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Micro and Macro Teaching

What Is Micro teaching?

Do you know that micro teaching originated in Stanford University, United


States in 1963? Robert Bush and D. Wight Allen first introduced micro teaching as an
organized practice. Microteaching is a method that enables teacher trainees to
practice a skill or combination of skills by teaching short lessons to a small number of
students, or a group of peers. Usually, a micro-lesson of between 20 to 30 minutes is
taught to eight to ten students or peers.

This would provide an opportunity for you to practice teaching theory or a


specific technique. You could practices teaching theory or technique in a controlled
situation whereby you play the role as a teacher and your peer teacher trainees play
the roles of students and at the same time observing and evaluating you.

Wragg (1999) in his book says that ”the argument in favour of the technique is
that it enables a teacher to develop his repertoire of professional skills in an
atmosphere congenial to learning, away from the hurly-burly of normal classroom life,
and that, especially for the novice, this relatively safe environment is essential for
effective learning to take place”.

Having read what Wragg has to say about micro teaching, do you agree that
it is an effective technique of ensuring that the student teacher learns and develops
his set of teaching skills in a conducive learning environment away from that of the
classroom?

Allen and Ryan (1969) suggest the following as the main propositions of
micro teaching:

1. Micro teaching is real teaching although the teaching situation is a


constructed one where lecturer and learner work together in a practice
situation

2. Micro teaching lessens the complexities of normal classroom teaching where


class size, scope of content, and time are all reduced.

3. Micro teaching focuses on training for the accomplishment of specific tasks,


such as an instructional skills, techniques of teaching and mastery of
curricular materials or demonstration of teaching methods

4. Micro teaching allows for the increased control of practice where time,
number of students, methods of feedback and supervision, and other factors
can be manipulated

5. Micro teaching greatly expands the normal knowledge-of-results or feedback


dimension in teaching. Through the use of appraisal forms designed to elicit
reactions to specific aspects of teaching, and video tape playbacks, the
learner knows how he has performed and then tries to think of ways to
improve.

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The Micro Teaching Process

The original micro teaching cycle developed at Stanford in the early 1960s
consisted of the sequences Plan – Teach – Observe (Critique) – Replan - Reteach –
Reobserve (Allen and Ryan, 1987).

Each cycle was devoted to the practice of one component skill such as set
induction and closure (the beginning and ending of lesson segments), effective
questioning, student reinforcement and student participation. Lectures and skill
demonstrations were given to the students prior to the practice of the skill.

The micro teaching process investigated in this unit consists of: discussion
and planning, implementation (teaching), reflective evaluation (criticism), replanning
and reteaching. Figure 4.1 illustrates the Micro teaching Process.

Plan

State the objective and


Observer’s opinion teach

Re-teach Observer’s criticism


The Micro teaching process
Re-plan

Figure 4.1 The Micro teaching Process

As a trainee, you are advised to begin each micro teaching session with the
statement of the objectives of the lesson you want to teach. This will then be followed
by the presentation of the matter in an organized, sequential manner. You should
bear in mind the appropriate speed of presentation, use of illustrations and examples.
If you can throw in a few suitable jokes and humour as and when necessary.
However, try not to overdo it.

At the end of the lesson, you are encouraged to summarize the topic taught
and also to obtain student feedback. Why? In order to have a brief idea of your
students’ understanding and comprehension of the concepts and content taught.

During presentation, you should also try to use adequate and appropriate
audio-visual aids. Also try to ensure that your students take an active part throughout
your lesson.

What do you think of the micro teaching process? Sounds systematic,


doesn’t it? Try a few micro teaching sessions and you will be definitely impressed by
its utility in improving your teaching skills.

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Micro teaching Skills And Evaluation

You should realize that special concern of microteaching is the skills used by
you in face-to-face classroom contact. They are behaviours that are rather specific,
definable, observable, quantifiable and known related to students learning.

The various teaching skills emphasized in micro teaching and evaluation


includes the following:

 Set Induction
 Questioning techniques
 Discussion of experimental results
 Stimulus variations
 Reinforcement
 Explanation
 Use of resource materials, aids, examples, illustrations
 Closure

In the following section, we will examine each of the eight teaching skills listed
above as well as provide a sample appraisal guide for each of these skills.

