Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 143

oxford

exam
support I ,6|l

, R
t;1
',
..

V-t t(

;x

oxroRD Jayne Wildman


Fiona Beddall
p6 The 'we'generation
p4 Challenges
GrammarTense revision

1
lnspiration
Reading The onlY waY is forward
Strategy Critical thinking: questioning the author
VocabularY Describing qualities
ffi Listening We DaY

VocabularY insight SYnonYms

p18 Life on the edge


pl6 Real education perfeo'
Lrurnrnu, Future tenses; Future continuous, future
Reading Making school meaningful
future perfect continuous
Vocabulary insight Word analYsis
' Vocabulary insight Nouns + prepositions ffi Listening Volcano photographers
The world
around us ,

p32 What's left behind


i p30 Hoarders
Grammar Articles; Determiners
, Reading The stuff in our lives
ffiListening What people leave on holiday
, Strategy Detecting purpose and point ofview
Things that I VocabularY insight SYnonYms
matter r Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs with oul

p44 Fact or fiction


p42 Perfect PeoPle
GrammarTalking about habitual behaviour
Reading Gattaca
Vocabu'iary insight Verbs and nouns with the same
form ffi Listening Ambulance Paramedics
-ness, -ity, -ion
Mind and Vocabulary insight Noun suffixes:

body

p58 Fast track to fluencY


: p56 A word is born

5
Words
I Reading Words, words, words
I Strategy Skipping words that you do not understand
I Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs with on
bru*rnu, Advice, obligation and prohibition; Past modals
ffi Listening Ways of learning a new language

, Vocabulary insightVerb prefixes: en- and em-

p70 The big Picture


p68 Who controls the news? future
Grammar Speculation about the past, present and
Reading Armed with a smartphone
&S ListeningThe big Picture
Vocabulary insight Collocations: iournalism
The media Vocabulary insight Word analYsis
and the
messa9e

p84 LuckY break or luckY escaPe?


p82 Before ldie ...

7
That's life
Reading From here to eternity
Strategy Critical thinking: evaluating pros and cons
I Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs with
off
Grammar Conditionals; Mixed conditionals
ffi ListeningThe luckiest man alive?

Vocabulary Phrases with /lfe

p96 Wet wealth


p94 A right to eat
GrammarThe Passive
, Reading Would You eat it?
I Vocabulary insight Synonyms: intensity
ffi Listening Wet wealth
Food and , Vocabulary insight Prepositions
ethics

I
echnology
p108 What's hew?
Reading The next big thing
Strategy Making inferences
Vocabulary insight Word analYsis
Vocabulary TechnologY nouns
pl10 Young minds
Grammar RePorted sPeech
ffi Listening Teen inventors

r p122 Dirty sPort


( p120 UtoPia?

't
10 Power
Reading Different lives
VocabularY insight Word analYsis
Vocabulary Society and citizenship
I brurrui Defining and non-defining relative clauses;
I Participle clauses
' KX Listening CorruPtion in sPort

"*--*.**.
p8 Do the right thing p10 Belief and commitment pl2 An article
-Iij t-istening A news slory Reading From Robben lsland: the Dark Years (Nelson strategy The writing process
fl Listening What makes a hero Mandela) Vocabulary Purpose and result
Vocabulary insight Words with se/f- Vocabulary insight Word analysis
Everyday English Choosing the winner of a local Grammar Past perfect and past perfect continuous
hero award

p20 Urban stories p22 Songlines : p24 Describing a place


ffi Listening I wish this was ... Reading Songlines ; Strategy Recognizing style
Strategy Active listening (1) Vocabulary insight Adjective suffixes: -able and -ible I Modiling adverbs with gradable
Vocabulary insight Antonyms: urban regeneration Grammar Future time clauses i and non-gradable adjectives
Everyday English Deciding on a new community
project

p34 One man's trash .. . p36 Lost treasures p38 A story


P:is .
.
Li} Lrstenrng trasn reoPrc Reading Saved or stolen? StrategyTelling a story
Vocabulary Adjectives describing objects Vocabulary insight Compounds with participles Ordering events in a story
Everyday English Selecting things to exhibit GrammarVerb patterns

p46 Face value p48 Frankenstein p50 A letter to a newspaper


ffi Listening Cosmetic surgery Reading Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Strategy Taking a view and
Strategy Active listening (2) Vocabulary insight Word analysis supporting your ideas
Vocabulary Phrases with body parts Grammar Future in the past I Vocabulary Addition and contrast
Everyday English Discussing a controversial topic

p60 A good read p62 Shakespeare p64 A book review


ffiListening The future of libraries Reading A writer for all time Vocabulary insight Synonyms:
Vocabulary Phrases with polnr Vocabulary insight Word analysis adjectives describing stories
Everyday English Choosing a book for a book club Grammar Talking about ability Strategy Avoiding repetition

p72 Making the headlines p74 Truth or lies? p76 An article


Reading Seeing is believing Strategy Creating emphasis
ffi Listening A news story
ffi Listening Why people want to be famous Vocabulary Documentaries Vocabulary Discourse markers
Strategy Adapting to authentic listening situations Grammar Emphasis and inversion
Vocabulary insight ldioms with in and our
Everyday English Choosing front page news

i The golden years


pQ_6 p88 The Road Not Taken p90 An opinion essay
: ffi
Listening Growing old in different societies Reading The Road NotTaken by Robert Frost Strategy Persuasive writing
I Vocabulary The old and the young Vocabulary insight Analysing meaning Making comparisons
I Everyday English Discussing old age Grammar Unreal situations

p98 Feeding the world p100 The origins of food p102 A for and against essay
ffi Listening The growing population and food Reading Exploring Britain's fish and chips Strategy Talking about cause and
Strategy Taking notes Vocabulary insight Adjective + noun collocations: food effect
Vocabulary Phrases with foce Grammar The passive: verbs with two objects Grammar The passive with
Everyday English Talking about photos reporting verbs

p112 Digital footprints pl14 First? p116 A report


ffiListening Our digital footprint Reading The firsts and frauds offlight Strategy Ways of conducting
Vocabulary Phrases with under Vocabulary insight Adverbs with two forms resea rch
Everyday English Giving a presentation Grammar Verb patterns in reported speech Vocabulary Evidence verbs

p124 Have your voice heard p126 The power ofwords I p128 Afor and against essay
ffi Listening Elections Reading PresidentJohn F. Kennedys inaugural speech : Vocabulary Giving examples and
Strategy ldenti!ing attitude }'{ Listening Rhetoric explanations
Vocabulary The electoral system Vocabulary insight Synonyms: global politics , Strategy Writing introductions
Everyday English A debate Grammar Relative clauses: other structures
lnspiration
Reading and vocabulary Challenges
ry \,r^'w rr-^
SPEAKING Discuss the quotes. Do you agree or
disagree with them? Which quote do you like the
most? Justify your answers.
1 'Being challenged in life is inevitable, being defeated
isoptionall (Roger Crawford)
2 Attitude is a little thing that makes a big differencel
(Winston Churchill)
3 'Challenges are what make life interesting;
overcoming them is what makes life meaningfull
(Joshua J. Marine)
4 'The only disability in life is a bad attitudel(Scott
Hamilton)

2 Read the article. What challenges did Amar face?


What was his attitude towards them?

Critical thinking: questioning the author


While you read, think about what the author
means and how they have presented the information.
Ask yourself questions about:
x the author's intention and reasons for writing.
x why they have told the story or written the article in a
certaln way.

This will develop your critical


thinking skills and help you to
check understanding and to remember what you have read.
.'A:'Like most ".itt t""nug.rr, Amar
'Latif loved riding his"n-y"ir-oli:1,
bike. He'd often fall off, but
3 Read the strategy. Answer questions 1-3 as you
undeterred he'd always get right back on. Then one
read paragraphs A and B of The only way is forward.
day, after yet another accident, his parents decided
1 What is the author focusing on in these paragraphs?
that enough was enough, and sold it. lt was his first
What point is he / she trying to make?
major setback in life, but he managed to get over it.
2 Why do you think the author quotes Amar? What
'You q1e constantly told the world is your oyster,' said
impression do you have of him?
Amar later, 'but it didn't feel like my oyster ... you've
3 Does the author explain why Amar has experienced
these problems? Why / why not? [just] got to get out of that way of thinking.' This
positive attitude helped Amar later. After successfully
4 Read paragraph C of the article. What key completing his degree, he travelled across Canada.
information does the author give us? Why does he and North America with his friends. Travel was
/ she tell us this now? Amar's passion, but it soon became clear that he
would have'to overcome, significant obstacles to do
it. This was his second major blow. 'Thqre were two
5 Read the article again and answer the questions.
ways foruuard,' he said. 'l could just accept that I was
ln which paragraph A-G does the author:
not able to travel. Or l'd need to change something.
1 point out the practical skills a Traveleyes guide needs? I chose the second option.'
2 describe Amar's early success and a change in his B On his return home, Amar started a career in
objectives?
finance where his perfectionism and constant efforts
3 describe how people perceive or experience a place
to do his best led to success and promotion. Then,
in different ways?
after nine years he gave up his job to pursue-his real
4 explain why certain things weren't easy for Amar?
passion, setting up an innovative travel company
5 sum up Amar's character and achievements?
called:Tfaveleyes. Amar had aJways lon6d.'to travel,
6 illustrate the benefits that tours can have for local
but since his trip to America, he'd been painfully
communities?
aware of how difficult it was for people like him.
7 describe a disappointment very early in Amars life?

A + lnspiration
Vocabulary: describing qualities; synonyms; words with
Xrepffi -
se/f-; word
ffiq:ffi_{}ffi
Speaking: choos ng a winner of a loca hero award
analysis; purpose and result Writing: an artic e
Grammar: tense revision; past perfect and past perfect continuous
islffi;:o'h'ffi rffi$ffi *Ti-\,ffi@6't;

C The reason was his eyesight. At the age of four,


Amar was diagnosed with a rare degenerative eye
condition. By sixteen, his eyesight had deteriorated
so much that he couldn't ride his bike. Today, Amar
is blind - and Traveleyes organizes holidays for
visually-impaired people.
D Amar's idea for his company is revolutionary,
based on a ground-breaking concept that partners
blind travellers with sighted ones. Sighted guides
are offered a discounted holiday in return for acting
as 'eyes' for blind travellers. As a guide, they are
constantly expected to notice and describe the
world around them and to think about how best to
transfer the details of the places and sights to their
blind companions. lt requires commitment and
staying power, as well as patience and perseverance
in the face of new challenges - and they need to
get on with their parlner, too. But despite these
demands, sighted guides find the holidays both
inspirational and educational. They challenge
peoples perception of 'disability' and illustrate the
imporlance of social inclusion.
E This sense of community brings out the best in
human nature, encouraging tolerance, compassion
(a concern for others), and good humour. Sighted
guides also take home an understanding of how a
blind person experiences the world. 'Some things
are more intense as a blind person,' explains Amar.
'When you're walking along cobbled streets. hearing F But this change of perception isn't limited to
church bells in the distance. Feeling the spray of travellers. ln countries such asthe Gambia and Cuba,
Niagara Falls on your face when you're on the Maid holidays often include a visit to a local blind school. ;;
of the Mist boat.' What might first be perceived as Travellers take time to interact with the children 'as

a hindrance turns out to be an unexpected benefit and their teachers, sharing knowledge and talking tlili
and most guides return home with more vivid and about their own life experiences. lt provides the 'ti;l::
richer memories of what they've experienced. children with role models and gives them optimism
and more confidence in their own abilities. 'A lot iit,l:
[of the blind travellers] have great jobs back home, 70
running their own businesses, accountants, lawyers, ,-
that sort of thing,' says Amar. 'So that changes [the t,;,
kids'l perceptions ... lt can give them hope, that .L'
they can do this as well.'
,;;l
G Amar has come a long way since he iell off his rii,
bike all those years ago. His enthusiasm, ingenuity
d
11 and ability to reinvent himself have made his story an '-.
inspirational tale. Single-mindedness and focusing on :
his passion have helped him conquer adversity and 1,1.:tl
realize his dreams. 'Life is short, with or without sight,' 8!
he says. 'And you've got to get out there and do what ,,1..,
you can. This isn't a dress rehearsal. You can't stop

lnspiration 5 I
1B r Grammar:aad
5 sprRxuttG Discuss the questions.
1 Would you consider being a guide on a Traveleyes
holiday? Why / why not?
2 What things influence our perception of places?
What things do you usually notice when you visit
somewhere for the first time?

Find words in the article for definitions 1-8.Then


rank the qualities in order of importance. Justify your
answers.
1 a desire to do something as well as you possibly can (B)
2 dedication to an activity (D)
3 continuing on a course of action despite difficulties (D)
4 ability to accept something different (E)
5 sympathy for the suffering of others (E)
6 hopefulness and confidence about the future (F)
7 the ability to invent new things and being original (G)
8 focusing on and determination to achieve only one
aim (G)
ffi V.
'llrr:il:l
Complete the sentences with the words in exercise 7.
There are three words that you do not need.
I 'You need a more positive outlook on life. A little 1 W:ii;tjli spEAKING study the tist below and
will help you to deal with Your choose the three most important things for teens
problems more effectivelyl today. Justify your answers. Then listen to the radio
2 lt was his amazing , involving hundreds programme. Have your ideas changed? Compare
of experiments - many of which failed - that enabled your ideas.
Edison to invent the light bulb.
e money x happiness n possessions r community life
3 He was quite a cold person and lacked
x helping others w having lots of free time
He dldn't understand other people or how they felt.
xx not working too hard
4 Her .. . ... to her music was extraordinarY.
She practised for hours every evening after school.
5 She spent a long time on her science project. lt was
an example of her....... - everything had to 2 Wa$i$i Put sentences 1-10 in the correct order.
be exactly right. Then listen and check. ldentify the highlighted
tenses and explain why they have been used.
m
}I I Charities like We Day are turning'me'into'we'one
9 Complete the lists of synonyms with the highlighted hashtag at a time.
words in the article. Check any words that you do 2 As a small child, he had worked twelve-hour days on

not know in a dictionary and write any common handmade carpets, so he knew the misery suffered
collocations. by child workers.
3 The story was about lqbal, a Pakistani child, whose
1 aproblem: ......
parents had sold him into forced labour.

problem: ..... ..., 4 That's why Craig had created Free the Children and
2 tosuccessfullydeal witha
twelve years later, he also founded We Day with his
brother Marc.
3 d;;;;;f",", 5
";;,;;;;,
,
Every year, We Day organizes special six-hour events
or parties around the country.
4 an advantage: 6 Eventually, lqbal escaped and jloined an organization
that fought for children's rights.
10 SPEAKING What sort of challenges have you
faced in your life? How have you dealt with them?
7 Recently, its,been growllg in popularity - it has
3.3 million followers on Facebook.
Choose two challenges, describe them, say how you
reacted and explain what the outcome was. Use the
8 Craig Kielburger was reading a newspaper when he
eamerqcross an interesting article. t
synonyms in exercise 9.
9 Since We Day began (in 2007), school children have
Ways of looking page 134 given over 6 million hours of service.
10 'l'veialways believed there are plenty of hard-working,
selfless teens out therei

I s lnspiration
,*-,L*..-B.r- tU
f-.---- -r
The'we'generation
jxrr' .* t,* .ry7 - -+- € -,-' f
3 ldentify the tenses in these pairs of sentences and explain why they have been used.
1 a Craig Kielburger has been supporting children's rights for years.
b Craig Kielburger has believed in children's rights for years.
2 a Our school has taken part in most of the We Day events.
b Our school took part in a We Day event last year.
3 a We have been collecting money for We Day all term.
b We have collected f250 for We Day today.
4 a When we got to the fundraising party, Craig had already given a speech.
b When we got to the fundraising party, Craig gave a speech.
5 a While the concert was finlshing, we took some more photos.
b When the concert finished, we took some more photos.
6 a At the moment, shes updating her Facebook account.
b She's always updating her Facebook account!

4 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Things iouldn't get anyworse for Kesz, but fortunately,


his luck started to change. A community worker called
8
Harnin Manalaysay -, -,,,, him
(take in), (look after) him and treated
10... (never / know) such
his wounds. Kesz
kindness before, and the experience changed his life.

Make questions about Kesz's life. Then ask and answer in pairs.
1 Why / Kesz / smile / at the moment
2 Where / he / work / when he was two
3 Why / he / run away / from home
4 What / he / lookfor / when the accident happened
5 Who / loakafter / him afterwards
6 What / Kesz / never / experience / before
7 What effect / this / have on him
8 What / Kesz's organization / achieve / since it was founded

SPEAKING Discuss the questions.


1 Think about your local community. What challenges are there, e.g. poverty, environmental issues,
crime, education, unemployment, housing?
2 In what ways could an individual help to solve these problems? Can you give examples of people
who have tried to make a difference locally or globally?
Oxfam
lnspiration 7 I
'l C r Listening, speaking and vocabulary Do the right thing
b\

' 1.02 SFEAKING Listen to the first part of a news story and discuss the questions.
1 Where did the story take piace?
2 Who was there? What were they doing?
3 What happened next? What do you think each person on the p atform dld next?
2 :,.',1
1.03 Listen to the rest of the news story and compare your ideas. Did the ending
surprise you? Why / why not?

3 ' 1.04 SPEAKING Why do you think some people help in life-threatening situations? Why
,,,
do others stand back and do nothing? Listen to the radio discussion and compare your ideas.

:,,
4 ' 1.04 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
1 The speakers agree that Weslev was irresponsible.
2 During the bank robbery, people panicked when tney saw the gun.
3 Our first reaction to danger is to acknow edge the threat.
4 Stress hormones he p us to think faster.
5 The bank custorner reacted quickly to protect himself.
6 Heroes usua Jy leel in control of their lives.
7 They have greater levels of stress hormones.
8 They interact more with their locai communitv.
9 Not many people are truly heroic,

l1 .;: I ,' " '1 .: Words with self-

5 Study the words from the recording. What does se/f mean in all these words? Check
the meanings of any words you do not know in a dictionary. Then complete the text.
self-interest,r self-delence :, self contro ' selflessness self-assurance self-obsession
', se f-preservation , self-sacrifice

When we Lallr about heroes. we i-nag ne peop e who are fearless, have I tlle concern for [he r own
1 . . . in the face of danger; who rarely act out of 2 serving ,nslead lhe irre'esLs
of others.We don't usually associate such 3
with'sel{rsh'teenagers, who are often called
the'me'gene'arion Decause o[ .'re r a
. lf they do sor reLh ng brave, they are probab y
protectrng themselves and acting in s . . . Howeve[ despite the bad press, there are plenty of
Leens who do rhe rghL Lh ng.

When it comes to 6 . , or putting yourself at


risl< for others, it's hard to beat {burteen-
year-old Marcus Urgate, Marcus, from Oregon, saved an eight-yeanold boy from a fl^e in a
neighbours house.The quicl<-thinking teen was calm and showed 7 in the face of exlreme
dange6 climbing up to the second floor; breaking the window and gutding the boy out,
In aroLhe- ircioenr olteenagers were o^ rhe rway to d paorr wher a van .n .ro"t of
i,^ Frorida, a grouD
them crashed,T^e Lee'dge's .nmediare'y sLoppeo and ran Lo Lhe aio o'the lam lytrapped in tle var^.
'ree ng t^e adulLs ano ch ldren r^side, I 1ey acteo quick ly. believ.rg tne), cou d rrake a o,ffererce in a
8
life-and-death situation.Their courage and helped to save seven lives.

illt s lnspiration
M #

6 SPEAKING Study the qualities below. Decide on the ones which you think a hero has.
Then rank them in order of importance. Justify your choices.
',,selflessness:: compassion ,' bravery,, materialism ::i self-interest :: optimism ::: 5inglg-mlt6edness
',' perfectionism

1.05 A school committee is deciding on the winner of a local hero award. Study the
,r,'::
list of candidates below, then listen to the committee discussing the options. Who do they
choose and why?

A pilot who safelv


A farnnr"rs sp$rts
landed a plane in
star who gave
t* trouble, saving
fre* tickets
the lives af ail the
unrlerprivileged
passengers.
chiliiren to wateh
a football rnatch"

r%
A teenage carer
who looked after
& y*,:ng ff*Is{}fi her disabled
su{ieiirrg fr*r: a father at home
*-
i*r:-r:ii::1 ilir*s:' *'t.'' i.
while studying for
iryh* rai*** exams at school.
bq&,,;,,
il*rrt:l i*l *ih*r {!.* H
rhilllrer rrylih lh*
.l?\
5ail* t*nd;liilIl'

A young boY
who d*nated his
kidneY lc save
his brother"

8 li.,, t.0S Listenagainandtickthephrasesthatthestudentsuse.Thenmatchall ofthem


to categories A-C.
,, My view is you saylng that ... ? ,, Can you just explain that again?,, F-or me ...
that ... . ,, Are .

,, What do you mean exactlyl


',: I unde rstsnd that
point of view.,,, l see where you're coming trom

A Giving an oplnion
B Acknow eogirg dn oo n ol
C Asking for clarification

9 ,,:,; 1.06
Listen to a similar discussion. Put the phrases in the order that you hear them. Then
match all of them to categories A-C in exercise 8. Which person did the girl choose and why?
,, The point is that ... . ., 1 think we need to consider ... . ,, Could you exp ain what you mean?
::,That makes sense to me. :: I appreciate what you're saying ... .

10 SPEAKING Work in small groups and decide who deserves the award. Choose from the
people in exercise 7 or use people from your local area. Who would you vote for? Who would
you not vote for? Give reasons for your choices using the phrases in exercises 8 and 9.

Inspiration 9 I
1El r cultuie, vocabulaty16$ :Belief and nt
.{L-NW
SPEAKING Rank the things below in order of
LongWalk
importance in your life. lf you had to make a This extract is from an autobiography called
Africa'
choice and support just one of them, which to Freedomby the former President of South
Mandela describes his
would you choose? Then read the extract from an tl"lron Mandela. ln the book,
the South African
autobiography. What was important to the writer? tit" and later fight against
,p."r'.ia regime. ni firsi became inyglved *ith.ll:
,
"rrt, _^-
x a political movement x education x family
AfricanNationalCongress(ANC)inlg42,supportingnon-
* fight against poverty sr fight against discrimination working for ttre
p*ost. I
Bv 1662, he had been
x solution to an environmental issue x career "i"i"ii
p".ty fo, *or" thrn tuYJF*'ft' He started to realize

ii',.t uttn"a struggle was the onlY


2 The extract is from a book Long Walk to Freedom by
way forward and began
Nelson Mandela. Read the extract again and discuss
to use guerrilla tactics'
the questions.
He was arrested in 1963
1 Why was Mandela's impresslon of tlme different from for political offences
other people's? and sentenced to life
2 What did Mandela realize when he saw his mother imprisonment. ln this
and children? passage he describes his
3 Why did he have mixed emotions when he saw his time at Robben lsland, a
mother? maximum securitY Prison ;ffi4pP
'
4 What impression of the authorities does Mandela for political Prisoners.'At E L
give in the second paragraph? this ooint in his life, he '2 T
5 What family tradition was Mandela forced to break? had been living in a sma
6 How did it make him reflect on his life choices? What p,.i---ttrorh.nrru.*. e%& p*
regrets did he have? ,'r*,**'s-xtatxtxirilstttslallttatf"{
What is the'struggle'he refers to? How did his family
initially react to his commitment to this'struggle'?
From Robben Island:
What conclusion does he come to about the life
choices he made?
the DarkYears
A Time may seem to stand still for those of us in
KXffiXXffi.Wqiut&atvgi; prison, but it did not halt for those outside. I was
3 Answer the questions, referring closely to the reminded of this when I was visited by -y mother in
extract. the spring of 1968. I had not seen her since the end of
1 Which two adjectives does the writer use to describe s the Rivonia Thial. Change is gradual and incremental,
thange'? What is the difference between these two and when one lives in the midst of onet family, one
rarely notices differences in them. But when one
adjectives? (A)
doesnt see onet family for many years at a time, the
2 Which adjective describes a transformation that is
transformation can be striking. My -othe, suddenly
extreme or unusual, and therefore attracts attention?
ro seemed very old.
Why does the writer use it to describe his mother's
appearance? (A) B She had journeyed all the way from the Tianskei,
3 Which word refers to a period of time between one accompanied by -y son Makgatho, my daughter
Makaziwe, and my sister Mabel. Because I had four
event and another? (C)
visitors and they had come a great distance, the
4 Which word means to looktired and ill? What does it
rs authorities extended the visiting time from a half an
describe? (D) - hour to forty-five minutes.
5 Which phrase does the writer use lnstead of a lot?
What does it refer to? (F) C I had not seen my son and daughter since before
6 Which word means helpful? What does the writer
the trial and they had become adults in the interim,
refer to when he uses this word? (F)
growing up without me. I looked at them with
20 amazement and pride. But though they had grown
7 Which word does the writer use for a confusing
up, I am afraid I still treated them more or less as the
problem or a question that is difficult to solve? What
children they had been when I went to prison. They
problem did the writer have? (G)
may have changed, but I hadnt.
8 Which word means to be punished for something?
How was the writer's family punished? (G)
D My mother had lost a great deal of weight, which
zs concerned me. Her face appeared haggard. Only my
sister Mabel seemed unchanged. \X4rile it was a great
pleasure to see all of them and to discuss family issues,
I was uneasy about my mothert health.
E Several weeks later, after returning from the quarry
so I was told to go to the Head Office to collect a telegram.
It was from Makgatho, informing me that my mother
had died of a heart attack. I immediately made a

I to lnspiration
@t
t'1'D
tru

4 Study the underlined sentences in the extract and


answer the questions.
a In sentence 3, which highlighted event happened first?
b Which two sentences emphasize the duration of
an activity?
c Which three time expressions below cannot be used
with the past perfect continuous tense?
xx for x since w already xx by the time x after e yet

se an hour / day / week before n never x.just l* still

5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs


request to the commanding oficer to be permitted to in brackets. Use the past simple, past perfect or past
attend her funeral in the tanskei, which he turned perfect continuous. lf both the past perfect simple
down. 'Mandela,' he said, while I knowyou are a man 35 1li
and continuous are possible, explain the difference
of your word and would not try to escape, I cannot rn meanrn9.
trust your own people, and we fear that they would try
to kidnap you.' It added to my grief that I was not able
On 11 February 1990, the
to bury my mother, whichwas my responsibiliry as her
worldt press gathered
eldest child and only son.
outside a prison in
F Over the next few months I thought about her a
SouthAfrica. Many
3I had been
great deal. Her life had been far from easy.
(camp)
able to support her when I was practicing as an attorney,
but once I went to prison, I was unable to help her. I there for days,
had never been as attentive as I should have been. waiting for an event
G A mothert death causes a man to look back on and thatwould change the
evaluate his own life. Her difficulties, her poverty, made history of their nation.
me question once again whether I had taken the right lnside, an old man was
path. That was always the conundrum: Had I made the pacing back and forth, and then
right choice in putting the peoplet welfare even before he2 (look) impatiently at
that of my own family? For a long time, my mother had his watch. It was almost 3.30 p.m., but he
not understood my commitment to the struggle. My (wait) for this moment for a long time and was getting
family had not asked for or even wanted to be involved restless. His people 1.... ..... ..... (fight) for his release
in the struggle, but my involvement penalized them.
for twenty-seven years and he did not want to keep
H But I came back to the same answer. In South them waiting, but his car still s . (not come).
Africa, it is hard for a man to ignore the needs of the
At 4 p.m., the car finally 6 (arrive), but a
people, even at the expense of his own family. I had
.

quarter of a mile from the prison gate, it 7


made my choice, and in the end, she had supported
(slow down) and the old man and his wife got out.
it. But that did not lessen the sadness I felt at not
being able to make her life more comfortable, or the Then, as they 8 (walk) towards the gate, a
pain of not being able to lay her to rest. huge crowd of people started cheering. The old man
felt alarmed - he had not expected such a scene and
hee (never / experience) anything like it
before. Then, he smiled and 10. .... .. (raise) his
right fist in a victory salute. The crowd roared. Nelson
Mandelawas free.

6 SPEAKING Discuss the questions.


1 What qualities would you expect a leader to have?
How do Mandela's actlons illustrate these qualities?
2 Think of another leader. What qualities do they have?
Do you admire them? Why / why not?

Qualities of a hero page 134

lnspiration 11 I
r Writing An article
IL
1E

:_).r'

1 sprnxlruG Look at the photos from a person's life. Describe what is happening.
what do you think is the connection between the events in the photos?
,STRATEGY

i The writing process


When you are writing, remember this five-stage process. lt will help you to improve your work:
1 prewriting
2 drafting
3 editlng and revising
4 rewr Ling
5 publishing (or creating the finished work) :

2 Read the strategy. Then match the elements below to stages l-5 in the strategy. i

,r incorporating changes l writing the final draft,,: 5sif-6srrectionI pubiishing a blog post l
il peer-correction .,, brainstormrng ,:, planning r'' emailing to the teacher t,: writing the first draft

3 Read the article topic below. Work in groups of four and brainstorm ideas that you could
use. Then read the article and compare your ideas. Were your answers in exercise I correct?

A recent newspaper arlicle claimed that teenagers today have few teenage role models.
l
Write an article in response to this for your school's online magazine. Give an example of
a teenager who inspires you or who is your role model. :

4 Read the article plan. Did the writer follow the plan?

?acagraph l: Who is \oat loenago role model?


?aragraph 2: slhl i* ihe ieenager inepirational?
?acageaph v: f/rention even6 in hie / her life to eupport this.
?aragraph 4: 6um up and mention lhe ieenager's achievemenis.

Purpose and result

5 study the highlighted phrases in the article. Then complete the categories below.
1 purpose: in order that,
2 result: as a result,

6 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


1 The school didn't ciose because Malalas father owned it. (so)
2 She studled hard because she wanted to become a doctor. (so that)
3 People were upset when Malala was hurt and sent her flowers. (so ... that)
4 After the shooting, more people supported Malalas cause. (as a consequence)
5 There was a lot of publicity and Malala became an international celebrity. (such ... that)
6 She was taken to a hospital in England to recover. (in order to)
7 As there were still threats against Malala, she stayed in England. (so)

I tz lnspiration
T

Uo teen role rnodels?


v^'o teen role models' lt was sqch
*eenagers ;esterda';
tha} claimed there^are
a read an ar+ic\e aboL'{t
ashocKthatlhavedecided+o'p,^ou"*n"*/'n",^wron3'anm;oo'^'o,^"thereareP\en+)o{inspiring
o{ +hem'
YoLlsa{zai is lust one
-leens out +here and A;;' n"

ffi:1"""T:[ ]:in i:il;?'


:?L :-1ilii: *"r.{i:Tl'1Ti"'fl"Jil;ii::}::
:::i }"fi +hen seriousi'Y iv^'1ured'
he t'';' Sun Aatata was
+l"e'o The
he shoLrted, a var agains+.+he Sovernr^en+'
par(is-ran, the Tariban* was winv'ring {or
At the tirne, in nor+h-wes+ i"' oltde" +o "'take it irnpossible
O-"'*v^"'1ed man) stayed
Taliban didn't believe
in educatin'3 Sirf's '^O :::"'" *o \earn' so the school
11 A^'"L'' schoJ\ we.e a'"+"t"^^"a +o +he
*hern to t"a.r,. Horerer,
studen*.i
on"* .f"*"'oerso\'\' an 2OO8' she Save a sPeech
Aa\a\a becarne o+ +i"it problerns'
The b\og
open, and eieve!.,-)ear-old so as +o t'i'" wh'i she was
nationat press, thev^\
;;, btog {or +he BBC
o+
"""it"" riShts' and +ha+'s
, *",,i"^""r^ .rppo.+". "nirot"'"'
was so popqiar +^a+ nnar,ri, oe"ai.e
attacl(ed. coqrd.rearn' Toda'i'
becaLrse she risKed
her life so.+hat other ,ir\s
arnazinq rore modei riSh+i a+ the un'ited \/ations'
Aara\a is an nr. ,ro*"^ ,^ *opor* o{ chitdre"'s
a'^'d pens "'
Aara\a has won o;r"';;:o:l^J qi.r, to '''
cov-rtinq€ +nu',^ nSni+oi-e1uc1,11o:.:**
r,as i,^spired ot,u" firs+"
As a consexu",^"",.l"
,n" ,ryr3:ia;; ni" o^''1 'Jt'nio'^ Educa+ion
weapons,'
are oqr rnosr power{q\
movernen*
* Taliban ' 51 'fqndarnen*alist aslarnic aolitical

r=- il wRrnNGGUrDE IE[k%.ffi


I Task Write your own response to the article topic Paragraph 3: Recount their life story to show how they
in exercise 3. arrived at the main event.
Paragraph 4: Sum up why they are a role model. You
I ldeas Choose a teenage role model and make notes could include their positive qualities.
about:
x key events in their life.
I Write Write your article. Use the paragraph plan
and the strategy to help you.
x their personality and character.

I Plan Follow the plan:


! Check Check the following points:

Paragraph 1: Write an introduction and give a clear


x Have you responded to the opinion in the task?

statement of Your oPinion.


N Have you included arguments that support your
opinion?
Paragraph 2: Introduceyourteenage role model.\bu
could start with the main event in their life.
x Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
punctuation?

lnspiration 13 E
1 Work in pairs. Study the list of reasons for using a
I J.,* ;7'th ;ao; ;;fi;";;;tu';;/',r'
dictionary when learning a foreign language. Do 1 why did Clare turn down your intitation? He
o
you use a dictionary in these situations? I osked her to marry him, but she turned him
I down. o They turned down my offer of help.
1 to check the meaning of an unknown word I o She turned. the job down because it paid too
2 to check the spelling of a word I little. o My book was turned down by eight
I publbhers.
3 to check the meaning of a word in your own language i @ offer, application, invitation, request,.iob,
4 to check the meaning of a fixed phrase I proposal Enill reject sb/sth
5 to find all the phrasal verbs with a particular verb ] r v+adv+n. v+n/pron+adv
6 to find a synonym or an antonym of a word
7 to find what other words go with a particular word 4 Use the correct dictionary to find information 1-6.
8 to find out how to say a word 1 a translatio n of perseverance in your own language
2 an explanalion of ingenulry in English
3 common expressions with fate and destiny
Choosing the right dictionary 4 synonyms of the word overcome
There are many types of dictionaries. lt is important to 5 different meanings of the particle on
know what informatlon you can find in each type and 6 adjectives commonly used with the word challenge
to choose the dlctionary which matches your needs.
The most common types of dictionaries are:
a monolingual dictionaries e dictionaries of phrasal verbs Using synonyms correctly
b bilingualdictionaries dictionaries of idioms f A thesaurus will provide several different synonyms
c thesauruses g pronunciation dictionaries for the same word, but it isn't common for them to
d collocations dictionaries have the exact same meaning. Check the definition of
each synonym carefully. lt is also important to check
Read the strategy above. Which dictionary a-g the connotations of words. Synonyms may have the
would you use to find information 1-8 in exercise 1? same general meaning, but they often have different
connotations. For example, one synonym can be more
Match each dictionary entry'l-6 to a dictionary a-g formal than another.
in the strategy.
't - 'r
kidnap /'krdnap/ take I
verb [T] (kidnapping; kidnapped) to
sb away by force and demand money for their safe I
5 Read the strategy above. Then study the thesaurus
it: return: The child was kidnapped dnd !50000 rdnsom t entries for three synonyms of the word child and
demandedfor her release. ) porywa( uprowadzad t answer the questions.
'. was
(dlaokupu) $ look at hijack I
r kidnapper noun lCl ) porywacz/ka I kidnapping I 1 Which words are informal? Which word is formal?
I noun [C,U] ] porwanig uprowadzenie (dla okupu) t
i e not€ at crime f 2 Which word has a negative connotation?
@ee-ais0-Papy9--:lJN-
I suerrilla ,,,, I kid tcl (informol, especially spoken) a chiid: IleS onty akid.
I aol. armed urbanoUrban-s
I detonatedacarbombinfront i You cant expect him to understand what's going on. o A
I of the company's headquarters. I communist, right-wing, i bunch of kids were hanging around outside. see also kid
i separatist i -)soN
6uERRIu-A r NouN army, band, force, group, movement,
. organization, unit I commander, fighter, leader I activity, infant /lnfant/ lcf Uormal or technicol) a baby or very
attack, campaign, offensive, raid, resistance, struggle, young child: we studied newbom infants up to two months
war, warfare o Ten years of - resistane followed the old. o The country has an appallingly high infant
occupation. I tactics mortality rate. O In the British md Australian education
systems infant is also the word for a child at school
between the ages of four and seven : me majority of infdnt
teochers are women. o fve known her since we were in the
infants (= at infant school).
@
1 brat [c] (int'ormal, disopproving) a person, especially a
child, who behaves badly: He's a spoilt little brat!

PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS


> in prison / jail Complete the sentences with the correct synonym
*in a prison/1ail/camp/ detention centre/ penitentiary/
jailhouse / rorretional fatility ot child.
> a local prison / .jail / correaional facility
> a juvenile prison / jail / detention centre / correctional iacility 1 I really don't like my cousin. He behaves like a
p a women's prison /.jail/ rorrectional farility
* to go to/ be sent lo / be released from/ get out oI prison /jail ........!
> a prison/ jail sentence/ term 2 This part of the hospital is for babies and ......... .. . .

con.un'drum
3 Pleasedon'tbe a...... .. . . . !Sitdownandbequiet,
/ke'n,lndram/ noun 1 a confusing prob-
lem or question that is very difficult to solve 2 a question, 4 All the around here are crazy about
usually involving a trick with words, that you ask for fun skateboarding at the moment.
S) riddle
5 The older children go home at 3.30 p.m., but the
.. . flnish school at 2.45 p.m.
6 l'm not surprised she looks tired - she's got six I

Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower slownik angielsko-polski polsko-angielski;Oxford Collocations


Dictionary for students of English2e; Oxford Learner\Thesaurus; Oxford Advanced karner's Dictionary Be;
I u vocabulary insight 1 Oxford ldioms Dictionary for learners of English 2e; Oxford PhrasalVerbs Dictionary for learners of English.
'G\ -L-

r 1 Choose the correct answers. 5 Complete the text with the correct forms of the
verbs in brackets.

