IJSER-Volume1,Issue2 November 2010. (www.ijser.org)International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research

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IJSER-Volume1,Issue2 November 2010. (www.ijser.org)International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Quantum Cryptography
- Key-Aggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud Storage
- Encryption Decryption
- DS
- Security
- Resource Allocation Using Genetic Algorithms
- Security Review1
- A Survey of Frequency and Wavelet Domain Digital Watermarking Techniques
- The Insulin Bio Code Standard Deviation
- Ideals in Group Algebra of berg Group
- Computer Aided Screening for Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using BRCA Gene as an Indicator
- Exudates Detection Methods in Retinal Images Using Image Processing Techniques
- Promoting E-Governance Through Right to Information
- 100309
- Image Authentication Techniques
- Imbricate Cryptography
- MC0063 Fall Drive Assignment 2011
- CHENCHUAES
- FPGA-Based Design of Controller for Sound Fetching From Codec Using Altera DE2 Board
- network security

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CRYPTOGRAPHY

Aayushi Jangid

BASICS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

may be web browser or server for electronic

1.1 INTRODUCTION

transactions, DNS Servers, online banking

In today’s world when hacking and computer

client/server, routers exchanging routing table

data robbery and theft are common

updates etc.

phenomena, it is very important to protect

data and information that is sent over a

particular network. And that is where the need

1.2 HISTORY OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

for cryptography arises.

It is believed that the first instance of

Cryptography is the science of writing the

cryptography was seen around 4000 years ago

data or information in a secret code. It involves

in the Egyptian city of MENET KHUFU where

encryption and decryption. The data that can

the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the tomb of

be understood without any special efforts is

the nobleman KHNUMHOTEP II were written

called as the plaintext. This data can be

with a number of unusual symbols to confuse

converted into the secret code and this process

or obscure the meaning of the inscriptions.

is called as the encryption. This encrypted data

is called as the cipher text. This encrypted text

One of the other techniques of

can be converted back into the plaintext by a

cryptography, called as substitution cipher in

key and this process is called as the

the modern terminology was used by Julius

decryption. Thus, cryptography consists of

Caesar, however, this technique was first

both, the encryption and the decryption

developed by the Greek writer Polybius but its

process.

first recorded use was made by Julius Caesar.

In this technique, Julius Caesar encoded his

1.2 FRIENDS AND ENEMIES IN messages by substituting the letters in the text

CRYPTOGRAPHY: by the alphabet that was three letters towards

There are three names that are most popular in the right.

the cryptographic terms i.e. Bob, Alice and

Trudy.

Bob and Alice want to communicate sincerely

without any leakage of messages and Trudy

might intercept in those messages to harm its

contents. These names are very popular in

network security world. These Bob and Alice

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4 WORKING OF CRYPTOGRAPHY:

3 PURPOSES AND NEED OF

basis of some mathematical algorithms along

CRYPTOGRAPHY:

with a key. This key is being used for

encryption as well as for the decryption of the

Cryptography is needed to ensure the data. The key used for these two processes can

confidentiality and authentication of the data be either same or it can be different as well in

passed through any untrusted or unreliable various different types of cryptography.

network like the internet. The cryptographic

techniques enable a signal to be encrypted so

that it can be easily transmitted over any

5 TYPES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY:

insecure channel like the internet so that it can

be read and understood only by the person for There are primarily three different types of

whom it is intended. cryptography:

Public Key Cryptography or

Cryptography is generally used to ensure Asymmetric Cryptography

the following functionalities: Secret Key Cryptography or

Symmetric Cryptography

Hash Functions.

It has to ensure the authenticity of the

However, the first two types of cryptography

message.

are more important than the hash functions.

It provides a mechanism to ensure

that the sender has sent a particular

message.

It makes sure that over whichever

5.1 PRIVATE KEY

network does the information passes,

CRYPTOGRAPHY:

only the receiver for whom the

message is intended can understand

In this cryptographic technique, the same key is

the message, and no one else.

used for both the encryption as well as the

decryption of the messages i.e. Bob and Alice share

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the same key for sending and then receiving the messages by its decryption.

KEY 1 KEY 1

Plaintext Cipher text Plaintext

key ciphers: The stream ciphers encrypt only one bit at a

time. They use the key stream generator and

Stream ciphers

they combine each bit of key stream with each

Block ciphers

bit of plaintext to get bit of cipher text.

GENERATOR

M (i): ith bit of the message cipher texts C and C’ generating with the same

K (i): ith bit of the key stream key sequence as

C (i): ith bit of the cipher text C C’ = M M’

And there are very well known methods for

Then, decryption of those messages whose XOR are

given.

C (i) = M (i) K (i) [1]. It supports a large amount of integrity

M (i) = C (i) K (i) problem as well. Suppose the attacker knows

Where is the exclusive or operator. C and M and wants to change M to M’. He can

But, there are certain problems with the very easily do it by calculating

stream ciphers and these problems include: C’ = C (M M’)

[1]. The attacker receives certain amount of the

cipher text and he can guess the corresponding And then send C’ to destination.

plaintext through the exclusive or operator as:

K=M C Example of the stream cipher is RC4 cipher.

M’ = K C’ RC4 is a popular stream cipher. In this case

[2]. There is often a large amount of key can be from 1 to 256 bytes. It is used in

predictable and repetitive data in WEP for 802.11 and can be used in SSL.

communication messages.

