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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО РЫБОЛОВСТВУ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
"МУРМАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ"

Н. Г. Марьина

ПРОИСШЕСТВИЯ НА МОРЕ

ACCIDENTS AT SEA

Допущено Ученым советом университета


в качестве учебного пособия
по дисциплине "Морской английский язык"
для курсантов старших курсов СВФ
специальности 180402.65 "Судовождение"

Мурманск
2008

1
УДК 811. 111 (075.8)
ББК 81. 2 Англ. – 923
M 30

Марьина, Н. Г. Происшествия на море (Accidents at Sea) : учеб.


пособие по дисциплине "Морской английский язык" для
специальности 180402.65 "Судовождение" / Н. Г. Марьина.  Мурманск
: Изд-во МГТУ, 2008.  262 с.
Состоит из 4 разделов, каждый из которых содержит несколько текстов,
объединенных одной темой, упражнения к ним и англо-русский словарь. Целью пособия
является расширение словарного запаса, повторение грамматики, а также развитие и
совершенствование навыков устной речи.
Предназначено для курсантов старших курсов судоводительского факультета.
The book has 4 units, each comprising the texts covering a specific subject, as well as the
exercises and the vocabulary. It aims at building-up the vocabulary, revising grammar and
improving speaking abilities.
The book is intended for senior students of Navigation Faculty.

Список лит.  6 названий.

Рецензенты: Ю. Г. Федорова, ст. преподаватель английского языка


Мурманского филиала Федерального государственного
учреждения "Государственная морская академия
им. адмирала С. О. Макарова";
М. М. Лукина, канд. пед. наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой
иностранных языков и методики преподавания Мурманского
государственного педагогического университета

Наталья Григорьевна Марьина


Происшествия на море (Accidents at Sea)

Редактор Г. В. Зобнина

ISBN-978-5-86185-438-2 © Мурманский государственный


технический университет, 2008
© Н. Г. Марьина, 2008

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Оглавление
ВВЕДЕНИЕ ............................................................................................................................... 8
TERM 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 9
UNIT 1. Collisions ................................................................................................................. 9
Text 1. Two vessels collide in dense fog ........................................................................... 9
Text 2. Four dead, 5 missing in ship collision ................................................................. 12
Text 3. Cargo master dies as ships collide ....................................................................... 14
Text 4. В Балтийском море столкнулись два судна, есть жертвы ............................. 15
UNIT 2. Sinking ................................................................................................................... 16
Text 1 (А). Rescuers in search for 50 missing after ferry sinks ....................................... 16
Text 1 (В). Bangladesh's ferry safety failures .................................................................. 19
Text 2. Ferry sank in Indonesia ........................................................................................ 21
Group work ...................................................................................................................... 24
Text 3. Hundreds missing in ferry disaster ...................................................................... 24
Text 4. Search and rescue teams in Indonesia .................................................................. 25
Text 5. Ferry survivors found after nine days at sea ........................................................ 26
UNIT 3. Fires ....................................................................................................................... 28
Text 1. Fire on a Russian icebreaker ................................................................................ 28
Text 2. Search for Jakarta ferry victims ........................................................................... 29
Text 3. Dozens of people are still feared missing ............................................................ 31
Group work ...................................................................................................................... 33
Text 4. Пожар на пароме в Филиппинах: 150 пропавших .......................................... 33
UNIT 4. Grounding .............................................................................................................. 34
Text 1. Banana boat rescue will take days ....................................................................... 34
Text 2 (A). An operation to evacuate up to 1,600 people from a stricken cruise ship ..... 36
Text 2 (B). Two lost after the accident............................................................................. 39
Text 3. Причиной крушения у берегов Чукотки гидрографического военного судна
могли быть сильный ветер и большая волна ............................................................... 39
UNIT 5. Casualties ............................................................................................................... 40
Text 1. Four die in fire on Australian Navy tanker .......................................................... 40
Text 2. British tourists taken ill on cruise ship ................................................................. 41
Text 3. Seafarer loses leg in loading accident .................................................................. 43
Active Vocabulary............................................................................................................ 44
Supplementary Reading ....................................................................................................... 46
Text 1. A trawler has sunk in the North Sea after a collision with a Norwegian supply
vessel south-east of Shetland............................................................................................ 46
Text 2. Master says "I'm no hero" .................................................................................... 46
Text 3. Fire out on liner off SE England .......................................................................... 46
Text 4. Storm hampers shipwreck search ......................................................................... 47
Text 5. Breathing gear could have saved lives of two oilmen ......................................... 48
Text 6. Medical officials in Brazil have ruled out anthrax............................................... 48
Group Work...................................................................................................................... 49
Text 7. Italian ship sinks, 1 missing after collision .......................................................... 49
Text 8. Italian research ship sinks, all passengers safe .................................................... 50
TERM 6 .................................................................................................................................... 50
UNIT 1. Lost at Sea.............................................................................................................. 50
Text 1. Death of man on ferry negligent .......................................................................... 50
Text 2. Two rowers trying to cross the Atlantic Ocean have been rescued ..................... 53
Text 3. Mystery of "dumped" man found drifting on raft of oil drums ........................... 55
5

