Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 75

A STUDY ON ANALYSIS OF JOB DESIGN WITH REFERENCE TO BSNL

Chapter
No. Name of the concept Page No.

INTRODUCTION 3

NEED OF THE STUDY 4

SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4

I
OBJECTIVES 4

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 5-8

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 9

II REVIEW OF LETERATURE 10-45

III INDUSTRY & COMPANY PROFILE 46-49

IV DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 50-65

V FINDING & SUGGESTIONS & CONCLUSION 67-72

VI BIBLIOGRAPHY 73

1
CHAPTER – I
INTRODUCTION

2
Need & Scope of Study
Researcher deals through the problem, methods and system that are adopted by the company
and modify them in systematic and scientific manner in right direction so that it becomes
easier for both the organization to deal and employee to follow it. This study shows the
current position of the company how the working process is going on and identifies the
barriers and hinder age that comes in between different level between employees. We just try
to deal whether the employee are posted as per the job and position they are appointed for in
right place and position.
Going through current and updating may be difficult but we have to do it be in market. There
should be good understanding between the employee and employer and other certain factor
that comes on the way. some time top management rely on the old traditional system and they
aspect to continue through it as it becomes easier for them and it safe, they always wants to be
in safe zone and play the game. Sometimes employee themselves don’t want changes, union
may also come in way similarly there are various factor that may comes in between. As per
the demand and situation if changes are not implemented company lack behind and loose its
identity.
Though the term job analysis and design may look simple it’s the base or important part of
organization, improper posting, appointing less skill and knowledge person, not identifying on
interest, positioning him to the wrong post or unrelated work may cause lot of problem for
both the organization and individual himself. So a lot of care should be taken while hiring
individual and positioning him to the right post after and clearly informing him about his
duties and responsibility. As in the current scenario big company doesn’t have time to
selection and hiring process i.e. its time consuming so they consult with consults and select
the as consultant deals with various methods and procedure and select right candidates as per
the requirement of organization. Organization may concerned with the experts, may go
through certain procedure and methods depends also on organization size and budget selected
to conduct.
Overall we can say that by conducting this research it becomes easier for the organization to
identify actual procedure they are following and to choose their right one or go through it after
analyzing it. It also benefits for researcher as on got to know how the organization do the
processes and implement it. this research material act as baseline for those who want to do the
research in the coming days and update from the current content, it safe both time and money
they doesn’t have to go through the beginning.
3
 Changes need to be adopted as per the time and situation demands.
 Depending upon the coordination between employees it affects overall performance.
 One should be posted as he/she is appointed for the job.

Objectives of study:
 To help in recruitment and selection by defining significant qualification standards.
 To help in designing and developing standards for performance and appraisals.
 Allocating responsibilities aligned to the company mission and vision and those that
help in the realization of organisations business plans and strategies.
 To Identification of career and growth paths in organisations and Establish standards
for compensation.

Research Methodology:

Source of Data:
a. primary sources
Primary data is original and thus accurate and reliable. It is expensive and time consuming.
Primary data are Document or record containing first-hand information or original data on
topic.
Primary sources are works created
 at the time of an event, or
 By a person who directly experienced an event.
It is the content, not necessarily the format, of a work that makes it a primary source. For
example, an online copy of a newspaper from March 20, 1897, is still a primary source even
though the article viewed on your computer was digitized more than a century after the article
was first printed.
Primary sources can include:
 Interviews, diaries, letters, journals, speeches, autobiographies, and witness statements
 Articles containing original research, data, or findings never before shared
 Original hand-written manuscripts
 Government documents and public records
 Art, photographs, films, maps, fiction, and music
 Newspaper and magazine clippings

4
 Artifacts, buildings, furniture, and clothing
b. Secondary Data:
Any published or unpublished work that is one step removed from the original source, usually
describing, summarizing, analyzing, evaluating, derived from, or based on primary source
materials. Secondary sources are also important to help inform your research, and are usually
acceptable sources to cite.
Secondary sources are works that
 are one step removed from the original event or experience
 provide criticism or interpretation of a primary source

Secondary sources can include


 Textbooks
 Review articles and critical analysis essays
 Biographies
 Historical films, music, and art
 Articles about people and events from the past

3.5 Data Collection Techniques

When collecting job analysis data, these basic methods can be use separately or in some
combination:
 Observation
 Interview
 Questionnaires
 Job incumbent diaries or logs
 In each method, information about the job is collected and then studied in terms of
tasks completed by the job incumbent (job oriented analysis)
 A job can also be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to
perform the job (work-oriented analysis)
 Both orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection
Procedures if they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the
job
 Because time and cost are considerations, managers must collect comparable, valid
data
 Core information is needed no matter which data collection method is used

5
 A job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the core information for any job
analysis method
 This questionnaire provides a thorough picture of the job, job duties, and requirements
 After job incumbents complete the JAIF, the answers are used to structure the data
collection technique that will eventually be implemented
 Not all incumbents or their supervisors view a job in the same way
 Collect information from a variety of incumbents: young and old, male and female,
high- and low-performing
 Do not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of
knowledge about a job
Observation
 Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-job-
cycle activities (assembly-line worker, insurance filing clerk,)
 Direct observation is not usually appropriate when the job involves significant mental
activity (scientist, lawyer, mathematician)
 This technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job
behaviors and to be as unobtrusive as possible

Interviews
 Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation
 The most widely used technique
 Allows the job analyst to talk with job incumbents face-to-face
– The job incumbent can ask the analyst questions
– Allows the analyst to explain how the information gained will be used

 Interviews can be conducted with a single incumbent, a group of incumbents, or a


supervisor who is familiar with the job
 A structured set of questions is used so that answers from individuals or groups can be
compared
 Interviews are difficult to standardize
 Different interviewers may ask different questions
 The same interviewer might ask different questions of different respondents
 Information may be unintentionally distorted by the interviewer
 Interviewing costs can be high, especially if group interviews aren’t practical

Questionnaires
 Questionnaires are the least costly method for collecting information

6
 It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time
 A structured questionnaire includes specific questions about the job, working
conditions, and equipment
 An open-ended format permits job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to
describe the job
 The format and structure of a questionnaire are debatable issues
 There really is no best format
 Hints for making a questionnaire easier to use:
 Keep it as short as possible
 Explain what the questionnaire is being used for
 Keep it simple
 Test the questionnaire before using it
Job Incumbent Diary or Log
 The diary or log is a recording by incumbents of:
 Job duties
 Frequency of the duties
 When the duties are accomplished
 Most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a log
 If the log is kept properly, it provides good information from which comparisons can
be made
 This permits an examination of the routine and exceptions to job duties
 The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe
Which Method to Use?
 There is no agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information
 Many experts agree that interviews should not be the sole data collection method
 Certain methods may be better suited to a given situation than others
 Most organizations base their choice on:
– The purpose of the analysis
– Time and budget constraints

 Many organizations are turning to a multi methods job analysis approach


 The analyst interviews incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site
observation
 A task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered
 A statistical analysis of the responses is conducted in order to assess their consistency
and to identify any systematic variation in them

7
 Using a comprehensive process is relatively expensive and time-consuming
 However, the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is
strongly endorsed by courts

Specific Quantitative Techniques


Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are the:
 Functional job analysis
 Position analysis questionnaire
 Management position description questionnaire

1.6 Limitation of Study

 Involves Personal Business: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the


same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes.
This is a major hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data.
 Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source of
collecting data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from few
individuals needs to be standard.
 Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts. As
every job carries different information and there is no set pattern, customized
information is to be collected for different jobs. The process needs to be conducted
separately for collecting and recording job-related data.
 Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not aware of
the objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate skills to
conduct the process, it is a sheer wastage of company’s resources. He or she needs
to be trained in order to get authentic data.
 Mental Abilities Cannot be Directly Observed: Last but not the least, mental
abilities such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge, aptitude, psychic
and endurance are intangible things that cannot be observed or measured directly.
People act differently in different situations. Therefore, general standards cannot
be set for mental abilities.

8
CHAPTER – II
Review of
Literature:

9
Review of Literature:

Researcher read a research regarding job analysis which was conducted by Muhammad
Usman Zafar (national college of business administration and economics) in Pakistan in
November 2005. Human resource experts were involved in for identification the effect and
use of different variables for analyzing job analysis. Reason for conducting this research is
also to know the job design process and practices. As per researcher suggested scopes for
future studies is as:
Objectives from the researcher point of view:
The primary objective of this research is to explore the different job analysis practices in
Pakistani organization. It aims to develop a model technique that may provide convenience to
managers to understand and conduct proper job analysis.
Recommendation as per researcher
Researcher has recommended under two stages as
 First is to explore the current job analysis practices so that one has a fair enough ideas
that where Human Resources Practices stand in business word.
 Second is to strive for betterment of job analysis and HR planning. It can be done by
investing the soft links between HR variables through extensive casual studies.
It is stated earlier and assumed that gathering information (both exploratory and
casual) regarding these factors would help managers to conduct job analysis more
effectively and successfully. To add cultural aspects (related to society and related to
individual organizations) in analysis processes and measuring job satisfaction will
introduce many interesting debates and provides insights for managerial guidance in
the field of human resources.