It's Saturday afternoon, and Maria Ndiaye


(sit) in the shade of a tree, reading.
(read) a [ot, but there isn't
any ink in her books. Instead, she 3
(pass) her fingers over a series of raised dots.
a (be) bLind since birth, and
Maria
she s .. (read) braitte for nearly ten
...... ......
years now. Braitte is the system that bLind and
visuatly-impaired peopte (use) to
read and write. It is named afterits inventor, the
Frenchman Louis Braiil.e. Braitte became btind as a
chiLd when he 7.......,..,...... .(ptay) with a tool
in his father's workshop and it hit him in the eye.
Despite his disabiLity, he 8.... .........,........... . (attend)
2 Choose the odd one out.
it was white he
the [oca[ school, but
1 a hindrance/an obstacle/a benefit (study) in Paris that he deve[oped his new system.
2 groundbreaking / perfectionism / innovative (hear) of a system ca[ted 'night
3 blow / conquer / overcome writing'devised by Captain Chartes Barbier of the
4 advantage / benefit / defeat
French army. Night writing was a code of dots and
5 blow / conquer / problem 11
Marks ls dashes, which (aLtow) soldiers to
read in the dark. Braitle12 (simptifo)
Complete the sentences with a word with self-. Barbier's system into columns containing six dots.
1 You should never use violence, even in Nearty two centuries later, the braitte system
2 People who act out of ...... rarely support (remain) an invaluabte tool for
charities. people who have lost their sight. like Maria Ndiaye.
3 He didn't go back into the burning house; some
sense of stopped him Marks 113
4 MotherTeresa showed 9reat......... .,..,,.,,.,,.,,.-,.,,. In

dedicating her life to the poor. Choose the correct answers.


5 Surgeons have to have ... . ...... during 1 A lifeboat rescued / had rescued / had been
operations and be confident in what they're doing rescuing the man after he was swept offa rock by a
6 Teenagers usually lose their and start freak wave.
thinking about others when they get older. 2 They didn't call an ambulance because somebody
7 You need a lot of ..,r.......as you'll be working already called / had already called / had already
long hours, away from home and without any pay. been calling one.
Marks .....17 3 I fainted because I stood up / had stood up / had

been standing up all day.


4 Complete the sentences with the words below. We were shocked because we never witnessed / had
There is one word that you do not need. never witnessed / had never been witnessing an
x' attentive x conundrum xx gradual w haggard accident before.
w incremental w interim s* striking The boys were given a reward because they returned /
1 Recovery from a back injury is usually. .. .
had returned / had been returning the woman's bag.
2 She looked after the night shift. The river flooded because it rained / had rained /
3 He bears a resemblance to his father had been raining for so long.
4 Some students do voluntary work in the Thejudge sentenced / had sentenced / had been
..., between school and university.
sentencing him to three weeks of community service
for vandalizing the bus shelter.
5 Good doctors are always to the needs
The sick child was relieved to be admitted to hospital
of their patients.
6 She faced a because she didn't know because she waited / had waited / had been
if she should go abroad or stay and look after her
waiting for this treatment for a long time.
parents.
Marks / I
Marks l6

Reviewl 15 I
:2 The world around us
Reading and vocabulary Real education
\
-
ltw t4,-
^
SPEAKING Look at the photos and discuss the
questions. Then read the article and compare
your ideas.
1 How would you describe the environment? What do

2
you think life is like for teenagers there? What might
they do in their free time?
How does this compare to your local environment?
Maftiru $Gnool
2 Read the article again and choose the correct
answers.
mearinglul
Why did Wagner miss class? by Sarah Garland
a Because the weather was unpredictable. A \Tagner Iworrigan, a sevenreen-year-old high school
b To go fishing with a relative. senior on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, knows a lot about
c Because he had to stay at home and help his biology, meteorology and maths. He's an expert at telling
family. whether a walrus is too sick to eat, if the weather is likely
d get away from the village.
To
to turn dangerous, and the best angle for throwing a
harpoon at a bowhead whale.
Why isn't Wagner going to college?
a A degree would be difficult to do. B On a recent unseasonably warm day last autumn, he
missed class to join his uncle on their boat. \7ith nets and
b Hes already a good scientist. hooks, they motored through the choppy grey waves of
c He doesn't mind earning less money. the Bering Sea until the lights of their village, Savoonga,
d He has to look after his brother and sisters. seemed further away than the stars above. They hoped to
3 A large number of students on St. Lawrence lsland catch a plump seal to feed the rest of the family: \Tagnert
a would like to attend college. tlvo younger sisters, a younger brother, four cousins and a
b complete their high school education. grandfather. All ten of them share a three-bedroom house.
c don't go hunting with their families.
d believe in the benefits of education.
4 jobs in the community
a are mostly in the fishing trade.
b are quite hard to find.
c are often well-paid.
d often demand degrees.
5 Local people are worried about
a the communlty being isolated.
b the island population decreasing.
c losing a sense of community.
d young people forgetting their traditions.
6 Many people think that the community needs
a to have less autonomy.
b to give up some traditions. 15 C \Tagner might make a good scientist, but het not
c to have a dlfferent type of education. planning on going ro college. He feels a responsibiliry for
d to take their children out of school. his siblings - his morher died and his father lives in another
village - and college is'so far from home'. Het also unclear
about what he would do with a degree: '\7e dont have a lot
3 SPEAKING Answer the questions.
of jobs here,'he says. Afte, graduaiing, he plzrns to become
ls there anything unexpected in the opening a commercial fisherman to 'make some good money' at one
paragraph? What is its purpose? of the most dangerous jobs in the US.
What is the point of the srory about the fish D Many St. Lawrence srudents say rhey wanr ro go ro
(paragraph l)? What lesson did the speaker learn? coltege bur half oF them drop out oF high school, and
only two per cenr graduate from college. The benefits of
An English education
a degree are not obvious for people living on this remote
island. Families have a subsistence lifestyle, hunting
walruses, seals and whales in the spring, and gathering.
berries in the summer. The Iargest e-plJyer i, rf,e schoo'i'
system; otherwise, there are only a Landful of jobs in
fishing, oil and the airlines thar connecr the island to the
mainland. There isnt much demand for anlthing else and
more than a quarrer oFadults are unemp.loyed.

I te The world around us


ffi""*t'tir'git:, .W
-able and -ible "fitl*mM91ffi{:
Vocabulary: word analysis; nouns + prepositions; antonyms: urban regeneration; ad.jective sufnxes: Speaking: deciding on a new community
pro]ect
Grammar: future tenses;future continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous; future time clauses Writing: describing a place for a travel b og
2A
ruq\ffi {tWJm "-""4*\ffiffi -%i!F'!

E Many people feel that the educational programs are


too stifing, not allowing students to go beyond the
curriculum, with little connection to the real world.
'\7e want our children to achieve academically, but we
need to be able to design programs that deal with the
challenges they face day-to-day,' said one teacher. Those
challenges are profound with no easy solutions: what is
the relevance of school to kids who spend much of their
time hunting and gathering berries?
F Families also worry that sending children away ro
study in Higher Education could endanger the Yupik
language and culture. Already, the younger generation
is losing its fluency and grasp of skills like sewing,
walrus-ivory carving and fish-cutting. Respect for the
old ways and knowledge o[tradirions are disappearing.
Can the community send more students to university
without sacrificing its desire to preserye Native culture
and language?
G The Yupik Eskimos have inhabited St. Lawrence
Island continuously for the last 2,000 years. Today two and berries. They ride snow machines instead of
villages remain with a population of just 1,400. People walking. And in the evening, they prefer pl"yrng video zo

there are used to the harsh landscape and climate - in the games and watching satellite television to listening to
summer, meadows of grassy tundra stretch from snow- their elders tell stories.
capped ridges to the stony shorelines, but in winter the I Unsurprisingiy, locals ate protective of their
sun disappears, there is a lot of snow, and polar bears independence and their heritage. They recognize the
arrive on ice floes. Leaving the island is not an option, value of 'education', but feel that the definition is too zs
as a ticket on a bush plane costs $400, a week's earnings narrow. 'I think about when my grandmother taught
for many isianders. The sense of community is strong. me to cut fish,' remembers one resident. 'It wasni
Y/hen a whale is killed, the houses and school empry as do it once and I'11 give you a grade. It was hours of
everyone races to the beach to take a share ofthe meat. practice until you get it right ... . There's a distinction
As tWagner put it, 'We're all one big family because between an education and school. Education is what eo
we're so isolated.' Native people have been doing for their children since
H But the old ways are inevitably changing. The the beginning of time. School has been what has been
children drink soda and eat macaroni-and-cheese in imposed on people from outside,' she adds. '\7e need
addition ro rhe rradirional diet of fish, sea mammals to get in the business ofeducation again.'

The world around us 17


28 I Grammar and listening

Answer the questions, referring closely to the article. *].%ry]


1 Which word describes the location of the island? How
does this affect students'attitudes to education? (D)
2 Which phrase sums up the way of life on the island?
What examples does the author give? (D)
3 Which word implies a criticism of the educational
system? (E)
4 Which word describes the challenges the communlty
faces? Will these challenges be easily overcomeT (E)
5 Which verb emphasizes the threat to natlve culture if
young people go to college? (F)
6 Which word describes the landscape and cllmate?
What examples does the author give? (G)
7 Which word implies that changes are unavoidable? (H)

5 Study the highlighted words in the article and


explain their meaning.Then use them to complete
the text. There is one word that you do not need.

Seventeen-year-old Theo Drummond is an expert & l*?:i?107r SPEAKING Lookatthe photos and discuss
on sea birds; he's also a student at a small school iff the questions.Then listen to an interview and compare
the Orkney lslands off the coast of North Scotlarpffi your ideas. Which job are they talking about?
At the moment, he,s writing an article about 1$
r
1 Where are the peopie? What are they doing?
the birds for their online magazine, Word of the Describe their jobs.
Wild. He's one of a 1
students who 2 What might be the challenges of working in these
prepallngJhe latest issue. 'Working on the environments?

2 }!$,fW;1 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or


false (F)?
1 The forecast says it'll probably be rainy and cold.
2 Brad sees clouds in the distance and thinks it's going
to snow.
3 The afternoon flight might be a little late.
4 Brad is delivering food and letters to McCarthy later.
5 Planes fly to the town.just once a day.
6 He is going to take a scenic route today.
7 He hopes he'll see some snow on the flight.
8 During the conversation, Brad says he'll give the
interviewer a tour.

3 Study the sentences in exercise 2 again and answer


the questions.
6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
Which sentence(s):
1 Does school prepare you for day-to-day challenges?
a talk about future plans and arrangements?
lf not, what changes would you make to the school
curriculum to do so?
b talk about future predictions (two sentences)? Whlch
sentence is based on evidence?
2 Does school prepare you for your future life?
c talk about scheduled events or a timetable?
3 ls there a difference between school and education?
d are uncertain future predictions (two sentences)?
What is the distinction?
4 Should Wagner go to college? Discuss arguments for
e refer to future intentions?
and against.
f refer to a decision or an offer at the moment of
speaking?
The natural world and outer space g refer to a future hope or wish?
page 135
Workbook page 111

I re rheworldaroundus
Liho,nthe edge
Nfr,ffi,
+
@il
eB
l'^'r- e B ), f-

4 Study the alternative future tenses in the sentences below. Explain the difference
in meaning, if any.
1 l'm meeting / 'm going fo meef some friends at the airport later this evening.
2 The weather forecast is good for this afternoon, so I 'll probably do / 'm doing the tour.
3 The next plane leaves / might leave at five otlock. There's usually one every hour, but it depends
on the weather.
4 Doyou thinkyou 'llfly / mightfly the same routes nextyear?
5 There's heavy snow tonight, so I might call / 'm going to cal/ some friends and stay in McCarthy.
6 'Hey, the baggage door is open outsidel 'Don't worry. I 'll close / 'm going [o close it nowi
7 Oh, no!They've already boarded the plane. ll's going to leave / 's leaving.

5 Read the extract from another interview for Life on the edge.What is the job? Match
the underlined phrases 1-5 to descriptions a-d below. Which phrases are in the future
continuous, future perfect or future perfect continuous?
lnterviewer How long have you been a ?

Logan Well,nextmonth1l'll havebeenworkinqasa...... ..forexactlyeightyears.


lnterviewer I understand that Kilauea in Hawaii is your next destination.'Whal_lUL!.1_yqU_be
doinq there?
Logan On Monday,3we'll be hikinq across the island, looking for the best locations.
Then, according to the schedule, on Tuesday morning, we 4wLL|b9lh-eeI1!9. By the
time we leave, swe'll hopefullv have captured some amazing images. And survived!
a an activity in progress at a certain time in the future
b an activity in the future that is fixed or decided
c an activity that rlvill be completed in the future (two phrases) - which phrase focuses on duration?
d asking politely about someone's plans for the near future

6 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the future continuous,
future perfect or future perfect continuous.

7 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Write questions using the future continuous, future perfect or
future perfect continuous. Then choose a dangerous job from the list below or imagine one
of your own. Take it in turns to interview each other.
,t war correspondent x crab fisherman x lion trainer a prison security guard xr bicycle courier

1 What / do / rhis time tomorrow ?


2 Where / work /this time tomorrow ?
3 How long / work as a ... / by this tlme next month?
4 How many / ... / by this time next week ?
5 still work as / this time next year? Why / why not ?

Theworldaroundus 19 I
eC r Listen i n g,,ipCakiEi$nd vocabrii * urba n, stories,

1.

I
il

g' A bKe
Ory f\ve

McDonalds

2 ;trligqi. Listen to the first part of the recording and compare


your answers in exercise 1. Do you think the project
was a good idea?
odtred bt1 soueovto ' Are there empty buirdings in your area? what courd
they b'e turned into?
tlho car-eA t,

@
i People recall about 50olo of what they hear immediately
after tistening and only 25olo two days
I later. To be a more active listener, foliow the SIER
hierarchy:
I x Sensing: focusing on the content
; x lnterpreting: understanding the argument
; x Evaluating: judging the argument
ix Responding: formulating an opinion about the argument

i Listening critically means evaluating and judging information,


rather than simply listening.

I 3 rt*bgr' Listen ro a radio discussion and answer the questions.


, 1 What is the discussion about? (sensing) 3 Do they make sense to you? (evaluating)
What are the main arguments? (interpreting) 4 What is your opinion? (respondinq)
,* :
4 :itlilpg.. Listen again and answer the questions.
1 Accordinq to the interviewer, how were neighbours in the past
different from neighbours today?
2 What two things might unite neighbours today?
3 What does the Neighborland website allow people to
do?
4 What practical things have people proposed?
5 Whats the point of the more,fun,proposals?
6 How can suggestions be realized?
7 What is the 2lst century known as?
8 How will websites like Neighborland help?

*X t}Xf:*X1'entqh,lrnrslU r bAn: iege ne ratio n


5 complete the table with the words from the two recordings.
Use a dictionary to help you.
rneglected
positive adjectives negative adjectives
x run down
* worthwhile cared for
*: abandoned inhabited
x wasteful declin ing
x thriving unappeal ing
x attractive efficient
6
pointiess
renovated 7

f zo The world around us


@l
2C
@
a-u /?
4cz,azty FOR LOVE (fatz -
Fairbanks, Alaska, 2O11: a new message appear,ed high on the side of an old high-
rise building in the centre of the city. The message read 'Looking for love again;.
At street-level below chalkboards were fixed to the walls for people to write
down memories of the building's past and dreams for its future. The ldeserted
tower block was the Polaris Auiaing, previously a(n)2appealing apartment
complex, then a hotel, which had 3successfu/ shops and restaurants, but now a
space that had been empty for more than a decade.
This eye-catching project was focusing on a aforgotfen place and asking how we
could make it something 5useful again. lt provided a way for citizens to influence
its future and almost everyone wanted the building 6repaired and restored,.,,.irl
rather than demolished. ldeas for its new life ranged from creating a theatre.
performing arts school, or developing a recreational centre, including a rollqf
to creating a huge, highly'zeconomica/ greenhouse to produce cheaper local.
Everyone wanted to recreate the dynamic space of the past - a focal pointf$l
local community. Today, the building is still for sale. What will it be in the

6 Read the text about another project by Candy Chang. Replace the words in italics with
a synonym in exercise 5.

7 SPEAKING Work in small groups and discuss the opinions. Do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answers.
1 'Communities are less sociable and open than they used to be. Residents don't often come
together as a community. They don't even speak to each other in the streetl
2 'Public space is where life happens it's lmportant because it brings people together and this
gives the community an identityl

Urban landscape page 135

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss three things that you would like to be a ten-minute walk
from your home. Give reasons for your choices.

1.10 Listen to students at a school meeting discussing the needs of their local
;r;:.
community. What ideas do they mention?

:ti:ir ifO' Listen again and complete the phrases from the recording.

A lntroducing requirements e &esirab-lc reqedrements


M,Y mainl ,t-s .._. . I think that s a'4 ,.., .. to-havel
It's i,mportant to,draw,attention to . We coLrkill , (a park).

B Essential requirements $ KvaXuatims requirememts


6..
What we 2 need is .., . l'm not . by (the sports club)
For me it's a must. I think the last idea isthe.best.
(A sports centre) would be a big 3

11 ir;l 1.1I Listen to another discussion and tick the phrases that you hear. Then match all of
them to categories A-D in exercise 10. Which idea did all three speakers like?
r That should be the / a priority (in this area). : lt's important to highlight neglected ... .

r: it's essential / crucial to ... .:ii lt might be an idea to have ... .

:r That could be useful for some people.:r lt's probably not that useful or practical.

12 SPEAKING Work in groups. Follow the instructions.


You have received a grant from the local government to spend on an innovative community
project that would improve the quality of everyday life. Decide on a project. Think about:
:: the purpose ofthe project.
r the types of people who might benefit from it.
l how it will improve everyday iife.
:: whether it will have lonq-term or short-term benefits.

Theworld around us 21
CB x eulture, voeabularyr and grarmrmar Songlines
-{t :-x tw
I && * * * * {* s s s & 6.& * 6 * * *.* @ * * * s 6 & *.6 a a * t8 & saI
SPEAKIfUG Discuss the questions. Then read
a&
an article about the early Australian Aborigines 6
and answer the same questions. What kinds of *

$ffiNffifuK Nffi$
&
similarities or differences are there? iS
{&
1 When you travel, how do you find your way around? s
2 Do you use manmade or natural landmarks, for &
*
example, a park or a river? * ,lournalist 6ima &axter learns absut songli**s amd
3 Do you use memories attached to a place, for
[ &reamtie're in the &sstralian cutback.
exampie, somewhere you went as a child?
Y 'We don't mind using GPS/ says Baamba. our Aboriginal
X guide, looking out across the w'itderness which betongs
Complete the article with sentences A-F. There is & s to his tribe, the Adnyamathanha people. The red ground
one sentence that you do not need. * ahead is covered with scrub brush and gum trees, at[
A They believed that the earth and its animals were e the way to the distant F[inders mountain range, and
there for the benefit of human beings. s a[though it's earty, ifs atready thirty degrees in the shade.
B As more people arrived and more land was taken, s I{s difficutt terrain, but Baamba is a sensible guide: he
Aboriginal culture became increasingly threatened. I r0 atways carries a satettite phone in his backpack in case
C The journeys of these beings were recorded in song, e of emergencies. His ancestors. however. retied on songs.
describing the first pathways or songlines. a The earty Australian Aborigines made the [and navigab[e
D They showed people where to find a water hole, $ through songs, dance and paintings. The songs described
where there was a river and where they could hunt. * pathwayg or 'songtines', which provided an oral 'map' of
E t's a way of life that predates the lce Age, beginning fr rs the [and.
1,
Generations of Aborigines foltowed
around 70,000 years ago, with more than 2,000 * these pathways, leaving legibte marks and etchings on
generations since then. fi roqk5 and trees to heLp future travellers. 'But the songs
F Their reaction was ruthless: many were killed or put c describe more than a pathwayj explains Baamba. 'They
into camps where missionaries're-educated'them. $ atso te[[ stories about the 'creator beings' who shaped the
e zo earth in Dreamtimel
&
SpfAKIfi&G Think about famous natural or *
& ;.#-,.
manmade landmarks in your country. Are there &
,,,.1*
-849'
any stories or myths related to them? *
*
{&

lt,r,iili;::;::1':i:,:: Adjective suffixes: -able and -ible &


*
4 Study the highlighted adjectives in the article. &
*
Answer questions 1-3, to help you work out when &
&
we use the suffixes -able and -ible. $
&
lf you remove the suffix, which words: YN.M" ,iiit
& 't;,[t1 ; *t
1 are still complete words, or complete lf you add an -e? &

2 end in a hard c or g? &


&
3 are not complete words? *
*
Be careful!There are exceptions, for example: s
&
accessi bl e, flexi bl e r resi sti ble, sen si bl e.
i s
&
*
s
DS*&A66&&*A* *

X zz rhe world around us I


i:..
\ &'1,Eo
, G--W
*'
*,,:,,rc
I *4w @'
2D
ffiw
t l * 6 * * s 6 a {t I s 6 & I I * A A S 6 6 e 0 & I {* * * !t * I A & & it
{5

G
5 Complete the words with -able or -ible.
& 1 lt's incred that Aboriginal culiure is the
6
{a o dest continuing culture on Earth
& Many tribes are elig for compensation after
*
& an unaccept loss of tribal lands.
t8
a
3 The marks and etchings in the Woilemi cave were
s ir-compreher-s
I 4 The Papunya Tula artists paint fashion
d and
a collect Aboriginal art.
a
s 5 Parts ofthe outback are harsh and inaccess
$ It's not advis to travel Lhere on you'own.
G
@ lf you know where to look, you'll find lots of
s
I
ed insects in the outback.They maytaste
$ horr , but they'll help you to survive.
&
&
Most snakes in the outback aren't dangerous; their
& b tes are us;ally rrear
$
a
s
1S
According to Aboriginal creation myths, Dreamtime, nrarked
the beginning of the wortd, when giant beings, part human,
a
* 6 Stuay sentences a-e in the last paragraph ofthe
part animal, came down from the sky, from across the sea s article and answer the questions.
a
and from deep in the earth. These giant beings travelled * 1 Which tenses are used after the underlined time
a
2s across the [and, making rivers and mountain ranges; then clauses?
a
they disappeared back into the [andscape, in ptaces which I 2 Which underlined phrase means if not?
&
became sacred sites. 2
'The Adnyamathanha * 3 Which one means up to a spectflc time?
peop[e sing songs that teLt the story of Akurra, the rainbow * 4 Which three phrases tell us that one event will be
&
serpent,' continues Baamba.'During Dreamtime. he created com pleted before nother?
$ a
ro the Ftinders mountain range. We'[[ see the cave paintings & 5 Which of these three phrases says sornething
{t
later at Arkaroo Rocki * happens im mediately after?
Arkaroo Rock is one of many sacred sites mentioned in s 6 Which of the phrases below can be used instead of
& ifl
the songs and stories about the [and. These stories show a as long aS::: SUppose / supposing ::: before r: after
't:
the considerabte attachment the first Australians had to &
a l in case:t; when
ss their environment, how they saw themselves as part of ,
nature rather than masters of it, and how their way of tife 0
..*
resulted in a profound and valuable knowledge qftheir]tand.. &
3, ..,.....,.,.,-, Itwas a wa5t of tifethat wasiafe from invasion & I Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
rt
a 1 Baamba won't do the tour if he doesn't have a GPS
s
+o When the Europeans arrived in
1788, they had a different &
system. (unless)
attitude to the tand.4 .. They also betieved that s 2 We'll tell people where we're going because we
I
if land wasn't farrned, then it didn't betong to anyone. At * might get lost. (in case)
first; Aborigines didn't understand this attitude, so their r3
{8
3 You'll enter the outback, then you'il lose your phone
first contact was amicabte, even friendly. However, conflicts {6 signal. (as soon as)
4s soon arose as new settlers took away the Aboriginat hunting o
a
4 Take a satellite phone;then you'll be perfectly safe.
grounds and divided them up into farms and ranches. * (as long as)
6
Some tribes were not atlowed to trave[ from one
I
5 We still might get lost - then what wlll we do?
to another, white others were retocated into special
place * (su pposi ng)
camps. SadLy, this destroyed their ancient way of tjfe, and a
& 6 Stay close to the car; then a helicopter will see you.
so rtlan! Abor,iginaL songlines were [ost. Today. people Like & (u ntil)
Baamba are trying to restore this heritage and preserve it. s
a 7 Hopefully it won't be too late when they find you.
ult's late now and Baamba is waiting &
outside Arkaroo Rock (by the time)
6
until we've finished exploring. blnside, we're admiring the a
beautifut cave paintings, but as soon as we've taken some $ & SPEAKII\,G Work in pairs. Talk about your hopes and
&
ss photos, we [eave. 'Dark ctouds are visibte on the horizon s plans for the future using the prompts below.
and if we stay any longer, we'[[ be caught in a storm. d'Ey 6
a 1 By the time l've finished school ... .

the time we reach camp, the rajn wi[[ be herei says Baamba. &
2 As long as save enough money... .

"'We't[ have probtems getting back unless we leave nowi He's {D

right, of course - there are atready flashes of lightning, and


t 3 Before / After I leave horne ... .

s 4 Until I get my own job ...


eo thunder is audible in the distance. As we drive away, the
.
&

wind whistles through the gum trees, and we can almost


a 5 Lnless I sluoy naro ... .

&
hear the voices of those first Australians, singing the songs & 6 As soon as I have the time ... .

a
of their ancestors, and fotlowing the songtines tr
&
6
6
The world around us 23 X
*
&%ft-,i
2E r Writing Describing a,place
.<L ..U ,rx,r -l
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at extracts A-D about Sydney, Australia, and answer the
questions.Then read the extracts and checkyour answers.
1 Where do you think the extracts are from?
2 Who do you think they are written for?
3 What do you think each extract will lnclude?

STRATEGY

Recognizing style
I Wtren you first read a text, think about its style. The style of the text will give you clues about
: where it is from and who it was written for. Pay attention to:
:

i
: ::r structure and length ,: punctuation :

, ,,, sentences and iinking words :: extra features (for example, highlighted words or :

, ,,, grammarand vocabulary numbered references)


,
a

: 2 Read the strategy. Answer the questions for extracts A-D. Then decide which extracts are :
lformalandwhichareinformal.Whichfeaturesusuallybelongtoamoreformalstyle?
, 1 Does it use headings or subheadings? ls there clear paragraphing?
2 Are the sentences and linking words simple, or long and complex?
3 Are there examples of the passive or reported speech? Are there any personaL pronouns?
Does it use imperatives?
' 4 Are there examples of idiomatic or colloquial language, phrasal verbs or abbreviations? ,

5 Are there .ontractions or full forms? Are exclamation marks or capital letters used for emphasis? :

1.1 Geography
Sydney, Australia, is located in a coastal basin bordered
by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the BIue Mountain
range to the west. As a result of this location, it has
more than seventy natural harbours and ocean beaches,
including the well-known Bondi Beach.

1.2 Demographics
Sydney is an extremel). diverse city, with an enormous
number of ethnic and cultural groups. Of the 4.6 million
people that live there, ... .

'Wellworth a visit'
.,2:.t.,
***** i*:;.:
Really enjoyed the Opera House tour with our
very knowledgeable guide! (Although my 9-yr-old
son complained it was a little bit tedious and not
particularly kid{riendly!) But l'd still give it a big
'thumbs up' - ESPECIALLY the ballet rehearsal!
The weather was pretty disappointing (yes, it DOES 'We are now approaching Sydney airport,' announced
rain in Sydney), but we still took great photos O - the flight attendant over the Tannoy. 'Please fasten
S..,,1.r:1:
your seatbelts.' The holiday was a fairly last-minute a t.:t*:
it's a totally overwhelming place! '&,,.44
trip to get away from it all and recharge my batteries.
I'd heard that Sydney was an ideal destination and F'r,:a:
flrst impressions didn't disappoint. In the distance, I
could see the Opera House looking quite magniflcent ti ,:.::
in the aftemoon sun. But I didn't know then what was
about to happen. This last-minute trip would change j::
my life forever. : r:
.,...1;:::i:

J z" Tneworq arounq us


tB-.@% H
€*- t 2E
TT

Study the highlighted adjectives in the extracts. Which are positive, negative or neutral?

Study the information about gradable and non-gradable adjectives and answer the questions.

Gradable adjectives describe qualities that you can measure, e.g. disappointing:We use grading
adverbs with these adjectives, e.g. very / a bit disappointing.
Non-gradable adjectives describe qualities that are absolute or extreme, e.g. enormou; We use
non-grading adverbs with these adjectives, e.g. utterly / absoluLely enormous.
Be careful: the adverbs quite, really, pretty and fairly can be used with both types of adjectives.

1 Which of the highlighted adjectives are: (1) gradable, (2) non-gradable?


2 Which of the underlined adverbs are: (1) grading, (2) non-grading?

5 Read the travel blog entry and choose the best answers. Which adjectives are non-gradable?

SIEALI.,TOIIUil IN A BIG.GOUilT.RY. -

;='ffi1,il;;;ffi;=":lliiii;'#lli#iri'05'XJlXiiiiJlT -!q@H
Sil$dtiii f-o.Hnf: drijt,'fi6ie trpvegd,often have iiitei6st;hg stories to tetl; But the
r,troj---41*lliiiter:,qr(ltiav{i$rs.'tales;g.qfort walk from the roadhouse is an Tabsoiutely / extremetyfuscinating
Jseum, ongihaHy parj 9f the transc&tinental railway. Oodnadatta is also a starting point tor outback camel
d, foi those withsonte cash, sightseeing flights wltir fuery / quite magnificent vie-ws of the Painted Desert.

6 Read the travel blog entry again and answer the questions.
1 ls the style of the travel blog formal, informal or neutral? Give examples to support your answer
2 How would you describe the writer's first impressionT Which adjectives tell you this?
3 Which activities did the wrlter try?
4 How dld the writer's first impressions change?
ren wRrrNG GU|DE-

I Task Write a travel blog entry about a place you have Paragraph 2: Descrlbe what people can see and do,
visited or a place in your local area that you enjoyed. and recommend excursions.
Paragraph 3: Sum up the main features of the place and
I ldeas Brainstorm ideas for your description. Make what makes it an interesting destination.
notes about:
1 the first impressions you had of the place. What I Write Write your description. Use the paragraph plan
things did you notice? to help you.
2 what you think about the place. What are the benefits
and drawbacks of vlsiting it? I Check Check the following points:
3 what type of things a visitor can see and do there. x ls your style consistent?
x Does your description use gradable and non-gradable
I Plan Follow the plan: adjectives?
Paragraph 1: Describe your first impressions of the x Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
place: the landscape, the weather, what punctuation?
visitors are likelv to notice.

Theworld around us 25I


1 Read the extract. Study the highlighted words and
identify the root words, prefixes and suffixes. How
do the prefixes and suffixes change the meanings of
Multiple suffixes
In English, it is common to use multiple suffixes with the
the root words?
same root word to build more complex words. The suffix
Arkaroo Rock is one of many sa-ered. sites rnentioned can affect both meaning and part ofspeech.
in the songs and stories about the land. These
stories show the eri6r$,! ,era61e 4pee$gea! the first Read the strategy above. Then look at the word
i+iiibfidieni'had to thetu enyironment; how they saw unseosonably on line 7 in the article on page 16.
themselves as part of nature rather than masters of it, What is the root word? How many suffixes has it
and how their way of life resulted in a profound and got? What part of speech does each suffix form?
valrrqble knowledge of their land. It's a way of life that
predates the Ice Age, beglnning around 70,000 years
Study the dictionary entries and answer the
ago, with more than 2,000 generations since then.
questions.
1 Which suffixes do we use to form diflerent words
from urban?
Adjective suffixes 2 What parts of speech are they?
Knowing the meanings of some of the most common 3 How do the suffixes change the meaning of the word
urban?
suffixes will help you to guess the meaning of any new
words that you come across. lt will also help you to build ;tbr" ;;;,i""t r-t=*r.n/ adj. [usually before
noun]
new, more complex words.
t hr connected with a town or city: damage to both urban
and rural environments o urban areos o urban life a urban
devebpment (: the process of building to$.ns and cities or
2 Read the strategy above.Then study the examples making them larger) o urban renewaUregeneration (=
the process of improving the buildings, etc. in the poor
in the table. Complete the table with the correct parts of a town or city) o efforts to control urban sprawl
meanings a-f of the suffixes. (= the spread of city buildings into the countryside)
O compare RURAL 2 connected with t,?es of music such
as RHvTHM AND BLUEs and Rrccen that are played by
black musicians: todoy's urban music scene o urban radio
shows

odj. 1 (of at area, a country, etc.) having a lot of tow'ns,


streets, factodes, etc. rather than countryside 2 (of
people) living and working in towns and cities rather than
in the country: an increasingly urbanized society > ur.ban-
iza.tion, -isa.tion /,a:banat' zetln; N A m E,s:rbana' z- I n o u n
tul

6 Choose the correct answers.


a fult of, having a particular quality
Many parts of the country are becoming more urban /
b without urbanized / urbanization, as people move away from
c related to the countryside.
d having, being in a particular state
The process of urban / urbanized / urbanization is
e can be done
destroying some beautiful countryside, but providing
f sort of (like), fairly, inhabitant of, language of
more jobs and amenities for people.

Complete the sentences with the correct form of


3 The urban / urbanized / urbanization population of
Latin America has now reached approximalelyT4o/0.
the words below. Use the suffixes in the table in
exercise 2.
4 The twenty-first century has seen a massive
growth in the development of urban / urbanized /
x change xx child w collect x home & rest & politics urbanization farms as people want to know more
x Sweden x worry about where their food comes from.
1 When something is entirely calm and relaxing, it is 5 South Asia is one of the least urban / urbanized /
urbanization areas in the world.
2 A person from Sweden is 6 There is a clear link between the level of urban /
3 Something that is related to the subject of politics is urbanized / urbanization in a country and its
economic development.
4 Something that people can collect is.. .. . .......
5 A person who has no home is..... . .......... ....... Use multiple suffixes to make new words from
6 When someone behaves like a child, they are the root words below. Check your answers in a
dictionary. Then write an example sentence for
7 When you're in a state of worry, you are........ each word.
8 Something that can change from one thing into x commercial x industrial m priority x social m special
another is .

Dictiona ry entries from Oxfo rd Adva n ced Lea rn er s D iction a ry B,


26 Vocabulary insight 2 Oxford University Press 2010.
Review 2

1 Complete the sentences with the words below and Complete the sentences. Use the present simple,
the correct prepositions. present continuous, might, will or be going to.
sx benefits x demand w handful x relevance s respect 1a He intends to return before it gets dark.
ix responsibility bHe
1 Most people think that the.... .. .. .. . .
2 a We really want to see some polar bears.
educating children lies with the parents. b Hopefully, we
2 In the colder months, there is always a greater 3 a The departure time of our train is 10.30.
electricity. b Our train
3 Onlya.. ..... .
. teenagers know how to 4 a Shes arranged to do a bungee jump next week.
cook these days. b She
4 In the past, people had more 5 a That car is in danger of crashing. lt s out of control.
their elders. b That car
5 What are the. . attending a 6 a Shall I get you a glass of water?
single-sex school? bI
6 The some university degrees is M;,k; ,;
questionable.
Marks ... .. I 6 6 Complete the dialogue. Use the future perfect, future
perfect continuous or future continuous tense.
Complete the text with the words below.
Joe Next Friday 1
(we / finish) our
x harsh x inevitably *x profound se remote x stifling exams at lastl When (you / go) to
xi subsistence Switzerland?

The reindeer farmers of Siberia are nomadic and they


Dan .
(l / fly) to Zurich on lst August to

meet my Swiss friend. Then, a (we /


,faceafiunibgr.oflr,,,..,..,..;,,,:.,,.,..,.;,,,challenges.eve$i.',r',
:tOqir.tfherUig$t,arett-fle
2-.,,.,,:,,,.:,.,.::"r,-.....,,,lrieAther travel) by train to an adventure camp in the Alps.
:ico-ndilions'.?hii..a&ters lead,ii,i'.,-...,.,..:,.r.::,,;,,,::,.Iifestyte,' Hopefully, (we / arrive) by 9 p.m.
:qo1!!9v,!vsert.rylqlthevr qS!:orr-hrsrt. Educali{g!.lieir,: Joe Which sports 6........ . ... . ... (you / do) while
rChildreni: i*so A:pro]rlem.: ii|the p.Ast,,ttlq,cfirldren you're there?
,qrdy!q.d1a.,1::.l..;:'...,...-',...:'.:,:...:chrlneeof.a.ttendirrg
Dan White-water rafting and mountain biking.
school tlecause, theii fanilies :we& aliryiiys,moving.
.
!.;;....,-;.:...., ...::..,,,;, goiireQiqg,nad,to pC,qq4qalo{!,rhiqi .
Joe Greatl You'll be able to practise your German, too.