Set induction

Let us now examine the first micro teaching skill, which is set induction. I am
sure you are familiar with the term “set induction”. Many times, you must have
exhausted all avenues trying to think of an interesting and stimulating set induction to
begin your lesson. Haven’t you?

What is set induction, anyway? As the name suggests, it is a skill concerned


with methods of preparing your students for a lesson: that is, pre-instructional
orientation. It actually introduces a lesson, or a new topic within a lesson in a way,
which will interest your students in what is to follow and help to establish what they
already know and link this to what is to follow.

What are some of the methods you have tried in the classroom? Try to recall,
and then jot them down on a piece of paper. You could control your voice, gesture
and eye contact to gain students’ attention. You could also use audio-visual aids or
changing the pattern of teacher and student interaction.

Guidelines for preparing induction set

In order to attain the purpose of induction set, it is necessary for you to


understand and bear in mind a few principles below. The induction set activity should
be:

a) Suited according to students’ experience, ability and age

b) Related to the content

c) Related to students’ prior knowledge

d) Interesting and able to sustain the students’ attention

e) Presented within the time limit and achieved its objective

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f) Meaningful to the students in terms of their ability, previous

knowledge, and interest

Objective of using induction set

(a) To attract students’ attention to what is taught;

(b) To construct students’ flow of thought

(c) To motivate the students

(d) To relate the students’ prior knowledge and experience with the new

knowledge

(e) To give suggestions on how to carry out activities, tasks or project

(f) To inform the students on the scope of the task given

(g) To make the lesson meaningful

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Table 4.2 Set Induction Appraisal Guide

Components Of Set Induction Yes No

Attention Gaining
1. Use of voice to focus interest
2. Use of audio-visual aids
3. Use of gestures and eye contact
4. Introducing something unusual

Motivation stimulation
1. To arouse curiosity (use of analogy)
2. Use of story telling technique
3. Involve students in their tasks
4. Ask provocative questions

Cognitive Link
1. Relate to past experience
2. Relate to new experience
3. Relate to current events
4. Relate to students’ interest and experience

Structure Provision
1. Stating the limits of the task
2. Using a series of questions
3. Stating ways to accomplish task
4. Stating activity, task or project
Please (√ ) at the relevant column .

Ask a colleague to evaluate your set induction skills using the appraisal
guide for set induction. Discuss ways to improve these skills.

Questioning Techniques

Another micro teaching skill is questioning. Questioning is one of the most


often used teaching techniques according to Kim and Kellough (1987). According to
Callahan and Clarke (1988), the use of questions is one of the most important of all
teaching techniques. First of all, what is questioning? It is concerned with the ability
to ask low-level and high-level questions. This skill also includes the ability to ask
various kinds of follow-up questions.

Follow-up questions include: follow-up prompts (modifying a question that


is too difficult for your students to answer), follow-up probes (asking your students
to clarify or elaborate an answer which is vague), and follow up redirections
(redirecting your student’s response to other students or the class in general for
comment and discussion).

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Construction of question

 The level of the questions should be suited according to students’ age, ability
and experience;
 The teacher should plan and prepare different types of questions before the
teaching takes place;
 The words used in the questions should be simple and easily understood by
the students;
 Use different types o questions to arouse students’ interest;
 Questions used should be able to promote thought
 Questions should be clear, precise and brief

Objective of questioning

 To arouse interest and curiosity


 To focus attention on an issue
 To stimulate learners to ask questions
 To diagnose specific learning difficulties
 To encourage reflection and self-evaluation
 To promote thought and the understanding of ideas
 To review content already learned
 To help recall specific information
 To reinforce recently learned material
 To teach via student answers
 To probe deeper after an answer is given

You have already been learning about this in Unit 1-3. So why don’t you get that unit
to refresh your memory.

As you read the section on questioning above, try and identify some of
the errors that you, as a teacher, commonly commit. Suggest some ways
you can enhance your questioning techniques.

Table 4.3 below provides the questioning techniques appraisal guide, which I
hope you will find useful. Look through it and give your comments.