10
2.3 Research Gap:
 In the 1980s and 1990s, European and Asian firms revolutionized job design by
embracing the quality management movement

 More recently, self-directed teams have become important in the success of


manufacturers worldwide
 American firms are also implementing self-directed work teams and are reengineering
their work process to regain a competitive advantage
 Many organizations have learned that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful
attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills

 The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s


competency alignment process (CAP)
– CAP determines the skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps
– When a gap is identified, it can be eliminated through a variety of programs,
including training, redeployment, and outsourcing

 Without these or similar efforts, reengineering will probably not succeed

2.4 Review of Articles

1. Job Analysis Using Six Sigma: by Kanakdurga prasad Dinanath Irabatti (2012,
may 25)
Conclusion drawn as

Utilizing six sigma techniques to this process is very interesting thing. Six sigma is a way of
creating excellence in organization through an application of continuous quality improvement.
Till now six sigma is applied to various functions in organization, but not to job analysis.

As job analysis is an essential process of HRM department, six sigma fits best here. Job
description is an identification of various job roles required in company, so there should be a
proper differentiation among every type of job role. To hire people with exact skills, abilities,
knowledge, and experience job specification should be done properly.

Whenever jobs are analyzed, there might be change in internal structure, positions of earlier
employees, flow of activities etc. Applying six sigma benefits organization to improve quality
of work, reduce time, efforts and mistakes in process. A consistent but continuous approach is

11
followed in organization. Applying six sigma processes i.e. DMAIC for job analysis includes:
DEFINE, MEASURE, ANALYSIS, IMPROVE & CONTROL.

Recommendation

All the above steps in six sigma implementation needed to be applied for analyzing jobs so
that HR department will achieve highest level of quality in various functions such as
recruitment, selection, placement, training, compensation and performance appraisal of
employees.

2. Job Analysis (What it is and how it is used) Rosemary Lysaght, Ph.D.


Queen's University, Kingston, Canada and Lynn Shaw, Ph.D.
University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. Published in International
encyclopedia of rehabilitation.

Result of the article

Job analysis serves as a valuable guide to evaluation, program planning, and disability
management in the field of vocational rehabilitation. By tailoring methods of job analysis to
the rehabilitative or preventive goal, analyses can provide a rich resource for promoting safe
and inclusive work place.

3. ArticleID: 270027 http://www.hrcrossing.com/article/270027/Job-Analysis. Published


in Employee Crossing
Under Job Analysis in HR Conclusion mentioned in article is as
 Identifying training needs of personnel
 Creating recruitment strategies
 Making performance reviews
Without proper job analysis by the human resources department, it is difficult for any
organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent. In-Human-
Resources/ article title: Job Analysis in Human Resources

Conceptual Review:

Job analysis is the foundation of all human resource activities, including personnel selection,
training, performance appraisal, career de elopement, workforce planning, and safety (Bran
nick & Levine, 2002).
Job analysis is also necessary to meet legal requirements for validation of selection procedures
(Uniform Guidelines, 1978), and conducting a job analysis can be a time - consuming process

12
with estimated average annual costs of job analyses ranging from $150,000 to $4,000,000 per
large organization (Levine, Sis trunk, McNutt, & Gael, 1988).
Job analysis is the fundamental process that forms the basis of all human resource activities.
The importance of job analysis has been well-established for years, dating back to at least the
First World War. The United States government’s Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection
Procedures (1978) and the American Psychological Association’s Principles for the Validation
and use of Personnel Selection Procedures Stipulate that job analysis is essential to the
valediction of any and all major human resources activities.
In its simplest terms, a job analysis is a systematic process for gathering, documenting and
analyzing date about the work required for a job. The data collected in a job analysis, and
reflected through a job description, includes a description of the context and principal duties
of the job, and information about the skills, responsibilities, mental models and techniques for
job analysis. These include the Position Analysis Questionnaire, which focuses on generalized
human behaviors and interviews, task inventories, functional job analysis and the job element
method.
A job analysis provides an objective picture of the job, not the person performing the job, and
as such, provides fundamental information to support all subsequent and related HR activities,
such as recruitment, training, development, performance management and succession
planning. Job analysis serves two critical functions with respect to these processes. Job
analysis helps ensure that decisions made with respect to HR processes are good decisions i.e.,
fair and accurate (e.g., selection of the right person for the job, appropriate decisions about
training, performance management, development, etc.) and its helps ensure the defensibility of
decisions made to employee (resulting in good HR management) and to the courts (resulting
in saving of costs, time and reputation).

2.1.1 Key Steps in Job Analysis Process


Step 1) Gathering Information:
Use the official and current position description, review organization charts, review the skills
of the previous incumbent.
Step 2) Ask for Assistance:
Involve a Subject Matter Expert (SME) and contact an HR professional for information on
qualifications standards, classification standards and evaluation statements.
Step 3) Identify critical Job duties:

13
Identify and document three to five critical or major duties, which are duties that directly
impact the mission and occupy at least 25% of an employee’s time.
Step 4) Identify needs KSAs and Competencies:
For each critical or major duty, identify the essential knowledge, skill, ability or competency
required to successfully perform that duty.
Step 5) Identify selective placement factor:
After identifying the duties and the relevant KSAs and competencies, determine if there are
any additional factors that a highly qualified candidate must possess prior to starting the new
position.
Step 6) Validate KSAs & competencies to your assessment method:
Ensure that each KSA and competency can be evaluated and is ratable from information
provided in an applicant’s resume and can be validated by an assessment tool such as a
questionnaire, an interview, reference checks, etc.
STEP 7) Document your rating criteria:
Arrange the non-selective KSAs and competencies in order of importance, using a 1, 2 and 3
rating scale from “Most Important” to “Least Important.”
STEP 8) Link job task to KSAs or competencies:
For each KSA or competency identified, create a list of the important tasks and activities to
perform on the job.

14
2.1.2 Input- output model of job analysis
1. PERSON
knowledge, skills and ability
effort
2. ORGANIZATIO 3. ACTIVITIES 4. OUTPUT
N physical, mental quality, quantity
resources, materials interactional, sequential time, data,
tools, methods, people, objects
constraints, policy
supervision
5.REWARDS
intrinsic, extrinsic, satisfaction
Figure: 3 Input-Output Models
Since the job is the connection between the organization and the employee, it may be useful to
develop a model based upon this common connection. We can say that both the organization
and the employee contribute to the job and expect to receive something from it. In order for
these results to come about, something has to happen inside the job. This dual systems-
exchange model is illustrated in Figure above. The vertical dimension of the model is the
person-job relationship. The person brings his or her knowledge, skills and abilities as well as
effort to the job (cell 1). These are used in activities, which are divided into physical, mental,
and interactional types (cell 3). The results, for the person, are the rewards and satisfaction
received from working on the job (cell 5). These rewards can be both intrinsic and extrinsic.
The horizontal dimension of the model is the organization-job relationship. The organization
brings to the job resources needed to perform the job and ways to do the job that coordinate
with organizational needs; the latter are perceived as constraints (cell 2). These resources and
constraints determine the way the job activities (cell 3) are carried out. The organizational
results are some product created or service performed by the employee; these outcomes are in
the form of a change in data, people, and/or objects (cell 4). These results can be defined in
terms of quantity, quality, and time.
This model suggests that information (descriptors of jobs) can be collected on the purpose of
the job (cell 4), the activities of the job (cell 3), the worker requirements of the job (cell 1), the
organizational context of the job (cell 2), and the rewards of the job to the worker (cell 5)

15
2.1.3 Importance of Job Analysis
According to scientific management, the key to productivity is a precise understanding
of the tasks that constitute a job. If the motions of workers are to become standardized and
machine-like, then it is necessary to be certain about what is to be accomplished, as well as
what abilities and materials are necessary to do the job. For many years, job analysis was
considered the backbone of the scientific clipboards and stopwatches was the method used to
determine the most efficient way to perform specific jobs.
As the popularity of scientific management declined after World War II, however, so did the
popularity of job analysis. With the new emphasis on human relations as the key to
productivity job analysis was used primarily to set salary scales. But in the modern times
workers and employers began to take renewed interest in this area because of concerns about
two issues: unfair discrimination and comparable worth.
There are two areas where unfair discrimination in hiring can occur: in the standards set for
being hired; and in the procedures used to assess the applicant’s ability to meet those
standards. Job analysis addresses the question of what tasks, taken together actually
constitutes a job. Without this information, standards for hiring may appear to be arbitrary or
worse, designed to exclude certain individual or groups from the workplace.
More recently, the issue of comparable worth has also contributed to a new interest in job
analysis. Comparable worth refers to equal pay for individuals who hold different jobs but
perform work that is comparable in terms of knowledge required or level of responsibility.
The major issue of the comparable worth controversy is that women who are employed in jobs
that are comparable to those held by men are paid, on the average, about 65 percent of what a
man would earn. In order to determine the comparability of job tasks so that salaries can also
be compared, a proper job analysis is necessary. Comparable work is an issue of considerable
interest to many people.
2.1.4 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
 What physical and mental tasks does worker accomplish?
 When is job to be completed?
 Where is job to be accomplished?
 How does worker do job?
 Why is job done?