Tq9ey.-lltetg ryq spgeiel noryradia,sehoolsthar fo[ow


Dan That's right. By the time I get home,
,the,reindeers:t ldgrafion.routes.,The.ehildre{ttay6.id,,, 1,r,, (l / speak) German for two weeks.
the 6. .. . ahnosphere ofa conventional Marks ..17
, elalsIqq{t!,Ft{t:!,Iqyr gtill'rnaaagete i4e'qa;
9@!q!ion
Complete the text with a word in A and the correct
form of
a verb in B.
A w aslong as &i as soon as w by the time w in case
3 Write the antonyms of the words below.
w supposing m unless x until
1 cared for. 5 worthwhile.. B x come x decide x follow x return & say m spot l;x tell
2 inhabited 6 efficient.. .. .. .

3 thriving .. 7 renovated Eorly morning sofqri ,


4 attractive Pleose reod corefully
,

Marks .. .17
I You will be completely sofe
4 Complete the text with the correct adjective forms you
.... . ...................... the instructions of your guide.

of the words in brackets. 2 Keep the windows up..... . . .. some


onimols .... to investigote your cor.

Zhang .liawan village in the Badagong Mountains of South 3 some wildlife,


East China is only 1 (access) to the fittest. keep quiet ond don't move oround.
The maps are far from 1.
.. .........,.... .,.. (comprehend), so 4 Do not leove the vehicle ... your guide

itis easy to get lost. The children in the village use a more . it is sofe to do so.

practical route to get to the school in the valley below 5 Keep your seot belt on the vehicle
every day. There are ladders fixed to the side of the cliffs ... to o stop.
which are not 3. . . .... .. {vision} from a distance. The 6 Get bock into the vehicle ......... your guide
journey to school'...,...,,.....
would not be 1. . ... . ........,,.. ., {acrept} .. you to.
to most parents, but children as young as five do it twice 7 Hopefully, you'll hove seen some wonderful wildlife
a day. They show 5. ,............... . .. .. . (consider) courage, but you. . . . . . . ..... ..... to the hofel.
they say it's 6........ .... ..,....,...:..,.. (advise) not to look down
during the climb.

Review 2 27 I
Cumulative.review
lr-['

1 }*;iili$ii Listen to a radio presentation about storm


chasing. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
1 Tornado Alley is located roughly in the middle sectlon
ot the USA. my$erioUr plac
Tornadoes occur in the area because two different
airstreams meet there. Situated on the north coast of Northern lretand, the
The best tour companies are the ones with the Gianfs Causeway is an area of approximately 40;00O:: '

greatest experience and the most modern interlocking basalt qo-llimns. Volcanic activity 60 rniUitin
equipment. .ffiy.ars ago createdlthese rugged symmetrical rock
ston":lt4$tS
Tour guests never know where they are going when ;ssformations. which took like stepping lnl?
they leave their hotels. futn. sea. Most of the columns are hexagonal, ilthough there
5 Most tours aim to chase a storm before lunch. some with four, five, Seven.oreight.sides. The tallest a:e
6 More often than not, tour guests miss out on seeing 12 metres high, and the solidified lava:in thg cliffs is'
a tornado. about 28 metres thick in places- The feature pl4yq:4 major
Tour guests have to pay for their own flights to the part in Ireland's heritage and someplqferthcrclolourfuI :
start of the tour. . . .
stories behind it to the geologicat explan_ation..According
All meals are included in the price of the tour. . . ,
to lege-nd, the causeway was built by an Irish gi;iiitlddlt6d'
finn MacCool, so that he could meet his rival the':ScoJtish
giant Benandonner and defeat him in battle. Whichever
explanation you prefer, the Gianfs Causewayis rEg4rde{ias
one of 'the natuial wonde,rs of the'United Ki4g{otn 4nd !t
declared a World Heritage Site by UNESC0 in 1986'

Work in pairs. Choose one photo each and describe


it to each other. Then decide which phenomenon
poses the biggest threat to people and justify your
choice.

Work in pairs. lmagine you are judging a photo


competition called Forces of nature. Decide which of
the photos in exercise 2 should win the competition.
Discuss the things below.
x requirements the photo needs to meet to be selected
tt reasons why you chose this photo and rejected
the other photos

F ,t cumulative review Units 1-2 Workbook page 84


r ,. ,1
+=, \ffi
,.;:J

,t';rri|!!
'U* 4*d Y
& Read the article and answer the questions. Some
questions may have more than one answer.
Which place (A, B or C):
1 is international y recognized?
2 has several different narnes?
3 may be appreciated best from the air?
4 transforms according to the time of year?
5 is ezplaired ir d'fu.ert ways?
6 may not be explored by visitors?

5 Complete the text with one word in each gap.

Kr*, * Ktitrk to the natives of the 0kanagan Valiey'


is a sacred
tire Spottea Lake in British Columbia' Canada
and culturatly significant site' To outsiders'
it looks
more like a giant painter's palette than a body ofwater'
Its vibrant colours are due to the high concentration
including
of numerous different minerals in the lake'
water
sodium, caicium and magnesium sulphate' The
the year and therefore is
changes colour throughout
L r.uriirut to look at inany season' In the summer' most
large 'spots' of
G of the water evaporates, leaving behind
minerals. Depending on the mineral composition left
white. pale yellow' blue
behind, the spots will be of
the
or green colour. Around and between the spots'
sulphate hardens to form natural walkways'
ma"gnesium
The site is owned by the First Nations - the
Aboriginal
people of Canada - who vaiue the lake for its therapeutic
the public, but-it can easiiy be
po*.rt. It is not open to
se.n from Highway 3, which runs past ih9-1-*

Write an article for a travel magazine about a


mysterious place you have visited. lnclude the
information below.
:,: !oUr first impressions of the place
::: a past event related to the place
,:, !oUt-opinion of the place
::; D fecoffiffiendation olthe place

ffimre w"'k6(.q. %l Cumulative review Units 1-2 2e ffiH


Things that matter
Reading and vocabulary Hoarders
@ti{ffiw t.$t#N

1 SpeRXIlttG Why do we keep things we do not use


or need? Which of the reasons do you agree with?
whv?
1 'lt's mine. Why should I give it away?'
2 'l don't like throwing things out - it's a waste.'
3 'You never know, I might use it in the future.'
4 'lt has sentimental value.'
5 'l haven't got time to sort out that stuff.'
6 'l hoard things, but I have the space, so why not?'
2 Read the article. Which reasons in exercise 1 are
mentioned? What other reasons does it mention?
7
STRATEGY

Detecting purpose and point of view


Wr:.
.'1.:r.
-+
**4j1:'
\*X
rr r "..r;iilia

Whenyoureadanon-fictiontext,thinkcarefully . ":al:*rl5a:i:1i. :

about the writer's purpose and point of view. '-a'i:%ad

The strrfl in
1 Decide on the main purpose. ls it to inform and teach :

, (are there facts and quotes)? Or is it


to persuade and :

linfluence?ltmaybetryingtodosevera|things.
Decide on the writer's point of vlew. ls the language
neutral or does it praise or criticize? How does the
writer want us to react?
orrr lives
Read the strategy. Read sentences 1-3 and decide Elaine and Susie Beaupit live in a [arge house
on the article's main purpose. Then study the with a white picket fence in a typicaI New Jersey
words in italics and decide on the point of view. .subur:b..,,They enjoy shoppirrg;:,::!e*ti,l,g their
1 ... unfortunately our modern consumer culture friends and watching sitcoms on cable TV. Being
actively encouraqes us to accumulate. s ,sist.e1i they atso argue a l,ot! In fact. :Elaine and
2 ... when the average American family moves house, Susie appear to be norma[ American teenagers,
an incredible eight tonnes of belongings moves with atthough appearances can be deceptive. The truth
them. is that everyday life for the sisters is far from
3 ... people are naturally resistant to change and
normal: things which we might take for granted,
prefer things the way they are; the end result is
io likercooking a meal orlpicking gut an outfit, a]E
/oads of clutter, taklng up valuable space.
'incredibty difficutt for the girts. Why? Be.qa:Use
4 Read the article again. Are the sentences true (T) or their mum, Sharon, is a computsive hoarder. 'We
false (F)? Correct the false ones. spend most of our time in a small area'i'n the
1 Susie is patient with her mother, despite the hoarding. [iving room, just in front of the TVi complains
2 The writer says that rnost people have a similar ,' Susie. 'Mum's,,stulllhai:'' everywhere.
impulse to hoard. It's taken over our Livesi
3 One reason people stopped being nomads is " In Sharonls house, every iroom is'r,ifatitrned with
because they had too much stuff to transport.
,',l;pites of records and CDs, mountains of laundry and
4 Elaine is sympathetic towards her mother and her
hoarding. ",.stacks of rnagazines. The kitchen is impossible
zo to use, so meals are cooked in a microwave in
5 Advertisements encourage people to be happy with
their lives. the'garage and dishes are washed in the shoWer.
6 People like things in their lives to remain the same. CompuLsive hoarding can be an extreme condition
7 Sharon is emotionally attached to some of her things. and this famity has 3run out of space. But whiLe

5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


it's true that most of us would never hoard to
,, this extent, the fact is that many of us buy more
1 What role do adverts and mass media play when it
things than we need and, once we have them,
comes to owning and keeping things?
2 What advice does Elaine give her mum? What advlce
we're reluctant to throw them away.
would you give her?

I gO Things that matter


ff;r@l+@]r.rr'1,,t',,
ffi -.
Vocabulary: synonyms; phrasa verbs with ouf adject
&

adjectives describinq
W -%; exhibit
#\-rsffi-T]&Fl thinss to
3A
objects; compounds with participles ffi;1il:';:,Ttins
Grarnrnar: a rtic es; determi ners; verb patterns
:,/"ffi \M aW'd'ffi +r_rffi%@i:rTi ffi

According to .gqthyopologists, people have been


collecting stuff:for centufies. About 15,000 years
so dgo, primitive communities began to lose thejr

nomadic ways and rely on stored food, resutting


in a change in our niateriat culture:. Permanent
homes were built as people amassed moire objects,
and these things soon became impossible to carry
:s drotr'rd. The loss of nomadic ways was not just
thanks to agricutture, but also to the number of
possessions people had. ' ',',
Back in
New'Jersey, Etaine is fee[ing increasingty
frustrated by her.mother's junk as she searches for
+o a p[ace to do her homework. In the end, she uses

a'heap of laundry as a temporary desk. After a


just put up with iti she sighs. 'You start
,white you
thinking it's norma[j In some ways it is normal, js
because unfortunatel.y our modern consumer
So why it so difficu[t to get rid of things? :One
,'
exp[anation is that peop[e are naturalty resistant to
+s culture activeLy encourages us to accumu[ate.
change and prefer things the way they are; the enid.
Advertisements convince us that we can't Live
resu[t is loads of clutter, taking up vaLuabl.e space.
without certain products and imply that these
Psycho[ogists atso tatk about the 'endownient
things can' change our lives. It's very difficutt to
effect', or the way we attach more vatue to things uo
resist this culture, to 4opt out and buy less. In the
once we own them. For examp[e, you might not use
USA, the,,amount of stuff people own has doubted
'o your o[d MP3 pLayer, but it stil,L has'va[ue'because
sjnce L947 and, according to a recent study, when
the avera$e American famity moves house, an
it beLongs to you.,0wnelship is as important aS:i
usefu[ness. But as Elaine says, 'Mum needs to ask
incredible eight tonnes of be[ongings moves with
herself: if I didn't have it, would I go out and buy u,
them.
it? If the answer is'no', then she slioutd bin it.'
'sentimental ,vatue' is another reason for not
,,jqn!!ng rthings. Many of the objects we keep have
connections to a place, an event or a person in our
past;,:iuch as birthday cards frqm a grandparent ,o
or an old footbatl shir"t,,from an:irnporfant match.
Th ese cts, [i ke S h a'ron's: reaord,cO..tle-iti en, have
o bj e .,

emotional currency, which islwhy we neve'f,:,lhrew


them out.
Luckity, Elaine and Susie's story has a happy ending. ,,
Sharon has finail.y got heLp with her hoarding and
has s[owly started to 6clear out their home. 'She
had toi says Elaine, 'or our famiLy woutd have
fallen apartj It's been a few months, but the girls
are Thelping out and things are gradually getting s,
better. 'When I wal"k through the house now, I can
find the things I need ...-. They're not hidden by
j(nk any morej smiles E[aine. 'The next stage is
to invite my friends roundi she adds. 'I'm really
looking forward to that. I just hope they don't ,'
bring much stuffl

Things that matter sr


38 r Grammar and listening
.tttt, ,sar"*trt,
,XX::Xsynonyms I ii:i:lltl3riSPEAKING Listen to two dialogues. For
each dialogue identify where the speakers are, the
6 Complete the lists of synonyms with the highlighted
problem and the solutions. Then work in pairs and
words in the article. Check any words you do not know
answer the questions.
in a dictionary and write any common collocations.
1 loads of:
1 What things do most people leave behind on
holiday? Aqree on a list of the top three items.

2 things: 2 Have you ever left anything behind on holiday?


What was it? What did you do?

4 throw out: .. ..

5 hoard: 2 Read the text and choose the correct articles. What
types of things do people usually leave behind on
7 SPEAKING Look at the photos in the article. Use the holiday?
words in exercise 6 to describe them.

*XXX. itl-aiat verbs with out

8 Study phrasal verbs 1-7 in the article. Match them to


the meanings of out a-f.
a chooslng picK oui d uncontained
b removing e stopping being involved
c disappearing, using f supporting, intending to
completely support

9 Complete the text with the correct form of the


phrasal verbs below. Then match them to meanings
a-f in exercise 8.
* sort out ;r drop out of x spill out of x, take out
$ wear out n reach out to

'Like most of my friends, I had too much stuff,'


explains seventeen-year-old Kayte Green,'but
I did something about it.' Kayte is a teenage
minimalist. She writes a blog that 1 . other .

teens who want to simplify their lives.


A year ago Kayte decided to 2 consumer
culture. 'l started with my clothes,' explained
Kayte. 'Jeans and T-shirts 3 .,,,,,,,-,,, my wardrobe

and onto the floor, so I a everything


and put it into boxes. I put clothes back
as I used them, and then after a few weeks, I gave
Match examples 1-8 in the text to rules a-h.
away the stuff that was still in boxes.'
We use a / an when:
'lt was hard to s what to keep and
what to junk,' she adds, 'but if something had
a we say what someone's job is.
sentimental value, l'd ask myself: Does it really
b the meaningis each or per.
bring back memories or just collect dust?' We use the when:
Today, Kayte's room is transformed. 'lt's great c we talk about a person or thing that was mentioned
without the clutter,' she says. 'And l've saved before.
money too, because I wear clothes until they are d it is obvious what we are talking about.
! I don't worry about having the latest e there is only one person or ihing (for example, rhe
fashions any more, and I don't feel guilty about sun), or with superlatives.
letting things go.' f an adjective refers to a group of people who share a

characteristic.
10 SpenXlruG Work in pairs. Answer the questions. We use no article when:
1 What do you think about Kaytes ideas? g we talk about something in general or before general
2 What other ways of reducing the amount of stuff we plural nouns.
have can you think of? h we use abstract nouns.
British vs American English page 136

I sz rhings that matter


4 SpgRXttttG Look at the photo and answer the questions. Then read the text and compare
your ideas.
1 What things have been left on the beach?
2 What impact might they have on the environment?
3 Can you thlnk of any soJutions to this problem?

most none of the material is wasted, so;almost all of the flip-flops are
ed.e.,initO something else - everything from earrings to elephant sculptures!

. critics say there is little point in collecting the footwear - there may
flip-flops on the beach now, but there is still.a lot of other rubbish.
?plies that she! taking it one step at a time. There's far too much
everywhere, she argues, 'so whatever we're doing is better than
riothing because the amount of rubbish is only going to get worse.'

Study the highlighted determiners in the text and put them into the correct category.
Then decide which can be used with both uncountable and plural countable nouns.
Use the Grammar reference section in the Workbook to help you.
1 WiLh uncountable nouns we use:
2 With plural countable nouns we use:
6 Complete the chart with the determiners below.
:: far too much / many, almost all x seve+# x (a) little, (a) few:: almost none ., some
,.r many, much, a lot of r hardly any

0o/o 10070
none 1 3 tevoral 4
alll every

7 Replace the words in italics with not much I not many or some,
1 He needs a few flipllops to flnish his sculpture.
2 lt was raining, so fevy volunteers turned up for the beach clean.
3 We could do with a littlehelp in the shop. lts quite busy today.
4 There's /itle rubbish on the beach at the moment. lt's not too dirtv

8 SpgnXtruG Choose the correct answers. Then work in pairs, choose one opinion and discuss it.
Do you agree or disagree with it? Why?
1 'Wecan recyclemuch,/almostall of theproductswebuy.That'sgreat,butwhatfew/afew
people realize is that it's not about recycling, it's about reducing consumptionl
2 'There are far too many /too much adverts on TV and they persuade us to acquire much / a lot of
things we don't need. Get rid of the adverts and we won't produce so much / many rubbish!'
3 'A few / Few of my neighbours recycle, so why should l? There's little / a little point in doing it if
no one else does itl

Thingsthatmatter 33 I
3C r Listening, speaking arnd vocabulary One man's trash ...

FI j i r..{-

,{
1 SPEAKING Look at the photos and discuss the questions.
1 What is an environmental artist? What do they do?
2 In what ways can environmental art influence us? Do you think it's effective?
3 'We produce trash, are born from trash and will turn back into trashl What does the speaker
mean? Do you agree? Why / why not?

2 ,,t:t, 1,14 Listen to a radio interview about the artist HA Schult and compare your ideas.

3 ,l.Ll:,t,'1,.1+ Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
1 Hundreds of people worked with Schult onTrash People.
2 Each trash person was made from the same materials.
3 His main aim was to show how we can recycle rubbish into beautiful art.
4 According to Schult, the trash people symbolize modern people.
5 The presenter finds Schult's work unimpressive.
6 Artistshaveusedrubbishtohighlightenvironmental problemssincetheearly20thcentury.
7 James says that artists ike Schult think they can help us to change our habits.
Adjectives describing objects
4 Study phrases "l-7 from the interview.Then match the highlighted adjectives to categories
a-i below.
1 Arms and legs made from rusty aluminium cans, ...
2 . . . bodies made up of dated, decaying plastic keyboards . . .

3 ... smooth, transparent car headlights becoming broad, triangular shoulders.


4 ... controversial German artist HA Schult ...
5 ... using all sorts of lunk, from crushed aluminium cans to tangled copper wire ...
6 ... ripped packaging for a mouth ...
7 . . . he created a huge, winding paper river in New York . . .

a rype or purpose d age g shape


b materlal e colour h opinion
c size f origin or nationality i other qualities
5 Match the adjectives below to categories a-i in exercise 4. Use a dictionary to help you. Then
put the categories in the order they appear before a noun, depending on which type of
adjective comes first.
t:: wltty.:r contemporary lt delicate :r troubling ,r: tiny l stunning " 511(:r lndian ::: colourful
:r bronze l rectangular';: wooden ir antique;; abstract
5 Complete the sentences with the adjectives in brackets in the correct order.
1 Slint<achu makes urban art. (troubling, contemporary, tiny)
2 There's a statue outside the museum. (bronze, controversial)
3 There was a(n) mural on the side of the office block. (abstract, rectangular, stunning)
4 The auction house sold a(n) carving. (wooden, antique, Chinese)
5 The library has a collection of paintings. (delicate, Indian, silk)
6 The artist Banksy is famous for graffiti. (witty, colourfu l)

g+ Things that matter


F
3C
7 SPEAKING Work in small groups. Look
at the photo and discuss the questions.
1 Describe the photo. What is the object
normally used for? What has the artist
transformed it into?
What do you think about the artwork and
how do you thlnk the artist wants us to react?
Decide on a title for the artwork and explain
why you chose it.

8 SpfRXIlttG Work in pairs. You are going to listen to people choosing objects to display at a
local museum. Look at the photos. Where do you think the museum is located?

9 i::l: I.15 Listen to the discussion and check your ideas. Which objects did the people select
and why?

10 1.15 Listen to the first part of the discussion again and complete the phrases from the
t.,::.
discussion.Then complete A-D with the headings below.
:: Rejecting suggestions::r Stating aims::: Making suggestions l: Approving sugqestions

A c
Our main ls to ... . That 3
like a really good idea.
One ol our main goals involves .. Ihata be'the best place for it.
, : . .,
...
: :
.

... will help s


.....-...,...,....,,.. rhat- . '

-, I I mel
12
I OK, you've
We could have sornething fibm . ..
We 2 .
want to have a as well. D
l'm not .: :. this is the rlght place.
Maybe, although .. . ,.- don't you 8... .. ... .. .. .. . ?

Perhaps we should think again.

11 ::rl 1.16 Listen to another discussion and tick the phrases that you hear. Then match all
of them to categories A-D in exercise 10. Which display case are the students talking about?
r I don't think that's the best choice.,:t We're not going to see eye-to-eye on this one!
:: Ls1'r 1..*at... .,::That might bethe solution.::: l11.,1nOthats an excellent point.
I We could focus more on ... . I Well, l'm not convinced. ,r The alm is to concentrate on . .. .

12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Follow the instructions below.


:r Choose three objects to display at a museum exhibition about your local community, one for
each of the foilowing display cases: environment, culture and history.
:r Define yourtommunity': is it your local area, your town, your street?
Then choose each object carefully.Think about the foliowing points.
',: . lts purpose: what does it tell us about everyday llfe?
. lts story: does it relate to an important past, present or future event?
. lts appearance: is it interestlng to look at?

Things that matter 35 :;


3D r Culture,
l-

1 SpgRXlnlG Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. I


1
Then read the article and compare your ideas.
1 What things should national museums have in them?
SAMEDOR
' STOTEN?
,li
1

2 What do you understand by the term'encyclopaedic A 'Tellinghistory through things is what museums are all l

museum'? Do you know any? about,' explains Neil MacGregor. director of the British
Museum. He should know, ad,.tfrp museum is one of the l

2 Read the article again. Match paragraphs A-E to olilest and largest in the world.'It also has a well.earned I

summaries 1-6. There is one summary that you do s reputation as an 'encyclopaedic' museum. with a global
not need. story told through eight million objects. Inside, a wide-
1 Examining pros and cons of encyclopaedic museums.
{anging collection includes eye.Ifthing from prehistoric
potlery to precious hand made jewellery from lndia and
2 Speculating about how objects were acquired, and if
Ming dynasty vases from China. The museum helps
they should be returneo.
ro us to uriderstand !6w events that happened at different
Describing an object which was a war trophy, and
times and in different places were connected, and how
why it is unlikely to be qiven back.
they influenced each other. Indeed, this was the vision of
Describing an object which was given away by one its founder, Sir Hans Sloane, who tribd setting up cross-
government, then asked to be returned by another. cultural compgrisons in his original collection in 1153.
5 Giving advice on which objects to view in the museum.
rs B As you walk around the British Museum today, it's
6 Exploring the purpose of museums, and a definition
' clear that Sloane's broad-minded vision is very much a[ive
of an encyclopaedic museum.
and well. What's less clear is how the museum acquired
many of the objects on display and whetherlhey sirould
:ilaiticiples remain,there. Some have a w,ell-doqU$reAted lristory but
Study the highlighted words in the article. What zo others were added during Britain's colonial period, so it's
types of compounds are they? possible they weie stolen from famous arLhaeohcgical .'1{

/ / sites or acquired as lrophies of war. Imagine having an


well-earned - a{leclive adverb + preseni paal pafiiciyle
iinportant national monument from your courftiy kept.:
self-defeating - noun + preaenl / paal parliciplo
pet*ranently in another country. How would you feel?
4 Complete the sentences using the words below. zs Wbuld you try to get the country to return it? It's not
surprising that many countries have gone on to ask for
x highly x heart (x2) xri thought rx well xx much
their treasures back. However, where they should be kept
x mind m fast is a question that is still fiercely debated.
1 The -anticipated exhibition had some C The Rosefia Stone is a well:known exhibit tliat
. . . -known Egyptian exhibits. :o illustrates this problem. Carved in 196 BC. the stone shows
2 Some of the stories behind the photographs at the a pharaoh's decree in ancient hieroglyphics, Demotic
Magnum exhibition were . .-provoking. anil classical Grqgk, ah& was the key to unlocking the
Others were simply breaking. ''language of the ancient Egyptians. It was first discovered
3 The nation made a . felt plea for the return -in 1799 near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta) by soldiers
of its cultural heritage. A... .... ..........-respected is ip Napoleon's army, buqgn Napoleon"S defeat in 1801,.
museum had prepared a room to house the statues.
'"it
became the prope4y:;bf the British; Many of the'
4 The Science Fair was -paced and museumk treasures rrfere acquired in a similar way. but
impressive. The exhibits displayed lots of . ... .. .. ..
unsurprisingly, the British Museum is reluctant to let
-blowing solutions to environmental problems. the Rosettistone gd. It argues that more people see the
eo Stone in London than they would in Cairo. the location id
more secure and the exhibil is a critical part of its global
5 SpeemnG Describe an exhibition or museum you
collection. The Egyptian $.ilvernment has other ideas and
have attended using compound adjectives.
is trying to persuade the museum to return.i6They claim
thatit's importantfortheirnation'shistory'fi<i *ffi
+s identity, and that many Egyptians can't
6 tvtatch the verbs in 1-5 to the patterns that foltow afford to goto London to see it.
them, a-e. Then check your answers in the text. But the British museum
won't let the Rosetta
1 get, inspire Stone go, even as
2 imaglne, consider, suggest, recommend so a loari, as they -
3 afford, need, prefer fear it won't be
4 lry, go on, remember, forget, stop, regret returned.
5 let, make
a + -ing
b + object + infinitive with ro
c + object + infinitive without lo
d + infinitive with to
e + -ing or infinitive with lo with a change in meaning

lr ta rhings that matter


@1
3B
r-
7 Complete the sentences with the correct infinitive
or -ing form of the verbs in brackets. What is the
difference in meaning in each pair of sentences?
D The Elgin Marbles is another famous and controversial 1a Remember (read)the guidebook
exhibit. Thken from the Parthenon temple in 1802 by Lord before you visit the museum.
Elgin, the sculptures are considered a crucial part of Gieek ss b lremember (read) about the
history - so much so"that the Greek government, supported Mummy of Hornedjitef on the museum website.
by UNESCO, has repeatedly asked for the marbles to be 2a
returned. According to the Greeks, Lord Elgin 'looted' the
The guide stopped . . . (talk) about
the Rock Crystal Skull in front of the exhibit.
sculptures as well as seriously damaging tlre monument;
however. the British claim that EIgin had the permission
b The guide stopped (talk) about the
oo
Rock Crystal Skull and moved on ro the next exhibit.
of the Ottoman authorities* to remove them. It wasn't
ufil/, 1822 during the Greek War of Independence that
3 a If you want to see if you would enjoy being a guide,
the Acropolis was handed over to the Greeks. bur by then
try (take) your friends around the
MUSEUM
the English Parliament had approved Elgin's acquisition.
No one can make the museum give back the marbles; os
b I rried (take) my friends on a tour
howeveq the Greek government will go on campaigning around the museum, but nobody wanted to go
for their feturn until they are back in Athens. 4a l forgot (see) the Elgin Marbles.
b l'llneverforget (see)the Elgin
Marbles.
5a We regret .. (inform) you that the
exhibition has been cancelled.
b lregret .. (inform) him about the
exhibition.
6 a The guide first told us about lce Age tools and then
went on (describe) lce Age art.
b The guide went on (describe) lce
Age art for two hours

E The British MuSeum is a pl4ce dedicated to 8 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
international understanding, and the advantages oflarl
in brackets.
encyclopaedic museum are clear to see: 'We geed to zo
explore common ground, how people perceive their 0nce inside the museum, most people prefer
relationship to each other ... and 1to) see human history {go) with the crowds to famous exhibits,
i as an ongoing joint project,' explains MacGregor. But such as the Hosetta Stone. They forget 2.......... .. ., ....
, this attempt to bring differeat cultures together has been
(explore) the less populaL but equally interesting
self-defeating, ultimately"rhaving the opposite effect: zs
displays. ln fact, MacGregor suggests
taking treasures from other countries has resulted in
never-ending intemational rows. So as you admire the {visit}these lesser-known objects first - so stop

breathtaking objects on display at the museum, think


about their legacy. Remember to ask yourself: Does the or an Aboriginal bark shield. He also recommends
end justify the means? Is taking an object for a museum ao ' .. . . . ,,.- {focus} on just one object. For example,
that different from theft? And shouldn't important objects think aboutwhose hands fashioned the cup and why.
be exhibited where they were originally made? For just a moment. imagine 6 ., .. . ........ (belthat
* At the time Athens had been a parr of the Oaomin,.i*nrpire for
person - it might inspire you 7 ... .. .. (think) about
some ...

,.. 350 yearq^.. "'l:: .. .1 - : .,". : ,.

(realize) we are not that different. They were probably


similar to you * they just lived in a different time.

9 SpglftNG Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

5il il
1 Can you think of examples of 'national treasures'from:
x other countries that are displayed in museums in
your country?
r.your country that are displayed in museums
abroad?
2 Should they be returned? Why / whv not?

Objects in a museum page 136

Things that matter 37


SPEAKING Answer the questions.
1 Have you ever lost something while travelling? When did you lose it? Where were you going?
Did you get it back?
2 What effect did losing the object have on your day?

Read parts 1 and 2 of Lost and found. What was lost? What effect did losing the object have on
the owner? How do you think the object was returned? What do you think happened next?

Telling a story
When you tell a story, think about how you are going to tell it.
x Point of view: decide who will tell the story: the first person or the third person?
x How to start: use a'hooki i.e. keep back a key piece of information to keep the reader interested.
x Show, don't tell: let your reader learn about a character through what they say, see, hear and feel.
w How to end: give your ending a twist or leave your reader guessing.

4 Read the strategy. Then answer the questions.


1 How are parts 1 and 2 of the story told: in the first person or the third person? What about part 3?
What effect does this have?
2 Which part of the story uses a hook at the beginning? What is the hook?
3 Which part of the story starts in the middle of the action or situation? How does it do this?
4 ln part 1, which adjectives would you use to describe the narrator? Do you think he enjoys the
journey to college?
5 ln part 2, what does Sarah feel, hear and see in the tutor's office? What does it say about her
character and feelings?
6 Does part 3 give the reader an ending? lf the story continues, what do you think happens next?

5 Match sentences 1-4 to rules a and b, and complete the explanations. Then find two
examples of rule a and two of rule b in the stories.
1 As she got offthe train, she saw a poster.
2 Having searched through some photographs, she noticed a boy.
3 Looking up, he read the same advert.
4 After finishing college, he went back home.
a We use having + . . .. and . .... . + -ing to describe one action that happens
...

before another action.


b We use + past simple or a participle to describe an action that
happens at the same time as another action.

Workbook page 114

6 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. What do
you think fell out of the bag?
1 Lucas studied long and hard in the city library and then he caught the bus home.
After
An old lady sat down beslde hlm and then started to complain about the dreadful weather.

He quickly got offat the next stop and realized hed picked up the wrong bag.

He hurried after the departing bus and tried to get the driver's attention.

He clumsily dropped the bag and something fell out.

ts ,t rhings that matter


B
3E
*

?art l: MarK
Having found it, I waan'i ture to d0 urith i't. Ai
',^rhat
{irsi I looKed around mo. ?orhaps iho ownolrasn'i far
awal? Foa\ieing thald probabll gona I tlippod ii inio m1
bacvpacv and docidod io hand it in at ihs nert tiop All
trains to v.laterloo havo been cancY\\ed. London Trantpori
apo\ogiwa{or an1 inconvenie,nco ... ,' announcedihv Parf 2: Sar:ah
staiion loudopoaKer off the train and
aB evor'lone go1 'Sarah Darwin?,
'Groa|,' I 'though't called
siruggled down ths narrow Patsagewap a cross-lookin$woman
as I pullod along b1 tho rowd. 'l'm going to mieo m1
',{as behindthe desk. as lran
{iret lseiurs.' throu$h the double doors
Lalsr thal day, afier {iniahing lunch, t remombewdlho 'Ves,' I panted.,'m
here., I'd jusf
about madeit, despitethe d,elay
fo\dsr. I pulled it out o{ m1 bacYpacY and looKed ai it' Under$round.lt wouldnt have onthe
looked gooi to-JrrW" any latecplaces
l't r,ras smooth and b\acK and had the initia\o t.D. on ihe Cent rat Sa inr Ma rrins Colege at
* rJ*, ri J nts w ere m any an d, I
front. Feeling a litlle guil\, I opened it up. lneide thera was determined to make "r" ^[pit""
a $ood, impression. ,Th:,ey
were drawinga - 5om0 in blaak and r^rhiio, oihore in colour, snapped the woman, pointingto re waitin$for you inside,,
a door at tne ena of the corridoc
alt ofihem Pre\ good: a $revi scono in tho rain, a sunnl
The room was a tutor,s offrce,
da1 in the parK, a pcrform?r io
(nvoni Gardon. withheaps of books, piles of
photo$raphs draw in$s and,
everywhere. A middle_a$ea
'ulhat'a thai, MarK?' asksd a friond sitting nert to me' jeans leaned against
*,o^nn in a black polo neck and
a bo.okcase, fl i"{njtn .,rgia
haired man in a fweed suil was portfotio, and a grey_
Ah, aomeihing I {ound on ihe tubo'thio morning,' I aaid, sittin' in an nearby. The woman
Iooked up and smiled,. ^rri"'nnu
ehowing har.
'Sarah?' she said.,plea
''tha1're intcratling. Wh1 didn't 1ou hand thsm in?'
opposire,thenreached',."rj1;;:;+;:^i.;rl:f
'l torgot,' I oaid. 'Anythin$ w ron$?' the m an. O utside lhe wi
asked,
i.i,!!;f ili;:ff ;
'ulc\1, don'.t $rorrl too much,' sha laughed. 'You're in lucK' and it wls .tn#ng ;o ..in Setling etron$er
'*torv'r an arhibition o{ unclaimsd art from iho London - to pour down, in*"an' '"t
'l think I left
my portflolio onthetrain,,
Traneport looi propertl office ihis weoY, and i|'t ai a
I stammered.
on rateq havin$finighed the
galterl in Horton 6quare -juot round ihc cornor'
tt'lh1 ,n.ol' interview,r was bacK on rhe
end it hadrit been atota! disaster; slreet. In the
don'i 1ou taYe ihom a\ong?' fd,borrowed a laptop and presented,
from my website' arthou*h the pi.,tures worK
thah hothihg By now it"was
*".nt .*.iKinJ. stir, it was better
". losin$
rainin$ hard., but afrer
care about $ettihgwet. All I carei my portforio, r didnt
wanted a place at Central
abort ,".
tnain g my drawin$s. And I
Saint Martins

WRITIIIG:6UTSE.

I Task Write a story about an object that you have Paragraph 2: Develop your story. What does the main
lost. character do next? What impact does
losing the object have on their day?
r ldeas Decide who is telling the story. Ask and Paragraph 3: End your story. Was the object returned?
answer wh- questions (who, whot, where, when, Did the main characters meet?
how,why).
I Write Write your story. Use the paragraph plan to
I Plan Follow the plan: help you.
Paragraph l: Begin your story. lntroduce the lost
object, the location and the main I €heck Check the following points:
character(s). : Does the story start in an interesting way?
r Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
punctuation?

Thingsthatmatter 39
OUT
The basic meaning of out is ol movement
The grammar of phrasalverbs from inside to outside, so it combines with
A phrasal verb is a combination of two or three words: many verbs of movement, for example,
a verb and at least one particle (a preposition or an storm oat, rush out, ga out. Many verbs that
combinewith out alro combine with the
adverb). The addition of the particle changes the adverb plus preposition out of, for
meaning of the verb. Phrasal verbs can be: e\ample, storn oat, stotm outol the tmm.
I Intransitive - these verbs do not need an object.
out and in (an sometimes be used with
the same verbs to express opposite
2 Transitive, separable - these phrasal verbs can be meanings (for example, go out, go rn).
separated by an object (in a dictionary, there is usually
sb / sth between the two parts of the phrasal verb).
1 What is the literal meaning of the particle our?
3 Transitive, inseparable - these phrasal verbs cannot be 2 What particle has the opposite meaning?
separated by an object (in a dictionary, there is usually
3 What five verbs of movement do you know that can
go with these two particles?

Read sentences 1-6.Then match the phrasal verbs in


bold to the meanings of ouf a-f.
I Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
1 We decided to check out of the hotel.
entries and answer the questions.
2 The teacher called out all our names one by one.
Which verb: 3 The survey is anonymous, so leave out your name.
1 is intransitive? 4 Can you hand out the test papers?
2 is transitive, separable? 5 The factory churns out millions of these little toys.
3 is transitive, inseparable? 6 It took me almost all day to work out this puzzle.
4 has one meaning as an intransitive verb and a
different meaning as a transitive, separable verb? a to exclude someone or something from an activity, a
list, etc.
b to search, observe, solve
c to produce (usually quickly and in large quantities)
d to share or distribute among people
e to speak or shout loudly
,
-"*i,throw
dl'rc
sthea'way 1 orr (also ,throw sthe'out)
f to leave a place or a person, start a journey
to get rid ofsth that you no longer want: I don'tneedthat-
you can throw it away. o That otd chair should be thrown
away.2 o-to failto make use of sth; to waste sth: to throw 4 Find the phrasalverbs below in a dictionary.Then
away an opportuniry c see also THRowAwAy add them to categories a-f in exercise 3.
:...'--*-'-"*-. xx give out ax find out w turn out t$ cross out e set out
I ,turn 'out 1 to be present at an event: A vait crowd turned
out to watch the procession. 3related noun ruRNouT * bark out
2 (used with an adverb or adjective, or in questions with
how) to happen in a particular way; to develop or end in a
particular way: Despite our worries everything turned. out 5 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
well. o You never know how your children witt filrn out. o
+ adj. lf the day turns out wet, we may have to change our the phrasal verbs in exercise 4.
plans. 3 to point away from the centre: Her toes turn out.
I Our manager wasn't in a good mood today. She was
.--. l,clear orders to everyone.
I sthe+'out 0- to make sth empty and clean by removing
I things or throwing things away: to clear out a drawer/ 2 My job for the summer was toleaflets
i room a We cleared out all our old clothes. o I found the letters
to people in the underground.
when I was clearing out after my father died. arelated
3 Can you . what time we need to be at
the meeting?
We overslept, so we didn't . on our
Understanding the meaning of particles journey until noon.
Knowing the meanings of the most common particles This factory. the most cars in Europe.
.

can help you to guess the meaning of any new phrasal L . the names of the people who have
. . ... .....
verbs that you come across. One particle can have already paid for the trip.
different meanings, depending on the verb that it is with,
but almost every particle has a basic literal meaning and 6 Guess the meanings of the phrasalverbs below.
a metaphorical meaning. When trying to understand a Then check your answers in a dictionary and write
new phrasal verb, think about both meanings. your own example sentence for each verb.
si pop out x dig out w spill out e nap out s filter out
2 Read the strategy above. Then read the dictionary x dish out
entry and answer the questions.