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5.1.2 BLOCK CIPHERS: key and is used for encryption of messages i.e.

In the block ciphers, message to be encrypted the messages are encrypted using the

is processed in block of k bits and 1-to-1 recipient’s public key and the second key is

mapping is used to map k-bit block of called as the private key and is kept secret.

plaintext to k-bit block of cipher text. In This key is used by the recipient to decrypt the

general, about 2k! Mappings are required. But, messages.

the problem with this approach is that this

requires a table with a lot of entries. But, to The keys are related mathematically but it is

solve this we can use a prototype function. not practically possible to figure out the

private key from the public key.

In public key cryptography, a pair of different

keys is used. One key is called as the public

Decryption

on

Plaintext

There are two main techniques for public key the sender has actually received that message.

cryptography: This will ensure confidentiality and security.

[1]. Public key encryption: In general, one of the two algorithms is used

for public key cryptography. They are

In this technique, two keys are used for the

purpose of encryption and decryption as a) RSA Algorithm

described above. b) Diffie-Hellman Algorithm

5.2.1 RSA ALGORITHM OR RIVEST,

In this case, a message signed with the sender’s SHAMIR, ADELSON

private key can be verified by anyone who ALGORITHM:

knows the sender’s public key to verify that

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ISSN 2229-5518

Some important things that one needs to

Given the public and the private keys, the

know before learning this algorithm is:

encryption and decryption can be done as

[1]. We need a public key K+ and a private follows:

key K- for Bob such that

c=me mod n

[2]. Given the public key K+ it should be And, to decrypt the received bit pattern, c,

impossible to compute the private key. we compute

m=cd mod n

[3]. a mod b= remainder of a when divided

by b.

The RSA algorithm is secure because

and hence by properties, factorizing a big number is hard.

5.2.2 DIFFIE-HELLMAN

Now, the concept of the RSA ALGORITHM

Algorithm is as follows:

In the RSA Algorithm, a message is

The Diffie-Hellman algorithm possesses the

considered as a bit pattern and each of these

following steps:

bit patterns can be uniquely represented by a

number. Allow two entities to agree on shared key.

But does not provide encryption.

Thus, encrypting a message is equivalent to

p is a large prime; g is a number less than p.

encrypting a number.

p and g are made public

The algorithm steps are as follows: Alice and Bob each separately choose 512-

bit random numbers, SA and SB that are

[1]. Choose two large prime numbers p and q. the private keys.

Alice and Bob compute public keys:

[2]. Compute n=p*q

TA = gSA mod p; TB = gSB mod p;

[3]. Compute z= (p-1) (q-1) Alice and Bob exchange TA and TB in the

clear

[4]. Choose e with e<n that has no common Alice computes (TB)SA mod p

factors with z. Bob computes (TA)SB mod p

shared secret:

[5]. Choose d such that ed-1is exactly

S = (TB)SA mod p = = gSASB mod p =

divisible by z.

(TA)SB mod p

[6]. Then, the public key is (n, e) and the Even though Trudy might sniff TB and

private key is (n, d). TA, Trudy cannot easily determine S.

Problem: Man-in-the-middle attack:

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 2, November-2010 6

ISSN 2229-5518

from Bob; may be Trudy instead.

Internet security is very important and

6 APPLICATIONS OF cryptography is a very important part of it. It

is very important to ensure the secrecy of your

CRYPTOGRAPHY:

messages and it can be efficiently done

The cryptographic systems mainly support through the use of cryptography. So, in my

those applications in which there are no opinion everybody should have a basic idea of

conceivable law enforcement interests in cryptography.

having access to master keys. For example-

Cryptography is a particularly

ATM, Satellite TV decoders, fire alarm,

interesting field because of the reason that it

burglar alarm signaling etc.

does not involve the secrecy of messages;

The cryptographic techniques have generally rather, it involves the security of messages.

nothing to do with the secrecy of the However, there are many attacks onto the

message. Rather, they are mainly concerned cryptographic algorithms as well but since

with protecting the tampering of data. they are all tested they can be relied upon for

protecting the messages.

The main organization that does this for big

companies like Intel, Microsoft etc. is Walt ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

I would like to thank my mom-dad, my family

Disney. Walt Disney refuses to release the

and friends (esp. Nupur, Shalini and Dakshi)

digital versions of their videos until unless a

for supporting me throughout. A special

high level security is provided to them.

mention to my grandparents Mrs. and

Dr.B.P.Jangid and my uncles Mr.Virendra

Further, the primary and the main purpose of

Singh, Dr.B.S.Rathore and Mr. Abdul Kaleem

cryptography is network security.

Khan for their constant encouragement

throughout.

REFERENCES:

[1]. Barr, T.H. (2002). Invitation to Cryptology. York: John Wiley & Sons.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. [5]. Schneier, B. (1996). Applied Cryptography,

[2]. Denning, D.E. (1982). Cryptography and 2nd Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Data Security. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. [6]. Cryptography Research Inc.'s

[3]. Federal Information Processing Standards cryptography.com Site

(FIPS) 140-2. (2001, May 25). Security [7]. Crypto Log: The Internet Guide to

Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. Cryptography

Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of [8]. RSA's Cryptography FAQ

Standards and Technology (NIST). Retrieved [9]. Wikipedia pages on cryptography

from

http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips140-

2/fips1402.pdf

[4]. Ferguson, N., Schneier, B., & Kohno, T.

(2010). Cryptography Engineering: Design

Principles and Practical Applications. New

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