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Table 4.3 Questioning Technique Appraisal Guide

Questioning techniques Number of questions


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Framing of questions
Clear and coherent
Focus on one idea
Pausing
Prompting
Refocusing
Redirecting
Handling of incorrect
responses
Distributing of questions
among the class
Levels Of Cognitive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Questions
Recall
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Please (√) at the relevant column based on the characteristics of each question asked.

From the table, you will notice that the questioning technique encompasses
the cognitive levels of questions asked, commonly known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Refresh you memory about how, when and on whom to use each of the six levels of
questions mentioned above.

The way a student is expected to respond to questioning is determined by the


levels at which the questions are worded: recall, comprehension, analysis, synthesis,
or evaluation. But the success of the student in answering the question is more often
determined by the teacher's questioning techniques.

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Discussion of experiment results

After the students have carried out the experiment and collected all the data
needed to prove their hypothesis, it is necessary for them to process the data into
meaningful information, discuss the experimental results and reaching conclusion.
Discussion of experimental results is an activity carried out by the students and
guided by you. In this way you and your students can interact, discuss and shared
information about the data. If it is carried in a proper manner, the teaching and
learning process will be more effective and interesting. It involves two procedures:

(a) Data processing

(a) Making calculation based on the data collected

(b) Representing the data in various format such as tables, charts and graph

(c) Interpreting graphs and charts

(d) Identifying the pattern of the data and its relationship

(e) Classifying the data

(b) Information reporting techniques

(a) Interpreting the relationship among the results, hypothesis and prediction

(b) Explaining the results

(c) Making the report orally or in writing

(d) Suggestion on ways to improve or improvise the experiment or to conduct


further experiments

Experimental results discussion involves a lot of high level thinking skills as


follows:

(a) Calculation

(b) Data interpretation (analyzing and explaining the pattern and differences in
the data)

(c) Recording data in various format

(d) Predicting the shape of the graph

(e) Relating the parameters and suggesting a formula that relates the parameters

(f) Deciding whether the experimental results conforms to the theory/hypothesis


and stating why it is so

(g) Identify any problems that may arise during the experiment

(h) Looking for other alternatives to achieve better results or to conduct further
experiment

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(i) Making final conclusion

(j) Reporting the results and the discussion of the outcome of the experiment

What is the role of the teacher during the discussion of experimental results?

(a) Acts as a facilitator

(b) Make sure the students take part actively in the discussion

(c) Provide appropriate responds, correct students’ mistakes, and don’t forget the
reinforcement

(d) Students must be informed of any rules and regulation regarding the
discussion

(e) Supervise the activities so that it runs smoothly

(f) Summarize ideas

(g) Show attention and appreciation for every idea and opinion given by any
student

Stimulus variation

The third micro teaching skill we will learn is stimulus variation. As the name
suggests, stimulus variation is concerned with the ability to introduce variety into
lesson so that your students will be attentive, interested and thus learn better.

Why do we train you, the learner, in the skills of stimulus variation? It is to


help you to avoid teaching styles which are likely to induce boredom in your students.
Some of the things you will learn are the use of movement in a systematic way and
the avoidance of teaching from one spot, the use of gestures, the development of
verbal and non-verbal methods of focusing students’ attention, change in speed
pattern, change of sensory focus, student talk, and student movement.

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Study the Stimulus Variation Guide in Table 4.4 below. Ask your
colleague to observe how many times you use each of the components
for duration of 30 seconds during a lesson. Discuss how you can
improve your skills in this aspect.

Table 4.4 Stimulus Variation Appraisal Guide ( at the relevant column)

30 seconds for each column


Components 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Teacher movement
Eye contact and movement
Teacher voice
Teacher-group interaction
Teacher-pupil-teacher interaction
Pupil-pupil interaction
Teacher-object interaction
Pupil-object interaction
Pupil verbal and physical activity

Skill of reinforcement

Reinforcement is one of the most widely known principles of successful


learning. This skill can modify or change student behaviour in a number of positive
ways. Training in the skills of reinforcement involves the development of
discriminating methods of rewarding and encouraging your students’ efforts and of
avoiding the often unconscious punishing comments on a student’s work.