Dictionary entries from Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary B,


Oxford University Press 2Oi0 and Oxford PhrasalVerbs Dictionary for
! ao vocabulary insight 3 learners of English 2", Oxford University Press.
'r, r,;,il:,i:i,i. ..::iri1i-ii-]j:ri: :i,: ...,, .i..:.:.;iif
- -.t : : a

-..;

-I

I Match the pairs of synonyms below. 5 Choose the correct answers.


ee accumulate & amass u belongings B bin s clutter
Textiles graduate Katy Bell is ra(n) /the /-
xs: get rid of x heaps x junk (n) xx possessions *ii stacks
entrepreneur. She runs a company called Lost Property
1 of London, which makes 261n) / the / - quality handbags
2 out of recycled material. 3a1n; / The / - bags are made
3 using traditional techniques and aa(n) / the / -
4 .. finest accessories. They are ideal for sa(n) / the / -
5 ... people who want a product that is friendly to 6a(n) /
Marks ls the / - environment. Prices range from 9150 to 8250
7a(n)/the/-bag.
2 Complete the phrasalverbs in the text with the
words below. Marks l7
sa reach el run ffi sort xx spill xx spread ry: throw 6 Complete the text with the words below.
a few xx a little
x;r xx almost all of x a lot of m far too many
Doar Agonl lvrnq a few m little
I wondgr if 1ou can halp ma. M1 moihor ean't 6wm t0
Cornwatl in the south-west of England is a poputar
.
anghing out, go our houos is full ofjunk
tourist destination because it has 1 . .. ..
io 2
lrlhenaver shc s'taris out of spac in ono b;;;h;;- ;;ioo t" u.-.rr.t. ir;; ;i ih;m are onty
room, shojust movaa io tha nrrl. ln tha kitehan, thers aro accessible by sea, so 2 people go there.
. .. out all ovar iho iabls and things also But most of them are easy to reach, and on days when
out of ail lha dravrars. I hava offarod to halp there is ...... sunshine, they are occupied
byo people, so ifs hard to find a space.
..... out thc cupboarde. but sha rafusas io
However, for 5 days last year the beach at
lai ma. I don't know hour to 6
Bude was not so poputar because of two strange objects
thould I do? that were washed ashore. The first was a [arge white
thing that the residents thought was a
Marks 16
polar bear. The second was an enormous object, which
peopte had doubt was a monster. 0n
further investigation, however, the potar bear turned out
3 Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.
to be a dead cow and the monster was in fact a tree!
1 Theres a rusty old statue in the square. (bronze)
Marks l7
He's a young French artist. (contemporary)
Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
They drink tea in tiny china teacups. (delicate) meaning to sentence a.
1a You should book a guided tour of the exhibition.
She was wearing a stunning silk outfit. (colourful) b They recommended
2a Applying sunscreen regularly is fundamental.
There is a large wooden table in the room. (rectangular) b Remember
3a They weren't allowed to take photos.
6 We saw a wittv ab;tract olu, ,tl"n.n] b The guide didn't let
4a I didn't collect stamps after I was sixteen.
Marks . ./ 6 b When I was sixteen, I stopped
5a Buying new furniture is too expensive.
4 Compiete the sentences with compound adjectives. b I can't afford
Use the correct forms of the words in brackets. 6a She became a sculptor after she went to art school.
1 There is a view from the tower. (take) b After art school, she went on
2 Those bags don't come out of a factory; they're 7a After watching the travel programme, we decided
.. (make) to visit Greece.
3 We gave him our thanks. (feel) . b The travel programme inspired
4 The queue was
.. ........ .. ..... .. . . (end)
5 It's a ... ...... .
exhibition. (provoke)
6 He's a .......... artist from 5pain. (respect)
7 They had a break.(earn) ...
Marks l7

hevlet".: *l !
rk Mind and body
gfl
Reading and vocabulary Perfect people

SPEAKING lmagine that before you were born your

TACA
parents could modify your genes and change your
character. Answer the questions.
Which two things would you have liked them:
't, to change? u: to keep the same?
How would your life be different because of the BY DililtlAil.0il
changes that they made? A ln a scene from the science fiction film Gattaca,a genetic
counsellor speaks wirh a young couple about the ehild.ttrqy?l!1j1;1!;
2 Read the article and answer the questions. liketohave.Thecoupletfirstchild,Vincent,wasdiagnosed
ln which paragraph does the writer mention: immediately after birth with several disabilities including
1 the ethical problem in relation to genetic engineering? "
s heart defect that puts his life expectancy at just 30.2 year.s. -
'''::::.,

2 that our society is becoming similar to the one in So the couple decide to genetically engineer their second i

Gattaca? ,,: ild. "fhe geneticist explains that after screening hundreds
3 a difficult decision the parents have to make? qfembryos,theyareleftwithtwohealthyboyembryosand
4 why Vincent won't realize his ambitions? nvo hialthy girl embryos. All that remains is to selecr the
5 why genetic engineering is a logical step for society? r o nicBeeonipatrblg. can didare,'' he tells them.
6 the selection process parents might go through? B They'decide tfey want anorher boy, a playmate fsr . .

7 laws which could enforce genetic engineering? Vincent. Reading a report, the genericigt Says, ,'Yoq. ha!{-€_ , , ,
specified hazel eyes, dark hair and fairl ikin:'Hqr,tti!:1i.|,.-.;ri.
3 SPEAKING Discuss the questions. goes on to explain rhat he has already''got ria of Sqql.s'.:.$l*
1 How do you thinkVincent feels about his brother rs which might cause problem5 things such as premature ;

Anton? How would you feel? baldness, short-sightedness, deafness, aggression or


2 Do you think parents have a right to'play God'and
obesity. The mother interrupts: 'We didnt want
I mean, diseases, yes, but ...'
genetically engineer their children? Why might they
be considered'immoral' if thev don't? .ller husband says, 'Righg we were just wonder,ing if it s good *,
zo justto leave a few things to chance.'

X*l&XXXXXVeibs irnd nouns with the same form The geneticist smiles and says, 'You want to
:'child the best ppSliblg:srart, Believe me we:havi..:
4 Study the highlighted words in the article. Complete
in,r4firqqdr. Your child doesnt ai
the pairs of sentences with a highlighted word.
What is the difference in meaning? Find three more
examples in the article.
1a Don't look at the computer for too
long. You'l I get a headache.
b Doctors had to . people for bird flu, to
try and stop it from spreading.
2a Einstein had an amazing . He thought
about science in a different way from other people
b I don't . if you disagree with me, just

listen to my point of view.


3a Designer babies will . a lot of problems
in the future.
b This charity is a good to support.
4a There needs to be a , in attitude - we
need to start accepting genetic engineering.
b Can you these boxes out ofthe way?
''F6;!i;
They're blocking the corridor.
t;
5a The whole area of genetics will us with
serious ethical debates.
b Old people often {ive in care homes because they
don't want to be a on their children
6a My brother is passlonate about science and
mathematics. He plans to become an ..,

b She tried to influence and the debate


so she was the clear winner.

f, +z Mind and body


Vocabulary: verbs and nouns with the same form; noun suflrxes: -ness, Speaking: discuss ng a controvers a top c
EI
iry lon; phrases with body parts; word analysis; addttion and contras: Writing: a etter to a newspaper 4A
Grammar: ta king about habltual behaviour;future in the past
ffitr"q ;r'im' }.'ffi rw,.{ffi "ffis/*w *-o#l

ffir: \'% x€ .14


-.}i :

it
,Y
r)
'),(
2 il-

c ugr"a, .nd rheir second son, Anton, is the F Civen allthese changes,
near perfect son they had hoped for. ln the past feel they have to
modify:
people used to leave things to chance, butin Gattacat world babies? How long until thosii ivli$lffi
few parents want to risk producing children who become regarded as immora|? At some poiht ihe,governm6iiirriightrt
ro members of an underclass called 'invalids'. Antoni older come along and say'lti so expensive to have disability, heret
brother; Vincent, wants to become an astronaut but because our policy: You can't have a baby unless you have genetic
of his genetic profile he is labelled as an 'invalid' and can only testing.' 70

work as a cleaner. As a result, there is a lot of pressure on


G Cenetic engineering raises many questions, and most of
pafents to genetically engineer their children.
us are troubled by the idea of 'playing Codl Many people
:s D Set in the'not too distant future,'the film, which starred believe that children are gifts which should be appreciated
Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman, and lude Law, was released as they come to us, not commodities to be manufactured.
on October 24,1gg7. Today advances in reproductive and Cenetic engineering fails to appreciate the value of human zs

genetic medicine might well lead to the type of society difference, and that is an important part of what ir means
Cattaca warned against, a society where a drop of blood to be human.
+o decides where you can work, who you should marry and
what you can achieve. In 2003 the Human Cenome Project
increased our understanding of the genetic roots of human
traits. Currently, thanks to generic screening, couples can
learn a great deal about their children before they are born.
+s Experts predict that we will be able to screen embryos for
eye and hair color within a few years. Within a decade it may
also be possible to predict behavioral conditions such as
depression and addiction.

E Some people believe this new technology is changing


so parents' attitudes toward their children. 'The attitude of
parents may shift from unconditional acceptance to critical
scrutin/ warned the Council on Bioethics in 2003. 'The
very first act of parenting now becomes not the unreserved
welcoming of an arriving child, but the judging of his or her
ss fitness, while still an embryo, to become their child.'Arthur
Caplan, head of the Division of Bioethics at New York
University, believes that American culture encourages this
desire for genetic perfection: 'Theret going to be demand
in a society oriented toward doing well, toward perfection,
60 toward the value ofthe best you can be, even a society that
says, 'l want a better life for my child than I had for myself.'
So somebody's going to say'Why won't I test my kids, to give
them a better life than I had?'

Mind and body 43 il


4B x Grarmmar amd [isteminE
.,,.:1-;: Norn suffixes: -ness, -ity, -ion 1 SpEAKlS,G Look at the photos from hospital
dramas and discuss the questions. Then read the
5 Complete the text with the noun
text and compare your ideas.
s:' forms of the adjectives in brackets.
1 Have you ever watched any hospita dramas? What
sorts of characters appear in them? What types of
story ines do they have?
2 Why do you think people like this type of drama?
You may suffer from 1
How realistlc do you think they are?
2
(obese), (bald) or more
serious conditions, such as autism
or blindness, but it won't stop you
achieving great things.
$ecs*& H#Ka* w.#ffiem ffi&ffw?
In 1961, the first hospital drama, Dr Kildare, appeared
Albert Einstein suffered from a learning
(disabled) - he could not speak until h1 was three on our TV screens. It was a huge success and was quickly
and he was weak in maths. Einstein's brain processed followed by many others. lEvery week, these series
informatioh in a different way from his peers, but this would show ordinary people in extraordinary situations.
'defective' way of thinking enabled him to become People loved them because they often dealt with real-
one of the world's greatest mathematicians. life problems, allowing viewers to reflect: 'What would
I do if this happened to me?' 2They also functioned
Ludwig van Beethoven suffered from a
(depressed) which resulted in s as'entertainment education' and would often help
(aggressive), but also amazing creativity. Towards the viewers understand how modern hospitals operated.
end of his life, his 6 (deaf) increased, yet he Howeveq there were many medical mlths in these early
carried on composing his famous Ninth Symphony. dramas, too - 3doctors were always portrayed as heroes
. and patients rarely died in the many years the shows
Claude Monet painte d his Woter lrTies paintings despite
were broadcast. aln addition, programmes didn't use
his poor vision and 7 (short-sighted).
Because of his vision, these paintings are unique, and
to have many special effects, so operations were talked
Monet didn't stop working on them until he was about rather than filmed.
nearly blind. sNowadays, hospital dramas are often more graphic

. Michelangelo had a strange I (addictive) than in the past, and storylines are more believable, but
to certain routines. He would always sleep in his there are still a fe'w myths. One popular myth is that
clothes and never take off his boots, then isolate doctors do everything. 6ln the successful series House,
himself for long periods of time while he worked. Dr Gregory House will usually diagnose an illness,
However, this 'mental illness'didn't stop him from analyse blood samples and perform surgery. 7In real life,
painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. these iobs are always carried out by different people,
The question is: would these people have achieved so such as lab technicians/ nurses and other specialists.
e
much without these (imperfect)? Nevertheless, millions of people still enioy Grey's
Andtomy and House, although recently some fans have
started to complain: 8'House used to be my favourite
6 Put the noun forms of the adjectives in exercise 5 show,' commented one blogger. 'Not any more. eMy
into the correct column. Then check your answers in younger brother will sit there watching it for hours,
the article. but I flnd it predictable and
boring. rolt's always dealing
with the same issues.' She
has a point. How many more
illnesses can one doctor
SPEAKING Read the opinions below. Which diagnose? How many more
do you agree / disagree with? Explain why. patients can he save? Maybe
hospital dramas have had
1 Society encourages us to live the best life
their day?
we can, and having perfect children is just
t
part of that. ,ra

2 Children are gifts which should be -


].:
t"l
t
appreciated as they come to us, not ,i*
commodities to be manufactured. *e*
3 Genetic engineering fails to appreciate ;f
,:5'
the vaiue of human diflerence, and that is
an important part of what it means to be il
human.

Phrases wiri mind paqe 137

p ++ Mind and body


/re? ,an | -L-

2 Read the text Just like real life? again and match sentences 1-10 to the uses below.
I Which five sentences describe habits in the past?
2 Which five sentences describe habits in the present or future?
3 Which two sentences express irritation or criticism?
3 Look at the sentences with used to , would andthe past simple again. Then complete rules a-c
below with used to, would or the past simple.
a We use would and . to talk about past states or habits in the past (that do not
happen now).
b We use . . .. to talk about past habits, but not past states
c We use to say how long a situation went on for.
Workbook page 115

4 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


1 Many medical dramas often repeat the same storylines. (will)
2 When my mum was a nurse, she always worked very long hours. (would)
3 My sister will insist on watching House when C5/ is onl (always)
4 A few years ago, I loved detective dramas, but I rarely watch them now. (used to / will)
5 ln early science fiction dramas, directors used simple special effects. (would)
6 ln the 1950s, westerns were one of the most successful TV genres. (used)
7 Most evenings, we don't usually have time to watch TV. (won't)
8 I don't like fantasy programmes, but my friend will talk about the new True Blood series! (constantly)
&K*1& Listen to an interview with an actor from a hospital drama called Paramedics and
answer the questions.
1 Where did Dillon use to work? Does he work there now?
2 ls Dillon used to seeinq accidents? How often does he witness them?
3 Are paramedics used to workinq long hours? Do they get exhausted?
4 How did Dillon react when he saw someone in pain? Does he think he could qet used to it?
5 Which adjectives does Dillon use to describe the paramedics'job? What type of things do they
have to qet used to?

6 Study the underlined phrases in exercise 5 and match them to categories a-c below. Then
decide which we can use with past, present and future tenses.
a Events or states in the past that no longer happen now.
b Something we are accustomed to, that is part of our life.
c Something we are becoming accustomed to; it may have seemed strange before, but itt normal now.

7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of used to, get used to or be used to.
1 Dillon (not) working long hours. He usually left theTV studio after lunch
2 'lt may seem difficult to deal with an emergency now, but you it in a few
weeks'timel
3 When we were children, we climb trees, until I fell and broke my arm!
4 He gave up hls job as a doctor. He found it impossible to the stress.
5 1... walch Paramedics every week, but I never watch it now. lt's too predictable.
6 'l can't . my new braces.They're really uncomfortablel
'You need to see your dentist againJ
7 My brother starts work at the hospital tomorrow. His biggest challenge will be getting up
early - he.... lying in bed alldayl

8 SPfRmlG Discuss the questions.


1 Think of a TV programme you used to watch as a child, but which you do not watch now.
What type of programme was it? What did you use to like about it?
2 Think of a past change to your everyday routine that you are used to now for example, changing
schools, starting a new after-school club, doing a weekend job. What was the difference between
your new and old routines? Was your new routine easy or difficult to get used to? Why?
ll

Mind and body 4s-


t ffiliilt9ii Read the reasons for having plastic surgery.
Rank them 1-6 in order of
importance. Then listen and choose the reasons mentioned in the radio programme Profiles,
w to look like a famous person re to correct facial deformity K to stop people bullying you
e to get a better job or earn more money x to help with depression or other mental illness
w to improve self-esteem and self-image

2 &Xt!i.mi Listen to the radio programme again and match people A and B to statements 1-8.
There is one statement you can match both people to. There are two statements that you do
not need.
A Vanilla Chamu B Justin Jedlica

Which person:
1 was bullied when they were younger? 5 changed their body by working out at a gym?
2 didnt receive support from their parents? 6 was insulted on a television programme?
3 has decided to stop having surgery? 7 experienced academic success?
4 has had around thirty plastic surgery operations? 8 hated one part of their body in particular?

Active listening (2)


When you listen to a radio programme or a lecture, or are having a discussion or debate,
a good way to check understanding is to repeat or paraphrase what has been said.

3 Read the strategy. Work in pairs. Read the sentences from the radio programme, then
summarize and paraphrase the ideas with your partner.
1 Their name-calllng and nastiness was very upsetting ... and she became increasingly depressed.
2 Like many people who suffer from a poor body image, she has put her faith in plastic surgery -
It's her'salvatloni she thinks.
3 Jedlica is aware he is compromising his health, but he insists it's worth it.
4 He realizes that everyone has a different idea of perfection, and that a positive body image can
allow us to thrive.
5 Jedlica claims it's impossible to stop - it would asking Plcasso not to

4 tvtatch the idioms in italics to their meanings a-9.


1 their cruel taunts . .. broke her heart ... .

2 Has he cometo his senses and stopped having surgery?


3 I'e dug his heelsin and had the surgery without their consent.
4 He isn't concerned about his appearance any more which is a weight off his shoulders
5 The comparison with Picasso ... is hard to swallow ....

6 There definitely more to him than meets the eye.


is
7 Real self-confidence comes from accepting ourselves, warts and all.

a dlfficult to believe or accept


b to refuse to change or stubbornly resist something
C not hiding faults or weaknesses
d more complicated than it seems at first
e something you no longer have to worry about
f to act sensibly after acting unwisely
I to deeply hurt someone in some way
46 Mind and body
B1*;W
+ Q*: r, 4C
5 Rewrite the phrases in italics using the correct form
of the idioms in exercise 4.

Sometimes it's hord for us to occept other people,lwith ott fheir


imperfections.Appeoronces motter, ond life con be o misery for those
who look different - cruel words ond looks con be2tough to occept.
It's o sunny doy in Honduros ond seven-yeor-old Zoilo is ploying ouiside o smoll
wooden house. She's loughing ond smiling like o typicol child, but 3life wasn'f
always so simple for this liltle girl.Why? Becouse Zoilo wos born with o clefi polote.
ll 4deepty affected her mother,who blomed herself for her doughter's problem, ond
for yeors Ziolo covered her mouth so nobody could see her smile.Then, o few months
ogo, her moiher heord thqt o chority colled Operotion Smile wos coming to Sonto Roso.The
chority offered plostic surgery to people with fociol deformities, ond there wos o chonce thot Zoilo could be
helped,At firsi Zoilo wos very frightened; she ssfubbornly refused lo go ond didn't wont on operotion. But her
mother persuoded her qnd ofter o two-doy bus journey, they orrived of the hospitol.Todoy, Zoilo is o different
child. She's confident ond hoppy becouse o simple operotion 6meqns she no longer has fo worry about tooking
different.She often loughs ond she no longer tries to hide her smile ... ond it is beoutiful.

6 SpfRXtwG Discuss the questions.


1 How important do you think body image is? What other things can improve your self esteem?
2 Why do you think Chamu and Jedlica want people to notice rhem?

7 i:t::: 120 SPEAKING Listen to the news story. Then discuss the questions.
1 What was Nadia's problem? What did she do about lt?
2 Do you think school life will be easier for Nadia? Why / why not?
3 Is Nadia s solution the best way to deal with her problem? What message miqht it send to
other students?

8 *a'121 : Listen to students discussing Nadia's choice. Are their ideas similar to or different
from your own?

9 *7,',1A: , Complete the phrases from the dialogue.Then listen again and check.

A Expressing doubts C Being diplomatic


I don't 1 about thaL (at all). I see
a. you're coming from, but ..
l'm not convinced by that I
s what you're saying, but ... .

l'm not sure that's true. ''i :: i. ..


r
":,,,r .,,,
:D,18!ing.unaiptamat!6,'
B Expressing your point of view You must be 6 I

forcefully I think you're (both) 7 the point.


l'3 belieVi: it! ...
l'm totally convinced that ... .

1O i*l.n Listen to two other people talking about plastic surgery. Tick the phrases that you
hear. Then match all of them to categories A-D in exercise 9.
r l'm absolutely certain that ... ,:: I know what you're getting at, but .. ,: Oh, come on!
:: l'm completely certain that ...
l: OK, maybe you have a point.
,: There's no doubt in my mind that . . . . :: That's just not true.

11 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the opinions and decide whether you agree or disagree with
them. Give reasons for your ideas using the phrases in exercise 9.
1 Girls experience more pressure to look attractive than boys.
2 Cosmetic surgery for teenagers should be banned.
3 Teenagers who lack self-esteem should have the option of plastic surgery.

Surqery: old and new


Mind and body 47
4DrCulture,voca.bula{11iend,.ffinrmai,.,Frankens...t€!n..
, .<t
'l SPEAKII{G Think about the qualities that make us
human. Then look at the list below and choose the
three most important ones. Give reasons for your
choices.Then read extracts A and B and decide fi"nk.nstein
which qualities Dr Frankenstein has. On a stormy, windswept night in 18'l 5, a young,
:-:
x morality;l compassion ,r creativity:x honesty eighteen-year-old girl had a vivid nightmare. The
x courage :l self-discipline x; determination:: patience nightmare was dreadful and deeply distressing,
but it gave her an idea for a tale -ra tale that
rx vision x asplration
.i$ s would become the most recoqnized horror storv rl
jg in the world: the story of Frankenstein's monster. *t
2 Read extract A again. Are the statements true (T),
aa.

false (F) or not given (NG)? ,i. The novel recounts the trials of an ambitious
1:
',:'# young scientist, Dr Frankenstein, who uses his
1 The slory of Frankenstein warns against the misuse ii$ knowledge to bring an inanimate body to life,
of knowledge. ,$ro but then rejects the shocking 'monster' he creates.
2 People feared the changes that the Industrial f$ At the time of writing, the story was a powerful
Revolution would cause. X warning against scientific advances and '!he
3 Mary was very well-known when she wrote the story. ,i lndustrial Revolution, which was about to spread
4 Initially, the novel was unpopular because it was so ; across Europe. Many artists and writers were
,|,rs concerned about this industrialization and 'the
shocking.
5 Mary had a similar character to her mother. .i effect it would have on man's relationship with
6 A game amongst friends inspired Mary to write the ,3 nature. They saw danger in the new scientific
advances and a worrying desire to 'play God'.
story. ;i&
7 After finishinq her novel, she went on to write i$ The author o{ Frankenstern was called Mary
,j (1797-185'l), and for many it was hard
zo Shelley
romantic poetry. ,lj,S to believe that a young girl could write such
8 Mary wrote other books about Dr Frankenstein's i..., a shocking story. But Mary was no ordinary
creation. l* eighteen-year-old. Her father, William Godwin,
.l,i{ was a well-known philosopher and novelist, and
' Word anatysis ',&s her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, was a famous

3 Answer the questions, referring closely to extract B.


]i feminist. Unfortunately for Mary, her mother died
l: shortly after she was born, but Mary inherited her
1 What adjectives and adverbs does the writer use to r: rebellious spirit. At sixteen, she secretly ran away
describe the setting? What atmosphere does this ,: to France and then to Switzerland with the writer
create? ,:ro Percy Shelley, who was later to achieve fame as a
2 Whlch words does the wrlter use to describe -;' romantic poet. ln Switzerland, the couple stayed
Dr Frankensteins a) physical state and b) mental
;;. with the poet Lord Byron, and in the evenings
state? How does the weather reflect this?
f they often entertained themselves by reading
;i ghost stories. After a oMarv
while, Byron suggested they
3 In line 7 of the extract, Frankenstein says'my candle ':;r$:s write their own, and decided she wa
was nearly burnt out, when by the failing light, I saw ,f$ to write about her niqhtmare.
the dull yellow eye of the creature openi What do you ,:i*
,.* Mary's life with Percy was passionate and brief.
think iight represents? What mlght this tell us about When he died in a storm in ltaly in 1822, Mary
'.ry
the writer's opinion of Frankenstein's experiment? ':* returned to England with her son and continued
4 Find five names that Frankenstein gives to his :li+o writing until herdeath in 1851. But Frankenstein
creation. Does he consider him human? (Clue: look $ lived on and, almost 200 years later, it's still
at the pronouns he uses, too.) .if influencing and inspiring contemporary popular
culture.
5 What adjectives does he use to describe the i:'
creature's eyes, teeth, hair and his skin or complexion?
What impression does this create?
6 Frankenstein's monster is his thildi Can you find
evidence in the extract that the creature is behaving
like a child?
a
7 What things might a child reasonably expect from a
parent? Think about Frankenstein's treatment of his
thildlWhat effect might this have on the creature?

4 SPmftftG Discuss the questions.


1 What issues does Frankenstein deal with?
2 What do you think is the books purpose?To entertain?
To warn? To inform?
3 What vision does the author have of society or people?
MarY SlielleY
Frankensteln
1811J texl

I +e Mind and body


b 1-'.w"
,..1
w@
W. CA
.,' ....;.
4*

Votume 1 Chapter 4* S Read the information below. Then study the


underlined sentences 1-4 in extract A and answer
compLeted my work. With an anxiety that almost i. the questions.
amounted to agony, I collected the instruments
of life around me that I might inject a spark of We use the future in the past to talk about future
s being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. events from a point of view in the past.
I It was already one in the morning; the rain fell
I
! dismally against the window panes, and my candle ', Which sentences are examples of:
ll
a.
! t-
was nearly burnt out, when, by the faiting light, 1 a future plan or intention? (l sentence)
I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it 2 an event that is in the very distant future or would
ro breathed hard, and a sudden movement agitated
ast a long trme? (2 sentences)
its limbs. How can I describe my emotions at this
catastrophe, or how to describe the terrible wretch 3 an event that is in the very near future? (1 sentence)
{{, I had tried to form? His limbs were in proportion, -i
and I had selected his features as beautiful.
[r"'t''.' rs Beautifull Great Godl His yellow skin scarcely '1,

covered the muscles and arteries beneath; his ,;1.


S Complete the text with the phrases below.
hair was black and flowing; his teeth of a pearly
frn
rt.
,., whiteness that formed a horrid contrast with his
:
i,,
,:: woUld write ,, waS to ernerge,: was going to change
::'W€t-e about to develop ,, wou d spend
) ; .. watery eyes, his shrivelied complexion and straight ,i: ::. we te to become ,, would find
t:: zo black lips. I had worked hard for nearly two years, l

t: for the sole purpose of breathing life into


inanimate body. For this I had deprived
of rest and health. but now that I had finished,
the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless
an
myself
,i.

lr Sciemee fictioxl:',the early history


At the end of the'l8th century, few people had any idea
zs hortor and disgust fiUed my heart. UnabLe to endure i.
of how industrial capitalism l the
the appearance of the being I had created, I rushed 't, world. Modern scientists 2.. . ... .. the

out of the room and spent a long time pacing technology to build large fagtories, rapid iarge-scale
around my bed-chamber, unable to sleep. At tength transporLalion and new energy sources. Soon, vast
tiredness overtook me, and I threw myself on the ,l numbers of people 3 their lives
so bed in my clothes, trying to find a few moments of :l working in factories, in coal mines, on railroads and
forgetfulness. But it was in vain; I slept, indeed, on ships Workers a
I J,,' but I was disturbed by the wildest dreams. [...] I
started from my sleep with horror; a cold sweat
',1'

;
alienated
from the means of production and their own products
and s themselves increasingly
covered my forehead, my teeth chattered, and ': separated from nature and from each other.
3s every limb was tense; when, by the dim and i
yellow tight of the moon, I beheld the wretch, the One of the lirst works ol modern science ficlion
miserable monster whom I had created. He hetd from this period: Mary Shelley's
a up the curtain of the bed; and his eyes were fixed Franhenstein ( l B l B). Less than a decade after Frankenstein,
on me. His jaws opened, and he muttered some Sheliey 7 one of the first science
t' t .;l\ 40 inarticulate sounds, while a grin wrinkled his fiction visions of the end of the world; in her The Last Man
cheeks. He might have spoken, but I did not hear; ( I 826), the main character wanders alone over a dead

t
i one hand was stretched out, as if to keep me there, planet, sampling the useless achievements ol all human
but I escaped and rushed downstairs. I took refuge
in the courtyard belonging to the house which I
45 inhabited. where I remained during the rest of the

night, Iistening attentively, fearing each sound as if


it were the approach of the monster to which I had
so miserably given life.
. Adapted fiom Mary SheLiey's Frankenstein

7 $f*&Klt** Discuss the questions.


1 Think about when you were a child. Did you dream
about what you were going to be when you were
grown up? Have any of these dreams changed?
2 Think about the last book you read or fi m you saw.
How did it end? Did you guess it would end this way?
Why / why not?
3 Think about yesterday. Was there anything you were
about to do, but didnt? Why didn't you do it?
Body parts page 13/

Mind and body 49 reil


4E r Writing Aletter
{rA
ff ., :-, :

I..- d
-
1 Sp=nmIt|G Read the extract from a newspaper article. What is the main issue?
What is your view on it?

lf a solution

ideas with

2 Read the strategy. Then read letter A and answer the questions.
1 How does the writer react to the issue?
2 What are their two main ideasT
3 What arguments and examples do they use to support these ideas?
3 Read ideas 1 and 2 from another letter. Match supporting arguments a-g to the ideas.
Then read letter B and check your answers.
1 People are not always entirely responsible for their actlons.
2 Poorer people with unhealthy habits are unlikely to change their lifestyles.
a Stress and poverty can result in people making bad cholces.
b Younger people might be pressurized by friends.
c Genetics can result in an unhealthy lifestyle.
d When cigarette prices rose, demand stayed the same.
e Psychological illness can lead to bad choices.
f People will spend less on healthy food.
I
I
S Advertising influences us to buy certain products.

4 Study the highlighted words and phrases in letters A and B. Which are used to add ideas and
which to contrast ideas? What types of structures follow them?

5 Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


1 Advances in medicine mean we can have healthier babies, and we can live ionger. (moreover)
2 The main issue isn't about producing perfect children, it's about not appreciating difference.
(less about ... more about)
3 Hospltal dramas aren't very realistic, but I still enjoy watching them. (even though)
4 Despite the risks, many teenagers still choose to have plastic surgery. (no matter what)
5 Smoking has a bad effect on your health and makes you age more quickly. (besides, too)
6 Some celebrities are terrible role models, but they are stlll very popular. (in spite of)
7 | understand your reasons for supporting genetic engineering, although I don't agree with
them. (while)
8 Plastic surgery can improve self-image, so it's good for the mind and the body. (as well)

! so Mind and body


@ nnrnrua,guj. l.j

I Tagk Read the extract from an article below and I Plan Follow the plan:
write a letter to a newspaper about it. Paragraph 1: lntroduce your reason for writing.
Mention your personal situation if
'Teen toxing'is the latest craze among Britain's image-
relevant.
c-onscious and celebritylobsessed teenagers. Arecent
survey for.rnd 57. of teenage girls have considered Paragraph 2: Present your first idea, with supporting
having Botox and a staggering 48% would think about arguments and examples.
having plastic surgery. 'Excesiive Botox can cause Paragraph 3: Present your second idea, with
facial weakness or paralysis, and double vision,'says supporting arguments and examples.
one doctor. 'Teenagers don't need it. It won't keep Paragraph 4: Conclusion: sum up your point of view.
you looking young.' 'It's a question of self-esteem,'
commented a parenting expert. 'Surgery isn't the answer
and we can boost self-confidence wiihout it.'It's a
I Write Write your letter. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
message all parents should be giving to their kids. But
sadly, teen toxing fans would rather listen to the stars.
I Check Check the following points:
Are your point of view and the main ideas clearly
I ldeas Make notes about: stated?
Has each idea got supporting arguments and
1 your view: do you agree or disagree with the ideas in
examples?
the extract?
Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
2 your main ideas: what ideas illustrate your point
punctuation?
of view?
3 arguments and examples you will use to support
your ideas.

Mind and body sl I


Work in pairs. Read the text below. Try to guess the
meanings of the idioms in bold. How many other
idioms can you find? Use a dictionary to help you. ldioms and their origins
Although idioms are figurative, or metaphorical in
meaning, many of them have a literal origin. For example,
the phrase to pull the wool over someone's eyes means to
deceive them or make them believe something that isn't
true.The origin of this phrase is probably because of the
woollen wigs that people used to wear in the 16th and
lTth centuries. lf their wig slipped down from their head,
it would cover their eyes and they wouldn't be able to
see something. Learning about the origin of an idiom
can help you to remember its meaning.

4 Read the strategy above.Then look at the


explanations of idioms I-4 and match them to
meanings a-d.
1 a feather in your cap
ldioms lf a person did something very brave or clever, they

An idiom is a commonly used group of words that has would receive a feather which they would put in their
a figurative, or metaphorical meaning, so its overall
hat or cap, so that everyone could see it - rather like
meaning is different from the meanings of the individual wearing a medal.
words in it. For example, the phrase: Ted gets my back up let the cat out of the bag
does not literally meanTed makes my back rise. lt means lf a person bought a piglet at the market, they would

Ted annoys me.


be given the piglet in a sack or a bag. Sometimes the
There are many different types of idiom, including the seller would secretly replace the piglet with a cat. lf

following: the cat escaped from the bag, the seller's dishonesty
a prepositional phrases, for example: in vain was revealed.
get the sack
b fixed phrases with two words, usually joined l:y and or
or, for example body and soul
lf a worker lost his job, he would have to leave his

c verb-based idioms, for example: keep something in workplace and take his tools with him in a sack.
mind on the ropes
d noun phrases, for example: a weight off his shoulders ln the sport of boxing, if one of the fighters is pushed

e idiomatic phrasal verbs, for example: head out of here up against the ropes by his opponent, then he is in a
f proverbs and sayings, for example: faint heart never weak position and possibly about to lose the match.
won a fair lady a doing badly and likely to fail ....... .
......

b be dismissed from your place of employment


Read the strategy above. Find one idiom in exercise c a great achievement - something to be proud of
1 for each of the categories a-f in the strategy.
d ;;;;;;'a SeCIet
Replace the underlined phrases with the idioms in
exercise 1. What do you think is the origin of these idioms?
Match them to the correct categories a-c.
1 This fltness DVD is much better than any other DVD
l've tried. lt's really fantasticl 1 take something on the chin
2 Something bad is going to happen. I can sense it. 2 know the ropes
3 You'll deflnitely have to have the surgery. You need to 3 play your cards close to your chest
deal with this difficult fact now. 4 clear the decks
4 Helen's been trying to prepare for a marathon, but 5 saved by the bell
she doesn't feel veq/ strongly about it, so I don't think 6 lay all your cards on the table
she'll succeed. a ships and sailing
5 We should work together. We'll probably be more b boxing
successful if we do. c card games . .