16
2.1.5 Conducting Job Analysis
People who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum:
 Employee
 Employee’s immediate supervisor
2.1.6 Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis
 Staffing - Haphazard if recruiter does not know qualifications needed for job
 Training and Development - If specification lists particular knowledge, skill, or
ability, and person filling position does not possess all necessary qualifications,
training and/or development is needed.
 Performance Appraisal - Employees should be evaluated in terms of how well
they accomplish the duties specified in their job descriptions and any other
specific goals that may have been established.
 Compensation – Value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed
on it.
 Safety and Health – Helps identify safety and health considerations
 Employee and Labor Relations – Lead to more objective human resource
decisions
 Legal Considerations – Having done job analysis important for supporting
legality of employment practices
2.1.7 Uses of Job Analysis
This knowledge about jobs is used for many purposes, certainly in the field of Human
Resource Management [HRM]. In particular, where the job is the basis for pay, knowledge of
the job is essential either to make comparisons with other jobs in market pricing or as the first
step in evaluating jobs internally. Thus, failure to secure complete and accurate job
information will result in inaccurate wage setting. Later steps in job evaluation become
virtually impossible without adequate job information.
Job knowledge has many uses in HRM. Organizations use information obtained by job
analysis for recruitment, selection, and placement; organization planning and job design;
training; grievance settlement; as well as job evaluation and other compensation programs
People outside the organization also use information about jobs. Career placement requires
the same type of person-job matching that organizations do. Getting a disabled worker back to
work requires knowledge of jobs in order to determine what jobs the worker can do or can be

17
trained to do. Lastly, job knowledge is needed in a number of regulatory situations as will be
discussed later in this chapter.

Work design

Job
Content
Informatio HR planning
n

Job Analysis Job Specification


and Job
Staffing
Description

Job Training
Context
Informatio
n
Compensation

Figure: 4 Use of job analysis

These different uses of job information may require specialized job descriptions. Job
evaluation requires information that permits distinguishing jobs from one another, usually on
the basis of work activities and/or job required worker characteristics. Recruitment and
selection require information on the human attributes a successful jobholder must bring to the
job. Training requires information on the knowledge and skills that the successful jobholder
must evidence. Job design may require identifying employee perceptions of intrinsic and
extrinsic rewards. Although there is overlap among these different requirements, arguments
for separate job analysis for separate purposes are understandable.

Job Specification and Job Description:


Job Descriptions:
It describes the job and not the individual who fills the job. They are the result of job
analysis within a given organization and are essential to the selection and evaluation of
employees. Job advertisements or postings are based on the job description. The character of
the organization is the basis for the description of positions.
Information about the organization might include

18
Name of Company
Main Product(s) and/or Service(s)
Location
Number of Employees, Company Structure, Names of Officers, Hours of Work
Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results
expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. Typically
it includes is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of
anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. Typically it includes
Job Title
Date
Title of immediate supervisor
Statement of the Purpose of the Job
Primary Responsibilities
List of Typical Duties and Responsibilities
General Information related to the job
Training requirements
Tool use
Transportation
Signature of the person who has prepared the job description

19
Job Specification:
It is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the
qualifications. Normally, this would include is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do
the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications.
Typically this would include
Degree of education
Desirable amount of previous experience in similar work
Specific Skills required
Health Considerations
Problems If Job Specifications Are Inflated:
 May systematically eliminate minorities or women from considerations
 Compensation costs will increase
 Job vacancies will be harder to fill

Figure: 5 Job Analyses as a Basic Human Resources Tools

20
2.1.9 Advantages
Though job analysis plays a vital role in all other human related activities but every process
that has human interventions also suffers from some limitations. The process of job analysis
also has its own constraints.
 Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process provides
with valuable job-related data that helps managers and job analyst the duties and
responsibilities of a particular job, risks and hazards involved in it, skills and abilities
required to perform the job and other related info.
 Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial
management activities. Filling the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of skills,
understanding and competencies of HR managers. Job Analysis helps them understand
what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a specific job successfully.
 Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and
when? Who to target and how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process gives
answers to all these questions and helps managers in creating, establishing and
maintaining effective hiring practices.
 Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job Analysis
helps managers evaluating the performance of employees by comparing the standard
or desired output with delivered or actual output. On these bases, they appraise their
performances. The process helps in deciding whom to promote and when. It also
guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that right person can be fit at that
particular place in order to get desired output.
 Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job analysis
gives answer to following questions:
 Who to impart training
 When to impart training
 What should be the content of training
 What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical
 Who will conduct training

21
 Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job

2.1.10 Challenges in Conducting a Job Analysis


No process can be entirely accurate and fully serves the purpose. Job analysis is no exception
to it. The process involves a variety of methods, tools, plans and a lot of human effort. And
where there people are involved, nothing can be 100 percent accurate. However, they may be
appropriate considering various factors including organizational requirements, time, effort and
financial resources. Since the entire job analysis processes, methods and tools are designed by
humans only, they tend to have practical issues associated with them. Human brain suffers
with some limitations, therefore, everything created, designed or developed by humans too
have some or other constraints.
Coming back to the subject, even the process of job analysis have lot of practical problems
associated with it. Though the process can be effective, appropriate, practical, efficient and
focused but it can be costly, time consuming and disruptive for employees at the same time. It
is because there are some typical problems that are encountered by a job analyst while
carrying out the process. Jobs are complex by nature. Because they are performed by a range
of individuals who work within changeable environments, it can be difficult to accurately
define job demands and the human requirements to perform them. Even if there are defined
outputs and expected performance levels for a job, the actual approaches and nuances
associated with executing the job demands may result in very different actions, depending on
the worker and how he or she gets the job done. The job itself may vary in terms of demand
levels or activities performed, depending on workload, workflow, teamwork, and variances in
the services, products or activities that are the focus of the job at any point in time. As Fine, et
al. (1999), note, it is important to describe jobs holistically, considering the requirement of
workers to perform both instrumentally in executing work tasks, and latently, in adapting to
situations in which work takes place.
A number of factors associated with the measurement process can challenge the validity and
reliability of job analyses. One of these is the properties of the rating scales in use, including
content validity across job types, definitions used for the scale items, and clarity of the rating
procedures (Lysaght et al. 2008). Another lies in the quality of information gathered through
worker or supervisor report based on ability or willingness to provide accurate descriptions.
Observational data may be compromised through lack of rater familiarity with the job type or
milieu, or inability to observe sufficient and representative time samples of the job, especially

22
one that is highly variable. Finally, raters themselves present with different training and levels
of experience in performing job analysis, a factor that may compromise both validity and
reliability of the report.
Let’s discuss them and understand how the process of job analysis can be made more effective
by treating them carefully.
 Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst does
not get proper support from the management. The top management needs to
communicate it to the middle level managers and employees to enhance the output or
productivity of the process. In case of improper communication, employees may take
it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available options. They may have a
notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any action against them. In
order to avoid such circumstances, top management must effectively communicate the
right message to their incumbents.
 Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and
accurate job-data, it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the
support of employees. If they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time,
money and human effort to conduct job analysis process.
 Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job
analysis process are not properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation and
carrying out research is futile. Managers must decide in advance why this process is
being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be done with the collected and
recorded data.
 Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while
carrying out the process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst
must be impartial in his or her approach.
 Single Data Source: Multi source for collection of correct information. Collecting
data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore, defeats the whole
purpose of conducting the job analysis process.
However, this is not the end. There may be many other problems involved in a job analysis
process such as insufficient time and resources, distortion from incumbent, lack of proper
communication, improper questionnaires and other forms, absence of verification and review
of job analysis process and lack of reward or recognition for providing genuine and quality
information.

23
2.1.11 Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis:
 Work Activities - Work activities and processes; activity records (in film form,
for example); procedures used; personal responsibility
 Worker-oriented activities - Human behaviors, such as physical actions and
communicating on job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job
demands, such as energy expenditure
 Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
 Job-related tangibles and intangibles - Knowledge dealt with or applied (as in
accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed
 Work performance - Error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such
as time taken for a task
 Job context - Work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical
working conditions; organizational and social contexts
 Personal requirements for job - Personal attributes such as personality and
interests; education and training required; work experience

2.1.12 Timeliness of Job Analysis


Due to Rapid change of technological change it makes need for accurate job analysis even
more important, now and in the future.

2.1.13 Job Analysis for Team Members


 With team design, there are no narrow jobs
 Work departments do is often bundled into teams
 Last duty shown on proverbial job description, “And any other duty that may
be assigned,” is increasingly becoming THE job description.
2.1.14 Job Analysis and the Law
 Equal Pay Act
 Fair Labor Standards Act
 Civil Rights Act
 Occupational Safety and Health Act - Specify job elements that endanger health or are
considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people

24
 Americans with Disabilities Act - Make reasonable accommodations for disabled
worker.
2.1.15 Building Blocks of Job Analysis Methods
Job analysis methods are made up of a large number of building blocks, but these all fall
into four categories:
1. Kinds of job data collected
2. Methods of gathering data
3. Sources of job information
4. Units of analysis—what gets analyzed, including the level of detail
Summary of building blocks
Descriptor Methods of data collection
 organization philosophy and  Interviewing groups
structure  interviewing individuals
 Licensing and other government-  observations
mandated requirements  Technical conferences
 Responsibilities  Questionnaires
 Professional standards  Diaries
 Job context  Equipment-based methods
 Products and services  Reviewing records
 Work performance indicators  Reviewing literature
 Personal job demands  studying equipment design
 Elemental motions specifications
 Worker activities  Doing the work
 Work activities
 Worker trait requirements
 Future changes
 Critical incidents

Source of job analysis data Units of analysis


 Job analyst  Duties
 Job holder’s supervisor  Tasks
 High-level executive  Activities
 Job holder  Elemental motions

25
 Technical expert  Job dimensions
 Organizational training specialist  Worker characteristic requirements
 Clients or customers  Scales applied to units of work
 Other organizational units Scales applied to worker
 Written document characteristic requirements
 Previous job analyses  Qualitative versus quantitative
considerations

Regarding books researcher has concerned 'A Practical Guide to Job Analysis' written by
Erich P. Prien, Leonard D. Goodstein, Jeanette Goodstein, Louis G. Gamble, JR. in year
2009. Competent job analysis is the keystone of the entire human resource management
process. Without understanding the nature of each specific job in an organization, it is not
possible to recruit, select, evaluate, train, develop, and promote or terminate an employee
competently.
Entry level job analysis contain
Target Job Title:
1. Name of Analyst:
2. Location:
3. Analyst’s Job Title:
4. Time in present position (years): (months): 5. Time with company (years): (months):
This procedure is designed to identify those job activities and competencies most important
for entry-level jobs. The information from this analysis will be used to conduct a job-related
selection assessment for this position.
Details explained as
Plan and organize
 Work with team members to organize assigned tasks.
 Determine the general nature of a job through discussion with others doing the
same work.
 Break down work assignment into sequential steps to ensure accuracy and
completeness.

