال‬jamāl) to be gratitude
beautiful; to be handsome, pretty, comely,
‫ اجمل‬ajmal2 more beautiful
graceful; to be proper, suitable,
appropriate (‫ ب‬for s.o.), befit (‫ ب‬s.o.) II to ‫ تجميل‬tajmīl beautification,
make beautiful, beautify, embellish, adorn embellishment; cosmetics
(‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬s.o., s.th.) III to be polite, courteous, ‫ مَجامَلة‬mujāmala pl. -āt (act of) courtesy;
amiable (. to 8.0.) IV to sum, total, add (‫هـ‬ civility, amiability; flattery; ‫مَجامَلة‬
s.th.); to treat as a whole, mention mujāmalatan amicably, in a friendly way│
collectively (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to sum up, ‫ زيارة مَجامَلة‬ziyārat m. courtesy call; ‫قواعد‬
summarize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to act well, decently, ‫ المجامَلات‬etiquette
be nice V to make o.s. pretty, adorn o.s. VI
to be courteous, be friendly to one another ‫ اجمال‬ijmāl summation, summing up;
summarization; ‫ اجمالا‬ijmālan on the
‫ جملة‬jumla pl. ‫ جمل‬jumal totality, sum, whole, in general, generally speaking, as a
whole; group, troop, body; crowd; general principle│ ‫ اجمالا لذلك اقول‬to sum
wholesale; (gram.) sentence, clause; ‫جملة‬ up, I (would) say ... ; ‫ فى اجماله‬in its
jumlatan completely, wholly, on the entirety, as a whole; ‫ بالَجمال‬and ‫على الَجمال‬
whole, altogether, in general, at all│ ‫جملة‬ in general, on the whole, altogether; ‫بوجه‬
‫ واحدة‬jumlatan wāḥidatan all at once, at ‫ الَجمال‬bi-wajhi l-i. = ‫اجمالا‬
one swoop; ‫ جملة الكائنات‬everything in
existence; ‫ كان مَن جملة اصحابه‬he was one of ‫ اجمالى‬ijmālī comprehensive, summary,
his companions, he belonged to his general, over-all, total, collective│ ‫تقرير‬
companions; ‫( قال فى جملة مَا قاله‬jumlati) ‫ اجمالى‬over-all report; ‫( غرامَة اجمالية‬garāma)
among other things, he said ... ; ‫وجملة القول‬ collective penalty; ‫( نظرة اجمالية‬naẓra)
‫ ان‬wa-jumlatu l-qauli anna or ‫وجملة الَمَر ان‬ general view
in short ... , to sum up …, briefly ‫ مَجمل‬mujmil pl. -ūn wholesaler,
stated ... ; ‫ على الجملة‬in short, in a word; ‫بالج‬ wholesale dealer
‫ ملة‬wholly, on the whole, altogether, in
general, at all; by wholesale (com.); ‫جملة‬ ‫ مَجمل‬mujmal summary, resume,
‫ الَجرة المستحقة‬j. al-ujra al-mustaḥiqqa synopsis, compendium; general concept;
gross wage; ‫ تاجر الجملة‬wholesaler, sum, total│‫ بالمجمل‬by wholesale
wholesale dealer; 41.J:1 ~ sr,. al·j. whole- 2
‫ جمل‬jamal pl. ‫ جمال‬jimāl, ‫ اجمال‬ajmāl camel│
sale price; ‫( جملة اسمية‬ismīya) nominal ‫ جمل اليهود‬j. a1-yahūd chameleon
clause; ‫( جملة فعلية‬fi‘līya) verbal clause; ‫جملة‬
‫( اخبارية‬iḳbārīya) or ‫( جملة خبرية‬ḳabarīya) ‫ جمال‬jammāl pl. -ūn camel driver
declarative sentence (or clause); ‫جملة انشائية‬ ‫ جمان‬jumān (coll.; n. un. ‫ )ة‬pearls
(inšā’īya) exclamatory sentence; ‫جملة حالية‬
(ḥālīya) circumstantial clause; ‫جملة‬
‫ جمهر‬jamhara to gather, collect (‫ هـ‬,‫ ه‬s.th., ‫ جنان‬jannān gardener
s.o.); to assemble (‫ ه‬s.o.) II tajamhara to ‫ جنين‬janīn pl. ‫ اجنة‬ajinna, ‫ اجنون‬ajnūn
gather, flock together (crowd) embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.)