6 I understand the arguments in favour of genetic


testing, but the moral dilemma is always something Use a dictionary to check the meanings of the
that worries me. idioms in exercise 5.Then write your own example
sentences with each idiom.

p sz vocabulary insight 4
.@.'L- g
Review 4

1 Complete the pairs of sentences with the same word. 5 Choose the correct answers. Sometimes both are
1 a I don't want to you with my problems. possible.
b Unemployed youngsters are a ......... . ..
. . to their
Today, visitlng a dentist 1isusually / used to be a relative ly
parents.
painless experlence, but this has not always been the case. ln
2 a Our school is always supporting one.... .. . . ... or the lndus Valley Civilization of 7000 BC, people 2used to treat /
another. would treat tooth problems with primitive tools, Iike drills.
b The health cuts wlll many hospitals to Moving forward into 5000 BC, the Sumerians 3would think /
close. used to think that dental issues were caused by worms. The
3 a They're sending an .. . .. .. ... . to fix the Wi-fi. Ancient Greeks aoften extracted / would extract teeth to
b He tried to . the interviews so that his
. keep tooth pain away and this method continued until the
son got the job. Ivliddle Ages. During this period, dentists swouldn't exist
/
4a My little sister has a lively and enquiring didn't exist, so barbers did the extractions. Modern dentistry
6started used to start somewhere
b don'tI .. . .. .. . whats for dinner. / between 1650 and 1800.
5a I fancy getting a mobile with a bigger
The French physician Philippe Fauchard was behind many
of the procedures that you Twill see/ often see in dental
b . ..
Doctors can't....... patients for every disease.
su rgeries today.
6a Can you help me . ... some furniture?
b There was a .. .. in public opinion because
Marks ..17
of the scandal.
Marks l6 6 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
used to, be used to or get used to and the verbs in
2 Write the noun forms of the words below. brackets.
1 addicted 4 disabled 1 I go to the gym every day, so
2 bald
I

5 imperfect . .
exercise. (do)
3 deaf 6 obese lf you want to lose weight, then you'll have to
Marks l6 less. (eat)
When we were children, we all
3 Complete the sentences with a phrase containing
day outside. (spend)
.

the word in brackets.


Max has very fair skin, so he . . .. .. ln
1 There's more to her... . . . . (eye) the sun. (not sit)
2 |t.... to see her cry. (heart) Their classes start at B a.m. so they
3 Mygrandparentshave ..... and .... . . early. (get up)
refused to move house. (heels) 6We a house on the beach when
4 Ed has and decided against we lived ln Spain. (have)
having a tattoo. (senses) 7I .. eating vegetables, but now I

It was a when my migraines love them. (not enjoy)


stopped. (shoulders) 8 People who can't contact
She found the diagnosis lenses usually go back to glasses. (wear)
(swallow) Marks l8
Marks l6
7 Complete the sentences with the future in the past
tense. Use no more than three words, including the
word in brackets.
1 Xavier was nervous because he. ... ..... . . . have
an operation. (about)
2 The scientist never lmagined that his experiment
. work. (going)
3 She didn't know that she ... stay in
hospital overnight. (need)
4 Alexander Fleming s discovery of penicillin
millions of lives. (save)
They thought that they have a baby
boy, but in the end it was a girl. (were)
We didn't realize that we . .... . . .. access to
medical treatment while we were away. (not have)
Marks l6

-=---=---- == J
...*-.,*r;;,i: ,-E1,FrtE'+.:-
iir.:i:lri+, :: {i, :tl:r:::i;,-::
:i

r-il qs r:'t *l i *.t$l"rt vq+si :=.:s Un its 1-4


,j:i:' ffi:::.a.::...'::, .|.,rW,* =rwla.#.:::EliEa::-1:iir:l-; ffiffiffi& W>

, ,,.:, 1.23 Listen and match speakers 1-4 to options


A-E. There is one option that you do not need.
Which speaker wants to change a body part because of:
A an acquired disability? D a nasty scar?
B asightimperfection? E a bad habit?
C the p'oc cd p'oblems it causesl
.-, t t'
1,
..i Work in pairs. Look at the
photos. What sort of illnesses
might these behaviours lead to?

: Work in pairs. You are preparing a poster about the


dangers of an unhealthy lifestyle for teenagers.
Choose one of the photos in exercise 2for your
poster. Discuss the things below.
,, the pros and cons of the behaviours in each photo
,, whrch behaviour you thlnk is the most unhealthy
and why
:, a slogan for your poster
:: r'€dsons why you chose this photo and rejected the
other photos

L\-r'.-i.t\\;.:-*i-l:-\ilrS.;:].]::"

n Complete the article To clone or not to clone a


mammoth? with sentences A-H. There are two
sentences that you do not need.
A The difficulty of obtaining healthy ce ls from the
preserved carcasses is sure to hold up the process.
B The technique requires scores of hea thy mammoth
ceils which must have survived with their DNA intact
C Now some scientists are talklng open y about
bringing them back to life.
D You stand in awe of this majestic creature, which is
pacing round and round its cage
Researchers believe that she met her end when she
fel into water or got trapped in a swarnp and cou d
not free herse f.
F Elephants and mammoths each have about 4 bi lion
DNA bases in their genes.
G The first of these concerns the welfare of the c oned
animal.
H One small population was recently found to have
survived to around 4,000 years ago on the Russian
island of Wrangel.

*,..:.:...-.:S 54 Cumulative review Units l-4


Read the article again and answer the questions.
1 What rs the main purpose of the artic e?
2 What is the author's point of vlew?

.::..:::::- . .

Choose the correct answers.

In the past, it u.as on11, 1


nho had access
lo cosmetic surgery, but norv it's popular r,vith people
lrorn 2 rvalks of 1ife. Norvhere is this
treatment catching on faster than ln South Korea,
where one in flve women 3 under the
surgeon's knife at least once in their lives. Today,
cosmetic surgery ls so popular that celebrities and
beaut-v queens 4 openly cliscuss their
treatment. Ver], ferv \'r/omen ..... .. .. .. .... of the

trealment if the}, s6n afford it, and it isn't uncorunon


for Korean high school girls to consult a surgeon.
Jn some cases, it's the parents u,ho encourage their
children surgery, because ttrey don't
want their child 7 . the 'ugly one'in class
Nlosl girls do not regret their parents'
adrdce. Of course, all plastic surgery comes u.ith
, ir-rcluding Iacial numbness or even
paralysis. But to 10 . women, that is the

price they have to pa). to look beautiful.

1a ric h b the rich c a rich


d a rich people
2a too much b a lot C SOME
d almost al
3a goes b are going c
has gone d went
4a are used to b wi Ic woud d qetusedto
5a pick out b spread out c clear out
d opt out
6a having b to have c have
d to having
7a tobe b be cis dwas
8a take b to ta ke c taking d took
9a risks b a risks c the risks d risk
10a much b a lot c many d almost

Read the comment below from an article about


cloning the mammoth. Then write a letter to a
newspaper expressing your views.

rci Cumulative review Units 1-4 55


Words
ffi5
ttE
Reading and vocabulary A word is born
rc,\c4w idw^

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Study the words below.


What do you think they mean? What is their origin?
Read the article and compare your ideas.
manga embiggen l: cyberbully:: chillax:r, latte
,r:
":
,r floordrobe :: soz

TIj gJ R,,:U S,J


'-"''"''
STRATEGY

Skipping words that you do not understand


You can often skip unknown words and phrases when .!'.1:Il,..'i..t,'.,l]'.'...',d

you read.This is because you do not have to know rl

the meaning of every word or phrase in order to


understand the general meaning of a text. When you W.OjEl'n:A:
i urr Drr
come across an unknown word, follow these steps. --"o.t**-u
1 Decide if you can understand the general meaning
of the sentence without understanding the meaning A I use hundreds, maybe even thousands of different words
of the word. lf the answer is'yes', skip the word and every day. Many of them have been parl of my vocabulary
contin ue reading. lf the a nswer is'no', go to point 2. since early childhood, but the words that fascinate me are
2 Check if you can guess the meaning from the context. the other ones, the ones that didn't even exist a few years
lf the answer is'yes', guess and continue reading. {f the ago. As the world changes, the vocabulary that we use
answer is'no', go to poirt 3. moves on, too, ln fact, experts tell us that at least 4,000 new
Use a dictionary to help you or ask a classmate or the English words are coined every year. Have you ever stopped
teacher. to wonder where they come from and why they have the
meanings that they do?
Read the strategy.Then read sentences A-F. Follow B lt's no surprise that some of the new words come from
points 1-3 in the strategy for the underlined words. another language, but I was amazed to find out that Modern
A TheTVshowTheSimpsons has concocted several new English, which has evolved from Old English, has taken
words, and one in partlcular is qaininq in popularity. about 80% of its vocabulary from other sources: mostly
from French and Latin, but also from an incredible 350 other
B Words that have been used for aeons as one part of
15 languages. Some of these loan words are used because
speech often start to crop up as a different part of
there is no existing word in English to cover the meaning. ln
speech.
Britain, we now watch Japanese manga cartoons, eat the
C The thirteenth century meaning of killwas hit,
Greek dish kleftiko, and blow a South African vuvuzela Io
but its meaning has become stronger over time
cheer on a football team, 1
People think ltalian
through a process known as hvperbole.
20 coffee tastes better than the coffee traditionally drunk in
D Abbreviations and acronvms also become lnformal Britain, so they often use the ltalian word
words in their own right. order a black coffee in a caf6. ';:i.*+;i:;i
E Other words are adopted even when there's an
existlng English alternative, because the foreign
word sounds superior or more sophisticated in
some way.
F This new meaning is now so ubiquitous that no one
today thinks of it as a metaphor.

3 Complete the article with sentences A-F in exercise 2.


There is one sentence that you do not need.

Look it up!

,i:"ii'i:'it:il'::,'::r Phrasal verbs with on

4 Study the highlighted phrasal verbs in the article.


Match them to a-f according to the meanings of on.
a connectrng add on d dressinq
b starting e continuing (x2)
c encouraginq (x2) f changing and developlng

F so words
#'{ffii,{fi,Wr
ref
Vocabulary: phrasal verbs with on; verb prefixes: en- and em-; phrases with
-reg1*ffiaF
trb a book ror a book c
5A
paint; wordanalysis; synonyms: adjectives describlng stories ;fffIff'ffisr'rs
Grammar: advice, ob igation and prohibition; past modals; talking about ability
d*{m.b,ffi t:ffiryffi "''q.\ffi''ryfr, flGF

C Whenever we switch on a computer or mobile, we do things


that were unheard of a few decades ago, Sometimes, the new
zs language that we need for technology evolves by giving new
meanings to old words, Hack used to mean chop or kick and
this usage carries on today. But as the internet developed, the
word also starled to be used with the metaphorical meaning
'access someone else's computer illegally'. 2
:o are also new compounds of existing words, tor example, cloud
computing (computer resources delivered over the internet)
There

and digital footprint (the record left on the internet of all your
o, R,iD.:
online activity). And then there are those useful things, prefixes.
lnstead of receiving an old-fashioned card bought in a shop
3s and sent in the mail, I might now receive an e-card bought in
an e-shop and sent by email. While e- is an abbreviation of
'electronic', cyber- means'to do with the internet': we often
hear about cybercrime and cyberbullies in cyberspace. There s
often a need to rename the old technology, too. When email
+o became popular, the mail with envelopes and stamps seemed
very slow, so it got a new name: snail mail.
D Sometimes words are invented by comedians and
scriptwriters for comic reasons, 3 . . . . Take the adjective
big, add on the prefix en- or em- and the suffix -en, and you
+s have the funny-sounding word embiggen. Just as ensure
means 'make sure' and widen means'make wider', embiggen
means 'make bigger'. There are now more than 30O,0OO
mentions of the word on the internet, in contexts ranging from
fan fiction to physicsl
E When my {riends are worrying about their exams, so

I might tell them Io chillax (chill out + relax). lf


my parents keep on complaining about the
clothes on my bedroom floor, I can say that
l'm using a new storage system: a floordrobe
(floor + wardrobe). I might even slip on a mankini (man + s5

bikini) next time I go to the beach, but don't hold your


breathl Blending two words together like this enables

'L L** - us to create lots of fun new words, padicularly


informal English. a
in
Soz is a word that's shorl
NE$rKLT* 3*a I ,,for 'sorry' and yolo stands for 'you only live once'. I oo

ssn&I;11 iu: "&" " ,sometimes use it as an excuse for doing something
a bit crazy, for example, 'l've just bought some e400
t1ainers... yolol'

#iGBl: t ii,,
q

t_ ,' F Do you know your nouns from your verbs? Don't be


&
* too sure. 5 Nouns can easily be converted os

,- into verbs because in English, unlike in many other

* ryo{llrana :,
".llanguages, verbs don't have to have a special verb
ending. These days I friend (make friends with) people
on Facebook and watch sportspeople medalling
(winning a medal) in the Olympics. This can even

^Lli--
7s

'- work with brand names. lf I need to look up some


information, l'll google it.
, AII these changes in English vocabulary are great fun
ffiY1sryx-;
^ rftl8 r--
i,. to listen out for and you might even want to make up
some new words yourself, Go on, give it a try
fantabulousl
- it's so

t ***n}!1,+qir"
Words s7
58 r Grammar and listefiifi9

5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs &Sil*(. SPEAKING What ways of learning and
below.Then match them to meanings a-f in exercise practising languages do you know? Listen to a radio
4. There are two meanings you do not need. programme and compare your ideas.
x throw on x cling on to s urge on s turn on ;x come on
" live on
2 Xl:le*:, Listen again.Which things are mentioned
in the programme?
Mylatest skill is really improving thanksto all the
practice it's getting. I r.......... . . ........ my computff to check
1 You don't need to have multilingual parents to be a
2 briliiant language learner.
my Facebook account before I've even
2 You need to be clever to match Tim's achievements.
clothes in the morning, and I update it all day on my
3 You needn't have language lessons with a teacher.
smartphone. My texting speed is improving thanks to
the use of abbreviations like c u l8r andlol. dz ths mn im 4 You ought not to waste your time on smartphone
iliterS? Of course notl I'm just fluent in two versions of language apps.
English - standard English and textspeak.
3 5 lf you need speaking practice, you mustn't be shy.
give ita try! 6 When you're practlsing languages, you ought to do
things that interest you.
Some people think that, if we want the elegance of
You had better not practise several languages on the
textspeak must stop,
,
same day or you'll get confused.
and teachers have been by panicky parents
The correspondent says she must stop making
to ban mobile phones fiom schools. However, school
excuses for her bad language skills.
rules are unlikely to stop a language from evolving
6.......
- and why would we e,,,en want to ................ an
outdated language? Languages change to reflect the
changing world. When they stop changing, they die. 3 Study the sentences in exercise 2. Then complete
the rules with the modal verbs in bold.

xes: :en- an d em-


a We use should(n't), ''...,,..,,,. and
;p. i,gfi
give advice.
6 Read paragraph D in the article again and study the b We use to express necessity or an'internal'
words below. Then answer the questions. obligation (the speaker has decided that something
enlarge $ empower $ enable is important).
x endanger xx entrust xs

x enclose $ ensure e encourage * entltle c We use have to artd ... . .to express necessity

or an'external'obligation (other people have decided


1 When do we use the prefix em- lnstead of en-? that something is important).
2 How does the prefix change the meaning of the root d We use to express prohibition.
word? e We use don't have ro, .. and . to
express lack of obligatlon or necessity.
7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
words in exercise 6. There is one word that you do
not need.
1 lf you want to your vocabulary, ... that 4 Choose the correct answers.
you have a good dictionary.This will You to 1 In English, you shouldn't / needn't rely on the
look up unknown words. pronunciation of one word to work out the
2 A team of 300 people is
with the job of pronunciation of a similar word. In cough, ought,
updating the Oxford English Dictionary.fhey add new though, through and enough, you need to / must
words, and also ldenti! words that mlght disappear pronounce -ough in five different ways!
in the future. 2 Instead of an alphabet, .Japanese has more than
3 l've ... a little book for you in the package. lt's 50,000 different characters. I need to / must learn
Why You Say lr, and tells the stories behind more of them - l've given myself a target of 3,000.
lots of English words and expressions. But I don't need to / had better not learn them all,
4 Blogs and social media ordinary people and because even Japanese people don't do that.
allow them to influence opinion, but we must. 3 We needn't / mustn't learn Mandarin Chinese at
everyone to check their writing for spelling mistakes school, but l've chosen to anyway. lthink everyone
before they post it on the internet. had better / doesn't have to learn it because China will
soon be the world's most powerful country.
8 SPeRrcruG Discuss the questions. 4 My German teacher thinks we ought to / must think
up funny word associations to help us memorize
1 What ways of forming new words are mentioned in
vocabulary, but I mustn't / don't have to do that
the article?
because the words are quite easy to remember anyway.
2 ln what ways are new words formed in your own
lanquage? Give examples.

Acronyms page 138

F sa words
Fast track to fluency w*Lhr
expensive CDs that
@il
'5F
5 Read about three people's experiences of trying I once bought some
in your
different language learning methods. What were .t"ir"a to teach you a language you
-
the advantages and / or disadvantages of each .t""o.l..otaing to the instruct'ions'
night with one or
method? Have you ever tried to learn a language ffi; ;;;.;"'"P ""h
ill-"co', pr"ying' and this would enable
on your own? What method did you use?
;;;.-;*" in"ltalian
lfter lnlr 1-I""0'
I'lha* I noede-d *p lean *ha Alrican lanqaaqe- i"thrrldllh* wasted
'I tll"
*-o*-y. lt the end of the
i:.:
week'
Kiruy,di ba$ore. a sk-rr,tonth stint in Ouiunii,
I knew no
| +riaa *h*'*paetd repaii|io*t ueihod, t
more ltalian
pla4ad online vocabular4 qauas ahich than I had done
qradualttj
introducad nad uard$ a*d *hcn rovisei +hcu beforel
a* increasinq inie-rvals. lt rtta* $u*, a\d I did^t+
Lnrissn
h4v? -lo platl thz qa$Ls $or lol.n $or 4heu to
be IwLeto'n
el{ective . A{ter taenhtl-threa hours in short
-
berrsts o.( $ive ui*uhe-s - | Vnta a *ho$and
a;ords. a* the *o gur-undi, I usas panicvinq
.{tiqh*
b?"cauge I JrJnt+ knoa aw1 bat I
Xrauw,ar,
+**dn't hqyg aoriol. t couid undars*and quita
'a tot tai*h u4 thou*and
utords artd I pickad
4*v' r ---'I tried a method ca11ed.'shadow*8-^:."-,
Lastyear,
a recording
improve mY Arabic. Yo u had to listen to
intfr" httgruge and repeat it while walking
around orrttid" (the waiking was meant
to g. ,'

set more oxygen to your brain)' I gave it a

Eo fo. u fe#ieeks, ind it worked really


irell. I ought to have done it for longer'
but people kept on staring at me and I felt
Iike'a compl"t" idiot' I soon decided
that
i didr,'t r,"ud to get better at Arabic after
ult, uttdigu.re uP on the whole thing'
I sirould liave kept on learning, because
I regret it now, of course " ' '
Felix HoPe
.

6 Stuay the underlined phrases in the texts in exercise 5 and answer the questions.
Which modal verbs do we use to:
1 express regret or to say what the right thing to do was?
2 say that something was necessary?
3 say that something wasn't necessary (and didn't happen)?
4 say that something which happened wasn't necessary?

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


1 ln my first job, it was important for everyone to speak good Spanish. (had)
2 lt was necessary for me to work hard to improve my language skills. (needed)
3 | was under no obligation to take any exams. (have)
4 I was wrong to give up Spanish at school. (ought / continue)
5 lt wasn't compulsory for us to learn a modern language after the age of fourteen. (need)
6 | learned Latin to a high level, but it's never been useful to me. (needn't)
7 My parents didn't encourage me to study modern languaqes, but that was a mistake. (should)
SPEAKING Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
1 What aspects of the languages that you know make them easy or difficult to learn?
2 Do you think you started learning them at the right age and learned them in the rlght way?
Why / why not? Discuss any regrets that you have about your language-learning experiences.
3 What advice would you give to a foreign friend who wants to learn your language?

words se il I
5C r Listening, speaking and,Vocabulary A good read

KffiX_{$lX,X, $rylf:::',,,,, ' ,r:i:i:'ir' :rr -':xt1*ittx.


$ryXl.,. ,
'i"''iilii:,1.i5, iprnxtruc work in pairs. what is the connection between the thinlji'in the
photos? Listen to the beginning of a radio programme. Which of the things in the photos are
mentioned? What other activities are mentioned?

2 i:,lt:
.126: Listen to the second part of the programme. What reasons for having public
libraries are mentioned? Which of them do you think are the most important?

:;::: fiA Listen to the second part again. Choose the correct answers.
1 Headspaceisaspecial area 4 Theradiopresenterthinksthatthe
a that's in every library in Britain. government should
b that's been designed by teenagers. a provide all homes with free broadband.
c where people of allages can have a chat. b pay more to look after library buildlngs.
d that has manga drawings on the walls. c buy cheaper library computers.
2 Jo says that paper books are d help to get broadband into poorer homes.
a less popular with teenagers than e-books According to Jo, the work of libraries is vital
b less interactive and exciting than e-books because
c easier to use when you're studying. a they support local authors and poets.
d not going to be produced in the near b people don't read as much as they used to.
future. c pre-school children don't have enough
3 She thinks that library computers are books at home.
important for d people are losing their interest in culture.
a people who don't have broadband at In some places, telephone boxes
home. a are used for storing books outside
b people who want to borrow books libraries.
online. b have got shelves of books that belong to
c people who don't know how to use local libraries.
computers. c that people have donated.
are full of books
d people who do all their banking and d are disappearing faster than iibrarles.
shopping online.

E oo words

Bl%; 5C
,+ { iX"ih':ur.i with'pirint
4 Replace the words in italics with the phrases below. ln which phrase is point used as -
a verb?
x there's no point in l.:: from my point of vlew ; take your point r the point is r:: at some point
ii up to a point n on the point of i! points out
Jack Have you heard they're lsoon gorng to be starting an Underground Library on the New
York subway? 2The important thing is, people have time to kill on the subway, so it might
encourage them to read more books.
Amy How will it work?
Jack You use your smartphone to scan a book title in the train and you get ten pages of the book
for free. Later, a map on your phone screen3informsyou where the nearest library is, so you
can go there asomefime and borrow the whole book.
Amy lt sounds good sro some extent,but l'm on the subway for an hour every morning. For me,
6itisn'tworth getting justten pagesof a book-l'd
befinished half waythrough myjourney.
Jack )Tacceptwhatyou're saying, but my subway journeys are shorter and l'm often bored.
8ln my
opinion, it's a great idea.

5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the quotes from the radio programme. Do you agree with
them? Why / why not?
1 'Public libraries these days provide a really fun and stimulating environment for teenagersl
2 'Paper books have plenty ofadvantages over e-booksl
3 'ljust don't think people will allow libraries to disappear

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the


books. What genre do you think they
are? Would you like to read them? Why /
why not?

7 l:;:;lrZ,.' Listen to the conversation.


Which books do they mention?
What genre are they? Do they choose
a book in the end?

8 ,/.i,,7:27' Listen again and complete


phrases 1-8. Then complete A-D in the
table with the headings below.
:: Asking for a decision ,: Delaying action
:::Asking politely for information,r: Persuading

A L
Could you tell me sort o[ books you ,\A/it ;b'nt. hatd to I,: ::'.:.,-, :-: . r.ight now.,
usually read? ..i
p,..,':..,,-,,,,.,..,,,, 1,1,,'1,,'.',1','
B shall we decide on?
tiwas:2., .,'..,'.,, :,.,,:,we,ao,uidtt,l.,..;,Ue*tuig:.:.,....,::,., Which one shall we 7 , for?
:',',.';.,:,.,:.:..:,',.,yg.rltltlnf yourShoUidll::ltl?' l'i,,t:.:,.,,.,.
4 it be better to ... i

9 l1l,l1$,, Listen to another conversation and tick the phrases that you hear. Then match all of
them to categories A-D in exercise 8.
x Doesn't it make more sense to ... ?::: Let's sleep on it and decide tomorrow.
::' Surely you have to agree that ... ? ;t Can we make a quick decision?
* Could you let us know what the book s called? r We could read it another time, maybe, but .. . .

10 SPEAKING Make a list of three books that you have enjoyed reading. Then, in groups of
three, choose one book to read for a book club.

Words 61 Il
5B x Culture, vCIeaburlaryand grammar Shakespeare
-----:E-.IIEIzEF------rr
-
SpEAKlftl6 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
Then read the article and check your ideas.
1 What do you know about William Shakespeare?
2 Look at the quote ln the first ine of the article. What
does it mean? How does it relate to Shakespeare?
r* *trm,Ww
f*NxW
Read the article again. Are the sentences true (T),
false (F) or not given (NG)?
Shakespeare's reputation is better now than it was
durinq his llfetime.
2 All the stories for his plays were his own. A 'He was not of an age, but for all timel' stated the
3 To enjoy his storles, you have to know a ot about preface of William Shakespeare's collected plays when
Britain's past. they were first published in 1623. At that point, seven
His heroes have more good qua ities than people years after the playvrright's death, Shakespeare was
in real life. just one of many respected writers of his era, but in the
5 Audlences pity Shylock inThe lrlerchant of Venice. years that followed, the words of that preface proved to
6 Audiences today can't feel the emotion in his plays be prophetic. His reputation grew and grew and today
7 He llked to use humour after a particularly tragic Shakespeare is widely recognized as the greatest writer
scene. in the history of English literature. His plays live on,
His plays are full of words of his own invention. translated into at least eighty languages and performed
all over the globe. Why is it that, four hundred years
it'i;i ii Word analysls after his death. his work is still rated so highly?
t
,.
3nAnswer the questions, referring closely to the Tiw,e{,ess stories
article. .,,
Which word is the introduction to a book or speech?
B lMany writers before Shakespeare could write ,:
sreat comedy. or trasedv. or history, but Shakespeare
How did the significance of the one mentioned
could te1l great stories in al1 these genres and more: r
change over time? (A)
from quirky fairy tale (.4 M'idsumrn:er'Nighf,s Drearn):
Which word describes something strange and
to political thriller (Rickard III).He rarely came up
unusual? What type of story ls it describing here? (B)
with original plots [or his plays - in fact. he usually
Which phrase means the same as timeless stories? took them from traditional stories, history or other
What proof does the writer give that Shakespeare's writers: In'hiSlhands, however, they became powerful'
stories are timeless? (B)
tales that transcend time and culture. Romeo antl Jwliet
Which adjective describes behaviour aimed at is a story of love, hate and teenage rebellion against
getting what you want, even if you hurt other peop e authoritarian parents. Macbeth shows the dangers oI
in the process? Can thls characteristtc ever be a good ruthless ambition. Ath'ello deals with insecurity. trust
thlng? (B) andjealousy. It's no surprise thattheatre and fllm
Which two words are types of characters in a story? directors return again and again to his plays for their
What types of character are they? (C) material. As well as productions using the original :

Which word means cruel treatrnent? Why was it language and settings, t&ere have been imaginative
experienced in this case? (C) reinterBretations as musicaTs (Romeo andJuliet /
Which word describes something that makes West Side Story), sci.fl'films (Tke Ternf est / Forhi'dden
you go cold with fear? What other emotions do Plan et), high school romantic comedies (Tw elfih
Shakespeare's plays elicit from the audience? (D) Night / She's the Man) Bollywood fllms (Macbeth /
Which phrase says that someone is the greatest in a Maqboo[), and even children's
certain area? What metaphor is being used here? (F) cartoons (Hamlet / The Lion King).

*
)*
_it
*
c*?

& u, words
jii':ili lllr,r;j.,;, t.... : :ij,:-r,r,\,
1 ..; z}"
\:.*w
r5
5B
,e
ffi*% &4. Study underlined sentences 1-5 in the article and
Cowzplex clqarscters
match them to rules a-e.Then complete the rules.
C Shakespeare portrayed the richness and varielz &
of human life in a way that has never been equalled a To express ability in the present, we use /
in English literature and many actors believe that his can't.
characters are drama's most challenging and &4 b To express general ability in the past, we use
*'
satislying roles. Each of his protagonists has a # / coulrln't
complicated mixture of qualities and faults which
:i:r:
c To express a particular ability in the past, we use urzcs /
feel very real to the audience. 2We can easil]. picture were able to, , succeeded in (-ing) ar couldn't

ourselves as Hamlet, a person of gentle character who We only use could in this context with verbs of
is led by extreme circumstances to plan violent revenge perception (see, hear, smell, taste, feel, understand, elc.)
on his uncle, or as King l,ear, flattered into trusfing the d To express ability in the future, we use /
wrong people and driving away the ones who truly love won't be able to.
him. Every character, however bad, has a human side.
3Shakespeare even manased
e When an infinitive or -ing form is needed, we use be
to make a sympathetic able to or . .

character out of Shylock, the shockingly cruel Jewish


villain in Tke Merchant of Venice, by describing his
experience of anti-Jewish abuse.
5 Complete the text. Use the correct form of can, or
Seawtifwl poetry if that isn't possible, the correct form of be able to,
manage to or succeed in. Sometimes more than one
D While some parts of Shakespeare's plays are in prose,
answer is possible.
his greatest speeches are in verse and their language,
though o1d-fashioned, still reson ates powerfu lly with
modern audiences. His rude jokes ensure that the Shakespeare's Globe: a brief history
theake is often filled with laughter, but moments later The Globe Theatre was part-owned by Shakespeare
there might be an achingly beautiful passage about himself, and many of his greatest plays were flrst
love or chilling words about death, revenge or jealousy. performed there. Built in 1599, it 1
hold
As well as at least thirty-seven plays, he is known for an audience of 1,500 people. Disaster struck in 1613
154 short poems ca11ed sonnets. It is thought that he when a cannon, used for special effects, set fire to the
started writing these in 1592 when atSplaCqesbBpgd theatre's thatched roof. The audience 2 .
the flames, but at first they thought they were parl """
of the
lnndoners from beinq able to qo to the theatre. They
pedormance. As the flre spread, they panicked. Luckily,
include some of the most famous lines about love and
everyone 3 get out safely, but they a
beauty in the English language.
(not) save the theatre. It burned to the ground.
Three and a half centuries later, American actor Sam
Ivtnouatiue larugwage Wanamaker dreamed of s see Shakespeare's
E Shakespeare enjoyed playing with words and his drqma in the theatre for which it was written. A.fter a long
language is full of interesting images and metaphors. fundrylsrllg campaign, he 6. building a replica
People still use many of them today, unaware that they of tllSEl.obe near its original site. It opened in 1997.
were invente dby him: green-eyed ntonster (meaning Comb to; performance at the Globe this summer and
Jealousy') and wear your heart on yowr sleeue (meaning ' you ',.r,i .... ..... see for yourself whal lhe thealre was
'show your emoLions') are two examples. Even individual
words were a chance for Shakespeare to show offhis
creativity. Of the 17,000 different words that he used in
his plays and poems, he made up an incredible 1,700
of them, and we are still using 800 today. They include
everyday words. such as generous, apostrophe, hurry,
road zrtd amazement.
F sPerhaos one day a writer will
be able to match the
achievements oIWilliam Shakespeare, but until then he
stands at the pinnacle of
English literature, setting
the standard to which S SpggKtru& Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
all other great
1 Have you ever seen a Shakespeare p ay, in a film or at
writers aspire.
the theatre? lf you have, what did you think of it?
lf not, wou d you ike to? Why / why not?
2 Who are the greatest playwrights in your language?
Talk about their plays and other achievements.

Book structure page 138

Words 63 M
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Make a list of things you would expect to read about in a review.
Then read the book review and tick the things on your Iist that are mentioned.

Read the book review again and answer the questions.


What phrases does the writer use to:
1 describethetypeofbook? 4 describe the characters?
2 give the setting of the book? 5 give reasons for liking the book?
3 describe the plot? 6 recommend the book?
Study the phrases below. Which introduce reasons for disliking the book? Match the rest to
categories 1-6 in exercise 2.
mI could really identify with (a character). x I was disappointed with ... . x I couldn't put it down.
reThere's a dramatic twist at the end. w I was captivated by... .x lt was a shame that ... .

wThere are some very Iikeable characters, including ... . xThe story opens with ... .

xThe novel fails to ... . w For me, the biggest problem was ... . N lt would appeal to anyone who ..

4 Study the highlighted adjectives in the book review.Then match each one to its synonym in
the sentences below.
1 This moving / story about a girl's fight to survive cancer brought tears to my eyes.
2 The complex / . .. .. .. .. .
plot is hard to follow - | found it quite confusing at some points.
..

3 This insightful / . .. .. ..
account of life on the streets will challenge your views on homelessness.
4 This novel is really gripping /. . - I wanted to carry on reading it all night.
.

5 The author's meaningful / ................. use of language makes the book a pleasure to read.

Avoiding repetition
When you write, it is important to vary the language that you use. Do not repeat the same
words too often. You can do this by using:
1 pronouns
Use personal and possessive pronouns and one / ones to avoid repeating nouns.
2do
Use all forms of do (+ this / that / it / so) to avoid repeating verbs and verb phrases.
3 this / that / so
Use this / that / so to avoid repeating complete clauses.
4 synonyms
Use a variety of synonyms to avoid repeating the same words.

5 Read the strategy. What do the underlined words in the book review refer to? Match them
to rules 1-4 in the strategy.

5 Change the underlined parts of the sentences below to avoid repetition.


1 Tess tells Angel about her past, but when she tells him about her past she destroys Anqel's love
for Tess.
2 Mr Darcy offends Elizabeth at the ball and Mr Darc)z offends her again when he asks her to
marry him.
3 Ahab has spent his whole career killing whales, but in Ahab's desperation to kill the whale that
injured his leg, he endangers the whole crew.
4 The passage in which the monster is brought to life is gripping, and the chapters that tell the
monster's side of the story are qrippinq.
5 Most hobbits never leave the Shire, but the hobbits in the story leave the Shire to destroy the
ring at Mount Doom.

I sq words
5E

-
TIIIQ{flTflTI}U
The summer sizzles, the parties swing and the cocktails flowin F. Scott
Fitzgeraldt classic novel The Great Gatsby, set in the glamour and
decadence of 1920s NewYork.
The story revolves around the self-made millionaireJay Gatsby and his
quest to win back his lost love, Daisy Buchanan. The narrator is Daisyt
cousiry Nick Carraway, who starts renting a house across the bay from
the one where Daisy lives with her rictr, but unfaithful husband Tom.
Nickt mysterious next door neighbour, Gatsby, throws spectacular
parties everyweekend, and Nick discovers that he does this with one
purpose: to tempt Daisy back into his life. Gatsby asks him to reunite
them. Nick succeeds in doing so, and that sets in motion a tragic chain
of events which expose some ugly truths about love, wealth and the
American Dream.
The novel has a fast-moving and riveting plot, but what appealed to
me most was the way that the protagonists' complex personalities
are revealed over the course of the story. Daisy has a touching
vulnerabihty and charm, but is self-centred and shallow, whereas
Gatsby, a fake and a liar, has a moral integrityunmatched bythe
characters who grew up with money. Fitzgerald's insightful comments
on the materialistic values of the 1920s still feel relevant today, and
his concise but expressive prose is a delight.
The Great Gatsby is a perceptive portrayal of a fascinating time in US
history and the gripping and moving story is told in expressive and
intricate detail. It's a must-read.

I Task Choose a fiction book set during an interesting Paragraph 3: Your opinion. Say what you Iiked and / or
period of history and write a review. disliked most about the book. Use the
present simple or past simple.
I ldeas Make notes about: Paragraph 4: Conclusion. Summarize your opinion
x the title, author and genre. and / or give a recommendation.
r the setting, main themes and characters.
x the plot. I Write Write your review. Use the paragraph plan to
x what you liked and didn't like about it. help you.
r why it feels / doesn't feel relevant to the modern day.
r who you would recommend it to.
I Check Checkthe following points:
l Have you used a clear paragraph structure?
r Plan Follow the plan: r Have you managed to avoid repetition?

Paragraph 1: Introduction to the book. Give its title, r Wlll readers who do not know the book be able to
author and setting in an interesting way. understand all your comments?
Paragraph 2: Concise summary of the plot. Use the
r Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and

present simple and include information punctuation?


about the main characters and themes.
Give readers enough information to
understand your comments in paragraph 3.

Words 6s
1 Work in pairs. Study the dictionary entry for google.
What part of speech is it? Where does the word
come from?
Sometimes, when we want to make our writing more
I google I'statsU verb [T, l] - (sb/sth) (computing) to type formal or academic, we can use nominalizallon. This
I words into the sEARcH uncrwu Google@ in order to find
I information about sblsth: You can google someone you've means using a noun instead of a verb or an adjective.
: recently met to see what information b availqble about them
: on the Internet. o I tried googting but couldn't find anything Note that the rest ofthe sentence also changes.
For example, we can change the verb i//usrrales in this
sentence:
thaYeopearola Sonnoi 17 brilliantll illuoirates hia uae of
Verbification metaphor in pootrl.
Verbification or verbing is the process of making a noun to the noun illustration in this sentence:
or an adjective into a verb without changing it. There are $haYoeyearde 6onnet 17 ie a brilliant illuairation of hie uoe
thousands of verbs in the English language which were of metaphor in poeirl.
originally nouns or adjectives. Categories of verbified Nominalizations are often followed by prepositions
nouns include: (illustration of, arrival at, investment in, etc.), so it is
a brand names, e.g. Google and Facebook: I Facebooked important to know which prepositions follow which
you last night. nouns.
b words associated with tools, for example: hammer the
nail Read the strategy above. Rewrite sentence b so that
c words associated with business, for example: chair a it has a similar meaning to sentence a. Nominalize
meeting the underlined words. Use a dictionary to check
d words associated with communication and which prepositions you need to use with the nouns.
technology, for example: email a company
e words associated with parts of the body, for example:
1 a The supermarket often delivers my orders late.
foot the bill, eye a competitor
b The deliverl of q ordero from the supermarket is
often late.
2a The company invested several million pounds in
2 Read the strategy above. Rewrite sentences 1-10 these products.
using verbified nouns.Then match them to the b The company's .. . .

categories of verbified nouns in the strategy. several million pounAl.


1 I want to put this shelf onto the wall using screws. 3a We failed to complete the course and therefore we
didn't get the qualification.
2 Ben is going to be the chair of our next debate. b Our ...
........... .
. meant that we

didn't get the qualification.