Solve problems
 Work with team members to troubleshoot and solve problems.

26
 Seek assistance when standard procedures are not successful in solving
problems.
Manage Personal/Interpersonal Relations
 Work cooperatively with others.
 Observe other workers on a team to learn and practice work tasks and skills.
 Respond to requests for assistance from co-workers or customers/clients.
 Empathize with others experiencing personal difficulty.
 Observe and anticipate needs of others without waiting for them to request
assistance.
Understand Verbal Communications
 Meet with supervisor(s) to receive and discuss work assignments.
 Greet customers/clients and respond to them accurately and appropriately.
 Remain attentive when receiving instructions, and follow directions or seek
clarification when necessary.
 Respond to crew leader instructions to carry out assignments.
 Discuss work assignments with co-workers to assess progress or status.
Construction Helper
 Provide general assistance to experienced craftsperson such as getting
requested tools, holding materials in place for additional work, etc.
 Disassemble and remove worn or damaged materials or structures.
 Prepare new parts or materials for installation or construction.
 Complete basic construction or installation.
 Use basic tools and equipment.
Others are as Nursing Aides, Orderlies, Attendants, Manufacturing Production and
Maintenance, Dishwasher clerical assistance etc.

2.1.16 Work Function and the Level of Difficult


DATA PEOPLE THINGS
0 Synthesizing 0 mentoring 0 setting up
1 coordinating 1 negotiating 1 precision working
2 analyzing 2 instructing 2 operating- controlling
3 compiling 3 supervising 3 driving - operating
4 computing 4 diversity 4 manipulating
5 copying 5 persuading 5 tending
6 comparing 6 speaking-signaling 6 feeding
7 serving 7 handling

27
8 helping

2.1.17 Job Design:


Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as: “the specification of the content, methods
and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as
well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder”. Job design is the conscious
efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into one unit of work. Job design
involves:
 identification of individual tasks
 specification of methods of performing the tasks
 combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals

2.1.18 Interdependencies in Job and Organisation Design


Process Design

Team Design
Job Design

Organization Structure

Figure: 6 Jobs and Organization Design


 Process Design: how the work is done.
 Team Design: what each team does and how it is organized.
 Organization Structure: management responsibilities organizational units etc.
 Job Design: what each person is responsible for.

2.1.19 Principles of Job Design


 To influence skill variety, provide opportunities for people to do several tasks
and combine tasks
 To influence task identity and form natural work units

28
 To influence task significance
 To influence autonomy, give people responsibility for determining their own
working system
 To influence feedback, establish good relationships and open feedback
channels
2.1.20 Objectives of job design:
 greater job satisfaction
 increase performance
 reduces absenteeism and turnover
 greater profitability

2.1.21 Typical Job Design Process:

Overall change vision and goals

Develop overall business design Formulate job design goals

Develop a straw model

Refine if necessary

Identify issues Hold consultation workshop

Revise and sign off

Plan implementation

Figure: 7 Job Design Process


2.1.22 Characteristics of a well-designed job
 Forms a logical whole
 Makes a significant and visible contribution
 Provides variety of methods, tasks and skills
 Provides feedback on performance
 Provides autonomy and allows discretion
 Carries responsibility for outcomes

29
 Offers opportunities for personal development
 Entails dynamic posture and does not require continuous use of a terminal or PC

2.1.23 Job classification, its needs and importance


Job classification is a scheme of classifying a job according to the current responsibilities and
duties associated with the job. It is different than job design in that the person assigned to the
job is not taken into consideration. Jobs are classified with the purpose of studying jobs in a
holistic perspective.
Job classifications group’s jobs into various grades, each grade having a certain specific class
description and many times a pay scale that is used for job comparisons. Often the title is also
assigned on the basis of grade arrived at after the job classification.

2.1.24 Need for Job Classification


There are various methods available for classifying jobs and often these vary across
organisations and the industries. The basic purposes of classifying jobs are:
 To help in recruitment and selection by defining significant qualification standards.
 To help in designing and developing standards for performance and appraisals.
 Allocating responsibilities aligned to the company mission and vision and those that
help in the realization of organisations business plans and strategies.
 Identification of career and growth paths in organisations.
 Establish standards for compensation.

2.1.25 when and where is a Job Classification System Used?


A job classification system cannot be used for positions which do not match in terms of their
duties and responsibilities. Instead it is used to group positions that have similar duties and
responsibilities, require same qualifications, experience and training interventions. As
mentioned above it is beneficial in recruitment, selection and compensation in a standard way
across the whole organization.
The most important aspect of job classification is that it is based upon the objective aspects of
the job and does not take into consideration the person assigned, the skills and the
performance levels for the job. Instead factors like scope and level of responsibilities and
duties, decision making authority and its relationship to other jobs is taken into consideration.

30
Job classification as a system empowers the administration to handle a wide variety of job
functions and rather than just one, at a single time. Different positions are named and assigned
titles and grades, keeping the job characteristics into consideration.
Job classification is not a constant or one time process; it is an ever changing one. They
change due to introduction of new policies and procedures, new management initiatives and in
many cases due to introduction of new technologies. The flip side of this is that it may affect
employee productivity or performance and their reporting relationships. People resources may
be redeployed and employees may find it difficult to adjust with the new people environment,
affecting the performance due to change in benchmark standards. Then again in certain cases
the productivity may increase in case of certain employees and decline in case of others
depending upon how these employees deal with the stressors.
Many organizations use the tools of job balance assessment and competency matrix
assessment for dealing with the changes associated with job classification. These tools help in
aligning the employees with changes in the external environment such that their productivity
levels are enhanced and not otherwise.

2.1.26 Job Design factors


A well defined job will make the job interesting and satisfying for the employee. The
result is increased performance and productivity. If a job fails to appear compelling or
interesting and leads to employee dissatisfaction, it means the job has to be redesigned
based upon the feedback from the employees.

Figure: 8 Job design factors

31
Broadly speaking the various factors that affect a job design can classified under three heads.
They are:
 Organizational Factors
 Environmental Factors
 Behavioral Factors

Organizational Factors
Organizational factors that affect job design can be work nature or characteristics, work flow,
organizational practices and ergonomics.
Work Nature: There are various elements of a job and job design is required to classify
various tasks into a job or a coherent set of jobs. The various tasks may be planning,
executing, monitoring, controlling etc and all these are to be taken into consideration while
designing a job.
 Ergonomics: Ergonomics aims at designing jobs in such a way that the physical
abilities and individual traits of employees are taken into consideration so as to ensure
efficiency and productivity.
 Workflow: Product and service type often determines the sequence of work flow. A
balance is required between various product or service processes and a job design
ensures this.
 Culture: Organizational culture determines the way tasks are carried out at the work
places. Practices are methods or standards laid out for carrying out a certain task.
These practices often affect the job design especially when the practices are not
aligned to the interests of the unions.

Environmental Factors
Environmental factors affect the job design to a considerable extent. These factors include
both the internal as well as external factors. They include factors like employee skills and
abilities, their availability, and their socio economic and cultural prospects.
Employee availability and abilities: Employee skills, abilities and time of availability play a
crucial role while designing of the jobs. The above mentioned factors of employees who will
actually perform the job are taken into consideration. Work should be designed as per
employee skill and ability else decreases productivity and employee satisfaction.

32
Socio economic and cultural expectations: Jobs are nowadays becoming more employee
centered rather than process centered. They are therefore designed keeping the employees into
consideration. In addition the literacy level among the employees is also on the rise. They now
demand jobs that are to their liking and competency and which they can perform the best.

Behavioral Factors
Behavioral factors or human factors are those that pertain to the human need and that need to
be satisfied for ensuring productivity at workplace. They include the elements like autonomy,
diversity, feedback etc. A brief explanation of some is given below:
Autonomy: Employees should work in an open environment rather than one that contains fear.
It promotes creativity, independence and leads to increased efficiency.
Feedback: Feedback should be an integral part of work. Each employee should receive proper
feedback about his work performance.
Diversity: Repetitive jobs often make work monotonous which leads to boredom. A job
should carry sufficient diversity and variety so that it remains as interesting with every passing
day. Job variety / diversity should be given due importance while designing a job.
Use of Skills and abilities: Jobs should be employee rather than process centered. Though due
emphasis needs to be given to the latter but jobs should be designed in a manner such that an
employee is able to make full use of his abilities and perform the job effectively.