Text 4. Российский сухогруз "Нахичевань" затонул ................................................... 57


UNIT 2. Human Errors in Accidents ................................................................................... 58
Text 1. Human error in Greek ship sinking ...................................................................... 58
Text 2. A number of errors led to a collision between a UK cargo ship and a Danish
fishing boat ....................................................................................................................... 60
Text 3. Shape up or face UK prosecution ........................................................................ 62
Text 4. Three rescued from capsized ship ........................................................................ 65
Group Work...................................................................................................................... 66
Text 5. Rescuers working on the wreck in Norway have found a fourth body ................ 66
Text 6. Bad loading blamed for capsize ........................................................................... 67
Text 7. Officers blamed in Cape Town grounding........................................................... 68
UNIT 3. Piracy ..................................................................................................................... 70
Text 1. Modern pirates on the high seas........................................................................... 70
Text 2. Pirate mother ship spotted .................................................................................... 74
Text 3. Captain counts the cost of piracy ......................................................................... 76
Text 4. Освобождение сухогруза "Леманн Тимбер" ........................................................... 79
Active Vocabulary............................................................................................................ 79
Supplementary Reading ....................................................................................................... 80
Text 1. Three die as trawler capsizes off English coast ................................................... 80
Text 2. Two die in Russian submarine fire ...................................................................... 81
Text 3. Ships in Indonesia often carry far more passengers than recorded ...................... 81
Text 4. 83 dead, 130 missing in Bangladesh .................................................................... 82
Text 5. Hunt for man overboard called off....................................................................... 83
Text 6. Sea sighting as crewman lost ............................................................................... 83
Text 7. Lawsuit charges Norwegian Cruise Line negligence in collision ........................ 84
Text 8. A fire apparently started by a cigarette broke out aboard a giant cruise ship ...... 85
Text 9. Fishing boat runs aground .................................................................................... 86
Text 10. Cruise ship comes to sailor's aid ........................................................................ 86
Text 11. Egypt has launched an investigation into a collision in the Suez Canal ............ 87
TERM 7 .................................................................................................................................... 88
UNIT 1. Ecological Disasters............................................................................................... 88
Text 1. 1989: Exxon Valdez creates oil slick disaster ...................................................... 88
Text 2. 1993: Oil tanker runs aground off Shetland ......................................................... 91
Text 3. Disaster strikes ..................................................................................................... 95
Text 4. Crippled fuel oil tanker sinks ............................................................................... 98
Text 5. Prestige disaster ................................................................................................. 102
Text 6. Prestige oil disaster ............................................................................................ 105
Text 7. Stricken cargo ship runs aground ....................................................................... 109
Text 8. Stricken container ship refloated ....................................................................... 111
Group work .................................................................................................................... 114
Text 9. Attempts to break Napoli in two ........................................................................ 114
Text 10. Ship split after new explosions ........................................................................ 114
Group work .................................................................................................................... 115
Text 11. В Дании объявлена мазутная опасность ...................................................... 116
UNIT 2. Breaking the Rules ............................................................................................... 117
Text 1. The captain of a Russian trawler could face criminal charges ........................... 117
Text 2. Charges read out against captain of Elektron .................................................... 121