How is the use reinforcement seen in the classroom? Educational


psychologists suggest a number of ways, such as when the teacher gives a smile,

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when she praises good answer, when she encourage a slow learner or when she
writes “Well done” on a piece of work.

What is the objective of using reinforcement? If you can recollect,


reinforcement can help to increase your students’ attention and also maintain a high
level of motivation. Besides, it also helps in promoting your students’ self-concept
and, consequently help to give them confidence.

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Can you think of some of the components of reinforcement skills? The
following are some suggestions:
 Positive verbal reinforcement - the use of such words as “ good”, “yes”,
“That’s right”;
 Positive non verbal reinforcement - a smile, nodding of head, clapping hands;
 Proximity - moving nearer or standing next to, sitting near the students, etc;
 Contact - patting the student’s head, shaking hands;
 Negative verbal reinforcement - “No”, “wrong”, “Nonsense”;
 Negative non- verbal reinforcement - shaking the head, frowning, etc.

Give two scenarios in your science classroom that requires the skill of
reinforcement from you as an effective teacher.

Using Table 4.5(with the help of your collogues) you could use to improve your skills
of reinforcement.

Table 4.5 Skill of Reinforcement Appraisal Guide ( at the relevant column)

Components Yes No
Positive verbal reinforcement
Positive non verbal reinforcement
Proximity
Contact
Negative verbal reinforcement
Negative non verbal cues

Explanation Skills, Use Of Teaching and Learning Aids

Based on your experience in the classroom you may have understand the
importance of mastering the skill associated with using relevant and interesting
examples to illustrate a point, besides selecting appropriate teaching aids.

What other aspects does this sixth micro teaching skill cover? .

It also deals with suitable organization of content; implementation at


appropriate stages; stressing of important points by repetition; use of voice; gesture,
obtaining pupil participation and feedback. Quite a wide scope, isn’t it?

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Do you know there are three main forms of explanation?

Interpretative This specifies the central meaning of a term or statement, or


clarifies an issue. For example, density is the relationship
between mass and volume of an object
Descriptive Describe processes, structures and procedures; clarify further an
idea by describing it. For example, the steps to carry out
dissection are as follows ….
Reason-giving Mostly suitable for an explanation that uses the logical processes
to answer the question on how and why something happens. For
example, “Why does ice float in water?”

Basically, Table 4.6 illustrates the four main aspects, namely, level of initiation,
the use of illustration/ examples/audio-visual aids, arrangement of ideas, and
conclusion. Look through the list and check which the ones you normally use are.
Explore the possibility of trying out the ones you do not normally use in your
classroom the next time you teach.

Components and criteria Yes No

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Level of initiation
 Quality of voice variation in pitch, tone and volume
 Emphasizing key points
 Suitable gesture and movement
 Simple and concise

Use of illustration/ examples/audio-visual aids


 Relevant
 Clear and interesting
 Variety
 Sufficient

Arrangement of ideas
 Orderly elaboration of ideas
 Use of non verbal cues e.g. gestures and verbal expressions)

Conclusion
 Key points are clearly stated (oral/written)
 Key points orderly arranged.
 Clear and concise
Please (√ ) at the relevant column.

Closure

This micro teaching skill, closure, is the obverse of set induction. It involves
training in different methods of concluding a lesson with you, the learner, taking steps
to ensure that your students have understood and are able to see the connections
with what has been learnt.

It is also seen as the rounding off a lesson or topic so as to reinforce your


students’ interest in it and also helps to recapitulate what has been learnt.

Do you know that there are two important types of closure? They are known
as cognitive and social. What is the difference between the two?

Cognitive closure is directed at consolidating what your students have learnt


and focusing their attention on the major points covered in the lesson or lesson
segment. Whereas in social closure, you are more concerned with giving your
students a sense of achievement so that, despite any difficulties they encountered
within the lesson, they are encouraged to continue striving. Usually, the social
closure is used at the end of a lesson (Table 4.7). How often do you use these two
types of closure? Which of the two do you usually use?

Table 4.7 Closure Appraisal Guide

Component and criteria Yes No

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Cognitive link
 Make a summary
 Repetition of key points
 Correcting assignment
 Suggestion of further activity
 Reinforcement exercise

Social Link
 Create a sense of achievement
 Positive reinforcement

Please (√) at the relevant column.