2.1.27 Job Design for Team


Most theories of team effectiveness follow an input-process-output model. The input factors
include such items as organizational resources and other contextual factors. The process
factors concern what the team actually does, such as communicate. The output factors
typically include effectiveness measures (Did they win?) as well as satisfaction with the team
(Can the team members stand to work together again?).Campion and his colleagues
(Campion, Medsker, & Higgs, 1993; Campion,Papper, & Medsker, 1996) reviewed the
literature and compiled a list of factors that they believed could be used to design effective
teams. They developed a survey that can be used to measure teams on the characteristics of
interest. Four of five factors considered under job design are factors considered in the job
characteristics theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). The factors from job characteristics theory
are autonomy, variety, task identity, and task significance.
 Self-management: it in teams is similar to autonomy in individual jobs. Teams may
have formal leaders who are given responsibility and authority to make decisions such
33
as the assignment of tasks and hiring and firing members of the team. As self-
management increases, the leader becomes more of a coach than a boss, and in
extreme cases, there may be no formal leader; the functions of management are taken
over by the team.
 Participation: it refers to the degree that all members contribute to team decision
making, and it is highly related to self-management. Self-management and
participation are thought to help promote feelings of responsibility in team members.
 Task variety, task identity, and task significance are all attributes of jobs that are
thought to motivate people. A job with variety causes people to develop and use
multiple skills. Task identity refers to the work being a whole entity rather than a
fraction (for example, building a whole car versus just seat covers). Task significance
refers to the impact of the work on other people (for example, a surgeon has a
significant job). Identity and significance are thought to influence team members’
sense that their work is meaningful and important.
 Interdependence factors include task and goal interdependence, which are two of
our defining properties of teams. The interdependent Feedback and rewards concerns
the degree to which individual members 'feedback and rewards depend on team
outcomes. The interdependence of the work will influence the degree to which
members feel that they are part of a Team.
 Composition factors refer to the mix of people that belong to the team.
Heterogeneity refers to the variability of backgrounds in team members in such
characteristics as race, sex, and cognitive ability. Flexibility refers to the degree to
which team members can change their assignments. To be flexible, the team must have
the authority to change assignments and the skill by some members to cover the jobs
of other members. Relative size refers to the number of people relative to the amount
of work that needs to be done. As the size of a team increases, coordination demands
also increase. According to the theory, there is an optimal size for each team.
 Context factors are so labeled because they come from outside the team. Training of
team members is a support activity provided by management that is intended to
increase the effectiveness of the team either through improved task functioning,
improved process such as better decision making, or both. Managerial support
concerns other types of support such as provision of materials and information.
Communication and cooperation between groups concerns the quality of relations

34
across teams within an organization. The organization may be characterized as
relatively cooperative or relatively competitive.
According to input-process-output models of team effectiveness, all of the factors we have
described so far fall into the input part of the model.
 Process factors fall into the process part of the model (surprise!). Potency is the
team’s belief in its own competence. For example, a football team may feel confident
that it will win an upcoming game or it may feel that a win would be miraculous.
Social support refers to team members getting along well interpersonally. Workload
sharing is the adjustment of work across individuals to avoid lacking by some team
members. Communication and cooperation within the team refers to passing
information among members. The process variables are thought to influence team
effectiveness either by motivating team members to work hard and to persist (potency
and social support) or by directly increasing the effectiveness of work (workload
sharing and communication).
According to the theory, the factors are supposed to be related to effectiveness and subject to
control by management (that is, they can be changed). The research to date, however, deals
only with differences in existing teams rather than the results of experiments in which team
characteristics were manipulated.

Job Design elements

35
characteristics sample items
Job Design
1. self management My team rather than my manager decides who does
what tasks within the team.
2. participative My team is designed to let everyone participate in
Decision making.
3. task variety Most everyone on my team gets a chance to do the more
interesting tasks.
4. task significance My team helps me feel that my work is important to the
company.
My team is responsible for all aspects of a product for
5. task identify its area.
Interdependence
6. Task interdependence Within my team, jobs performed by team members are
related to one another.
7. Goal interdependence My work goals come directly from the goals of my
team.
8. Interdependent feedback My performance evaluation is strongly influenced by
and rewards how well my team performs.

Composition
9. Heterogeneity The members of my team vary widely in their areas of
expertise.
10. Flexibility Most members of my team know each other’s jobs.
11. Relative size
The number of people in my team is sufficient for the
work to accomplish.
12. Preference for group
work
I generally prefer to work as part of a team
Context
13. Training The company provides adequate technical training for
my team.
14. Managerial support
Higher management in the company supports the
concept of teams.

36
2.1.28 where the design unit is the team
 4-10 members is the most manageable size
 A designated leader or the whole team are accountable for performance
 Activities make up a discrete whole task
 Interdependence between members
 Autonomy extends to planning own work
 Feedback on performance is available
 All required skills are available or easily obtained

2.1.29 Approaches to job design:


 Job rotation
 Job enlargement
 Job enrichment
 job engineering
 Human approach

Job Rotation:
It is systematically moving workers from one job to another. A closer look at some
Indian companies shows that job rotation is becoming an increasingly accepted practice. At
McDonald's, cross-functional job rotations are encouraged, globally and in India. "It is a win-
win situation -- win for the organization, the team and the employee," says Amit Jatia, joint
venture partner and managing director, McDonald's, Western India.
Job rotation is considered as an effective tool for successful implementation of HR strategy. It
is about settling employees at the right place where they can deliver the maximum results. In
today’s highly competitive world, this can be proved as the best strategy to find the immediate
replacement of a high-worth employee from within the organization. Finding the most suitable
people and shifting them to take on the responsibilities of a higher level is a tough task. Job
rotation helps HR managers determine who can be replaced by whom and create a suitable
and beneficial fit. A properly planned and carried job rotation process plays an essential role
in strengthening the position of an organization and helps it deal with uncertain and tentative
outer environment. Let’s discuss the benefits of job rotation process at length in order to
realize its importance and the potential.

Benefits of Job Rotation


37
 Helps Managers Explore the Hidden Talent: Job Rotation is designed to expose
employees to a wider range of operations in order to assist managers in exploring their
hidden talent. In the process, they are moved through a variety of assignments so that
they can gain awareness about the actual working style of the organization and
understand the problems that crop up at every stage. Through this process, managers
identify what a particular employee is good at and accordingly he or she is assigned a
specific task.
 Helps Individuals Explore Their Interests: Sometimes, employees are not aware of
what would like to do until they have their hands on some specific job. If their job is
rotated or they are exposed to different operations, they can identify what they are
good at and what they enjoy doing. They get a chance to explore their interests and
hidden potential.
 Identifies Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Job Rotation helps managers as well as
individuals identify their KSA (Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes). It can be used in
determining who needs to improve or upgrade his or skills in order to perform better.
This helps in analyzing training and development needs of employees so that they can
produce more output.
 Motivates Employees to Deal with New Challenges: When employees are exposed
to different jobs or assigned new tasks, they try to give their best while effectively
dealing with the challenges coming their way. It encourages them to perform better at
every stage and prove that they are no less than others. This gives rise to a healthy
competition within the organization where everyone wants to perform better than
others.
 Increases Satisfaction and Decreases Attrition Rate: Exposing employees to
different tasks and functions increase their satisfaction level. Job variation reduces the
boredom of doing same task every day. Moreover, it decreases attrition rate of the
organization. Employees develop a sense of belongingness towards the organization
and stick to it till long.
 Helps Align Competencies with Requirements: Alignment of competencies with
requirements means directing the resources when and where they are required. It
assesses the employees and places them at a place where their skills, competencies and
caliber are used to the highest possible extent.

38
Job rotation is an alternative to reduce the boredom caused due to repetitiveness of tasks and
revive their willingness to handle a job and challenges involved in it with same excitement
and zeal.

Job enrichment:
its Aims to maximize the interests and challenges of work by providing the employee with a
job that has these characteristics Complete piece of work in the sense that the worker can
identify a series of tasks or activities that end in a recognizable and definable product, It
affords the employee as much variety, decision- making responsibility and control as possible
in carrying out the work, It provide the direct feedback through the work itself on how well
the employee is doing his work. Job enrichment as proposed by Herzberg (1986) is not just
increasing the number or variety of tasks. It is claimed by supporters of job enrichment that
these approaches may relieve boredom, but they do not result in positive increase in
motivation.
Organizations are increasingly facing the heat of attrition, which is not good to health of the
same. Lots of time, money and resources are spent into training an individual for a particular
job and when he / she leaves the return on that investment equals null. Often it is not for the
money that people leave; that may be the reason with the frontline staff but as we move
towards the upper levels of organizational hierarchy, other reasons gain prominence. Many of
those who quit their jobs complain of their jobs as uninteresting!
All this has compelled organisations to think of ways to make the job they offer interesting.
Lots of efforts are made to keep monotony at bay; job enrichment is one of them. It is the
process of making a job more interesting, challenging and satisfying for the employees. It can
either be in the form of up gradation of responsibilities, increase in the range of influence and
the challenges.
How does an Organisation Enrich a Job?
Typically job enrichment involves combining various existing and new tasks into one large
module of work. The work is then handed over to an employee, which means there is an
increase in responsibilities and scope. This increase in responsibility is often vertical. The idea
is to group various tasks together such that natural work units are created. In addition
expanding jobs vertically also gives employee direct control over works units and employees
that were formerly under the jurisdiction of top management only. While on one hand this
39
increases the ownership of the employees in their work, it also relieves the unnecessary
burden from the top management. Job enrichment also opens up a feedback channel for the
employees. Employees are frequently apprised of their performance. This keeps them on track
and helps them know their weak and strong points. Performance standards are set for the
employees themselves and future performances are matched against the benchmarks. All this
without any serious intervention or involvement of the top management! In a certain bank that
dealt with commercial credit letters for import and export trade, the employees processed the
documents in a sequence with each employee being specialized for certain aspect of
verification. Often it so happened that a mistake at preceding level lead to a series of mistakes
at succeeding level. Errors accumulated at each level and this result in huge loss of
productivity.
The organisation decided to go for job enrichment where each employee or clerk was
specialized in all aspects of processing. Each employee was now able to handle a client on his
own. After some time it was found out that the transaction volume increased by 100 percent.
Benefits of Job Enrichment
Research studies on job enrichment found out decreased levels of absenteeism among the
employees, reduced employee turnover and a manifold increase in job satisfaction. There are
certain cases however where job enrichment can lead to a decrease in productivity, especially
when the employees have not been trained properly. Even after the training the process may
not show results immediately, it takes time to reflect in the profit line.