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6

Text 3. Captain Yarantsev is ordered to pay a fine of 100,000 rubles ........................... 124
Text 4. У капитана "Электрона" не выдержало сердце ............................................. 125
Text 5. Trawlers "caught" in Canada's net ..................................................................... 126
Text 6. Pirate fishing ships head for the scrap heap ....................................................... 129
Active Vocabulary.......................................................................................................... 135
Supplementary Reading ..................................................................................................... 136
Text 1. Oil leaks from Gulf of Mexico pipe hit by anchor............................................. 136
Text 2. Pollution fears after Athena explosion ............................................................... 136
Text 3. A ship involved in a collision in the English Channel ....................................... 137
Text 4. Barge with oil spill debris sinks in Philippines .................................................. 138
Text 5. Deadly accident on Staten Island ferry .............................................................. 139
Text 6. Capsized ship recovery continues ...................................................................... 139
Text 7. Fire ferry arrives safely ...................................................................................... 140
Text 8. About Greenpeace .............................................................................................. 142
TERM 8 .................................................................................................................................. 143
UNIT 1. Deadly Maritime Disasters .................................................................................. 143
Text 1. The Admiral Nakhimov ...................................................................................... 143
Text 2 (A). Navigational aspects of the disaster ............................................................ 144
Text 2 (B). Damage to the ship ...................................................................................... 145
Text 2 (C). Rescue operation and the death toll ............................................................. 146
Text 3. Afterword ........................................................................................................... 146
Text 4 (A). 1987: Hundreds trapped as car ferry capsizes ............................................. 147
Text 4 (B). It appears the water may have got in through the bow doors ...................... 148
Text 5. A contemporary disaster – The Estonia ............................................................. 149
Text 6. Scientists unveil cause of Estonia ferry disaster ................................................ 151
Text 7. Egyptian ferry sinks in Red Sea ......................................................................... 153
Group Work.................................................................................................................... 155
Text 8. There are conflicting reports on whether the al-Salam Boccaccio'98 met all
regional safety requirements .......................................................................................... 155
Text 9. The sinking of a passenger ferry in the Red Sea ................................................ 156
Text 10. Divers to survey Channel wreck ...................................................................... 157
Group Work.................................................................................................................... 158
Text 11(A). Raising the Tricolor.................................................................................... 158
Text 11 (B). The wreck lay on its side in the English Channel until August 2003 ........ 159
UNIT 2. MAIB Accident Reports ...................................................................................... 160
Text 1. Seaman lost while waiting for pilot ................................................................... 160
Text 2. Look out or lose out ........................................................................................... 162
Text 3. Fishing vessel grounds after skipper falls asleep ............................................... 163
Supplementary Reading ..................................................................................................... 164
Text 1. One of the versions of the causes of the accident .............................................. 164
Text 2. The Estonia disaster killed 852 people .............................................................. 165
Text 3. 154 rescued on sinking ship ............................................................................... 166
Text 4. Submarines are a hidden threat to smaller craft ................................................. 167
Text 5. Fire aboard Russian submarine kills two ........................................................... 168
Text 6. Soldiers and emergency workers are battling to clean up an oil spill ................ 170
Text 7. Russian frigate begins anti-piracy patrols off Somalia coast ............................. 171
The lessons to Case 17 ................................................................................................... 172

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7

The lessons to Case 20 ................................................................................................... 172


Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................. 174
Abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 278
ЛИТЕРАТУРА ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