Implementation of micro teaching in teaching and learning

The lesson plan format for micro teaching is generally similar to that of lesson
plan for classroom teaching and learning, with the exception that micro teaching only
focuses on one teaching skill.

What is Macro teaching?

Macro teaching is a teaching simulation on a complete lesson in a normal


class. The simulation can be carried out in classroom, laboratory or preview room.
Macro teaching is the integration of micro teaching techniques. The teacher trainee
practices teaching theory or technique in a controlled situation whereby one or two
teacher trainees play the role as a teacher and the peer teacher trainees play the
roles of students and at the same time observing and evaluating the teacher. Great
effort should be taken to integrate all the knowledge and experience learned in
planning the teaching and learning in classroom. Teaching is an experience that
needs to be practiced since practice makes perfect.

Macro teaching skills

Good planning can be transformed into teaching action in classroom. Every


trainee teacher must have earlier picture or scenario of the real situation of a
classroom in school. It is important to practice laboratory/practical work in macro
teaching to prepare the trainee teachers as smart school teachers in the new
millennium. The evaluation form for macro teaching as shown in Table 4.1, can be
carried out in any of the following ways:

 All the trainee teachers will watch the videos recorded to evaluate and
discuss the weak and strong points of the subject and teaching.

 If the teaching is not recorded, three trainee teachers act as evaluators to


evaluate the practical class carried out.

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Trainee’s name: ___________________ Date :___________________

Subject :____________________ Time :___________________

Topic :____________________

Table 4.1: Macro teaching Evaluation Form

No. Criteria and Teaching Phase Comment and Reason


1. Orientation
1. Is the topic clearly introduced?
2. Does it arouse the student’s interest?
3. Does it promote thinking skills?
2 Eliciting ideas
1. What is the technique used?
2. Are the techniques used successful?

3. Restructuring of Ideas
1. Are the activities interesting?
2. Are the students thinking?
3. Is the learning experience
meaningful? Why?
4. Is the class control effective?

4. Application of Ideas
1. What sort of problem is given?
2. Is the student’s idea applicable?

5. Reflection
1. Do the questions promote reflective
thinking?
2. Are the student’s motivated ?
. Overall
1. Was the lesson successful?
2. Why?

Evaluator’s signature: Lecturer’s signature

………………………… ……………………..

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Using a suitable graphic organizer, compare and contrast between
macro teaching and micro teaching.

Teaching Experience Assignment

The lesson plan is a basic document that describes what is to be done, how it is to be
done and what the expected outcomes of the experience will be.

1. Choose a suitable topic from different areas in the Primary Science Curriculum.
Referring to the three lesson plans given, prepare three 60-minute lessons
using the three approaches.

2. After completing your lesson plans, have your lesson plans evaluated by at
least one of your experienced senior science teacher.

3. Implement all your amended lesson plans in your normal teaching. You are
required to have your experienced senior science teacher observe and
comment one of your teaching sessions.

4. After your teaching, have a discussion with your experienced science teacher.
Reflect on your teaching and write a report on your reflection and submit it to
your lecturer. Which of the approaches do you think are more manageable?

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References

Allen & Ryan in Brown, G. (1987). Micro teaching: A program of teaching skills.
London: Methuen.

Cohen, L., Manion,L.(1977). To all student teachers on teaching practice .London :


Methuen.

Darling-Hammond, L.(1991). Teachers and Teaching: Signs of a changing profession.


In The Handbook of research on teacher education. Houston(ed.) New York:
Macmillan

Day,C. (1999). Developing Teachers: The Challenges of Lifelong Learning. London:


Falmer Press.

Hoyle, E. & John, P. (1995). Professional Knowledge and professional practice.


London: Cassel

Jacobsen, D., Eggen, P. & Kaucahak, D. (1993). Methods for teaching. New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company.

Lieberman, M. (1995). Education as a profession. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Ryan, K. & Cooper, J. M. (1998). Those Who Can Teach. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Wragg, E. C. (1999). An introduction to classroom observation. London: Routledge.

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