Job Enlargement:
Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the
same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It is
different than job enrichment .Thus the worker who previously only bolted the seat to legs
might attach the back as well. Examples: Small companies may not have as many
opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.
Job enlargement is a job design technique wherein there is an increase in the number of tasks
associated with a certain job. In other words, it means increasing the scope of one’s duties and
responsibilities. The increase in scope is quantitative in nature and not qualitative and at the
same level. Job enlargement is a horizontal restructuring method that aims at increase in the
workforce flexibility and at the same time reducing monotony that may creep up over a period
of time. It is also known as horizontal loading in that the responsibilities increase at the same
level and not vertically.
40
Many believe that since the enlargement is horizontal in nature there is not a great need for
training! Contrary to this, job enlargement requires appropriate training especially on time and
people management. Task related training is not required much since the person is already
aware of the same or doing it for some time.
Benefits of Job Enlargement
The following are the major benefits of Job enlargement
 Reduced Monotony: Howsoever interesting the job may appear in the beginning,
sooner or later people complain of boredom and monotony. Job enlargement if planned
carefully can help reduce boredom and make it more satisfying and fulfilling for the
employees.
 Increased Work Flexibility: There is an addition to the number of tasks an individual
performs. There is thus an increased scope of carrying out tasks that are versatile and
yet very similar in certain aspects.
 No Skills Training Required: Since the individual has already been performing the
task in the past, there is no great requirement for imparting of new skills. However
people and time management interventions may be required. The job thus gets more
motivational for the one performing it.
Engineering Approach
The engineering approach was devised by FW Taylors et al. They introduced the idea of
the task that gained prominence in due course of time. According to this approach the
work or task of each employee is planned by the management a day in advance. The
instructions for the same are sent to each employee describing the tasks to e undertaken in
detail. The details include things like what, how and when of the task along with the time
deadlines.
The approach is based on the application of scientific principles to job design. Work,
according to this approach should be scientifically analyzed and fragmented into logical
tasks. Due emphasis is then laid on organizing the tasks so that a certain logical sequence
is followed for efficient execution of the same. The approach also lies due emphasis on
compensating employees appropriately and training them continuously for work
efficiency.

41
Human Approach
The human approach of job design laid emphasis on designing a job around the people or
employees and not around the organizational processes. In other words it recognizes the
need of designing jobs that are rewarding (financially and otherwise) and interesting at the
same time.
According to this approach jobs should gratify an individual’s need for recognition, respect,
growth and responsibility. Job enrichment as popularized by Herzberg’s research is one the
ways in human approach of job design. Herzberg classified these factors into two
categories - the hygiene factors and the motivators.
Motivators include factors like achievement, work nature, responsibility, learning and
growth etc that can motivate an individual to perform better at the work place. Hygiene
factor on the other hand include things like working conditions, organizational policies,
salary etc that may not motivate directly but the absence of which can lead to
dissatisfaction at the work place.
2.1.30 Comparison of Five Job Design Approaches

Figure: 9 Comparisons of Job Design Approaches

2.1.31 Issues in job design


As we know, job design is a systematic organization of job-related tasks, responsibilities,
functions and duties. It is a continuous process of integration of content related to job in order

42
to achieve certain objectives. The process plays a vital role as it affects the productivity of
employees and organizations. However, there are a number of existing issues emerged
recently while designing the jobs in organizations. These are alternative work patterns that are
equally effective in handling organization’s functions.
 Telecommuting / Work from Home: Telecommuting or work from home is
considered as the best alternative of working from the actual office. The concept of
virtual office is gaining more and more popularity because of ease and convenience
associated with it. By using computer networks, fax machines, telephones and internet
connection, employees can communicate and perform the job from home. It eliminates
the need of coming to office everyday and offers employees the convenience to work
at the comfort of their home.
 Though there are lots of advantages associated with this working style but it suffers
from many limitations. It allows employees to stay at home and manage their job tasks
and functions without actually being present in the office but it doesn’t allow them to
communicate with other employees and establishing relationships with them. They
only deal with machines whole day, thus lose creativity. Moreover, it is a great
hindrance in their way as it does not allow skill up gradation.
 Job Sharing: It is the second most preferable alternative of traditional working styles
where two or more individuals share the responsibilities of a full time job. They divide
the tasks, responsibilities and compensation according to their mutual consent. This
option is generally used by women who are on maternity leave or have family and kids
to look after but want to continue their job. These days, organizations are open to this
kind of working style where two or more individuals can share a job.
 Flexi-Working Hours: These days, organizations allow their employees to work
according to the timings that suit them best. There are 3-4 working schedules and
individuals can choose any one of them depending upon their availability. Employees
can work in early hours as well as night hours. This is good for those individuals who
have colleges or some other engagements during the day or specific hours of the day.
The best part is that unlike telecommuting, flexi-timings give them chance to
communicate with other employees too.
 Alternative Work-Patterns: Companies these days allow their employees to work on
alternate months or seasons. Though the concept is not that common in India but can

43
be seen in European and American world of work. They also have the option of
working two to three full days and can relax after that.
According to the latest concept, employees can work for fixed number of hours and then can
attend to their personal needs during the left days.
 Techno stress: Techno stress is the latest technology to keep a check on employees’
performance even when they choose to work from home. Because of the introduction
of new machines, there performance can be electronically monitored even when they
are not aware of it.
 Task Revision: Task revision is nothing but modification of existing work design by
reducing or adding the new job duties and responsibilities to a specific job.

2.1.32 Challenges related to job design


Job redesign may be seen as a magic solution to large organization issues and those wary of
change or magic solutions will have their doubts that job redesign can offer any movement in
the right direction. It is important to note that it is not known exactly what job redesign
processes work or what exact combinations of job characteristics and contextual variables are
influential to certain outcomes. Even if this was known, it may mean that they will not work
in every environment. Job redesign may easily be set up to fail but what is important is to
understand that although a magic formula does not exist, movement towards a more effective
system through future research is worth investigating.
One of the primary challenges associated with job redesign will be employee resistance.
Gunderson (2002) explains that employees may resist adoption of new ways of practice as
they feel threatened or it involves unlearning the traditional more comfortable ways. Others
may feel ‘job ownership’ around their position. Change can be stressful and create uncertainty,
new demands, and increased workloads as well as threaten job security. Other forms of
resistance that could be encountered include managerial resistance, and union resistance.
Attention to process will assist with minimizing all forms of resistance.

2.1.33 Job Redesign: How will you know if job redesign has made a difference?
Although we may know a lot about job redesign, the fact seems to be that we may not know
what exactly works. Most job redesign studies have measured only those variables presented

44
in the job characteristics model (Kelly, 1992). It is not conclusive what processes and
mechanisms link interventions to certain outcomes and what combinations of workplace
contexts and employee attitudes (satisfaction, motivation, commitment) and behaviour
(absenteeism, turnover, effort) impact on organizational performance outcomes (Gunderson,
2002). The measurement of both productivity and performance is notoriously difficult given
the complexity of interrelated factors but they require further evaluation. Consideration needs
to be given to the impact of job redesign beyond satisfaction and motivation. Kelly (1992)
suggests that attention needs to be given to employee extrinsic motivation, the role of goal
setting, job expectancies and instrumentalities, rewards, and the impact of work methods
improvements. Further to this, attention to efficiency, role scope, role ambiguity, training
requirements, workload and productivity must be underscored. In particular for nursing, it will
be important to measure organizational and patient outcomes that are sensitive to the
provision of nursing care.

2.1.34 an example of a job design checklist

Job design Yes No


Task variety Repetitive tasks - are the same muscle groups or mental tasks
done over and over?
Static positions - are there few or no opportunities to change
position?
Fast work pace - is there muscle tension and stress?
work/rest Long work period(s) -- is there potential for fatigue?
scheduling
adjustment Are there allowances for adjustment periods or varying pace
period of work for new/returning employees?
training Have employees had adequate training?
mental variety Is there some variety or ability to choose what to do next?