3 she pushed ," in it,".r,"ti *'il r.r"r..Un*r 4a The report concluded that more research was
needed.
Can you send me a text with your email address? b The . the report was
that more research was needed.
Whenever I flnd an interesting website, I add it to my 5a The teachers rejected the head teacher's
bookmarks. proposals.This shocked the students.
b The teachers' .... shocked
P;,;' :;; *' ,. ir,.. ,i"ri"' ,iil;;;"i "; the students.
..'. 6a The photos were perfect. He was very pleased
l'm out of the country, but I can talk to you on Shrpe with them.
tomorrow. b The pleased him.
7a When the star arrived at the hotel, she was greeted
Iwanted to find out more about the place, so ljust by many fans.
searched for it on Google. b The star's ...... was

greeted by many fans.


9 He hit the ball with his head and scored a goal. 8a Her cooking is excellent, which makes me always
want to eat here.
10 You'll need to use a drill to make a hole for the hook. b The always makes me
want to eat here.

4 tvtake nouns using the words below.Then write one


example sentence for each verb or adjective form
and one example sentence using the nominalized
form.
m beautiful xx believe x refuse w hate a grow xs shocking

66 Vocabulary insight 5 Dictlonary entry from Oxford Advanced Learner\ Dictionary B, Oxford Unlversity Press 2010
1 Replace the words in italics with the correct forms of 5 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
the phrasal verbs below. meaning to sentence a. Use the words in brackets.
x* carry on x cheer on m move on x throw on x switch on 1a lt's compulsory to study a foreign language. (must)

I My parents don't understand that the world


b Students

they were kids


(has developed) since
a We recommend watching films in English. (ought to)

and everyone now owns a smartphone.


b You.

2 The sound engineer (started) rhe


a lt isn't necessary for students to bring their own
dictionary to class. (needn't)
equipment to record the interview.
3 We didnt win the quiz because nobody
b Students

us.......... .. (was encouraging us).


a lts a good idea to study vocabulary every day
(had better)
| .... . . . (willcontinue) studying until I fall
b You
asleep.
5 Dan ... (got dressed in) a pair ofjeans, but
5a Cheating in exams is prohibited. (mustn't)
b Students
then decided to change into a suit.
Marks ls 6 a lts important to speak in English in class. (need to)
b You

Add en- ot em- to make verbs. 7a We don't recommend using online translation
services. (ought not to)
1 .............dan9er 5 .. large b students
2 .. Irust 6...................coura9e
Mrirc iz
3 .. ..... ...ritle 7 close
4 ....... ......power 8 . able 6 Complete the text with the past forms of the modals
Marks ......1e
and verbs in brackets.

Complete the sentences with the phrases below. As soon as Jan turned up for hls interview, he realized
w from my point of view x on the point re up to a point that he (should / research) the company
more carefully. He 2
llx take your point x there's no point
was an American multinational and that all the employees
, that website is a load of were expected to speak English. The rec_eptionist asked
rubbish. him something when he arrived and he
(have to / ask) her to repeat the question several times.
2 . in shouting. They don't speak
When he eventually understood what sher had said, he
the same language as you.
you .
(need / think):for a long time how to
I agree with but not respond. He 5.................................... (not have to / wait) for long
completely. for the interviewer to call him into the room. As he sat
I . . but I still think you're making struggling to answer the questions, he became aware that
a terrible mistake. he 6 .
.. ... (should not / take) his English classes

She was of giving up when a so lightly. When Jan left the room five minutes later, he
publisher flnally accepted her manuscript. already knew that he 1 .............., ....... (not need / bother) to
apply for the job.
Marks .. 15

4 Match the words below to meanings 1-6. There is


one word that you do not need. 7 Choose the correct answers. Sometimes both are
m abuse x chilling x pinnacle xx protagonist x quirky possible.
x ruthless r transcend 1 Amy can / is able to speak Chinese because she was
1 cruel (behaviou0 born in Beijing.
2 frightening 2 lf you download the app, you'll can / be able to study
3 cruel treatment the vocabulary more easily.
4 strange and unusual 3 We were able to / succeeded in making ourselves
5 the best or most successful part of something understood, despite our poor language skills.
4 To pass the writing paper, you must can / be able to
6 the main character in a play, movie or book write a formal letter.
5 Sorry I haven't could / been able to call you.
Marks l6 6 They could / managed to find the way, although
they couldn't read the road signs.
7 I was frustrated because I couldn't / wasn't able to

remember the right word'


Marks ..........t7

Review 5 67 I
:6 The media and the message
Reading and vocabulary Who controls the news?

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


Then read the article and compare your ideas.
Think about the biggest news story in your country at
the moment. How did you first hear about it?
How has technology influenced the way we hear
about news stories?
A Friday 11 March,2011 sLarted ilike any other dqy,; . ,
What do you understand bytitizen journalist'?
/,
,

on Twitter. A cel.e.brity,, story was trending thqlt:.,il


2 match headings 1-6 to sections A-F in the article.
,.' moiriing, along withi,bqSineSs news about Googte,
when suddenly, at 1,2.46 a.m., thousands of tweets
1 Human interest 4 A lot to learn \ a
2 Whistle-blowing 5 Responsible reporting .Ihappenedinthearea,andTwitterwasfirsttoreport
3 Breakinq news 6 A new kind of reporter ..;r: it: a massr've earthquake had hit Japan, foltowed by
t* a huge tsunami. Eyewitness testimonies from cities l

l&
Read the article again and answer the questions.
fff rocked by the quake flooded the web, and then as
1 What can give an early indication of an important ffi the tsunami swept the coastline, people scrambled
global news story? g;i up bridges and buildings and posted footage on
Why are citizen journalists able to post news stories $$] YouTube and Facebook. The camera work was shaky,
more quickly than professional journalists? & but the content was compelling - their wortd was
How are citizen journalists'reports different from falling apart, yet they continued to fitm.
professional reports? What reasons does the writer
ffi
** B Over the [ast few years, the big news stories, such
give for this?
W as the Japanes.e earthquake in iorr qp{,;gqqicane
4 How can citizen journalists help investigative journalists? I, Sandy in 201,2, have been reported mainly by ordinary
5 Why does Mimiboard post anonymous contributions?
ffi individual.s,;llt \i&! citizen journalists armed,.with
What does it achieve?
# smartphon6!.whrilhrought these storieg.to the world.
6 What is the problem wlth anonymous reporting?
$, Mobite technology has enabled peopte at the scene
7 What effect did the Reddit story have on the student :ffi of the evilitt to positVideos, photos and commentary
and his family? .#$ more quickty than paid journatists. The landscape of
Can you answer professor Clay Shirkys question?Think W reporting and of deciding what is newsworthy has
about the benefits and drawbacks of citizen journallsm. ffi changed: news organizations and their reporters no
longer set the'agendat.
tsm
ffi
ffi
'ffi
C The content of the news has changed, too, as
stories totd by citizen journatists are often more
4 Study the highlighted phrases in the article and
explain their meaning. Then complete the text below W persona[ and have more emotional appeat. Untike
with the correct form of the high.lighted phrases. ;; investigative journalism, these bLog posts and
1{6 tweets seldom include background information or
How to stop a Facebook hoax 'ff; give a broad overview. People haven't got time to
In20L2, Nolan Daniels posted a picture of himself on # collect and scrutinize facts or exptoreii,t]re biqger
Facebook with a'winning'Iottery ticket and offered picture. A YouTube video may cover batttes betfueen
$1 million to one lucky person who shared his photo. He'd police and protestors at a G20 demonstration, but it
never posted a public status on Facebook before, but he probabty won't detve into why there wai::i:'protqst,
wanted to see who would 1............................. and share it. Two
what may have caused the situation aidiffili 11'r.
days later, his photo as more than 2 million
Eacebook users shared his picture. It even 3............................. in
possib[e outcomes cou[d be.
respected online newspapers. Then an anti-hoax website
exposed the story as a scam.
UnJortu[ately, misinformation, scams and hoaxes are
everywhere on the web. News stories can sometimes do
good and 1...... or wrongdoing, but at other times
they can be inaccurate or false. So how can we deal with
this misinformation?
r Don't s......... .. about people or post stories that aren't
verifled.
r If a story 6 ..........., check one of the many websites
that 7 and make sure the facts are true.
As Facebook users, we for the type of
information that is spread. When we post or share a story
on our timeline, we have a responsibility to make sure that
these stories are accurate and true.

I oe The media and the message


f'ffi;, -,.. "ffi",,tJ"rcrePW
Vocabulary: collocations:journalism; word anaiysis; idioms with in and out; Speaking: chooslng lront page news 6A
6A
documentaries; discourse markers Writing: an article
Grammar: speculation about the past, present and future; emphasts and inversion
*W:.f"ffi, .fl*"ffi&#b'"?, ;*ffi

I
D But in other ways, citizen journatism supports Because posts are rarety checked and verified, c'itizen
investigative journa[ism. It is now easier for ordinary journalism is more vutnerabLe to scams and can help
people to expose corruption and cover-ups in to spread fatse jnformation. In 201.2, a sixteen-year-
T government and private companies. In Africa, a virtuaI ol.d girl" from New Jersey tweeted that someone was
noticeboard ca[[ed Mimiboard hetps peopte to report in her house. When she mysteriously disappeared 75

rigged etections and human rights abuses. These shortty afterwards, many Twitter users thought she
noticeboards create pressure for change and reform, had been kidnapped and tweeted #HelpFindKara. The
and sometimes they work - corrupt government catl for help trended wortdwide, with 34,000 people
officiats have been sacked and international retweeting the message. Everyone betieved Kara's
companies have changed the'ir working conditjons. story and fe[[ for the scam, untiI the police found her
But because of the risks invotved. Mimiboard relies walking alongside a highway. She had faked her own
on anonymous posts, and anonymous pubtishing kidnapping and had run away from home. Luckily for
comes with its own set of chattenges: it makes it very Kara, she didn't get prosecuted.
diffjcutt to verily jnformation.
F Incidents l"jke this show that citizen journalism $
x
E The freedom to publish whatever we want is is stit[ finding its way. Yet, despite the chatlenges,
'tr
exciting and empowering, but there are serious this new way of reporting the news has had a largely
ethicaL imptications. UnIke traditionaI journa[ism, positive and democratizing effect. Armed with our I
I
55 citizen journatism is [argety unregutated, wjth tittLe smartphones, we are now tetting our own stories,
or no accountabiLity - there is no one to check the controlting our own destjnies and creating impact
[; facts or trace sources. Peopte can spread rumours or and change around the world. 'The choice we facei 90
anonymousty post a defamatory articte and get away says C[ay Shirky, professorin new media at New York
wjth it. An example of this happened after the Boston University, 'isn't whether or not thjs is the media
t"rtrr.t." 60 Marathon bombing in 201.3, when a student who environment we want to operate in. This is the
was watching the event was named as a suspect on environment we've got. The question we a[[ face now
Reddit*. The story lacked credibitity and had very few 'is, "How can we make the best use of this media?"'
facts to support it, but it stitl went vira[ and made
Gtossary
headUnes in the nationaI papers. The student turned .Reddit: a sociaI news website
out to be seventeen-year-old Satah Eddin Barhoum,
a high school sports star who had moved to the USA
from Morocco four years before the incident. Eventua[[y
his name was cteared, but Satah and his family were
devastated.'I was terrifiedi he said later. 'I have never
been in troubte, and I feared for my securityl

The media and the message 69 il


5 Answer the questions, referring closely to the article.
1 Which verbs of movement does the writer use to
describe the disaster? What effect does this have? (A)
2 Citizen journalists are'armed with smartphonesi What
context is the verb to arm usually used in? What does
using this verb imply? (B)
3 Which three verbs are used to mean examine? (C)
4 Which noun is used for something that is hidden,
usually illegally? (D)
5 Which adjective describes something that has been
changed or altered dishonestly? (D)
6 Which noun is used to mean public responsibility for
something? (E)
7 Which two adjectives describe Salah and his family s

reaction to the accusations? (E)


8 Which adjective is used to mean exposed to danger
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the stills from a TV
and risk? (E)
advert and answer the questions.
6 Complete the sentences with the words below. 1 Describe what is happening in the photos, then
x armed x scrambled x delved into x rigged x a cover-up agree on the correct order.
x accountability x vulnerable x devastated 2 Describe the appearance of the younger man.
What do you think he wants to do?
1 The new laws protected ....... workers from
3 Describe the older man. What is he carrying?
exploltation by big companies
Where might he be going?
2 The journalist. ..... the reasons why the
4 How does the camera angle affect what we see?
factory fire had hup;;d. How does it affect what we think?
3 When a news story revealed that the football
manager had the match, he was
2 WX!*it Listen to a journalist talking about the TV
sacked.
advert and compare your ideas in exercise I. What is
4 During the flood, people ',,.,,' ',,',,',,',,' to the top of
the advert advertising?
buildings for safety.
lhe soldiers were . . with guns and hand
grenades.
There needs to be more in today's
government. Politicians should answer to the people. 3 Study sentences a-h from the recording. Then
7 The director was when he read the answer questions 1-3.
terrible review of his film.
8 The government was accused of
a (The younger man) has to be running away from a
bad situatlon.
politiclans had been accepting gifts'from companies.
b He must have done something wrong.
7 SPEAKING Work in pairs.You are going to post your
c He might have stolen someone's wallet or someone
could have been hurt in a flght.
own news story. Agree on what you are going to
write about. Think about:
d He can't be doing anything good.
e (The older man) may be a businessman on his way to
x a local lssue you would like to cover. work.
x sources you could use. f The bricks might fall and they could both be badly
x the main point of your story and its purpose. hurt.
x where you are going to post it. g That can't have happened because he's a
Headlines page 139 troublemaker, right?
h He can't have been trying to help him.
Good news travels fast
Which sentences express:
a) certainty b) possibility?
Which sentences refer to:
a) the past b) the present c) the future?
Which modal verbs can be used to refer to both the
present and the future?

E ,o rhe media and the message


6B

4 Study these words and phrases from the recording. Which ones express certainty
and which express possibility?
:: rnost probably x looks like ;: it's (not) possible that :: He's bound to be x lt seems likely that
l lt's safe to say that x He looks as if :r: l'm almost sure

5 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
Use the modal verbs in brackets.
1 The photo must be from a citizen journalist. (has to)
A c tizer .jou rralist
2 l'm sure they were at work when the news story broke. (must)
They
3 lt seems likely that the police have already caught the escaped criminal. (may)
T he police

4 l'm almost sure he was watching TV when the disaster happened. (must)
He
5 lt's not possible that he heard about it on the radio. He never listens to the news. (can't)
Fe
6 They'resurelyatthesceneoftheincidentbynow.Theylefttwohoursago.(boundto)
hey
7 lt's safe to say that the report sn't accurate. t lacks credibility. (can't)
Tha rannrt
r r rL rLvvl

8 lt's possib e that he'll read the news headlines today. (seems)
It

6 SpfnXlruG Look at the still from another advert and discuss the questions. Use modal verbs
to speculate.

rc
1 Where is it? What can you see?
2 Why do you think it is there?
Who could have put it there?
3 What miqht happen when
someone pushes the button?
4 How might people react?
5 What might be its purpose?
What product could it be
advertising?

7 ::,;,:: Z;OZ Listen and compare


your ideas.

The media and the message 71 Q


1 SpgRXttrtG Can you think of any news stories about
people who have done something in order to be
famous? Think of publicity stunts, breaking a world
record or doing something for the first time.

Adapting to authentic listening situations


When we listen to broadcasts on the radio or TV we
sometimes start listening in the middle or halfway
through. ln order to quickly identify the topic and
context, answer these questions:
1 How many speakers are there?
2 What is the topic?
3 What type of recording is it?
4 Why might people listen?
Once you have finished listening, think about:
x whatyou heard.
ry what you think happened before.
x what you think happened after.

2 &&iXi0si Listen tothe middleofa news item.Then


answer questions 1-4 in the strategy and discuss
what might have happened before and after.

3 &XlriM: Listen to the complete news item.


Were your predictions correct? Did anything
surprise you?

4 reXi?SSi SPEAKING Why do you think people want to be famous? Choose the three most
common explanations in the list below. Then listen to a radio programme about life in the
public eye. Are you three choices still the same?
x flnancial rewards x parental neglect x the adrenaline rush x survival instinct
x desire to influence people x unpopularity at school x possibility of a longer llfe
x* possibility of a happier life x need for approval

&XAg5: SPEAKING Listen again and match the speakers, David (interviewee 1),Tom
(interviewee 2) and Ginny (interviewee 3), to statements 1-8. Then discuss the opinions.
1 Children who don't get a lot of attention may crave fame.
2 The need for approval can be traced back to primitive civilizations.
3 You have to please your audience if you want to remain famous.
4 The bodys physical reaction to fame can be addictlve.
5 Most people want to be famous because of the financial rewards.
6 Fame does not guarantee a long and happy life.
7 Despite the attention, celebrities can feel lonely.
8 People want to be famous because they want to feel immortal.

Which of the phrases below go with in and which with out? Explain their meaning.
Use a dictionary to help you.
xr of one's depth xr the limelight * on a limb :r step with xr of character x of favour e one's element
e the offing

J n The media and the message


ul*;
-r- e
SPEAKING Complete the questions with the correct form of the phrases in exercise 6.
Then discuss the questions. Give reasons for your answers.
1 Do you agree that fame is very much in ... ... for everybody, and that anyone can
become a celebrity?
2 Are you a risk-taker? Would you feel in ...... . on stage or as the focus of attention?
3 Why do you think people get out and fail to cope with fame?
4 Why might famous people act out ? Why is their public image so important?
5 How might someone famous feel if they fell out with their fans and lost popularity?
6 What do you think is the main reason for people wanting to stay in . ... .?

SPEAKING What makes a good news story? Rank these qualities in order of importance.
x human interest w local relevance xx educational iw global perspective w controversial w entertaining
m celebrity content w inspirational si humorous

9 mXfi6{iii: Listen to three students discussing which story to include on a student news
website. Which one do they choose? Which of the qualities in exercise 8 does it have?

Park festival rained off


Reality TV star: caught on camera tackles mugger
fup_ergran.
fg*'@,** .".q\.#.,rr&*&
$

10 ffiLt$&i Listen again and tick the phrases that the students use. Then match the phrases to
categories A-C.
I We might as well ... . 6 l'm just trying to point out ... .

2 Let s go with it. 7 lt ticks lots of boxes.


3 So, do we all agree that ... ? 8 Hang on a minute, are you saying that ... ?

4 You can say that again! 9 I didn't mean that exactly.


5 I wouldn't do that. 10 In other words, ... .

A Using modals to comment and suggest


B Agreeing on a choice
C Restating a point of view

11 mXeet Listen to a similar discussion. Put the phrases below in the order they are used. Then
match them to categories A-C in exercise 10. Which story did the students choose and why?
a Which one is it going to be, then? d Let's put it this way: ... .

. .. . b We could include ... . e Which one should we choose?


.. .. . c I couldn't believe itl f l'm just saying that ... .

12 SpEnmnG Work in groups. You are working on a student news website. Which two stories
below would you cover and why? Which two would you not cover? Give reasons for your
choices using the phrases in exercises 10 and 11.

Graffrd - art or eyesore?


RisC,,in Imib Cilmb woirl* teenS
Radio station sponsors drama school hopefuk $
'*,r--:X*&xx@{*e9r.sr?**W

I
!

nessage B-
N\
-r - !-
-.
' 1
-
documentary?
SPEAKING What makes a good
----z-:-------t I
: lt/hat are the similarities and differences between $f f IHS tS Bf tifYlNC I
' a documentary and a fiction film? I
A steam train slowly pulls into a station, a boat docks at a I
2 Read the article and match missing paragraphs A-F Port, and workers swarm out of factory gates after a hard I
day's work' These are the subjects of the first
to gaps 1-5. There is one paragraph that you do not T",l-'lg I
1.
, ,Tjfli';,loj..]ij:S iJ,.t|:}}l i::5:::TJ:,X".Xtj:'1""*" I
need. rhen compare your answers in exercise

: 3 srEAKTNG Discussthequestions. :;;i'j:i::il:^,T::ll'#?t1"":.i*':"Jl[[:,;:.", I


j 1 What was the main purpose agenda. aWhat they did was show simPle scenes
films?
of Flaherty's political
everyday life. These scenes had a dramatic impact I
! Do documentaries have the same purpose today? from
I
ro on people who had never witnessed a moving
f , ,n yn1] ways were early newsreels an'adapted before' ln one famous incident the audience ranA"Y-"^,
out of I
i nore trutnTur/
reality'? Are news reports today more truthful? I
I :
l':'J'r,nn,
you
rhey adapt rearity?
agree that documentaries are'the most
il,""1[:*"r"",:il:::]ffJ.H;ffi",*i,l?Jl3:l!ru; I
i! Do
I
tr.rsted lorm of tne news'? ,usrify your opirions. 1 I
I
rs Flaherty! documentary starred locals and looked natural
i rtaries
lll,lri. Documentaries and spontaneous, butihe film was very much a.romantic I
i 4 MatchthewordsinAtothewordsinB.Thencheck interpretationofthelnuitwayof life'and'"t'Y*^1Tfl, I
taged scenes. rn one such scene, a warrus is kirred with I
I
your answers in the article
crowd tffi#"' I
II A* stased * archivat x musicat
fly-on-the-wall x shot on x,
; voice-.'
docu-
,, illi'!:3[:ffiiff:'ii?,?=t',1;,i
early documentaries were very much an
ll"?331l:
interpretation I
I
I g -crrc5 ;t: ruLdLru,
{ootage funding ganda scenes locario.r of reality -'wlat hafPened was th
" it
film-maters' idea ol liie. iaiher than showino life as f
|I score,, ,,r,"
,, o"#,1 ,.or. stYle actually was. I
I
L
t' Completethetextwiththecorrectformofthe 2 I
phrases in exercise 4. rn
zs lnterestingly, this type of 'adapted reality' was u13d
I newsreels, too. Much archival war footage from the early I
I
twentiethcentUrywasstaged,withcameramenarriving|

1fterabatte.thenfilmingre-enactedSceneS.l

'*
,ffiffiffi
,'ffiffi#
Gradua||y,thisdirectcinemastylestartedtoinfluencel
,.;'::J?xl,iii:i'13ilJ;ffi[.I;:ilJi['fi-:??:"
I
ilgffiw+ffiffi.,,.,@&is$;,Ii::$Loachuseda,fly-on-the-wa||,styletomakehis,drama.|
,ed$fraHl${cl.+thdfftl$*rg-u{'*Pi$$,?.S$eypirfilm;d documentary'films appear as unscripted and as natural I
,fea!etnoo*:t€iry$@,t8ry$t;.*:,-.;.; ,;.:p-fryti4q,1t r5;, $ as possible. These hard-hitting stories often dealt with I
y6u wiltproba-b.lyneed to.hve a.few1. -- : : : wittr,' 1' as real-life issues, such as homelessness (Cathy Come I
somi scripqqd dialogui,bu{.iry to make ttrrim iound ai '{ Home) and unemployment (Riff-R aff), and they had clear
Ji$' Yi,$il * iilait:i:ijii;r!& sociarand poriticarmessases I

,,.whefl,i,6.!t16iiFElss$titllr.l
adda5.
;. 9$41$.t:rYollitserjtr,&r 4 I
I

,althoughlprefertoifrow,rather I Aswell asinstructingaudiences,thesenew J

:,!F!.:te!{p{9ple!i$!f9.1!!t '|fltiFrell a-po!!!i.ul . $. documentaries use musical scores, emotional I


' r,n*iige;it:jbetter for your ayllencetodfawiheir,owx :: $] ao storytelling and dramatic re-enactments. ln fact, in I
:coiiilusi.ons,t5fller,1ffi,lroduiing{... . I many ways, contemporary documentaries are becoming
[_ indistinguishable from mainstream Hollywood films.
I

lf yopr can; usg 7. .. -,. ,..,..,.i ..r from time to tlmg as a bit I
of histgry wlll give yourfilm'morq credi:bility, iou could' , $i Super Size Me, March of the Penguins and I
alsoaddas.,,:..:.,...,,.,butbecareful thesongdoesn't k ,t An lnconvenrentTruthall relyontechniquesfromfiction ]

distract the audience fromtyour message. i!,films to manipulate the audience's emotions and interest.
f
r:pq$ruFart rE
1

5 .... 1"...... I

---*g t'lo*$duys, the in{luence of documentary film-makers

*"<%
i

;iffiJ:i,?:'rr*{i;r!r,":-"'rfi{{ry:,"
BlairWitch
such as The Project Cheap digital I

&'h;;;;y;.o*prt"obu.ed editing and the internet


fi're making it much easier for anyone to produce a
1

Qocumentary film. As well as watching these films online,


]

ofolnary people can now try their hand at creating them.


1

But as documentaries Hollywood


rentaries become more like Hollywood r

.li
movies become more llKe
movres,&And Hollywood movtes like l]

docum{iitaries. can any of these films truly document l

reality? Qan we still claim that'seeing is believing'?

lI ro
A This tradition of shaping 'reality' continued when,
6 Study sentences a-f in the article. Then match them
ten years later, a British director John Grierson started
to produce documentaries with a similar stylized to rules 1 and 2 below and answer the questions.
approach. The Nightmai/ began as an information film To create emphasis we can:
about the mail train from London to Edinburgh, but as 1 add an extra clause beginning with |t... ,All... or
it progressed, the film became more poetic and less What ... .

realistic, concentrating on movement, light, rhythm


and sound.

l What do we use afler lt was . . . that . . . ?


B lt wasn't until 1922 that documentaries as we know 2 start with a negative expression, for example: Seldom,
them today started to emerge. An American director Not only, Hardly Never, Rarely.
called Robert Flaherty produced a feature-length
documentary called Nanook of the North. The film
rr How does the word order change in sentences
introduced audiences to lnuit life in Northwest Alaska, that start with negative expresslonsT
helping to broaden their knowledge of the world. dlt Workbook page 120
was this desire to educate and present people with the
'truth' that motivated early film-makers, but just how
truthful were their documentaries?
7 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence.

C Despite this manipulation. documentary film- 1 The director used documentary techniques to make
making is becoming more and more popular, and in the film seem realistic.
many ways is one of the most trusted forms of news What the oirecror
reporting: 'l think there is a thirst for a meaningful 2 Michael Moore's documentary Fahrenheitg/ll wan
relationship with reality,' explains Martijn te Pas at awards at several major fllm festivals.
Amsterdam's International Documentary Film Festival. It
'And documentaries can offer that ... People today
want more than escapism.'
3 Film-makers only spent elght days on The Blair Witch
Project.
All they dio
D ln the 1950s and 1960s there was a backlash against
He drank a milkshake and ate a big bag of popcorn
staged reality and re-enacted scenes in a movement
called direct cinema. Direct cinema started in the during the film.
USA, and gave the impression that the events on the Nor on'y
screen had been recorded spontaneously and were The controversial political documentary was banned
presented exactly as they happened in real life. Thanks from some cinernas.
to technological developments, directors had more What happened
freedom to follow people during a crisis and capture I have never seen such a fascinating documentary.
their personal reactions. "All they did was use
Never
held camera with svnchronized sound.

rNot only do these ne


I Spf*ruruG Read the opinions. Do you agree with
E
them? Why / why not?
local problems. but they also focus on global issues,
like the environment, poverty and hunger. Cheapness 1 'Not only is it dlfficult to separate documentaries
is what is helping to push the trend of home-made from Hollywood films, but it's also often impossible to
documentaries, but when directors need money separate fact from fictionl
to create more ambitious projects. they turn to 2 'Documentaries are just movies. Seldom are they
crowdfunding - raising money via internet donations. about real lifel

Film-making page 139


F More recently, directors such as the American film-
maker Michael Moore have also focused on hard-hitting
stories. They've taken documentaries to a new level
of popularity, although Moore! {ilms have also been
criticized for being 'docu-ganda' - films that spread
propaganda using a documentary style. Some people -
think his voice-overs tell audiences how to react to ':
a topic. However, this approach is nothing new in
documentaries, and audiences have come to expect it.

d$f:
x'
s..

's...,,,.,.,,,----...-
,-.-Ilt: media and the message 75
lLV,t
n,4
€E r writin$ iii:.1 .-+']'+
i
SPEAKING Study the headings on page 77 trom articles about the news. What issues would
you expect to appear in them?
-v
Read articles A and B and match them to two of the headings in exercise 1. Which arguments
do you agree with and why?

Creating emphasis
When you write an article, you can use different ways to emphasize your points.
The most common ways are:
a beginning with a negative expression, for example, /Vever.
b using a fixed emphatic phrase, for example, whatsoever, by far.
c adding an emphatic verb, for example, do.
d adding an extra clause, for example,,4llthey did was ... .

3 Read the strategy. Then match sentences 1-7 in the articles to a-d in the strategy.

4 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
I Citizen journalists were flrst to break the story.
Itwas . .

2 The paper didn 't check the facts before they published the article
What ...
When news stories are entertaining, teenagers read them.
Teenagers do
Young people often don't care about internatlonal events.
Rarely
5 In my opinion, t he best news stories are about celebrities
By far the
6 He had just finished writing his Facebook update when his friends arrived

5 Match highlighted phrases a-g in the articles to definitions l-7. Then match the words below
to the same definitions.
m undeniably w probably xr in all honesty aa undoubtedly xx hypothetically x in reality x distressingly
1 it's likely that prosumabll 5 in fact, really
2 | acknowledge this point, although l'd rather not admitiedl.l 6 in theory
3 to be honest with you 7 l'm concerned about this
4 there is no doubt about this
6 Choose one word you cannot use to complete the sentences.
1 Teenagers aren't interested in the world around them. Theoretically / Frankly / As a matter of
fact, all they care about is what other teenagers are doing.
2 Young people often talk about'the newsl Admittedly / Probably / ln reality,'the news'is usually
about the party last weekend!
3 Eighteen-to-thirty-fouryear-olds are less knowledgeable than their elders, Presumably/
Obviously / Hypothetically, it's because they don't have time to read the news.
4 Newspapers should make news more relevant to young people. ln reality / Worryingly /
Probably, they don't seem to be doing this.
5 Many top journalists are middle-aged. Hypothetically / Undoubtedly / Obviously, they reflect a
middle-aged vlew of the world.
6 Newspapers need to engage younger readers. Undeniably / Frankly / Distressingly, they need to
write about issues that matter to them.

SPEAKING Do you agree or disagree with the opinions in exercise 6? Give reasons for
your answers.

3 ,u rhe media and the message


H
ry%ru m
6E

Newspapers are part of our daily life; without them Whoever said 'No news is good news, had point.
we'd be cut off from reality. We read the news to know
a If
we don't read the news, we can pretend nothing
bad
what is going on in the world, and this knowledge has happened. But look at the headlines
shapes our attitudes and actions' Newspapers
and there it
dAsa
educate us, exposing us to new ideas and words, matter of fact, journalists seem to like bad
t
which are good for the mind, too. news. So ,
why do we read it? And wouldn,t we be better
1lt's a sad fact. but much of the younger generation
withour it?
off li
without ir?
uWorryingly,
have no interest whatsoever in the news.
"Presumably we read the news because we think that t
in a recent survey, young people scored an average
it deals with issues that we might be able
of 5.9 out of twelve questions in a general knowledge to innu"n""-.- - l
in
in some
cn-o way.
urorr But
D,,+ think
+L:-l- ^r- - ,
y;;;;;;
- t.
test about world events. bFrankly, ignorance is about news stories
t
read recently. Could you chanse
dangerous and it's reckless to ignore reality;
by change anv
any of
ofthe
fhe siiuations? It
Events in the news are usually about things "ii,,rti^-or
following the news, we become stronger, more :-^d--
influence. ,
(Yr
w;;;;;;; i
valuable citizens, able to form our own opinions i
about national and international events. And as we
find out about other people's problems, we can try to
work out how to helP them. So are we better off without it? probably,
as studies
So, 'theoretically, reading the news makes us better have shown that bad news stories can have
a negative
citizens. ln addition, it's good for the mind' Fresh effect on our minds and on our bodies. 6It
is this
perspectives and new concepts broaden our outlook,
and learning new words and ideas helps our minds can lead to serious illness. And the huge
amount of t:

to stay sharp. 2What reading does is encourage news available is robviously difficult for
our minds
t

comorehension and our ability to focus. as well as to process. As a result, we often skim_read
articles, It
,:
improving our vocabulary. t:
rather than reading them deeply for understanding.
ln short, make the most of the news and try to read it ir This overworks our short-term memory which
ti in
every day, even for just a few minutes. Visit different turn weakens our long_term memory.
news sites and challenge your ideas by looking at sAdmittedly, in this
information-rich age, it,s
3Not only is the news about
different points of view. a impossible to switch ourselves off from the
but it's also about inspiration' news
accessing information. completely
People who change the world always read the news, t
-
forming opinions on the biggest challenges facing
our planet today.
t:
No news can
sometimes be good news.

E wBiltuc.Gurdq;

I Task Choose one of the headlines in exercise I and I Write Write your article. Use the paragraph plan to
write an opinion article. help you.

I ldeas Brainstorm ideas and then select the main I Check Check the following points:
points you want to make. Try to include unusual r the topic clearly stated?
ls
angles on the topic, or facts and opinions that the r Have you used emphasis to underline your main ideas?
reader may not have considered. r Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
punctuation?
I Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: State the topic and main purpose of your
article. Outline your main ideas.
Paragraph 2: Present your first point.
Paragraph 3: Present your second point.
Paragraph 4: Restate the main points you have covered.

The media and the message 17


i--
-
'1 hope vera
I rov. certainly, desperately, feryentl% really, sincerely, very
Adverb intensifiers i much o Thw -d desperately that their missing son wouLd.
: come home. a I sincerely - that you will be successful. I only
We can use adverb intensifiers to modifu verbs or ': o I only - you're rqht I secretly a He seffetly 4 that she
) wouldn't be home.
adjectives. There are three types of adverb lntensifiers. I vrne + ropr (not) dare (to) | hardly dare, scarcely dare (esp
a emphasizers: these words make the verb or adjective : BrE) . I hardly dared to - the pLan would succeed. I begin to
: I continue to
stronger. I pnrp. for o we ore hoping for goodweather.
i pralsrs - against - (: to continue to hope for sth even
Thal nou programm? is realll boring. : though it is very unlikely) | for the best (: to hope that
' sth will happen successfully, -esp. where it seems likely that
b amplifiers: these words enlarge the meaning of the r it will not)
verb or adjective. We can only use ampllfiers with
non-g rada ble adjectives. I regret verb
I rov. bitterly, deeply, greatly, really, seriously, sincerely,
i truly, very mu ch a The pr5ident said that his counry deeply
I regretted the incident. I rather I immediately, instantly o 1
't immediately regrexed not 6king for his name and address. I

i quickly, soon o It w6 a decbion she would soon -. I later o


I Piere told them some things he Later regretted telling. I

I never
i vrna + nrcnrr begin to I come to, grow to, live to o She
I knew that she would Live to - this dec6lon. I seem to
Read the strategy above. ldentify the adverb
intensifiers in the sentences below. 4 Replace the words in italics with the correct adverbs.
1 lt was an extremely challenging time for the whole Use the dictionary entries in exercise 3 to help you.
family. 1 The residents of the burning building (in a way that
2 I was fairly surprised to hear the news.
shows despair) hoped
3 Do you really think that's a good idea?
that there wasn't anyone left inside.
4 l'm utterly exhausted from trying to understand his You will (not long from now)
politics.
regret what you wrote about the incident.
5 The politician exposed in the documentary was They (ln an instant)
absolutely furious. regretted posting the photos online.
6 We're slightly concerned about the lack of
I (in a genuine way) . .. hc
information in this report. that you accept my apology.
7 Her story is undoubtedly true. You must believe her.
5 She (aftersometime)
8 They were pretty annoyed about the article in the regretted spreading all the rumours.
newspaper. 6 Jack (without wanting anyone else to know)
9 ltt a very interesting documentary. . . hoped to win the Young
Journalist of the Year award.
Put the adverb intensifiers in exercise 1 under the
correct heading in the table. Choose the correct intensifier for the sentences
below. Use a collocations dictionary to help you.

'!rc:iix.&iiiXi$1m*(":ii:tl]i!aaM$6i&'',,,,,i 1 I honestly / readily believe that there should be no


censorship of the media.
The documentary-makers freely / sincerely regretted
the distress caused to some of the people featured in
their programme.
My teachers positively / utterly encouraged me to
take the journalism course at college.
Adverb intensifiers: collocations
We utterly / fully refuse to read anything published
Some adverb intensifiers collocate with specific verbs to
by this newspaper.
make emphatic expressions. You can find which adverbs
Mr Gruber categorically / deeply rejects all
to use with which verbs in a collocations dictlonarv
accusations that he broke the law.
I strongly / freely recommend that you watch this
3 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary documentary.
entries for hope and regret and answer the questions. She sincerely / readily hopes that her photographs
1 Which adverbs are commonly used to intensify both will help to inform more people about the war.
verbs? They fully / honestly appreciate the seriousness of
2 Which adverbs are used only with hope? the crime.
3 Which adverbs are used only wilh regret?