‫ جمهرة‬jamhara multitude, crowd, throng; ‫ جنون‬junūn possession, obsession;
the great mass, the populace mania, madness, insanity, dementia;
‫ جمهور‬jumhūr pl. ‫ جماهير‬jamāhīr2 foolishness, folly; frenzy, rage, fury;
multitude; crowd, throng; general public, ecstasy, rapture│‫ الجنون فنون‬al-j. funūn
public; ‫ الجماهير‬the masses, the people madness has many varieties, manifests
itself in many ways
‫ جمهرى‬iumhllri republican (adj. and n.)
‫ جنوني‬junūnī crazy, insane, mad; frantic,
‫ جمهورية‬jumhūriya pl. -āt republic│‫الجمهو‬
‫‘( رية العربية المتحدة‬arabīya, muttaḥida) the
United Arab Republic; ‫الجمهورية الَتحادية‬ ‫ مَجن‬mijann pl. ‫ مَجان‬majānn2 shield
‫( الَلمانية‬ittiḥādīya) the Federal Republic of ‫ مَجنة‬majanna madness, insanity
Germany; ‫الجمهورية الديموقراطية الَلمانية‬
(dīmūqrāṯīya) the German Democratic ‫ جان‬jānn jinn, demons
Republic ‫ مَجنون‬majnūn pl. ‫ مَجانين‬majānīn2
‫ تجمهر‬tajamhur gathering (of people; possessed, obsessed; insane, mad;
crowd madman, maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked;
crackpot; foolish; fool
‫ جن‬janna u (jann, ‫ جنون‬junūn) to cover, hide,
conceal, veil (‫ على‬,‫ هـ‬s.th.); to descend, ‫ جنب‬janaba u to avert, ward off (‫ هـ ه‬from s.o.
fall, be or become dark (night); pass. s.th.) II to keep away, avert, ward off (‫هـ ه‬
junna: to be or become possessed, insane, from s.o. s.th.), keep s.o. (‫ )ه‬out of the way
mad, crazy│ ‫( جن جنونه‬junūnuhū) to get of (‫)هـ‬, spare (‫ هـ ه‬s.o. s.th.) III to be or
madly excited, become frantic II to craze, walk by s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬side; to run alongside of
make crazy, drive insane, madden, enrage, (‫)هـ‬, run parallel to (‫)هـ‬, skirt, flank (‫هـ‬
infuriate (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to cover, veil, hide, s.th.); to avoid (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to avoid (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
conceal (‫ هـ‬s.th.); = II; V to go mad, ‫ ه‬s.o.); to keep away (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬from), steer
become crazy X to be covered, veiled, clear, get out of the way (‫ ه‬,‫ هـ‬of) VI and
concealed; to regard (‫ ه‬s.o.) as crazy, think VIII = V; VIII to be at the side of (‫)هـ‬, run
(‫ ه‬s.o.) mad side by side with (‫)هـ‬, run alongside of (
‫)هـ‬, skirt, flank (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫( جن‬coll.) jinn, demons (invisible beings,
either harmful or helpful, that interfere ‫ جنب‬janb pl. ‫ جنوب‬junūb, ‫ اجناب‬ajnāb
with the lives of mortals) side; janba (prep.) beside, next to, near,
at│‫( جنبا الى جنب‬also ‫ )جنبا لجنب‬side by side;
‫ جنى‬jinnī demonic; jinni, demon ‫( بين جنبيه‬janbaihi) inside (it), within; ‫مَا بين‬
‫ جنية‬jinnīya female demon ‫( جنبيه‬baina janbaihi) what it contains,
comprises, its contents; ‫ على جنب‬aside,
‫ جنة‬janna pl. -at, ‫ جنان‬jinān garden;
apart; ‫ ذات الجنب‬pleurisy
paradise│ ‫ جنات النعيم‬paradise; ‫ساكن الجنان‬
inhabitant of paradise, deceased person, ‫ جنبة‬janba pl. janabāt side; region,
one of blessed memory area│ ‫ فى جنباته‬in it, within, wide; ‫ضمه بين‬
‫( جنباته‬ḍammahū) to comprise, hold,
‫ جنينة‬junaina pl. -āt, ‫ جنائن‬janā’in2 little
contain s.th.; ‫ جنبات ال