45
CHAPTER – III
COMPANY
PROFILE

46
Company profile:

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. was incorporated on 15th september 2000 . It took over the
business of providing of telecom services and network management from the erstwhile
Central Government Departments of Telecom Services (DTS) and Telecom Operations
(DTO), with effect from 1st October‘ 2000 on going concern basis.It is one of the largest &
leading public sector units providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India.

BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country & now focusing on improving it,
expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages &
winning customer's confidence. Today, it has about 36.42 million line basic telephone
capacity, 7.13 million WLL capacity, 95.96 million GSM capacity, 34,727 fixed
exchanges, 1,17,090 GSM BTSs, 9,594 CDMA Towers, 102 Satellite Stations, 7,73,976
RKm. of OFC, 4751 RKm. of microwave network connecting 646 districts,
4519cities/towns & 6.25 lakhs villages .

BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts & planned initiatives to bridge the
rural-urban digital divide in ICT sector. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to
beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of the country &
operates across India except New Delhi & Mumbai. Whether it is inaccessible areas of
Siachen glacier or North-Eastern regions of the country, BSNL serves its customers with a
wide bouquet of telecom services namely Wireline, CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, Internet,
Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP, IN Services, FTTH, etc.

BSNL is one of major service provider in its license area. The company offers wide ranging &
most transparent tariff schemes designed to suit every customer. BSNL has 94.36
million cellular & 1.02 million WLL customers as on 31.10.2016. 3G Facility has been given
to all 2G connections of BSNL. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals,
with 13.88 million wireline phone subscribers i.e. 56.96% share of the wireline subscriber
base.

BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that
provides convergent services like voice, data & video through the same Backbone &
Broadband Access Network. At present there are 21.86 million broadband customers
including both wireline & wireless broadband.

The company has vast experience in planning, installation, network integration &

47
maintenance of switching & transmission networks & also has a world class ISO 9000
certified Telecom Training Institute.
During the 2015-16, turnover of BSNL is around Rs. 32,919 Crores.

VISION:
 Be the leading telecom service provider in India with global presence.
 Create a customer focused organization with excellence in customer care, sales and
marketing.
 Leverage technology to provide affordable and innovative telecom. Services/products
across customer segments.

MISSION:

Be the leading telecom service provider in India with global presence.


 Becoming the most trusted, preferred and admired telecom brand
 Providing reliable telecom services that are value for money
 Generating value for all stakeholders – employees, shareholders, vendors & business
associates
 Excellence in customer service -friendly, reliable, time bound, convenient and
courteous service
 Offering differentiated products/services tailored to different service segments
 Developing a marketing and sales culture that is responsive to customer needs
 To explore International markets for Global presence
 Maximizing return on existing assets with sustained focus on profitability
 Changing policies and processes to enable transparent, quick and efficient decision
making.

OBJECTIVES:
 To increasing sales revenue with focus on subscriber retention & acquisition by way
of strengthening sales & marketing, quality of service and customer delivery
 Accelerate the pace of expansion of mobile & data services with up-gradation of
technology
 Increasing BSNL visibility in urban, sub-urban and rural areas
 Developing sales and marketing team with attitude towards customer care
 To improve customer care by reducing fault rate, upgrading Customer service Centres
(CSCs) and introducing convergent billing
 Providing a conducive work environment with strong focus on performance to
enhance customer delight towards BSNL services
 Leverage data services to increase BSNL’s customer’s base & revenues by providing
higher bandwidths capabilities for wire line and wireless broadband customers
 To strengthen company’s finances by gainful utilization of its assets through sharing /
monetization of existing infrastructure like land, building and sharing of passive infrastructure
like towers etc.
 Creating Wi-Fi Hot Spots and replacing Legacy wire line exchanges by Next
Generation Network.
 Expanding the reach of fiber network near to the customer premises particularly in
apartment complexes through FTTH in order to meet the ever increasing bandwidth
requirement for both data & video applications

48
 To leverage the existing infrastructure of BSNL thereby contributing towards nation
building by facilitating the execution of government programmes and initiatives viz. National
Optical Fiber Network (NOFN), Network for Spectrum (NFS), and dwelling on Smart City
concept
 To improve productivity by training and skill development and redeployment of
legacy manpower
 Developing knowledge pool exposed to latest technological advancements
 To explore opportunities in international telecom in developing markets
 To become preferred service provider to the Government for reliable and secure
service Network and to serve National security interests

Human Resource Development:


With a corporate philosophy that considers Human Resource as the most prized assets of the
organization, it's natural for BSNL to continually hone employee skills, enhance their
knowledge and their expertise and their aspirations to fruition. Even as BSNL goes about
conducting its business activities, it lays emphasis on constant enhancement of knowledge and
skills through regular training programmes.
 Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited has a vast reservoir of highly skilled and experienced
work force of about 3,57,000 personnel.
 We believe that our staff, which is one of the best trained manpower in the telecom
sector, is our biggest asset.
 We believe that our future depends on our staff who provide services to our valued
customers and stay in touch with them.
 To meet the technological challenges, employees are trained for technology up-
gradation, modernization, computerization etc in BSNL's training Centers spread across
Country. These centers are properly equipped with the requisite infrastructure facilities such
as Lecture rooms, modern audio-visual aids, libraries, hostels etc.
 To apex training centers of BSNL i.e. Advance level Telecom Training Center
(ALTTC) at Ghaziabad and Bharat Ratna Bhimrao Telecom Training Center at Jabalpur are
comparable to any world class Telecom Training Center. Moreover, 43 zonal training centers
and a National Academy of Telecom Finance and Management have been running for several
years now.
 Different curriculum run in these centers to impart technology based training, training
for Attitudinal change, basic educational and skill development program etc.

49
CHAPTER – IV
DATA
ANALYSIS &

50
INTERPRET
ATION

1.2 Analysis of Secondary Data

The annual report 2013-2018 published on Nepal Doorsanchar Company limited official web
sites. This data is considered as secondary source as data is as:

51
Human Resources
Table No: 4.2.1
Ov
2013-2014 2014- 2015- 2016- 2017-2018
erall
2015 2016 2017
Human
Total 6984 7030 7088 7094 7074
Approved
Post
Total 5699 5592 5876 5826 5712
Working
Manpower
Overall 2588 3199 3787 4672 5225
Manpower
per 1000
lines
Resource

source: BSNL Annual Report 2017-2018, Date: 8th July 2018

4.3 Analysis of Primary Data

Research has been conducted using Questionnaire as Data collection Technique.


Here we deals with Random sampling method and taken sample from 50 respondent and
analysis the in the form of table and graph as they responded.

52
Table No: 4.2.2 Job Analysis helps in Selection of Right Candidate
Answers Options Number of Responses Percentage
Always 26 52%
Often 15 30 %
Seldom 8 16%
Never 1 2%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.3 Impact of Technology


Answers Options Number of Responses Percentage
Always 43 86%
Often 7 14%
Seldom 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2018

Table No: 4.2.4 Changes in Organization environment


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly dynamic 19 38%
moderate 17 34%
low 5 10%
no changes 9 18%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.5 Job Rotation helps in align competencies


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage

53
always 33 66%
often 11 22%
seldom 6 12%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2018

Table No: 4.2.6 Requirement of Change in Structure


Answer Option no. of responses Percentage
always 23 46%
often 14 28%
seldom 10 20%
never 3 6%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.7 Level of co-ordination between team members


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
high 17 34%
medium 26 52%
low 5 10%
neutral 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.8 Personal interest during job analysis


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 25 50%
often 12 24%
seldom 8 16%
never 5 10%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

54
Table No: 4.2.9 Level of satisfaction with payment
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly satisfied 7 14%
satisfied 23 46%
neutral 11 22%
not satisfied 9 18%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.10 Important of working Hour during Job Analysis


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 13 26%
often 27 54%
seldom 10 20%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.11 Level of satisfaction as per appointed for the post
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly satisfied 8 16%
satisfied 20 40%
neutral 10 20%
not satisfied 12 24%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.12 Matching Personal Interest Result


Answer Options no. of respondent Percentage
highly satisfaction 23 46%
satisfaction 14 28%
neutral 11 22%

55
not satisfaction 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.13 Good Working Environment leads to Job Satisfaction


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
highly 29 58%
medium 11 22%
neutral 8 16%
low 2 4%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.14 Departmental leads to Systematic arrangement of Organization


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
strongly agree 32 64%
agree 10 20%
neutral 8 16%
disagree 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.15 My Job provides Self feedback


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
strongly agree 9 18%
agree 27 54%
neutral 10 20%
disagree 4 8%
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018

Table No: 4.2.16 Job Rotation as tools for identifying KSAs

56
Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 5 10%
often 39 78%
seldom 6 12%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25 June 2018

Table No: 4.2.17 My Work influences day-to- day company success.


Answer Options no. of responses Percentage
always 11 22%
often 16 32%
seldom 23 46%
never 0 0
Total 50 100

Source: field survey, Date: 25th June 2018


4.4 List of figures as per Table for secondary data
As shown in the figure below First graph indicates number of approved post. Then the total
number of employees engaged in work. The third graph indicates overall manpower working
per 1000 telephones lines.