Dictionaryentriesfrom OxfordCollocationsDictionaryforstudentsof English2,


78 Vocabulary insight 5 Oxford University Press 2009,
Review 6
'I|I'}r- +/, l:- ,/2

Match the words in A to the words in B to make 5 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar meaning
collocations. to sentence a. Use musL might (not) or can't.
A ex expose x fall for x go x make xs set e spread 1 a That story is in all the papers, so it's probably true.
B x the agenda e corruption x headlines & rumours b That story. ... .... because it s in all the papers
xascamxviral 2a lt isnt possible that that slnger is dying - shes so
1 young!
...... 4 .......
2 ...... b That singer is so young - she . . .....
5 ........
3 .. 6..... ....
3a Its possible that the reporters were trying to help
' Marks /6
the injured man.
b The reporters to help the injured man
Complete the text with the words below.There is 4a Perhaps the police didn't arrest the right person.
one word that you do not need. b The police ... the right person.
.

x accountability re armed i:€ cover-up xx delve into


5a l'm sure that the newsreader made a mistake
b The newsreader a mistake.
* devastated x rigged sx vulnerable
6a Its possible that it will rain in the morning.
b It in the morning
7a It s impossible that they started the fire
b They the fire
Marks l7
6 Complete the news item with the phrases below.
& sure s is bound x looks as lf x most probably
x possible that rx safe to x seems likely

Police are appealing for information about an attempted


robbery at a cash machine in Worcester Park last night.
The thief is I
.. ..... ... a local man, although it is
he lives some distance away, because he was
Choose the correct answers.
riding a bike. lt 3 . that this was not his first

attempt as he did not hesitate to approach the two girls


who were at the cash machine. CCIV footage shows that he
he is going to ride straight past the mae hine
at first, but at the last minute he leans over to try and grab
the cash. Police are s . . that he went home after
the incident because the girls pulled him off his bike. He
6
to be hurt because they hit him quite hard.
It's /. say that he will think twice about robbing
girls in pairs in the future.

7 Rewrite the sentences.


1 The film had only just begun when there was a
newsflash.
Hardly

Complete the definitions with the words below. 2 | was surprised about the style of the report.

There is one word that you do not need. What

x crowdfunding x docu-ganda x fly-on-the-wall


3 lt's the first time l've been so shocked by a news ltem.
Never
x footage ,r, score x staged x voice-over
4 The driver and the passengers got injured in the crash.
1 .. ..... . scenes are carefully planned parts of a Not only .

film or documentary. 5 Citizen journalists helped the victims of the crash


2 . style makes the action look natural. It
3 Films that spread propaganda using a documentary 6 They took lots of photos and immediately uploaded
style are known as them online.
A .. . is the information in a film glven by a What
person who is not seen on the screen. 7 The fans have rarely witnessed such a defeat of their
5 The . . . ...... is the music written for a film. team.
6 .. is the act of ralsing small amounts of Seldom
money from a large number of people. Marks t7 ItHl -J4t
Marks l6
Review 6 79
? -4:.
;; :.:.., =
.-t
I
,1,,,,i., Units 1-6
" :&i.' '€ .:ri*.PF.;W:: . ',W@.i.H .4:':4 wa,;;.

u a ril; tgr#
,. 2.08 Choose the correct answers. Idw Exgx Hrre
Recording 1 How should the piece of news be dmr"r
Ade#E€&eEre?€bmihnroiae
E i EG * I En6l t I6€t
head ined?
':
a Woman makes on ine plea for fire victims : ,' , t' ''r.'),'
b Fame for resident ol b ock hrt by fire A Natural history fans will probably be familial witlL
c Animated fi m of lire hits the internet lhe nLre secsons ol the Lif,z series made b) Brir ish
bloadcaster and rraturalist Drvid \ttenborough.
Recording 2 Wha: do the speakers think allout the new
I'amous for his hushed, ;:et enthusiasl,ic cielivery
libra ries?
s and his ability to find an;'sort of plant or anjmal
a They are convenient.
interesting, he is one of the most enduring presences
b They are unusual. on UK television. In a career spanning more than sixtt,
c They are useless. vears. Al t enborough has been r ke;' uit ness l o t he
Recording3 h"^,rrd I.o ^'f or development oI the rr ildlil"p ducumenlary.
a an advert. ro B When Attcrrborough's career bogan in 1953. pcople's
b a documentary. attitude tolvards nature \'vas very different. trverybody
c a debate. thought that anirnals were to be tracked, captured,
tled up and brought back hone to be gauped at. As a
Recording 4 Which of the following does the ca ler llpical naluralist ol rho ag". Atlenbulough admits to
state as a fact and not an opinion? rs behg no dilfcrent lrom the rest. Hc r,rould gcr aloug,
a Features oftextspeak, such as LOL, are corrupting the chase a giant anleaterand pull il by the tail so that
English language. it could be frlmed. He is also knor.r,n to have done zr
b The function of the word IOL has changed since it soqunnco rrrith an under-sizecl crocodile. -f,lming ir up
close so that it appeared to be bigger, and jumping on ii
was frrst used.
20 lo gi\e thA [alse inrplession ola figlLl . Bul in those da.vs.
c Abbreviations like LOL are on y ever used in textspeak
thirrgs rvcre rlifferent. undAttenboroughis bl no rneans
Recording 5 ll e .po6lp, q ptoud ol his acLiorrs.
a a careers advisor. Cln adcliLion to this change olattil ucle tot'ards
b a university prolessor. nalurc. Alrenb6r6llgh has also seen a leap in the
c a journa ist, 2s technolog) used to film wildlife documenlaries. He
slarled his career in broadcasting r,vhen those peopie
lucky enough to or,l.r a television possessed a very basic
black and rn'hite set.'The images were captured r,i,jth
Work in pairs. Make a list of sources a lightwcight . rrdnd-up camera. r.rhich nas positivcly
where you can get all the latest :o primitive.compared to the technology used to film his
news from. Then discuss which latesl series. New cutting-edge 3D teclrnologv has been
sources you use and why. used to r'apl ure rnesmerising images. such as planl s
tlorvering. The pictures more lhan conrpensale lor rhe
Work in pairs. Choose one photo difficulty of transporting the equipment - it takes lwo
each and describe it to each other.
Then answer the questions.
Which source of news is the fastest
and which the slowest? \A/hy?
Which source is the most reliab e
and which the least reliable? Why?
How do you think the ways we get
our news wi 1 change in the luture?
s it rmportant for teenagers to
follow the nervs? Why / why not?

i,

,.:

ta

80 Cumulative rev:ew Units 1-6


uCAWBffiUSewW
fiHf'5:i::ry?'YTfJT[
W.ffi
.o oo 0d, o
ts-ii i,al
**-'
#ffi
1&.*
:+:.4*,:# 't*.r 1"
r_q\q #:11
i.- rii I
r_b.\ 5:IJ h'

;..i;3.

d-t Read the article and answer the questions. There are
*+
,!r two questions that have no answer.
ln which paragraph does the writer:
1 acknow edge a negative change the naturalist has
witnessed?
2 comment on the naturalist's plans for the future?
3 illustrate behaviour that the naturallst regrets?
4 refer to the new techniques in filming?
5 mention the style of one partlcular naturalist?
6 remark on a conflict the naturalist has been invo ved
in?
7 comment on the naturalist's approach to
interviewing scientists?

S Complete the second sentence so that it has a


similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between
three and five words, including the word in brackets.
Do not change the word in brackets.
1 l'm sure that the reporter broke the rules to get this
intormation.
The reporter to gei this
lntormation. (must)
2 haven't heard such an outrageous accusation before
Never such an outrageous
accusation before. (hea rd)
t was a bad idea to write your essay late at night.
, .,. :!he rypstxiitortdntdeteloproentm:thelast sixdecadet', You your essay late at night,
During l-his period. a number of scientffic revolulions (ought)
r ::, ::har€.ahadgbd:oriii;jdispdbtivd,bnthd:ndtriial world. One,
of l-he new concepts is conthrenlal drifi, an idea which
4 Were you abie to get any tickets for the play?
r{0
Did any tickets for the play?
r . .he1.t$i €xplain :the, i@iation in the plants and iinfuiAli :: i.l',, :
: : :
(succeed)
on the clifferent conLinents. Attenborough says, 'At
universiry I once asked one of rqv Iecturers why he was 5 My brother has never wa ked with crutches before.
not Lalking to us aboul contirenlal drifl and i was told, My brother wlth crutches. (isn't)
: :, : :, oneer:ligi*l iili.i:i{ :it iouta prwe there was a ttiliql !5ii1 i :,
:i,:,,,Cejiiltlriii:,i,ij,cdilijndnid;lihdiih6:ni,i&lthinl{,about- it,. ,
i
:]!a 6 The surgeon was on the point of making an incision
when the patient opened her eyes.
,;:t i:
The idea was moonshine, I was hiomed.'Another is the The surgeon an incision when
discovery o[ rhe slructure oI DNA, l.vhich has complelely the patient opened her eyes. (about)
,i]::,!!iaqg.q4tthe,@y,rre. see the world. David Atte.nbq{9,1i.ghl 7 We weren't allowed to touch the sculptures in the
I if l :1 hp5,i;esponde$tq,lheseriie,W tirggiiesrlitf tizi.VeUits tq.. .
exh ibitio n
every conceivable part ofthe planet to find evidence rh
rrLy
^,, .. the sculptures in the
:.,.i:l!0,s,uIp0, $,tliet*,!le:ha$.a;.1$qiq1t€{@.W0dr&dt1y..ir{r!h9::: ': exhibition. (let)
scienrists behinrl rhem in his documentarjes.
8 She started painting landscapes when she was slx
,.:,::.8]t,Il!.forlUnateiy;&glelis:also.:a,neggtiye'side,to,.,',r,,,,,:,,],,: She she was six. (has)
the changes that Attenborough has witnessed over ss

the years. Today, wildliie documentaries are more


abouL the importance ol conserwing naLure raLher
l:: : :r :than: :BUrely,ohowiitdih.e:Wbnders .pl!!g llitltng wo1ld, * Read the statement below. Write an article for your
.,r,;,ryiis,islbedaiiseth6!6iri:irveliildi6ib€mg:d-dstiOyed:,,::.r :,,,,::r school magazine stating your opinion and giving
at an alarrning rate. In their films, naLuralisls Like 60
a review of a documentary that has been popular
i.,t,iAttdlibriroiidhwdn:i:to inform people about the:iti?'te,rli',.i,,'
among people your age.
;,.,,.,.o_!ihe.wg.{id.:ia.rhe,hqpe_.tlrat a ryq1-gunAe protd$flfrill, ,r:r,r,,
slowlv grow, wit-h younger people wanling something to
Teens would rather be entertained by
reality
be done 1o protecl the planet. "The truth is: the natura.l about real event
shows than informed
world is changjng. Ard we are LoLally dependent on6s

that world. It provides our food, water and air. It is rhe


1.::r,'mqqlipIeCiqUqrjhinsrfrs,lqyeie.441ryqgiieg,to,4ejqaAl{,11::r,:

XW [uti ?,q"!,PI q,q 19,9 ] Cumulative review Units 1-6 81


Y7 That's life
Reading and vocabulary Before I die ...
ffi 8reryts6€ /"Mft
-M

SPEAKING List five things that you would like to


achieve before you die. Now imagine you will never
die. Would your objectives be the same or different?
Why / why not?

Read the article. Are the sentences true (T), false (F)
or not given (NG)?
1 Dmitry ltskov cLaims that only powerfu people will
benefit from his project.
2 At the end of his long life, iiroemon Kimura was tired
of iving.
3 The writer says immorta ity wouLd resu t in more
crime.
4 He believes that longer lives wou d mean more
opportunities to explore different careers.
5 He thinks that o der generations usually prevent
progress and societal evolution.
6 The writer predicts that in an immortal world, there
would be fewer differences between people.
7 He claims that immortaiity wou d offer us infinite,
exc tirg possibilities.
8 He believes that it's a mistake to try and control our
own destinies.

STRATEGY

Critical thinking: evaluating pros and cons


When you read an article discussing the pros and cons
of an idea or situation, make a list of the pros and cons
the writer identifies. This will help you to understand
the argument and judge how'balanced' it is. lt will
also help you to evaluate the writer's ideas and decide
whether you agree or disagree with their conclusion.
3 Read the strategy. Make a list of the pros and cons
of living forever presented in the article. Then
answer the questions.
1 Does the writer present a balanced argument?
2 Can you think ofany other pros?
3 Do you agree with the wrlter's conclusion?
Why / why not?

:t,':,iiiii':i:i:11a:t, Phrasal verbs with off


4 Study phrasalverbs 1-6 in the article.Then match
them to the meanings of off below.
a become less
b depart
c reject or dismiss
d postpone
e reslst
f remove

J n--,, Tnar's,fe
I
&
:rerew
Vocabulary: phrasal verbs with orf, phrases with /lFe;the o d and Speaking: discussing old age
tLe y ou gt d.ol, c
1 eor ir g lg Writing: an opinion essay
Gramnnar; conditjona s, mixed conditlonals; unrea sltuations
*ilreW-ffi..l"13si'Wffiffi,a - €,'""'+Fe 'ry.i#ffi +- ..r,i{i,}:fffi1}@g
:-:

would rise because a few years in prison would no


Ionger deter criminals, and how could the state afford
'life sentences'? Another big change would be in
the length of our working life. People could spend
thousands of years in lhe same job, resulting in severe
depression. There would be fewer career opportunities
for younger, less experienced generations, too.
lmmortality would also influence how society
develops and progresses. As demographics changed
and the population grew older, there would be more
resistance to progress. lmagine if everyone from the
eighteenth century were still alive today. Chances are
lhat racial segregation would still exist and women
wouldn't have the right to vote. Older generations
need Io die in order to let the younger generation
breathe life into new concepts and allow society
to progress; in a brave new'immortal'world, older
people could continue to 3fend off innovation in
favour of the status quo. A new scientific truth does
not triumph by convincing its opponents and making
them see the light,' said Nobel physicist Max Planck,
'but rather because its opponents eventually die and
a new generation grows up that is familiar with the
idea from the beginning.'
Itskov claims that people from every walk of Iife will
benefit from immortality, but in reality, only the very
rich and powerful will be able to afford it. lt could
lead to a new world order with billionaire immortals
living charmed lives and running the world in much
the same way as the gods ruled the ancient world in
Creek mythology. The divide between the rich and
the poor could widen to the extent that they may
even become two different species.
Yet those in favour of immortality projects argue
that it's unethical to condemn everyone to death
when the possibility of indefinite life exists. Modern
medicine cures diseases and keeps people in
the prime of life for as long as possible; surely, they
argue, immortality is the next logical step? People
could explore endless possibilities, witness how
lhe human race evolves and dedicate themselves to
doing good. Supporters don't believe that the novelty
;life might one day awear off. They don't consider
qit once we have passed all the milestones in life
scrossed everything off our bucket Iists, we
ld be condemned to an eternity of boredom.
; it is not only Dmitry ltskov who is promising
ft of immortality; scientific research is also
uncovering nature's secrets of longevity. Living
.really is a matter of Iife and death and the
is it creates cannot be easily 6shrugged off.
; by accepting that life is finite, we're able
re value to the time we have, and to think
itliilabout how we are using it and what we
$iifthieve, because we might not get another
t€i,As a wise man once said, 'The bad news is,
i6lflii-"3:lThe good news is, you're the pilot.'

That's tife 83 ffit


.
j'il;-*:*n

.:.:-.:::i.:i.:liuli
78 t Grammar and li

5 Match the sentence halves.Then match the phrasal


verbs in italics to meanings a-f in exercise 4.
rt
Tlirtr
l' ."-f*rrq,UU
1 We may laughoff the idea of eternallife, lUCKrcSt
2 Scientists called off the news conference
3 We can fight off disease and infections,
4 As we get older, physical activity eases off
5 The shopllfter made off with an anti-ageing cream
6 Very old people often feel cut off from society
7 Most people brush off the ldea ofimmortality S11':,i"i'.'r1
8 oll
l,e rubbedthe dirt El!1*' o"'xo,o
rl"Je-,iaFm
a because the results of their study were inconclusive. _,::x=r;jffi;^
: -__@: -. .1,,1.r. r E
b andwebecomemoresedentary.
and we become more sedentary. I ;;frtEtB"
; i fi t E t I
c but we ultimately have to accept our own mortality. i i t B A t t E
d as its unlikelyto happen in their lifetime. i ittt?iB
e and flnd it difficult to keep up with new changes I 1:lf* ,; fr'i B rr.3
**:n::s
f that was worth a lot of money. ffiil|ffi$E
*I"il* "t "r
g his face
.'

h but scientists predict that some babies born today


will live for hundreds of years.

6 Study the highlighted phrases in the article.


Then match them to their meanings below.
1 an important event or point in someone's life SPEAKING Look at the life events below. Which
2 an urgent or very important lssue would you consider to be lucky escapes and which
3 length of time for which an item remalns usable lucky breaks? Have you read about any lucky
4 the best and healthiest time ln someone's life escapes or lucky breaks in the news recently?
5 bring ideas and energy to something Describe what happened.
6 all occupations and statuses xx winning the lottery xc surviving a plane crash
7 a new opportunity to live longer and have a better {, gettlng out of a burning car s surviving a train accident
quality of Iife e meeting the love of your life a getting your dream job
8 to always be lucky and safe from danger xll recovering from a serious illness

7 SPEAKING Discuss the questions. 2 mtXiail$i Listen to a report about Frank Selak.
1 What are the main milestones in life? Which have you Which events in exercise 1 did he experience?
already completed?
2 What age do you consider to be the prime of life? Why?
3 What types of situations might be a matter of life
and death? 3 Read the sentences from the recording and answer
Would you say you live a charmed life? What types questions a-e.
of people might be considered to have such a life? 1 lf you were Frank, you'd be happy to be alive.

Phrases with time page 140


2 Unless he lost everything, he wouldn't buy another
ricket.
3 lf it hadn't been for the people in the village, Frank
could have drowned.
4 lf he hadn't landed in the hay, he mightn't have
survived.

a Which sentences talk about an imaginary or unlikely


situation in the past? Which conditional are they?
b Which sentences talk about an imaginary or unllkely
situation in the present or future? Which conditional
are they?
c Which tenses do we use to form conditionals in
sentences 1 and 2? Which tenses do we use in
sentences 3 and 4?
d Which verbs can we use instead of would?
e Can you rephrase sentence 2 using ifl

Workbook page 121

I a^ Tnat's rrre
.B J-,
4 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
1 Frank ended up in the crash because he missed an earlier traln.
lI he hadn't
2 He managed to break the train window; that's why he survived.
Frank might not
3 Frank should believe in good luck - I would in his situation.
l'd believe
4 The pilot'flew too low; that's why the plane crashed.
lf the pilot
5 The children had already got offthe bus, so they weren't hurt.
The children could have been
6 lt'd be amazing to live a charmed life like Frank.
rfl

5 Read the sentences from the recording and answer questions a-c.
1 lf Franks luck had run out, this would be the end of his story.
2 lf Frank was a greedy man, he would have kept the money for himself,
a Which sentence talks about a past condition with a present result?
b Which sentence talks about a present condition with a past result?
c Which conditionals are used in each clause?

6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Are the sentences
second, third or mixed conditionals? ln the mixed conditionals, which part of the sentence
refers to the present and which to the past?
1 My life might be better if | . . . (make) different choices in the past.
2tft (be)you, I wouldn't put offapplying for college.
3 lf they hadn't spoken English every day, they (not be) so fluent now.
4 lf he ... . . . (not learn) from his mistakes, he wouldn't have made any proqress.
5 lf I were in the prime of life, I (hitchhike) round the world.
6 We'd be better offtoday if we (buy) that winning lottery ticket last week!
7 She'd be a teacher by now if she (not drop out) of university.
8 She (not be)happy unless she did allthethings on her Iist

7 Complete the text with the correct form of the words in brackets.

we&ffiwwtffit
Most peoplels definition: o{, [Uck is winn o Jol sf
(itlredly/moke) iiaiorild k
Tli.w,l,,'d n d
. Tltrxsl:::.
'-t'
I ilirsd.Kiiib, 'lt
, would she :shrit

, but she is sbond. Winn


the she recei-v-ed,
s, 5.', .ri:,rl

lees thei
) much
me misto
ond soy ihot if

8 SPfnxlruG Discuss the questions.


1 What do you define as good fortune'in life?
2 lf you had won the lottery two years ago, how would your life be different today,'
3 lf you could choose one thing to change in your life, what would it be?

That'slifett]
1 SPEAKING Look at the photo and discuss the questions.
1 How old are the women ln the photo? What does the picture suggest we forget when
we look at older people?
2 Think about old people you know. What do you talk to them about? How do you relate to them?
3lfyoupassanoldpersoninthestreet,doyousmileandsay'Goodmorning'oravoideyecontact?
4 lf you see an old person get on a full bus, do you give up your seat or let them stand?
5 How does your society treat older people? What might be the reasons for this?
mgmn Listen to a radio programme about growing old in different societies. Tick the ideas
that are mentioned.
x physical fitness x mental deterloration x dependence vs independence !x depression
m loneliness x poor diet x job opportunities x community projects

3 WW Listen again and choose the correct answers.


1 According to the presenter, what is happening to society today?
a lt's becoming more tolerant.
b lt's becoming much older.
c lt's becoming less caring.
2 What is the attitude to young people in countrles like America?
a They don't have much to say about important issues.
b They come up with new ideas.
c They galn experience quicklY.
3 According to the speakers, why do old people lose respect?
a Because they retire too earlY.
b Because they don't value young people.
c Because they lose their independence.
4 In the East, young people
a send the elderly to nursing homes.
b take care of the elderly.
c are looked after by the elderly.
5 How is the way that old people are treated in ..lapanese culture explained?
a lt forms part of their upbringing and customs.
b They don't value young people as much.
c Children rely on their parents to support them.
6 Tribal societies are helped by
a the resilience of old people during famine and hardship.
b old people's knowledge of tribal history.
c old peoples ability to fight in battles.

4 Study the words and phrases from the radio programme. Which do you think describe the
old and which the young? Which can describe both? Use a dictionary to help you.
x over the hill x adolescent xx (in)dependent x wise x juvenile x long rn the tooth x youthful
xelderlyxinfantilexdynamicxsupportivex(in)experrencedxself-reliantxvulnerablexchildish
x set in their ways x foolish x mature

ts se rhat's life
If:,av
,* a; f,
E
7C
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss how you would describe the people in 1-3.
Use the words in exercise 4 and justify your answers. -
1 Seventy-five-year-old Olive lives alone in a bedsit with her cat. She doesn't like going out and
prefers to watch game shows most of the day. Her only son moved abroad two years ago.
2 Edissixty-flveyearsoldandavolunteeratthelocal communitycentre.Heservedinthearmyfor
many years and used to be a boxer. He gives youngsters self-defence lessons.
3 Seventy-year-old lrene lives with her daughter and son-in-law. She helps look after the
grandchildren and does most of the household chores while her daughter works. She often gives
her grandchildren advice when their parents aren't around.

6 SPEAKING Discuss the questions.


1 Do you agree that oider people are'invisibie'? Give reasons for your answer.
2 What value can older people bring to your local community? How can they contribute?

Generation gap page 140

7 Read the statement below. Do you agree? Why / why not?


'Societies should value youth over age and experience.'

8 , Listen to students having a class discussion


ii7i,,12.11
about the statement in exercise 7 and compare your ideas.

9 liili'Zf l , Complete the phrases from the discussion. Then listen again and check.

4r,::Supportint,a,i!tt€m.Q!!t:,:t:.::. .:,.,' C Discussinghypotheticalsituations


Ond,of ,the 1.,:;,., i,i: ;r ,.,i: it .:'i.':ieidior,iifo,r. :.,, : is :,., . lf society didn't value its youth, we
|2.. . . supportthatidea. make no progress.
The most obvious reason for this is ... . Sociery 7 .. .. become . .. .

, t, I :Pqth a ps, fewel,r:iil!pke5: t8:11:t


.;t1,,: . :,r:;l,tiii il lb6 :

--:^
IIIdUC....

What 1 me is ... .

I can't 5...
.. . support ihat point of view .. . .

10 iill,2;te:, Listen to some otherstudents discussing the same statement. Tick the phrases that
you hear.Then match all of them to categories A-C in exercise 9.
,xThe main benefit that ... . x One positive aspect of ... is ... . x A significant problem is ... .

x My main worry would be ... .,uThat might result in ... . x What if ... ?:l Even if ... .

x The best thing about it is . . . .

11 SPEAKING Work in small groups. Discuss one of the statements below.


1 'Young people aren't valued enough by societyl
2 'There is too much pressure on young people todayl
3 'Old people should be cared for by their familiesl

That'slifetr]
7D t Culture, vocabulary and Erammar The Road Not Taken .3
!r.\ -<L ffiA@*q

1 SpglXltUG Think about an important decision


you have made in your life, such as deciding which
school to go to, applying for a part-time job or
taking up a new sport. Discuss the questions.
1 Who or what influenced you when you made the
declsion?
Was it an easy decision to make? Dld you make it
The Road Not Taken
quickly or did you consider all the optlons first? by Robert Erost
Do you think you made the right decision?
Why / why not?
wood'
,oud, diverged in Yetlow
a
i*o
2 i:iijlr2l3,. Read and listen to the poem. What
ffi '"* i;*id *i """:i^1"^tl
ilt i;t; i'*'t.'' ions I stood rr
decision did the writer have to make?

3 Match summaries A-D to verses 1-4 in the poem. i,,i i*t. a 9*.Ytn li:Ltfffi
t ,:Ail
A One road seemed less used than the other road, but To where it bent
when I took a closer look they were really no different
2
B I was walking through a wood one day, when I came jltl.ut
across two roads. I didn't want to choose which one ii..r, toot the other' the
"t better l1t:-
cralm'
to take, but I had to. offi;;riinn PerhaPs and wanted wear;
grassy
C ln the future l'll probably tell people that I took the Because it was th::^
road that looked less used (even though it wasn't) ffita ut ro' tiutthe Passing the same'
and that choosing that road made a big difference ii"i,i,.* tnem reallv about
to my life.
3
D Even though there was no difference, I decided to
take the second road. I hoped I might go back and And both th"', i"lX'i?,:tH3*i'l]-.
explore the other road another time, although I knew In leaves no steP ni
this was unlikely. iii.Iit pilr" flrst for another to waY
lu'l -'
v.i f.".*itg how waY leads on
ffi ffiX$ttxm{yl ins rnean i n s i"a."ui.J-ii I shouid ever come back'
4 X&r2.13:: Read and listen to the poem again and
4
discuss the questions. this with a sigh
1 Can the poet see where the two roads lead? Which i si,ait be telling hence:
io**r"" ages and ages
phrase tells us this? in a wood' and' 'I -
2 The wood is yellow and the road covered in leaves.
i*.l."at diverged
i;;il;; on' t's.s traveled'bY"
difference'
has made aII the
What time of year is it? What does this suggest about
the poet's age? Why might this make his choice more
o"Jirllt
difficult?
3 What type of decision-maker is the poet? Does he
feel comfortable making a choice or is he hesitant?
4 When he tells the story in the future, what sort of
'sigh'does the poet give? ls it a sigh of regret or relief?
Give reasons for your answer.
5 How will he change his story in the future? Why?
What type of person might take'the road less
traveled'?
6 What do you think the road is a metaphor for?

Read Robert Frost's biography and put his life


events in the correct order.
x dropped out of university r: met the love of his life
:: worked for a newspaper x, had his first child
:: became famous x llved on a farm
:t travelled to England ::: his father died

Makinq decisions

I aa rnats,ie
Y'T?
6 Study sentences 1-4 in the biography and answer
the questions.
1 Do they talk about real situations?
2 Do they refer to the past, present or future?
3 Which tenses are used in each sentence?
7 Study the underlined sentences below and answer
the questions in exercise 6.
1 lohn hasn't been to class for a while. lt's as thouqh he
didn't want to carry on.
2 My brother ls a journallst and he's always chasing
deadlines. Perhaps he'd rather there was more time to
write.
3 Ruth says she can't move away from New York until
she's finished her studies. But suppose she moved
to England next month, couldn't she study the same
Robert Frost (t g7+lg63t subjects there?
Robert Frost is one of America,s most popular
poets. 4 My cousin wants to quit college, but he can't find
By the end of his life he was a living legend, a good job. lmaqine he flnished his deqree, mavbe
but in the
beginning, it was a very different,lorylaorn success would be easler?
in"lg74,
Frost spent his first eleven years in
San Francisco. 5 l'd sooner we didn't have a test todav.
Sadly for Robert, several years later
so the family moved to Massachusetts
his father died, 6 Hannah can't afford a new moped, but supposinq she
and lived with was offered that new iob, mavbe shed buy one then.
relatives. lt was there that Frost met
the love of his life,
Elinor White. We can use the present simple instead of the past
Later, Robert and Elinor got engaged ,simrillmgiiu.iyialf;,liiii.w.liri$artd;ais,if /,'asthough
and Robert
went off to study at Dartmouth College. with little difference in meaning.
But one term
into his course, he dropped out and rient
home to John hasn't been to class for a while. lt's as though he
work as a reporter for a local newspaper ',,1.',,
at a high school. Soon after, Robert and
and teach ,doeintwanrlocar1y..oq,,
Elinor got
married and had a baby boy called Elliot. Workbook page122
The slme
h" managed to get a place at Harvard University.
I:1,
Unfortunately, he dropped out after two years
15

study. llt was as if of I Choose the correct answers.


he hacJn,t wante a +^ .^.^, ^^
although quite the opposite was true. ff,"Eai"u, lmagine you lived / had lived in America today. How
that.Robert had to support his wife and would your everyday life be different?
family. As a
result, they moved to a farm in New lmagine you didn't study / hadn't studied English
Hampshire and
made money raising chickens. 2perhaps last year. What would you be doing now?
he,d rather
have had more time to write poetrtr Urt titu * tf," Supposing she told / had told him the truth. What
farm was hard. However, he did .unugu would he have done?
to write a
Iittle, early in the morning, before wor[. Suppose I dropped out/ had dropped out ofschool,
During this
period, he completed some of the poems
that"would
wouldlfindajob?
eventually make him famous. My best friend wouldn't talk to me. lt was as if I did /
Robert wasn't good at farming, so after had done something wrong.
nine years
he returned to education and taught ld sooner we hadn't studied / didn't study poetry
fngtistr anit today. Can we listen to a song instead?
academy. Five years later; frustrated
by his lack of
success, Robert moved his family
to England. There, he ld rather he was / had been honest with me. He lied
found a publisher for his work and sooi about having his poem published.
became popular
in poetry circles in England as well as in
ln
America.
5, he went back to America, where he wrote
191 I SPIAKING Discuss the questions.
The Roqd Not Token. He was forty_two
at the time and 1 lmagine you'd left school last year, how would your
the poemt theme of indecision probably Iife be different?
reflected
Robert's own regrets. 3Suppose he,d
moved to 2 Supposing you passed your exams, what would your
england_5Qanc{, perhaps he,d have touna tarne plans for the future be?
-hagine earlier?
he'd finis maybe success 3 Do you agree that one road leads to another in life?
would have been easier? ln 1960, he was Why / why not?
asked to
read his poem The Cift Outrightat president
Kennedy,s 4 Have you ever changed your mind after making an
inauguration. Today, Robert Frost,s poetry important decision?
is read and
enjoyed by poetry lovers all over the worjd.

That's life 89
7E: writing A,n

@;

SPEAKING Who do you think has a better quality of life:


older or younger people? Justify your answers. Then read
the opinion essay and compare your ideas.

When you want to persuade your reader to do something, support something or change the
way they think use the language of persuasion to get your message across. Think about:
1 Repetition: repeating key words and ideas for emphasis.
2 Word order: put information you want to emphasize at the beginning or end of the sentence.
3 sentence length: shorter sentences are more emphatic. Use them for points you want
to emphasize.
4 Examples from real life: giving real examples can make your argument more compelling.

2 Read the strategy. Then read the essay again. What persuasive language does the writer
use? Find examples in the essay of points 1-4 in the strategy'

3 Rewrite the sentences below so that they are more persuasive. Use the clues in brackets
to help you.
(Repeat aretreated
1 Today, old people are treated well in Mediterranean countries and in Japan.
welland add roo.)

2 il;;;il;il;; ,; il;;"sr interesrins person t,ve mer. (Bestn with t,ve never met such ... .)

-
3 oil;;pil; ";,
q";a with technology and they can't multltask or concentrate for long
periods of time. (Use three sentences instead of one.)

young people aren't considerate and they lack compasslon towards older people and can be
quite rude. (Use three sentences lnstead of one.)

i; il; ;;;i, t;.iliv t.tp".,"d older people far more than it does today. (Begin wirh Otder people
were ... .)

6 My grandparents have more friends, money and security than l'll ever have. (Repeat more')

4 Study the highlighted words and phrases in the opinion essay and answer the
questions.

Which phrases are used to describe:


1 differences?
2 similarities?
3 one thing changing over time?
4 two or more thlnqs changing?
go rhat's tife
F
F *-1 EI
'7E
-Prh#

5 Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
1 In the past, people used to respect old people more.
OId people aren't
2 Today, old people are treated well in Mediterranean countries and in Japan
Today, old people are treated just
3 My grandmother is the most interesting person l've met.
You're unlikely to meet
4 Older people aren't as good with technology as younger people.
Younger people are
5 My grandparents have a better soclal life than I do.
I don't have such

6 lf you exercise regularly, you'll live a lot longer.


The more

'Older people have a better quality of life


than younger people.' Do you agree?
Growing old is something we all have to face. On the other hand, it's also true that older
For young people, old age may seem a long way people are less active and more likely to fall
off . lt may also seem depressing with many ill. They are not always as mentally alert,
disadvantages, but in my opinion getting older and not so good at multi-tasking as younger
has a lot to offer. Older people can have a better people. However, medical advances mean
quality of life than younger people. that the older generation have far more active
Firstly, I believe that the older people become, lifestyles than before. Seventy-six-year-old
the happier they get. They are older and Ernestine Shepherd is a good example - you're
wiser, and have more self-knowledge and life unlikely to meet such an energetic pensioner
experience than younger people. They know as this body builder. Ernestine gets up at
where they've come from, they know where 2 a.m. every day and runs ten milesl
they're going and they've got nothing to prove. All things considered, in my opinion, older
Secondly, as people get older, they have more people definitely have a better quality of life
and more time to do what they want. Old people than younger people. They have more life
can learn new things just as easily as young experience, they are healthier than previous
people, and they can broaden their horizons just generations, and they have the time to follow
as much as the younger generation. their dreams.

WRITING6UlBE

I Task Write an opinion essay on one of the topics I Plan Follow the plan:
below. Paragraph 1: State the topic of the essay and give your
1 'Old people were better taken care of in the past than point of view.
they are todaylDo you agree? Paragraph 2: Introduce the first argument which
2 'Young people today have no time or respect for the supports your oplnion.
oldlDo you agree? Paragraph 3: Introduce a second argumentto support
your opinion.
I ldeas Match the ideas below to the essay topics. Paragraph 4: Sum up any arguments against your
Do you agree or disagree with them? Brainstorm opinion.
more ideas to support your opinion. Paragraph 5: Summarize and restate your opinion.
a Society places more value on youth and forgets what
older people have to offer. I Write Write your essay. Use the paragraph plan to
b ln the past, society had more respect for older people help you.
as they passed on their knowledge to the younger
generation.Today, that knowledge is on the internet. I Check Check the following points:
c Older people are no longer cared for by their families. r Have you stated your opinion in the introduction and
Most are put into care homes and forgotten. the concluslon?
d Older generations used to live at home. Children r Have you used persuasive language?
don't want that responsibility any more. r Have you made comparisons to illustrate your point
e Care homes have qualifled individuals to look after of view?
older people. They are better off there. r Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
f Young people have nothing in common with old punctuation?
people. Why should they make time for them?

That's life 91
1 Work in pairs. Read sentences 1-7 from the unit. 1 What verb is wouldthe past form of?
What does would mean in each sentence? 2 What is a synonym of would when it is used to talk
about past events?
1 Crime rates would rise because a few years in prison 3 When would is used with requests, invitations and
would no longer deter criminals.
offers, is it polite or imPolite?
2 There would be fewer career opportunities for
4 Which phrases is would used with to say why
younger, less experienced generations.
somebody does something?
3 The writer says immortality would result in more
5 How can you express opinions that you are not
crime.
certain of?
4 lf Frank's luck had run out - this would be the end of
his story.
Match sentences 1-7 in exercise 1 to meanings of
5 lf I were you, I wouldn't put off applying to college' would in the dictionary entry in exercise 2.
6 People would stoP and stare.
7 lf she had known this before, would she have bought 4 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
the ticket?
meaning to sentence a. Use the correct form of
would or wouldn't.
1a We used to spend hours dreaming about the
would has multiple meanings and functions future.
depending on how, where and in what way it is used. b We ....... dreaming about the
ldentifuing these meanings and functions will help future.
you to understand more complex texts and use more 2a Doing more exercise will probably make him feel
sophisticated language in a correct way. Always use the better.
context (the lnformation before and after the word) to b lf he did more exercise, he ..
..... . .

infer the word's meaning. A good dictionary will provide 3a My brother refused to apply for a place at
all the different meanings of a word, as well as examples university.
of its use. b My brother ... ... .. ... . for a Place at

university.
4 a 'l won't retire,' he told me.
2 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
b He told me that
entry for would and answer the questions.
5 a She slipped offthe roof and broke her leg.
',would 0s 1 strong lorm wod:, weok form wad'; ad'l
modal verb lshort lorm'd ldl. neSotive would not, shori
b lf she hadn't .. .. her leg.
..

