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ME 603: Mechanical System Design

Design of Brakes

Dr. Vineet Sahoo


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Classification of Mechanical Components
Mechanical
Components

Transformation of Supports of Mechanically


Mechanical Power Generated Loads
• Welded Joints
• Fasteners and Non-Permanent Joints
Dissipation Transmission Storage
• Brakes • Springs
• Clutches • Flygear

Rotational Fluid to Rotational • Gears


rotational • Pulley, Belts and chains
to Linear to
and/or Linear • Bearings
Rotational
• Power Screw • Shafts
• Hydraulic • Couplings, splines, seals
• Pneumatic
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
BRAKES

The purpose of the brakes is to slow down or Stop the vehicle as desired
by the driver

Brake system can be classified as:


 Hydraulic Brakes (Hydrodynamic Brake)
 Electric Brake (Eddy-current Brake)
 Mechanical Brakes
 Radial Brakes
 Axial Brakes

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


MANUAL HYDRAULIC BRAKE

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


POWER ASSISTED BRAKE

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Band Brakes
• Simple band brakes

D= Diameter of brake drum


Tt
As Tt ≥ Ts  e 
Ts
The torque absorbed by the brake

M t  Tt  Ts   Ts  e  1
D  D
2 2
μ varies from 0.3-0.5

a 2M t a
F  Ts 
D  e  1 l
• Moment equilibrium about the 
fulcrum of lever l
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Band Brakes
Advantages:
 It is simple in construction and low cost.
 Easy to manufacture
 More reliable due to small number of parts
 Requires less maintenance
Disadvantages:
 Heat dissipation capacity of band brake is poor
 The wear of friction lining of band brake is uneven form one end to another
Applications:
 Bucket Conveyor, hoist and chain saw.
 More popular as back-stop device
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Band Brakes
• Differential band brakes

D= Diameter of brake drum


Tt
As Tt ≥ Ts  e 
Ts
The torque absorbed by the brake

M t  Tt  Ts   Ts  e  1
D  D
2 2
μ varies from 0.3-0.5

aTs  bTt Ts
• Moment equilibrium about the
fulcrum of lever
F   a  be 


l l
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Band Brakes
Q-1: A differential band brake is shown in figure
a=200mm; b= 50 mm; c=950 mm; θ= 2400;
R=300mm.
The width and thickness of the steel band are
100 mm and 3mm respectively. The maximum
tensile stress in the band is 50MPa. The co-
efficient of friction lining and the brake drum is
0.25. Calculate
i) Tension in the band; ii) Actuating force; iii)
torque capacity of the brake. Iv) find ot whether
the brake is self-locking?

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Short Shoe)
b F
c N
N
a

Oh
Ov

F
Av
b = width of friction lining
Ah parallel to the axis of the brake
N drum

N
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Short Shoe)
• Creates a normal force between the shoe and the rotating drum. The
resulting friction force andT  normal
Nr forces are assumed to act at the mid
contact point of the shoe and the drum if the shoe is short.
• Drum rotation is clockwise
• Taking the moment about the pivot point ‘A’ of the lever
Fc   Na  bN  0
• On solving Fc
N
b  a
• Taking Torque about the center of the drum ‘O’
T   Nr

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Short Shoe)
• Torque about the center of the drum ‘O’
 Fcr
T
b  a
• The torque is the inertial and load torque required for equilibrium, and it is
numerically equal to the friction torque developed by the brake.
• This is self energizing as the frictional force helps in brake application. This
is possible as the drum is rotating clockwise
• If the drum rotates anticlockwise, the direction of friction force is opposite.

 Fcr
T (Self  deenergizing)
b  a
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)

• Assume the drum turns at constant velocity. That means the normal wear is
proportional to frictional work done (i.e. the product pV)
• p= Intensity of the pressure acting on the friction lining

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
• Hence p  sin 
p pmax

sin  sin  max

• Defines the normal pressure at any point on the shoe. The friction force is
small at small θ, is optimum at θ=900, and diminishes at angle larger than 900.
• Considering small elemental strip with uniform width (w) of friction lining

dN  p (rd  ) w
dFf   p (rd  ) w

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
• Taking the moment about the fulcrum ‘O’
aFa  M N  M F f  0
2
MN    p rd  w  b sin 
1

pmax 1 1 
M N  wrb
sin  max  2  2  1   4  sin 2 2  sin 21  
2
M Ff     p rd  w  (r  b cos  )
1

 
M Ff   wr
pmax
sin  max   r  cos  2  cos 1  
b
2
 sin 2
 2  sin 2
1 

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
• Taking the moment about the fulcrum ‘O’
MN M Ff
Fa 
a
• ‘-’ sign is for self-energizing and ‘+’ sign for self de-energizing.
• Self-locking occurs with self-energizing when

