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Unit I

Basic Concepts and Governing Equations of Fluid Motion


• Definition and properties of Fluids,
• Fluid continuum,
• Langragian and Eulerian description,
• Velocity and stress field,
• Fluid statics, Fluid kinematics,
• Reynolds transport theorem,
• Differential forms of governing equations: mass momentum and energy
conservation equations,
• Navier-Stokes equations,
• Euler's equations and
• Bernoulli's equation
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Definition and properties of Fluids
Fluid Continuum
Fluid Continuum
Fluid Continuum
Fluid Continuum
Fluid Continuum
Fluid Continuum
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Langragian and Eulerian description
Velocity and stress field
Velocity and stress field
Velocity and stress field
Fluid statics
Fluid statics
Fluid statics
Fluid statics
Fluid kinematics
Fluid kinematics
Fluid kinematics
Fluid kinematics
MOST COMMON FLOW TYPES
Fluid kinematics
MOST COMMON FLOW TYPES
Fluid kinematics
FLOW Pattern
Fluid kinematics
FLOW Pattern
Fluid kinematics
FLOW Pattern
Fluid kinematics
FLOW Pattern
Fluid kinematics
Physical Quantity
Fluid kinematics
Physical Quantity
Fluid kinematics
Physical Quantity
Fluid kinematics
FUNCTIONS
Fluid kinematics
FUNCTIONS
Fluid kinematics
FUNCTIONS
Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transport theorem
Reynolds transport theorem
Differential forms of governing equations:
(1) mass, (2) momentum, and (3) energy conservation equations,

Fluid Mechanics is based on the fundamental governing equations of fluid


dynamics and heat transfer – continuity, momentum and energy equations.
THESE EQUATIONS SPEAK PHYSICS.
Basically they are the mathematical statements of three fundamental physical
principals upon which all of fluid dynamics and heat transfer is based

1. Scalar Mass is conserved: Continuity Equations


2. Vector Momentum is conserved in three directions (Newton’s Second law
F=ma): Momentum Equations
3.Scalar Energy is conserved
(First law of thermodynamics): Energy Equation.

The governing equations represent mathematical statements of the conservation


laws of physics.
Methodology for derivation of GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Choose the appropriate fundamental physical principals from the laws of


physics,
1. Mass is conserved, 2. Momentum is conserved F = ma (Newton’s
Second law), and 3. Energy is conserved (First law of thermodynamic).

The chosen physical principles are applied to a suitable


model of fluid and heat flow

From the above application, extract the mathematical


equations which embody such physical principles.
Conservation / Divergence form of governing equation

Application of Fundamental physical


principals from the laws of physics

Flow model in which in which ‘finite control


volume (V)’ or
‘infinitesimal fluid element / differential
(dV)’ is fixed in space with the fluid moving
through it

Governing mathematical equations (


integral or partial differential ) in the
conservation form
Non-conservation / Non-divergence form of governing equation

Application of Fundamental physical


principals from the laws of physics

Flow model in which in which ‘finite control


volume (V)’ or
‘infinitesimal fluid element / differential
(dV)’ is moving in space with the fluid

Governing mathematical equations (


integral or partial differential ) in the
non-conservation form
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of continuity EQUATION
derivation of momentum EQUATION in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
x-component of the momentum equation for COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of momentum EQUATION in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
x-component of the momentum equation COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of momentum EQUATION in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
x-component of the momentum equation for COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of momentum EQUATION in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
x-component of the momentum equation for COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of momentum EQUATION in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
x-component of the momentum equation for viscous flow
derivation of momentum EQUATION for viscous flow in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
derivation of momentum EQUATION for CoMPRESSIBLE viscous flow in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
in CONSERVATION FORM
derivation of momentum EQUATION for COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
in CONSERVATION FORM
derivation of momentum EQUATION for COMPRESSOBLE viscous flow in 3 dimensions(x, y, &Z)
in CONSERVATION FORM
derivation of energy EQUATION FOR A 3-dimensional VISCOUS FLOW
derivation of energy EQUATION FOR A 3-dimensional VISCOUS FLOW
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional COMPREsSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional COMPRESSIBLE viscous flow
derivation of energy EQUATION for 3-Dimensional compressible viscous flow in CONSERVATION /
diffusive FORM
Common outward appearance of all the conservation/ Divergence form coupled equations for compressible viscous
flow
Navier-Stokes equations versus Euler's equations
Euler's equations for unsteady , 3-D, compressible in viscid flow
Euler's equations for unsteady , 3-D, compressible in viscid flow
Bernoulli's equation
for steady , 3-D, Incompressible , in viscid and IRROTATIONAL flow
derivation of Bernoulli's equation from N-S Equations
derivation of Bernoulli's equation from N-S Equations
derivation of Bernoulli's equation from N-S Equations
numerical problem No.1
SOLUTION to numerical problem No.1
numerical problem No.2
SOLUTION to numerical problem No.2
SOLUTION to numerical problem No.2