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ДЕНИЕ

Данное пособие предназначено для курсантов 3 и 4 курсов


специальности 180402.65 "Судовождение". Его целью является развитие и
совершенствование навыков устной речи на базе лексического материала по
теме "Происшествия на море", а также подготовка к чтению "Отчетов об
авариях", публикуемых MAIB (Бюро по расследованию морских аварий) и
другими организациями.
Пособие состоит из 4 разделов, англо-русского словаря и списка
сокращений. Каждый раздел рекомендуется изучать в течение одного
семестра. Дополнительные тексты предназначены для самостоятельной
работы, а также при подготовке к экзаменам. Тематика разделов
соответствует учебной программе каждого семестра.
Раздел включает от 2 до 5 уроков, каждый из которых содержит
несколько текстов, объединенных одной темой, а также предтекстовые и
послетекстовые упражнения к ним, направленные на усвоение новой
лексики, повторение грамматики и развитие навыков устного
высказывания.
Для каждого семестра, кроме 8, составлены словари активной лексики.
Данное пособие составлено по материалам интернет-сайтов
www.bbc.co.uk, www.maib.gov.uk и другим.

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TERM 5
UNIT 1. Collisions

Text 1. Two vessels collide in dense fog

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What happened near the Dover Strait?
2. What damage did the fishing boat sustain?
3. What was the weather like during the accident?
14 April, 2004

A fishing boat was struck by a cargo ship in thick fog off the coast of Kent
on Wednesday morning.
An investigation has been launched after the accident at about 0800 BST1
which involved2 the French-registered fishing boat Corona Gloria.
A lifeboat from Dover helped pump out water leaking into the fishing boat
because of the collision and the vessel was then towed to Boulogne. The identity
of the cargo ship is not being revealed because of the inquiry.
A Dover coastguard spokesman said: "The collision happened in dense fog
and there will be an investigation therefore3 we cannot say what happened. The
fishing boat sustained some damage and is taking on water but is being towed to
Boulogne where it will be met by the Boulogne lifeboat. No one was injured as
far as we know".
The collision happened near the Dover Strait – a busy shipping lane.
Vocabulary
to collide сталкиваться
to strike (struck) ударяться
investigation расследование
to launch начинать
accident несчастный случай, авария

1
British Summer Time
2
included
3
so, thus

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to pump out откачивать


to leak просачиваться; давать течь
collision столкновение
identity личность, зд. принадлежность и название судна
to reveal открывать, зд. разглашать
inquiry расследование
coastguard береговая охрана
spokesman представитель
to sustain damage получать повреждение
to take on water набирать воду
to injure ранить
lane полоса движения
II. Translate into Russian what the coastguard spokesman said, paying
attention to different forms of Passive Voice.
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
A B
1. to injure a) to begin
2. lane b) to hurt
3. to pump out c) to tell
4. to reveal d) to empty
5. to strike e) to hit
6. to launch f) route
2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. sustain a) identity
2. take on b) damage
3. reveal c) investigation
4. launch d) water
5. pump out e) lane

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6. busy
3. Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the vocabulary.
1. A cargo ship … the fishing boat in thick fog. (hit)
2. It happened near a busy shipping … . (route)
3. As a result of the collision the vessel … . (was damaged)
4. No people were … . (hurt)
5. The … of the coastguard could not say what had happened. (representative)
6. The … is under investigation now. (disaster)
IV. Grammar Review
1. Find in the text the sentences with the verbs in the passive and explain their
meaning.
2. Complete the second sentence so that it has a meaning similar to the first
sentence, using the verbs in the active.
a) A fishing boat was struck by a cargo ship.
A cargo ship … a fishing boat.
b) The investigation has been launched.
The authorities … the investigation.
c) The vessel was towed to Boulogne.
The tug … the vessel to Boulogne.
d) The identity of the cargo ship is not being revealed.

e) The fishing boat will be met by the lifeboat.

V. Speech Practice
1. Say what the following words and word-groups mean:
a French-registered fishing boat; the identity; a busy shipping lane.
2. Speak about the above accident according to a brief plan. Work in pairs.
a) Collision near the Dover Strait.
b) Ships involved in the accident.
c) Assistance rendered to the damaged ship.

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d) The cause of the collision (express your opinion).


When discussing the last point, use the following phrases (conversational
formulas).