M N  M Ff
• The torque absorbed by the brake is equal to the torque produced by the friction
force on the brake drum

2
pmax
T     wp rd   r   w r  cos 1  cos  2 
2

1 sin  max
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
• The reaction at the pivot/fulcrum ‘O’
2 2 2 2
Rx    cos  dN   sin  dF f , and Ry   cos  dF f   sin  dN  Fa
1 1 1 1

  sin 2  2 sin 2 1  
    
pmax   2 2  
Rx  wr  
sin  max  1 1 
     2  1    sin 2 2  sin 2  1   
  2 4  
  sin 2  2 sin 2 1  
     
pmax   2 2  
Ry  wr    Fa
sin  max  1 1 
    2   1    sin 2 2  sin 2 1   
  2 4  
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Example

• Determine the friction torque T, actuating force Fa ,and Reaction forces Rx , Ry


• The Dimensions are a=180mm; b=90mm; r=100mm; w=30mm; θ1=300; θ2=1200;
θmax=900;

Solution: MN=497 N-m; MFf=181 N-m; Fa=1743 N;T=217 N-m; Rx=794 N; Ry=4134 N

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


DRUM BRAKES

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes

• In braking systems, the internal-shoe or


drum brake is used mostly for
automotive applications.
• It consists of shoe that is pivoted at one
end and is subjected to an actuating
force at the other.
• The actuating force is usually provided by means of a hydraulic cylinder or a
cam mechanism.

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes

The analysis of an internal shoe brake is


based on the following assumption.
 The intensity of normal pressure
between the friction lining and the brake
drum at any point is proportional to the
vertical distance from the pivot.
 The brake drum and shoe are rigid.
 Centrifugal force acting on the shoe is
negligible.
 Co-efficient of friction is constant.
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes

Considering an elemental area on


the friction lining located at an
angle θ.
Elemental Area= b(rdθ)
Where b= width of friction lining.
p=Intensity of pressure on
elemental area.

p pmax

sin  sin  max
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes
Pressure Distribution

θmax

θmax
p pmax

sin  sin  max
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes
The normal reaction and the frictional force
on the elemental area are

dN  p(rd  ) w
dFf   p(rd  ) w

Taking the moment about the Pivot ‘A’


MN M Ff
Fa 
c
‘-’ sign is for self-energizing and ‘+’ sign for self de-
energizing.

Self-locking occurs with self-energizing when M N  M Ff


Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes
The Moment due to normal reaction and due to the frictional force
2
MN    p rd  w  a sin 
1

pmax 1 1 
M N  wra  2       sin 2  sin 21 
sin  max
2 1 2
4 
2
M Ff     p rd  w  (r  a cos  )
1

 
 r  cos  2  cos 1   2  sin  2  sin 1  
pmax a
M Ff   wr 2 2

sin  max
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes

• The torque absorbed by the brake is equal to the torque produced by the friction
force on the brake drum

2
pmax
T     wp rd   r   w r  cos 1  cos  2 
2

1 sin  max

• The reaction at the pivot/fulcrum ‘O’


2 2
Rx   cos  dN   sin  dF f  Fx ;
1 1
2 2
and Ry   cos  dF f   sin  dN  Fy
1 1

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Internal Expanding Block Brakes

• The reaction at the pivot/fulcrum ‘O’

 sin 2  2 sin 2 1  
   
pmax  2 2  
Rx  wr    Fx
sin  max     1     1 sin 2  sin 2  
      

2 1 2 1
  2 4 

  sin 2  2 sin 2 1  
    
pmax   2 2  
Ry  wr    Fy
sin  max    1     1 sin 2  sin 2  
  2  2 1  2 1  

 4

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Pivoted Block Brakes
The brake shown in Figure is 300 mm in
diameter and is actuated by a mechanism that
exerts the same force F on each shoe. The
shoes are identical and have a face width of 32
mm. The lining is a molded asbestos having a
coefficient of friction of 0.32 and a pressure
limitation of 1000 kPa. Estimate the maximum
(a) Actuating force F. 2.28 kN
(b) Braking capacity. 528 N – m
(c) Hinge-pin reactions. RR= 5.04 kN; RL= 0.866 kN kN

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Pivoted Block Brakes with Symmetrical shoe
It should be noted that, when external contracting designs are used as clutches,
the effect of centrifugal force is to decrease the normal force. Thus, as the speed
increases, a larger value of the actuating force F is required.