57
Figure No. 4.4.1
Figure Name: Division of Manpower
Source Table: Overall Human Resources, Pg. 74

4.5 List of Figure as per Primary Data mention above table

Figure No: 4.5.1


Figure Name: Analyzing based on selection candidates
Source Table: Job Analysis helps in Selection of Right Candidate, Pg. 75

58
Figure No: 4.5.2
Figure Name: analysis of need of technology
Source Table: Impact of Technology, Pg. 75

Figure No: 4.5.3


Figure Name: Analyzing of organization environment
Source Table: Changes in organization environment, Pg. 76

59
Figure No: 4.5.4
Figure Name: Analyzing competencies as per Job Rotation
Source Table: Job Rotation helps in align competencies, Pg. 76

Figure No: 4.5.5


Figure Name: Analysis of structural changes
Source Table: Requirement of Change in Structure, Pg. 76

60
Figure No: 4.5.6
Figure Name: Analysis of team work
Source Table: Level of co-ordination between team members, Pg. 77

Figure No: 4.5.7


Figure Name: Analysis of Personal interest
Source Table: Personal interest during job analysis, Pg. 77

61
Figure No: 4.5.8
Figure Name: salary/ wages
Source Table: level of satisfaction with payment, Pg. 77

Figure No: 4.5.9


Figure Name: level of working hours
Source Table: Importance of working hours during Job Analysis, Pg. 78

62
Figure No: 4.5.10
Figure Name: satisfaction with the post
Source Table: level of satisfaction as per appointed for the post, Pg. 78

Figure No: 4.5.11


Figure Name: Personal interest with Job
Source Table: Matching personal interest result in. Pg. 78

63
Figure No: 4.5.12
Figure Name: Level of Job Satisfaction
Source Table: Good Working Environment leads to job satisfaction, Pg. 79

Figure No: 4.5.13


Figure Name: Departmentalization
Source Table: Departmental leads to systematic agreement of organization, Pg. 79

64
Figure No: 4.5.14
Figure Name: Level of self-feedback
Source Table: My Job provides self-feedback, Pg. 79

Figure No: 4.5.15


Figure Name: Importance of Job Rotation
Source Table: Job rotation as tools for identifying KSAs, Pg. 80

65
Figure No: 4.5.16
Figure Name: work influence
Source Table: My work influences day-to-day company success, Pg. 80

66
CHAPTER – V
FINDINGS
SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION

4.6 Findings

A realistic approach of Job Analysis ensures maximum relationship between job content and
job context that is supportive of the recruitment process. Many organizations therefore carry a
job re-design as a component of the ongoing process of Job Analysis. An effective Job
analysis can be conducted after the job has been designed, the employees have been trained
and the work has been performed.

67
Most of the research on job design was based on the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
presented by Hack man & Oldham in 1976 and 1980 which focused on five core job
characteristics (task identity, tasks significance, skill variety, and autonomy and job feedback)
which contributed to job stimulation and in turn affected motivation, job performance and job
satisfaction.

 In the findings, study provides evidence that fair selection for an organization produces
better results.

 Employee's high commitment and productivity, developing desired knowledge based


skills, attitudes and other behaviors does result in higher Job Satisfaction and Job
Performance.

 Job analysis is a process which has certain impact on work design, HR Planning,
Performance Appraisal, compensation, training etc.

 Job analysis key elements are Job description (tasks, responsibilities and duties) and Job
Specification (skills, knowledge and abilities) once we are clear about these terms, it
further helps in selection for right candidates at right place and at right time.

 Here are certain factors regarding Job Design as organizational factors, environmental
factors and behavioral factors, proper mobilization of these factors results in job
satisfaction and high productivity.

 some of the approaches related to job design as job rotation, job enlargement job
enrichment, job engineering and human approaches, proper guideline and good
understanding what what exactly this terms means can help employee retention and
interest toward work and working environment.

 Division of workforce as per their specification like KSAs helps forming a team to
perform specific task which saves time and cost.

 In an Organization everything should be systematic, updated system, departmental and


structured so that work flow smoothly without any disturbance and conflict.

 In most of the organization they plan bigger and make strategies but during the period of
implementation it goes wrong or incomplete. So for this one should have proper mission,

68
vision, and goal. Here lacks proper guidelines, monitoring and controlling. It should be in
such an order that after completion of first portion then only we go for the second portion.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION

1.1 Conclusion

Job Analysis is an organized study of a job to categorize its major components. The job
analysis process normally observe the job which is being carried out, asking employees and
supervisors questions about the job, tasks, working conditions and KSAs (Knowledge, Skills
and Abilities). In an increasingly competitive and turbulent market, organizations are largely
dependent on their employees for success. The challenge of identifying the right man for the
right job, individuals to fulfill organization need. A large number of potential workforces are
available in the employment market but the challenge for organizations is to identify and
select those candidates who could perform effectively and efficiently. The research
highlighted that the starting point in any recruitment process is an accurate analysis of the job.

69
This important aspect of human resource management was being ignored particularly in
public sector jobs. Selection and the assessments chosen for the selection process should be
done on the basis of the requirements of the job. Knowledge is essential on part of the
organization in terms of what constitutes good job performance; what kind of knowledge,
skills and abilities are required and what measures would be effective in assessing these.
Despite of the limitations mentioned above, the results of this study move about the field of
human resource management forward by empirically viewing a link between HR practices
like job analysis, job design, job evaluation, job security , job succession planning and job
performance. Impact of job analysis on job performance reflects that job analysis is in reality
a foundation of human resource practices and an imperative management practice to develop
competitive advantage.

The implications of the typical event of the job analysis and other human resource practices
on job performance measures were found remarkable. Altogether this research makes an effort
signifying a substantial positive contribution by Job analysis to job performance. Generally,
the findings of this study were found reliable with the studies conducted in western countries
on the contribution of human resource practices related to the job performance. The worth of
present study lies in the reality that it offers a requisite rationale of theoretical models built on
the basis of studies conducted in the western organizations.

1.2 Recommendation

Despite the strengths and limitations of current study, the study was capable of providing
a well-designed direction for future research. One prospect for future research would be to
broaden the current model with these human resources practices and their impact on
organizational performance instead of employee job performance. The present study may
serve as a drive for human resource professionals and practitioners alike to undertake such
studies.
Future research directions may include:
 To improve peripheral strength, future research efforts should get hold of a representative
sample from more organizations.

 Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance with the intervening role of training.

70
 Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance with the intervening role of human resource
information system.

 Future research should seek out further job performance outcomes from larger samples
with enlarged statistical power.

 Future research should look for developing entire measures of employee job performance
tapping numerous proportions of their job quality.

Bowen & Ostroff discussed in 2000 that future research should observe the strength of the
human resource practices of job quality and their survival.
McDuffie, (1995) stressed that high performance human resource practices like recruitment
and selection processes, job analysis and performance evaluation systems were theorized to
impact job performance. It was the usefulness of such human resource practices in conveying
the organization's goals and the value which places in the employees.

Bowen & Ostroff further discussed in 2000 that the common assurance should be stronger
when the human resource process was clear and practices successfully communicated the
significance of employees to the organization. Thus, future research should observe the
outcome of booming execution of human resource practices and the survival of assured
practices on employee's job excellence and reliability.
Contribution of this study was in designing a conceptual model, graphically depicting the
association with job analysis, job design, job evaluation, job security and job succession
planning with job performance. Future studies by the researchers having keen interest in the
association of these constructs can use this model to prepare new research or increase the
generalize ability of this study in diverse sectors.

71
72
Bibliography
Books

Anderson, g. J. (1979). a quantitative approach to measurement job context. procedure and pay
off personal psychology , 341-357.

W.B., A. (1966). Computaton of group Job Description from occupational survey data. san
antoboio: personal research laboratory.

sidney gael,NYNEX CORPORATION. (1988). the job analysis handbook for business, industry
and govermental .

Sons, J. W. (2009). A Practical Guide to Job Analysis. 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA
94103-1741: Pfeiffer.

Thesis:

Zafar, M. U. (2005). Job Analysis practices . Pakistan.

Articles:

(http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Kanakdurgaprasad_Dinanath_Irabatti)

(http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/268/)

(http://www.hrcrossing.com/article/270027/Job-Analysis-in-Human-Resources/)

73
Questionnaire:

1) What are/is the product and services provided by your organization?


------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2) What is the size (operational wise) of your company?
a) large b) medium c) small
3) What is your designation?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4) How often job analysis helped in selection right people at right time?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

5) How technological play their role in change in your organization environment?


a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

6) What is the level of change in your organization environment?


a) high dynamic b) moderate c) low d) no change

7) Does job rotation help in align competencies when required?


a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

8) When your structure changes do you require new jobs to face these changes?
a) always b) often c) seldom d)never
9) What is the level of understanding between your team members?
a) high b) medium c) low d) neutral

10) Do you consider personal interest related to his/her while job analysis?

74
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

11) Are you satisfied with the wages /salary you are paid for?
a) high satisfied b) satisfied c) neutral d) not satisfied

12) How often working hours is considered while doing his/her job analysis?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

13) Are you satisfied with the post you are appointed as per your qualification?
a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) not satisfied d) neutral

14) If personal interest matches with his/her job then it result in?
a) job satisfaction b) neutral c) dissatisfaction

15) Does good working environment leads to Job Satisfaction?


a) highly b) medium c) low d) neutral

16) Department and structuring leads to systematic arrangement of organization?


a) strongly agree b) agree c) neutral d) disagree

17) My job itself provides feedback on how well I am performing.


a) strongly Agree b) agree c) neutral d) disagree

18) How often job rotation helped in identifying your knowledge, skills and ability?
a) always b) often c) seldom d) never

19) My work influences day to day company success.


always b) often c) seldom d) never

75