'I form wouldn't /'wudnt/) 6 a I want you to stop worrying about the future.
I 'l1 ror
I
rrcpd ,c thA
used as the nrsf form ofwill when reporting what sb
past for
thought: He soid he would be heri
has said or thouqht: here at eight
ewht b I wish that... .. . ..

i ottock (: 11i5 vTords were: 'I wi1l be there at eight o'clock.').


o She osked if I wouldhelp. oThey told me thatthey probably
wouldn't come.2 s,. used for talking about the result ofan Use a dictionary to find the entry for could. Then
! event that you imagine: She'd.lookbetter with shorter hair. read about situations 1-5. Write a sentence with
': o lf youwent to see htm, he wouldbe delighted. o Hurry up! It
': woutdbe a shame to miss the beginning of the ploy. o She'd' could and the words in brackets.
': be a fool to accept it (= if she accepted). 3 ur used for de-
I scribing a possible action or event that did not in fact hap- 1 You want to look at someone's magazine. (borrow)
I pen, because sth else did not happen frtst: If I had seen the
': advertisement in time I would have applied for the job. o
They would never have met if she hadn't gone to Emmo's 2 You're annoyed because your friend was rude to you.
parry. 4 o- so that/in order that sb/sth used for saying
-
whv sb does sth: She burned the teners so lhal her husband (be more polite)
-
,oild n uff read them.5 o" wish (that) sb/sth used for
sayingwhat you want to happen: I wlshyou'dbe quietfor a
minuie. 6 o" used to show that sb,/sth was not willing or You feel very upset about something. (so / cry)
refused to do sth: she wouldn't change it, even tl-Lough she
knew it was wrong. o My car wouldn't stort this mornin&.
7 orr used to ask sb politely to do sth: Would you mind
leaving us alone for a few minutu? o Wouldyou open the You think that your friend's bedroom is too hot. (do
door for me, please? 8 o'. used in polite offers or invita- with / some fresh air)
tions: wouldyoulike a sandwich? oWouldyouhave dinner
with me on Friday? 9 o. like, love, hate, prefer, etc.
-
sth/(sb) to do sth I rather do sth/sb did sth used to say
-
what you like, love, hate, etc.: I'd love a coffee. o l'dbe only You thlnk your teacher didn't remember to set any
too gtadtohelp. o I'dhateyouto thinklwos criticizingyou. a homework. (forget)
ld rather come with you. o I'd rather you came with us.
1Oo,r- imagine, say, think, etc. (that)... used to give
opinions that you are not certain abo,uf: I would imagtne
tie job will take about two ddys. o I'd say he wos about fifty.
11 0r I would... used to give advice: r wouldn't have Study the dictionary entries for would and could
any more to drink, if I were you. 12 olr used for talking
abbut things that often happened in the past €![} used again. Write three sentences with different
10: Vlhen my parents were oway, my grandmother would meanings of would andthree sentences with
toke care of me. o He'd always be the first to offer to help.
13 (usually disopproving) used for talking about behaviour different meanings ol could.
that you think is typical: 'She said it was your fault.' 'weIL,
she woulil say thot, wouldn't she? She's never liked me.'
14 -that... (l ite ra ry) :used to express a strong wish: Would
thathehodlivedto see if. O note at MoDALT sHouLD

ts ,, vocabulary insight 7 Dictionary entry from Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary B, Oxford University Press 2010
.G\. -L

Replace the words in italics with the correct forms of 4 Complete the text with the correct conditional
phrasal verbs with offformed from the words below. forms of the verbs in brackets.
x brush xcall x cut xeasexfightx laugh x make xwarn
1 My grandfather always (makes a joke
about) any suggestions that he is going to retire
2 An old farmer............ ..(told us to leave) his Iand
when we were going for a walk.
party
3 My birthday (has been cancelledt.
4 Thleves (have /efr) with the old lady's
jewels.
The pain . (became /ess) after he had had
his treatment.
Mygrandmother . .. . (reslsrs)anyattempts
to put her in a home.
7 She .
Qsseparated) from herchildren
because they have all emigrated to Canada.
8 Our elderly neighbour (ignored) our
offers of help.
Marks 18

2 Complete the sentences with phrases with life and


the words in brackets. 5 Complete the sentences.
1 Teenage qirls sometimes consider their clothes as 1 a My grandmother doesn't live with us because she
(matter) found a place ln a retirement home.
2 A hip replacement gives some old people b lf my grandmother
(lease)
.
2a I didn't visit them because they don't like me.
3 He died when he was barely 30 and . (of)
b lf they
4 Marriage is an important. . (in) 3a I speak French because I was born in Paris.
5 Some young people b rf I

and never do anything to help at home. (live) 4 a My parents didn't shout because they weren't angry.
6 During the tour, we met people from .. ..... . . .
b ll my parents
(walk)
5 a My aunt is alive because she had an operation.
7 Cookery programmes can teach the elderly how to b lf my aunt
into their cooking. (breathe) 6 a Your dad bought you a car because he ls rlch.
8 Some medicines have a limited .... . .............. . . and b llyour dad
should not be taken if they have expired. (shelf ) 7 a She looks old because she didn't have an easy life.
Marks .18 b ll that woman
Marks tl
3 Choose the correct answers.

Some would say that 101-year-old Fauja Singh from llford,


6 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
East London is a little rdependent / long in the tooth I
the verbs in brackets.
self-reliant to be running marathons. However, for the 1 lmagine you (win)the lottery
last twelve years, this 2elderly I over the hill / supportive What would you spend the money on?
gentleman has been doing just that. Far from regarding 2 Suppose you (make) a different
Mr Singh as a 3dynamic / foolish / wise old man, his family choice. What would have happened?
aindependent set in their ways
has always been / / 3 My grandmother never used to make a sound. lt was
supportive of his running. Not only does lVlr Singh (not be)there.
as if she
have children and grandchildren, but he also has great-
grandchildren who are now sadolescent / childish / juvenile.
4 She'd sooner he (not write) that
poem for her. She doesn't really like him.
Mr Singh was not an 6elderly / experienced / infantile
runner in his youth, but a farmer in Punjab, lndia. He moved 5 Supposing you (be) a poet

to Britain in the 1960s and started running at the Tmature / What klnd of poems would you write?
wise / youthful age of 89, when he lost his wife. People as 6 l'd rather you (not tell) me what
old as that are usually firmly sdynamic / long in the tooth / to do. l'm capable of deciding myself.
set in their ways, but this is not true of Mr Singh, who has Marks l6
been known to take part in races to raise awareness about
social issues, such as women's rights.

/8
ReviewT 93
Food and ethics
Reading and vocabulary A right to eat .*ffi
rury '{ffiiln-.*E{ryEf,

SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1 Look at the photos. What is happening? Why is it
Would yOU
happening? How does it make you feel?
2 Study the list of animals. Which ones would you eat?
Are there any animals you would not eat? Why?
r -eht it?
::, hOrSe:,r COW ii Snake:;, Cat I
dOg :r Shark:, graSShOpper
'I crocodile l chicken rr scorpion ,, dolphin It's five in the morning and the sea off Oman is bright
red. Aamir Mohammed has just thrown a bloodied
2 Read the article about a popular Asian food. Why carcass over the side of his small fishing boat. lt's a
do some people eat this food? Why do others want shark and it's Aamir's first catch of the day. lt's still
it banned? s alive, but it's badly injured because its fin has been
cut off. As Aamir tosses the fin into the empty hull of
Read the article again and choose the correct answers. his boat, he worries about how he will support his
1 What is difflcult for Aamir to do? family -. shark numbers are down and the fish that
a make enough money to live on he finds now are smaller than before. Meanwhile,
b find and kill sharks ro under the boat, the sha rk is still struggling and unable

c throw sharks oflthe boat to swim. As it slowly floats down to the bottom of the
d carry dead sharks in the hu I of hls boat sea, smaller fish start to eat it alive. Its death will be
2 What will happen if sharks disappear? long and agonizing.
a Smaller predators will die out.
b The food chain will be more or less the same.
c Marine ecosystems could be devastated.
d Marine biologists can't predict the result.
3 Why are sharks being hunted?
a Because they are not endangered.
b Because they are Like dolphins.
c Because they bring in a lot of money.
d Because they are used to make cheap food.
4 How does the article describe shark fin soup?
a lt has a very strong taste.
b lt has some health benefits.
c lt has been enjoyed by ordinary people for centuries,
d lt has been eaten for a long time.
5 What does YuliTan say about shark fin soup?
a lt should be served at important events.
b She ate it when she was younger.
c lt's a significant part of Asian cu ture.
d lt's a tradition that should be preserved.
4 SpfRflruG What are your food choices based on?
Rank the things below in order of importance.
Explain your ideas.
,: taste ii, price rr health issues r, culture.l: ethical issues
:, environmental issues

t,'ti :l}t r,;:i sYnonYms: intensitY


5 Find the synonyms of words 1-10 in the article.
1 painful (llne 13) 6 numerous (line 39)
2 impressive (line 15) 7 banned (line 60)
3 upsetting (line'19) 8 kill (line 70)
4 destroyed (line 23) t huge (line 73)
5 lmportant (line 25) 10 cruel (line 77)

7gq Food and ethics


..:. ....... ::..,...

, synor,\/n-rs: intef s t)r; prepositions; phrases rltth Ioce; adject ve + ncun talklng about pholos
collocations: iood a forand a,.tainst essay
the passrve; th.. passirre: ,,rerbs with
| @,.1,
nr,ro oblects;the passive rrrith reporting verlls
'f;V':47:@a

in fewer fish, and also fewer shellfish, which keep But there is a glimmer of hope - a ban on
the seas and oceans clean. An imbalance in the finning could still save the shark population and,
food chain could ultimately lead to the collapse encouragingly, it has already been outlawed in some
ss of the underwater ecosystem, with a reduced fish countries. However, not everyone supports this
popuiation and more pollution. Everything and approach. Some people feel that banning shark fin
everyone who depends on the ocean for a living, soup is an attack on Chinese culture, and that we all
or simply for recreation, r,vould suffer. lt'd be an have the right to eat our traditional foods.
envi ron menta I d isaster with cou ntless conseq u ences Seventeen-year-old Yuli Tan disagrees.'l ate shark
+o for us all. fin soup as a child,'she says.'lf it wasn't offered at
So why are people like Aamir lMohammed killing important events, the host would lose face in front
sharks? The reason is simple: shark fins are big of his guests. But traditions can change, especially
business. The fins are the main ingredient in China's when they do more harm than good. ls it really
most prized dish shark fin soup. This soup plays a necessary to slaughter 200,000 sharks a day just for
+s significant part in Chinese culture and is often served a bowl of soup?'
at New Year and other important celebrations,
where one bowl can cost as much as $tOO. the
price is surprising because shark fin is tasteless
and mercury levels in the meat mean the soup is
so relatively unhealthy. Nevertheless, shark fin has a
long cuiinary history, first appearing on the tables of
the wealthy in 960 AD. This association with wealth
and exciusivity continued through the centuries until
.1980s,
the when, thanks to a rise in prosperity in
ss Asia, ordinary people started to buy it. The increased
demand l^a: pul 'l 81 difterent shark species on the
i
'threatenecl ivith extinction' list.

ln Oman., Aamir takes the fish he has caught to the


market. Next to his liny boat are monstrous fishing
ships with hundreds of 563rl careasses, on board.
More than a thousand'Can be sold"here in a single d.iy;
but the sharks at these markeLs are only a lraclion ot
the:anirnals actually killed. lt's :a cold-bloodecl trade,
blut most fisherme,n',a't e:nlt concerned about eth:ics
becausethey need to mqke a living.Aamir. looks at the
long rows of shark fins, lined up on ,huge, slatrs in the

I market. Behind them the nrabian,sea, whieh used to


be alive with fish, look dead and,still.'if thiithe future
Of OUt SeaSand:OCeanS?, .. ..1,..' ..t.... :..':.:'.',:.',

Food and ethics 95


8B r Grammar and listening
6 Study the synonyms in exercise 5. Which synonym 1 SPEAKING Lookatthephotos.Whatdoyouthink
in each pair is stronger? Why has the writer chosen is the connection between them? Think about how
to use these words? What effect might they have on the objects are made
the reader? What do they tell us about the and what they are
writer's point of view? made of.

i,:f t}r:ti Prepositions

7 Complete the text about a stunt eater. Then look


at the highlighted words in Would you eot it? and
check your answers.

It's hard not to feel


empathyl .. . the
live scorpion, as Louis Cole
chews it enthusiastically.
Like the ragworm before
it, it swiftly ends up in z. l;,:::::2.14 Listen to a radio programme
his stomach. Twenty-eight- about'wet wealth'and compare your ideas.
year-old Louis has been
eating unusual food for over ::, l:;:2,1a Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or
tr:
';J
a year now including eyeballs, a
:i.
false (F)? Correct the false ones.
live frog, and, most controversially of all, 'my pet 1 Nine million computers were sold in the UK last year.
goldfish (which resulted hundreds of 2 Rare minerals are being used up very quickly.
critical comments). Everything is recorded on his 3 The deep sea has been mined for minerals before.
YouTnbe channel Foodfor Louls and this week, 4 The seabed was being explored by companies thirty
thanks 3 the scorpion, there's been a rise years ago.

1 . the number ofvisitors. 5 Some mining projects had been agreed, but didn't
ha ppen.
As a stunt eater, the main ingredient 5 6 In the future, new machines will be used to do the
Louis's diet is shock. Most viewers find his videos ll work.
disgusting, but a small fraction 6 the ,: 7 The consequences of mining in the sea are known.
people who watch them think they're fine. Louis l. 8 The food chain can't be damaged by mining.
argues that people's reactions depend t
the type of food theyte used to. Eating a tarantula I
may be unusual in England, but it's a delicacy in
4 tvtatch the passive sentences in exercise 3 to a-h
Cambodia. Insects are also nutritious - are we t: below. Then rewrite the sentences that can be
reallybetter offs them on the menu? changed in the active. lf the subject is not clear, use
t
However, others see his videos as an attack I people.
animal rights and some are concerned t a present simple e past perfect
animal welfare. Louis claims that
':
most l
b present continuous f present perfect
of his meals die within five seconds, and that none c past simple g future slmple (wil/)
ofthem are species that are threatened
1 1
d past continuous h modals
extinction. His view is that they are no different t
from the animals we eat every day. Perhaps Louis's : 5 Study the sentences in exercise 3. Answer the
questions.
stunts are a reminder that many of our food choices t
are based culture and prejudice. :i
1 How do we form the passive in all the tenses in
exercise 4?
i:t::::::aa:ir::::r::ai:
2 Why do we use the passive? Match the sentences in
8 SpeRXllttG Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. exercise 3 to exPlanations a-c.
1 Should people who have few food choices worry a The person / thing who does the action is obvious,
about ethical food? Are ethical food choices only for unknown or unimPortant.
the wealthy? b The person / thing is important and added to the
2 Would you still eat traditional food if you knew it was end ofthe sentence, after by.
unethical in some way? Would you support a ban? c We are more lnterested in the action rather than
the person / thing who does it.
Environmental th reats and
protection paqe 141 Workbook page 123

;J vo Fooq anq efnrcs


v-J
Wet wealth 8B
..* ffi,,
-L-/LL.:\.-iL
6 Study sentences 1-4 from the radio programme. Then complete rules a-c.
1 Companies expect billions to be made from this'wet wealthl
2 But why should we care about the seabed being destroyed?
3 Our seas and their ecosystems need to be protected.
4 Can we prevent electronic equipment being sold?
a After verbs such as prevent, enioy,etc., we use being +
b After verbs such as expect, want, elc., we use
c After prepositions, such as of, about,etc., we use
Workbook page 123

7 Choose the correct answers.


1 'Wet wealth'began to be / being explored decades ago.
2 How can we object to the sea to be / being mined?
3 Can we stop flat screen TVs to be / being sold?
4 Would companies care about to be / being fined?
5 Some companies don't want being / to be told what to do.
6 Many companies still hope being / to be given mining rights.
I Complete the text with the correct passive form of the words in brackets.

You get home from school, kick off your trainers. grab a piece of pizzafrom the fridge and watch some TV. The trainers
and pizza are things we take for granted, but the beef on your pizza and leather on your trainers may come from cattte
that can r (trace back) to a tropical rainforest.
Today, hatf of the wortd's rainforests
2 (destroy), and at the moment, in countries [ike Brazi[,
trees 3 (cut down) iil.eqal.Ly. In recent years, three-quarters of this destruction a
(cause) by cattle ranching, because for every cow raised. an area of rainforest the size of two footbal.l. fields

to change. At the moment, sate[tite images (use) by environmental organizations to track


deforestatjon, especia[[y in Brazi[.
Brazil is one of the wortd's biggest exporters of
leather. Last year, pictures of Brazitian cattle ranches
.. (compare) with maps which marked
their Legal. boundaries. The pictures showed that a lot
of the protected forest e (ctear
away), and some ranches Iq . . ..

(prosecute) as a result. In the future,


thanks to satetlites, we can expect forests
(protect) more effectivetY.
We stitl may not know the origins of the beef
on our pizzas, but soon some leather products
(certifo ) deforestatio n -free
- just remember to check the labetl

I SpfgKllNG Work in pairs. Look at the photos of everyday items. Discuss the points below.
':' where they miqht have come lrom
:: how they are made and what they are made of
:: whether they should be avoided or not and why
;'w..&

d
?

n
1 SpERXUVG Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 Which of these things do we always use to grow foodT Which of these resources are limited?
x land xr water * light x heat x fertilizer xx animal feed

2 What problems do you think we might face with food in the future? Can you think of any solutions? l

:€mffrE6x

For example:
Thesubjectof today'stalkis...,lhgoingtoexamine...,lt'simportanttoconsider....
t explanations, definitions or examples.These will help you to understand the content. For
example: lnotherwords,...,Toputitanotherway,..., ... orwhatwewouldcall ..., Letmeexplain
what lmean.
x key content words and phrases.These nouns, verbs and adjectives will show you how ideas
develop.

ffit:ef!il
Read the strategy. Then listen to the opening of a talk. What is the talk going to be
about? Which phrases from the strategy does the speaker use to introduce the topic?

Look at the key content words and phrases below. Which of the photos on the left do you
think they describe?
x bland taste xe pink slime x people squeamish x needs land to grow
e tastes good w high cost rs easy to farm w affect natural ecosystem

4 &%iXe| Listen to the rest of the talk and complete the lecture notes.

Foedinq *he aorld


6otut ion I' ruicro-liv as4 ock $olu|ion 1 flr?-?-n supor rice
r 5
Au.plana4iow' Axplana|ion,
Advantaqes, rich in protein, less space Advantaazs: ca,n et^otl in hoS4ile
needed environuinhs, {ee\s mor^e people
Disadvan4aqLs,2 DisalvatrtaqLs;6. .

$olu4ion X-, cul4urad tuaat $olution 4 qroe-ninq daser*s


Atplanation: MLa.* qrodv\ in a lab A*planation'7 ...
Advavt4aqes, 3
Advawhaqes, lrees up land to qrout lood on
Disadvan*aq?-s, a 8
Disadvantaez.sz .

a!rB'"-" '" .-

ffi'ehrases with face


5 Replace the words in italics with the phrases below.
x let's face it x in the face of (e.9. difficulties or danger) e put on a brave face x on the face of it
x talk until we're blue in the face x face the music x face up to the fact

l Whenyoufirstlookattheproblem,GMcropsappeartobetheanswer.Organicfoodisfortherich
and selfish as it uses up more resources. However, GM is not problem free.
2 What about a new natlonal dish made of insects? lf some celebrities could pretend they are happy
and eat it, perhaps other people might try it.
3 We can have many pointless discussions about future foods, but it doesn't matter what we eat, we
just have to eat less.
4 As we are confronted by the problem of global food shortages, we should all become vegetarian.
5 We need to acceptthat food miles equal global warming. Buy local and grow your own food!
6 Don't waste food: supermarkets and restaurants should accept the punishment for what they have
done and be fined for throwing it out.
7 We have to admit it to ourselves: food habits are not going to change any time soon. People are too
busy and too worried about other things to care.

5 SpfRrcruG Work in pairs. Decide on the two best solutions for food shortages and give reasons.

I ga Food and ethrcs


H
8C

-*

7 SPEAKING Look at the photos above from a book and discuss the questions.
1 Who are the people in the photos? Where are they? What do you think their everyday life is like?
2 The photos are all from the same book. Why were the photos taken? What do you think the book
is about?

8ti ,.,:.2;77 Listen to two students discussing two of the photos. Answer the questions.
1 Which photos are they talking about?
2 Match the opinions to the speakers: girl (G) or boy (B). Who
a thinks the man in photo A is from Germany?
b notices typical American food?
c thinks the man eats 8,000 calories a day?
d says the boy in photo B sells food?
e thinks the boy's diet is unhealthy?
:tr,:,2.18.l Listen to the first part of the dialogue again and complete the phrases.
Then complete A-C with the headings below.
r Speculating and reflecting ;: Clarifuing an opinion :r Conceding a point

I didn't notice that.


!

. .'HeSiobvious{y,u " n- - ight be :. . . What l6 .... ls .. . .

That's all l'm saying.

10 :ill;,'2\9' Listen to the second part of the dialogue again and tick the phrases that you hear.
Then match all of the phrases to categories A-C in exercise 9.
rThat's an interesting point. r, In other words, ... . x Supposing that ... . r lt's hard to say.
rThat depends.*, lt's safeto saythat ... .: lsee whatyou mean.,iiThat would explain ... .

:rl lt can't be.::, I wonder if he (sells) ... .

tl SPEAKING Choose a different photo in exercise 7 and discuss the points below.
1 ldentify the food in the photo.
2 Estimate the number of calories.
3 ldentify the country.
4 Guess what activities / jobs the person does every day.
5 Decide if it is a healthy / environmentally friendly diet.
6 Compare it with a diet from a different photo.
7 Compare the diet with your own diet.

Food and ethics 99


V8D r Cultureu vocabulary and grarnr?lar The origins of food
{W*-
llr;1ryVry1..3;-;2,2:;1,;.;r;'1.;;.;;.. Ia':\ -tl- .:xt /a

SPEAKIIIG Work in pairs. Talk about food which:


1 reminds you of a traditional festival in your country.
2 people eat on a certain day of the week or at a ffirHttmffim*s
certain time of year.
3 acts as tomfort food'when things are not going well. ffHeffi ffimd ekHpw
4 represents your country in some way.
Iournalist Iack Newberry explores the origins of
one of the nation's favourite dishes.
Read the article about a typical British food. Where
It's a cold, wet afternoon in Manchester, but there's
did fish and chips originate? sflll a long queue outside Hammond's fish and
chip shop-. 'Fridays are always busy,' says forty-turo-
Read the article again. Then complete the article year-old fryer Terri Thomas. 'Most of our customers
with sentences A-G. There is one sentence that you come afterwork and have fish and chips with curry
do not need. sauce - it's our most popular orderl 1. . .. . . . . As
Terri liberally sprinkles on salt and vinegar from
A the early 1900s there were more than
As a result, by
supersized bottles, it's hard to resist the mouth-
30,000 thippies'- traditional fish and chip shops - watering smell. She offers me a double portion,
in England, satisfying the needs of the growing neatlywrapped in newspapeS and I grab a plastic
industrial workforce. fork and tuck in. Deliciousl
B Fish and chips was also heavily relied on throughout ,
'l\ 4
the two World Wars. ..'.

C And it's food worth queuing for: the chips are hot and ,'
fluffy, the fish moist and flaky and the batter crisp and @*
golden.
D Many workers frequented eating houses where you
could buy a meal including chipped potatoes for
tuppence (or 2p).
E In the north east it's known as a'fish lotl in Leeds'fish
and nerksj in Manchester 'a chippy tea'and so on.
F People have been doing the same thing for almost
i60 years, in all weathers, through good times and
through bad.
G Consequently, migrant workers were able to travel
from town to town, looking for jobs. I

4 SpceruxG Think of a traditional dish in your


In a recent UK survey, people were asked to name
country. Where does it come from? What are its things they considered rypically British. At the top of
origins? Who brought it to your country? the list (in front of the Queen) was fish and chips, a
traditional dish that has been enjoyed by the British
l:IX);i} Adjectiva * ncun csllocations: food for generations, and can be described in at least
twenty-six different ways. 2 Battered fish
5 Study the highlighted nouns in the article and and fried chips are a classic double act, yet they
complete the table. started life as solo performers, and their roots are
not as British as you might think.
types of meal
Fish fried in batter was introduced to England in the
food in general fifteenth century, arriving in London with Jewish
requests for food immigrants who had fled their homes in Portugal to
escape persecution. As these newimmigrants settled
quantities of food 25 down in the East End, their pescado fritobecame
standard fare - so much so that on a visit to London
Look back at the article and at the adjectives that go in the late 17009 Thomas Iefferson wrote that he had
with each highlighted noun.Then match the nouns eaten 'fish fried in the Jewish fashionl By the Victorian
era, fish fried in batter had become a regular part of
to the adjectives below. Use a dictionary to help you.
the British diet, often sold by street sellers who carried
Some adjectives may go with more than one noun.
it on large trays hung around their necks.
:: classic::, six-course r light l emergency :: Chinese The origins of the chip are less clear. Depending on
;: indlvidual ; side who you believe, we were given the chipped potato by
either France or Belgium in the seventeenth century.
Farmers'markets
According to popular folklora, :ens wirler when the
rivers froze over and there were no fish to fry, an
adventurous housewife cut up some potatoes in the
shape of fish and fried them instead. However, the
first recorded appearance of chips in England was in
Charles Dickens' novelA Tale of Two Cities(L859),
which mentions 'husky chips of potatoes, fried with
f roo Food and ethics
&'\u&".4;% Y:
8D
* *-- ** ryl
V Complete the text with the nouns in exercise 5.

ImBE@SrOrmlr8m
The British hove on unfortunote reputotion for blond food.
The question is, why?
The 1940s hove o lol to onswer for in ierms of Britoin s
culinory reputotion. When food rotioning stqrted in I939.
every fomily got o wortime r of meot. cheese.
eggs, butter ond sugor - even breod ond pototoes were
in short supply. With such limited ingredienls, people
cooked smoll, unimoginotive meqls in their homes - there
were no double2 or supersized treois! Meol
ond two vegetobles were slondord 3 usuolly t
followed by sponge pudding ond custord. Lunchtime ti

previous doy's dinner.


Eoting oul wos less odventurous, loo. During the some ::,
some reluctant drops of oill Fried chipped potatoes period,'BritishReslouronts'sellingcheopbosicmeols lil
were popular with the working classes during this weresetupbythegoVernmenl,ondtheirmoslpopulor
time, especially migrant labourers. wos soup, moshed pototo ond minced meot. .

Therewerenochineseorlndionfosi{ood6..''..','','
Then, in 1860, a Jewish Londoner called ]oseph 4s
justploinfishondchips.Therewerefewgrondmeols
Malin, noticing the success of fried fish and chipped
to celebrote speciol events. Ai one 1940s wedding
potatoes, decided to combine the two. He started
.. .. , boiled longue ond beetroot were served '|1
a fish and chip shop on Cleveland Street in the to the lucky guests.
East End of London and business was so good that
But on lhe positive side, the heolth of the notion improved, li
many other shops opened soon after. Luckily, fresh 50
os everyone ole o lot more vegetobles thon we do todoy!
fish was in plentiful supply thanks to the rapid
development of steam trawling in the North Sea,
and new railways were connecting ports to major
industrial cities. a This rise in the number
of fish and chip shops shows that the Industrial & Study the pairs of passive sentences in 1 and 2.
Revolution was fuelled by fish and chips! ls there any difference in meaning between the
According to one historian, 'the sentences? Why are there two passive forms for these
government knew it was vital to keep families on sentences? Write the active sentence for each pair.
the home front in good heart' - and giving them 1a Fish fried in batter was introduced to England by
fish and chips helped! During World War II, the
lewish immigrants.
government acknowledged the power of this
traditional dish again, and made sure fish and chips b England was introduced to flsh frled in batter by
weren't included in the wartime ration* book. lewish immigrants.
Today fish and chips is still one of the most popular 2a We were given the chipped potato by either
fast-food takeaways in the UK, with about 10,500 France or Belgium.
'chippies' selling nearly276 million meals a year. b The chlpped potato was given to us by either
Some people eat them as a lunchtime snack, others F-rance or Belgium.
as an evening meal, and a few people actually serve
them at wedding banquets! They're also a popular
'comfort food' in tough times, which might explain
the rise in sales during the economic crisis. I Rewrite the passive questions in another way. Use
At Hammond's chip shop, the queue is getting the words in brackets.
smaller now. I watch the locals trudging back home 1 Which foreign foods have been introduced to your
through wind and rain, clutching their wrapped-up
country? (has your country)
portions, and feel a sense of continuiry belonging
and pride. 6
Fish and chips are a great
2 Have you ever had food from other cultures cooked
British tradition with a fascinating history; a tradition for you? (has food from)
which, like many others, has its origins elsewhere. 3 When was the last time you were taught a new
Glossary recipe? (a new recipe was)
1lation:'a.fixedramorint of food 4 Are you given free food samples in your supermarket?
(are free food samples)
5 How often are'c assic'dishes made for you at home?
(how often are you)

1CI SpfgXlfUG Ask and answer the questions in

rl$H exercise 9. Find out more information by asking


who, what, why, where and when questions.
D*- l,Hlt?I#!ffi
E=--
u* -nt ,no nno" i,
di ps Food and ethics 101
BE r writinig wi:
,{L'.r rurr
SPEAKING Think about the places you can buy food where you live and answer the questions.
I ls there much food from different cultures and traditions? Give examples.
2 Does trying new food show that we accept other cultures? Why / why not?

Read the for and against essay. Which question does it answer?
I ln the future, more and more people will become vegetarian. What would be the pros and cons
of giving up meat?
2 We should put food ethics before affordability, health or anything else. Discuss.
3 The impact of globalization on our diet is more positive than negative. Discuss.

Talking about cause and effect


When you write a for and against essay, you need to look at the pros and cons, or costs and
benefits, of different ideas. ln order to write about them, you need to use the language
of cause and effect.

3 Study the highlighted phrases in the for and against essay. Which introduce a cause and
which introduce an effect?

4 Wtrictr of the phrases below introduce a cause and which introduce an effect?
x owing to x as e therefore x hence x the effect of x for this reason

5 Make as many sentences as you can with the phrases below.


It's difficult to decide where to eat since his vegetarian diet.
We grabbed a burger at a fast-food restaurant due to too much choice!
The food was grown locally result in she lived to a ripe old age.
can
Eating too much fast food hence we didn't have much time.
They couldn't make spaghetti bolognese owing to , obesity and heart disease.
She had a Mediterranean diet consequently theyh run out of pasta.
He lost a lot of weight as it had a smaller carbon footprint.

We can also make passive sentences with reporting verbs, such as know, believe, think, claim,
consider, understand and report. Study sentences 1-5 in the for and against essay and match
them to the rules.
a /r + passive (past or present) + that................
b Subject + passive (past or present) + to do something ......................................
c Subject + passive (past or present) + to have done something ...
d Subject + passive (past or present) + to be doing something .......

7 Rewrite the sentences to make them more impersonal. Use the passive and the verbs
in brackets.
1 The first lndian curry appeared in a British cookbook in the eighteenth century. (believe)
It
At the time, people said spicy food was good for your health. (consider)
At the time, spicy food
Today, lndian curries have changed to accommodate British tastes. (know)

A restaurant in Glasgow invented chicken tikka masala. (think)


It
Last year, chicken tikka masala was Britain's most popular dish. (report)
Last year, it
Today, supermarkets are selling more ready-made curries than ever before. (said)

E ',0, Food and ethics


s%;
+Q aNf

giving us more

ln the

I Task Choose a different topic in exercise 2 and write Paragraph 2: Present your first argument for or against
a for and against essay about it. and any counter-arguments.
Paragraph 3: Present your second argument for or
I ldeac Make notes about: against and any counter-arguments.
Essay 1
Paragraph 4: Conclusion: sum up the main arguments
r the health beneflts of eating less meat. and restate your opinion.
r the environmental advantages.
r the challenges of a vegetarian diet.
I Write Write your essay. Use the paragraph plan to
r the health benefits of eating more vegetables. help you.
Essay 2
r food ethics (give examples of ethicaland
I Check Check the following points:
unethical food). : Is the development of your argument clear? Have you

r why people might choose unethical food. used cause and effect language?
r the consequences ofeating unethical food. Have you presented a balanced argument? Have you
: how people can make more ethical / better choices. included all the points you want to cover?
I Have you used neutral language?
I Plan Follow the plan: r Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
punctuation?
Paragraph 1: lntroduction: state the subject of the
essay, summarize the main areas you
want to cover, and state your purpose.

Food and ethics 103


\--:
Read the extract. ldentify the parts of speech in the 3 Read the strategy. Then match the highlighted
highlighted words. words in the extract in exercise 1 to patterns a-f
in the strategy. There is no example for one of the
9.6t6, $i cu rrent evi den ce, ma ri n e b ol ogists
I
i patterns.
predict that losing this caretaker could bring
about a significant'i-,isein the number of smaller 4 Use a dictionary to check the dependent
predators like stingrays. This would '(isult in prepositions for the words below. Pay attention
fewer fish, and also fewer shellfish, which keep to the patterns in the strategy. Then check the
the seas and oceans clean. An aimbalance in the meaning of the words.
food cha i n cou ld u lti mately'lda$:to the 1 (be) better / worse
tif tl"re underwater ecosystem, with a reduced 2 pay (sb) .. .. .. . ... . ... .... Gth)
fish population and more pollution. Everything pay cash
and everyone who'depends' the ocean for pay credit card
a living, or simply for recreation, would suffer. pay srh (sb)

It'd be an environmental disaster with countless pay (a loan, a mortgage, etc.)


consequences for us all. 3 imbalance /..... . .. sth
imbalance ... A and B

4 fork
fork .. . ...... sth /
Dependent prepositions srh
Many Engllsh nouns, verbs and adjectives are followed 5 save sth .. . . ( .. . sth)
by specific prepositions. These prepositions are called
dependent prepositions because the kind of preposition
5 Complete the sentences with the correct
prepositions.
that is used depends on the word and its meaning.
When you come across a new word, always check which 1 I recently noticed an imbalance.............. ...
. . my
prepositions it goes with and how they change the account. More seems to be going out than coming in.
meaning of the word. 2 The imbalance the economies of the
:

developed and developing countries is staggering j

Something needs to be done about it.


2 Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
entry for rise and answer the questions.
3 We forked a fortune our
new house; now we need to ask for a loan to do it up
4 The bank manaqer told me I wouldn't qet a new
credit card until I paid all my loans.
5 Our family will be better once I go
out ofwork. g LANGUAGE BANK at TNCREASE 2 0'. [Cl (BrE) back to work.
:.'-.---"ru6c?r!njdutu.,Erc.,a!dr:y.&bl*---,"--.--'---"-
I rr.r powsn/rupoRrAN(E 3 o. [sing.] (of sb/sth) the acr of I
t 6 l'm saving all my money
' - the l
I becoming more important, successful, powerful, etc: ... a trip around the world.
British I
jI
rise of fasckm in Europe o the rise dnd fall of the
Empire o her meteoric rise to power I 7 We don't take credit cards, so you'll need to pay
.... cash.

1 What part of speech is nse in this entry?


2 Which prepositions does it go with? 6 Use a dictionary to check if the highlighted words in
exercise 1 go with any other prepositions. Then write
3 How do the prepositions change the meaning of rise? your own example sentences with each word and
preposition that you find.

Dependent prepositions: patterns i


Dependent prepositions can follow many patterns.The i

most common are: ,

a verb + preposition + object I

b verb + preposition + object + preposition I


i
c verb + direct object + preposition + indlrect
'-'-"J'-'object i
I
d noun + preposition + noun / -ing form i
e noun + preposition + noun + preposition I
i
f adjective + preposition i
,_,-,,.,_,-,,,,1

F ro+ vocabulary insight 8 Dictionary entry from Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary B', Oxford University Press 2010,
1G\. -r-
--

1 Match the synonyms below. Then complete the text 5 Complete the text with the correct passive form of
with the pairs of synonyms. the verbs in brackets.
x awe-inspiring x banned x countless x distressing
During the 1970s, scientists discovered that the ozone layer
x huge x impressive x kill x monstrous ;r numerous
. . (destroy). One of the main faciors
a outlawed x slaughter x upsetting contributing to the problem was the use of CFC gases. Up
until then, these gases .......... . .. . .. (use) in
Whbl+s are some of refrigerators, air conditioning and aerosol sprays. ln 1988,
:_. '!' ;:-rii:ia!'; :::r :,:
.. 1::l rr r;i;!
':
: .,-.-......,;:,:..,;;::::;:.:,.,,-..;,1 6!11, 3....
E]
CFCs .. (ban) at an international
:.
.

oqeh *h$;S convention in Montreal. Since then, alternatives to CFCs


;,;11q1:;i:: i...,.- :.,..... -, ;i:1i':lii.Ifli 4 . (develop), which do not damage
the ozone layer. Currently, measures to control the use
of CFCs 5 (implement) under the
Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol. According to
these agreements, CFCs 9 -.,.,,..,,.....,,.,,,'''.',.',, (phase
out) completely by 2030. Unfortunately, the regulations
7
(not follow) by all of the countries
in the world.

Marks l6 Marks l7
2 Complete the text with the correct prepositions. 6 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
meaning to sentence a. Use to be or being + past
Most doctors recommend a diet based
participle.
the five main food groups. However, recently there
has been a rise 2 .. .. the number of vegetarians 1 a She hopes that they'll offer her a place on the
in the UK. The reasons for their choice depend COU TSE,

a number of factors. 'Classic' vegetarians b She hopes


feel empathy 1........ . . the animals that are killed. 2 a My dog enjoys it when I take it for a walk.
'Green eaters' are concerned . ., .. the impact b My dcE enjoys
of eating meat on the environment. And, there are 3 a Some people want the government to ban hunting.
people who feel that they are better b Some people want. .. .. . . .

without meat for health reasons. 4a How can farmers prevent people stealing their
animals?
b How can farmers prevent .?

Complete the sentences with phrases with face and


5 a They expect someone will beat them at the next
election.
the words in brackets.