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Pivoted Block Brakes with Symmetrical shoe
The pivot is symmetrically located and also placed so that the moment of the
friction forces about the pivot is zero.
 Assumption:
Vertical components of wear
are equal

From Uniform wear theory


w0  kpn
w( ) cos   kpn
(cos  ) max  1;  w( )  kpn
and pn  pmax cos 
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Pivoted Block Brakes with Symmetrical shoe
Proceeding to the force analysis

dN  p (rd  ) b
dN  pmax cos  (rd  ) b
The distance a to the pivot is chosen by finding where the moment of the frictional
forces Mf is zero. First, this ensures that reaction RY is at the correct location to
establish symmetrical wear. Second, a cosinusoidal pressure distribution is
sustained, preserving our predictive ability. Symmetry means θ1=θ2, so
2
4r sin  2
M Ff  2    dN  (a cos   r );  a 
0
2 2  sin 2 2
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Pivoted Block Brakes with Symmetrical shoe
The distance a depends on the pressure distribution. Mislocating the pivot makes
Mf zero about a different location, so the brake lining adjusts its local contact
pressure, through wear, to compensate. The result is unsymmetrical wear

The horizontal and vertical reactions are


2 2
p max br
Rx  2  dN cos  2  (p max br cos  d ) cos    2 2  sin 2 2 
0 0
2
2 2
 p max br
Ry  2   dN cos  2   (p max br cos  d ) cos    2 2  sin 2 2 
0 0
2

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
Example:
The shoes on the brake depicted in the
figure subtend a 90° arc on the drum of
this external pivoted-shoe brake. The
actuation force P is applied to the lever.
The rotation direction of the drum is
counterclockwise, and the coefficient of
friction is 0.30.
(a) What should the dimension e be, in order to eliminate frictional moments on
each shoe? (b) Draw the free-body diagrams of the handle lever and both shoe
levers, with forces expressed in terms of the actuation force P. (c) Does the
direction of rotation of the drum affect the braking torque?
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Radial Brakes: Block Brakes (Long Shoe)
(c) The direction of brake pulley rotation affects
the sense of Sy, which has no effect on the brake
shoe lever moment and hence, no effect on Sx or
the brake torque. The brake shoe levers carry
identical bending moments but the left lever
carries a tension while the right carries
compression (column loading). The right lever is
designed and used as a left lever, producing
interchangeable levers (identical levers). But do
not infer from these identical loadings.

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
The disk brake has no self-energization, and hence is not so susceptible to
changes in the coefficient of friction.
Drum Brakes are being replaced by Disc Brakes in automobiles due to the
following reasons
• Pressure is uniform, and hence wear is also uniform for the whole surface.
• Since the rotating disc is open to atmosphere, cooling is better.
• Direction of rotation has no effect on braking torque.
• It will never be self-locking.
• Force on one shoe is cancelled by the other shoe as they are opposite
direction, hence no axial thrust.
• Since the force is axial, no bending of shaft that contains the disc.
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Axial Brakes: Disc Brake

• The coordinate r locates the line of action of force F that intersects the y axis.
• The effective radius re, which is the radius of an equivalent shoe of
infinitesimal radial thickness.

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
If p is the local contact pressure, the actuating force F and the friction torque T are
given by
 2 ro ro

F   prdrd  
ri
2  1   prdr
ri
1

 2 ro ro

T   pr 2
drd    2 1   dr
    pr 2

1 ri ri
ro

At equivalent radius re  Fre  T  pr 2


dr
T
re  
ri

F ro


ri
prdr

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
The locating coordinate r of the activating force is found by taking moments about
the x axis
 2 ro ro

M x  Fr    pr  r sin   drd   cos   cos  2   pr dr


2
1
1 ri ri

M x  cos 1  cos  2 
r  re
F  2  1 

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
Uniform Wear:

• The axial wear to be the same everywhere, the product PV must be a constant.
• The pressure p can be expressed in terms of the largest allowable pressure
pmax (which occurs at the inner radius ri)
• Therefore pressure at any radius r is
pmax ri
p
r
• The actuating force F and the friction torque T

F   2  1  pmax ri  ro  ri 
ro

T    2  1  pmax ri  rdr    2  1  pmax ri  r0  ri 


1 2 2

ri
2
Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur
Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
Uniform Wear:
ro

pmax ri  rdr
ro  ri
re  
ri
ro
2
pmax ri  dr
ri

r 
 cos 1  cos  2  ro  ri
 2  1  2

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
Uniform Pressure theory:

• Considering the condition of new brake p=pmax.

• The actuating force F and the friction torque T


ro

F   2  1  pmax  rdr   2  1  pmax  r0  ri 


1 2 2

ri
2
ro

T    2  1  pmax  r dr    2  1  pmax  r0  ri 
12 3 3

ri
3

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur


Axial Brakes: Disc Brake
Uniform Pressure theory:

2  r  ri 
3 3

re 
0

3  r0  ri 
2 2

2  r  ri   cos 1  cos  2 
3 3

r
0

3  r02  ri 2   2  1 

Dr. Vineet Sahoo, MED, NIT Jamshedpur