Expressing Opinion
I think (that)… По-моему, думаю, (что)…
I believe… Думаю, (что)… Полагаю, что…
In my opinion…(formal) По моему мнению, по-моему…
To my mind… На мой взгляд, по моему мнению…
As far as I know… Насколько мне известно…

Text 2. Four dead, 5 missing in ship collision

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What are the identities of the ships involved in the accident?
2. Which ship withstood the collision?
3. What happened with the other ship?
4. Were there any casualties (dead people)?
5. Who looked for the lost seamen?
2005-7-25

Three Chinese crew members were confirmed dead while five remain
missing following a collision between two ships early Friday morning off Japan's
eastern coast. The collision occurred at around 5:10 am about
10 kilometres southwest of the Cape Inubosaki in the east.
The Wei Hang 9, a 3,947-ton freighter registered in Malta, with 21 Chinese
crew members sank after the incident. The other ship, a Japanese-registered
4,990-ton freighter, survived the accident and its crew remained unhurt1. The
victims died of serious injuries in the hospital after being rescued. Japan Coast
Guard ships and helicopters searched for the missing Chinese crew members. The
cause of the accident is still under investigation. The sunken ship set off from

1
uninjured

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Japan and was bound for Dalian, a port in Northeast China's Province, carrying
5,800 tons of scrap iron1.
Vocabulary
missing пропавший
to confirm подтверждать
to occur случаться, происходить
freighter грузовое судно
incident происшествие
to survive выживать
victim пострадавший; жертва
injury рана, травма
to rescue спасать
to search (for) искать
cause причина
sunken затонувший
to set off отправляться
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Give synonyms to the following words:
to occur, freighter, to search for, incident, to rescue, victim, cause, missing, to be
bound for, to set off.
2. Use the above words in the sentences of your own.
III. Grammar Review
1. Transform the following sentences substituting the words in italics for the verbs
in brackets used in the passive:
1. Five Chinese crew members are missing. (to lose)
2. The crew of the Japanese vessel remained unhurt. (to injure)
3. Coast Guard ships and helicopters searched for the missing Chinese crew
members. (to look for)
4. The cause of the accident is still under investigation. (to investigate)

1
unused metal

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14

2. Find in the text the sentences with Participle I and Participle II. Translate them
into Russian.
IV. Speech Practice
Speak about the accident according to the plan of your own. Use conversational
formulas (ex. V, page 10).

Text 3. Cargo master dies as ships collide

1. Rearrange the numbered parts of the story in a logical order. Explain your
choice. Work in pairs.
10 October, 2001

1. The master, who has not been named, was airlifted to the Conquest Hospital
in Hastings where he died.
2. Five crew members were rescued by the crew of the tanker, while a sixth was
forced1 to escape from his cabin as the vessel sank. After he managed to
struggle free, he floated to the surface, where the Solent Coastguard helicopter
rescued him.
3. When rescuers arrived with six boats and a helicopter, they searched for
almost 30 minutes.
4. The master of a cargo ship has died after his vessel sank following a collision
with a tanker in the English Channel.
5. At the time of the accident there were force five winds but visibility was good
and there was no rain.
6. The Dutch-registered Aquamarine, which was carrying a cargo of vinegar2,
collided with the Ash, laden3 with steel. The collision took place at 1535 BST,
with the rescue launched after a mayday call from a crew member of the Ash.
7. The crew of the Ash was forced to abandon ship when the 1,000-tonne motor
vessel took on water, after colliding with the tanker which was five times its
size. A Dover coastguard spokesman said the Ash sank straight to the bottom
of the 35-metre deep sea.

1
had to
2
уксус
3
loaded

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8. The 4,700 tonne Aquamarine sustained a dented bow, but was able to continue
on to Swansea, Wales. The tanker leaked 83 metric tons of oil.
Vocabulary
to escape бежать, спастись
rescuer спасатель
to abandon покидать, оставлять
to dent оставлять вмятину
2. Answer the questions to sum up the above information.

1. What ships were involved in the accident? Give their identities.


2. Which ship sustained serious damage and sank?
3. What happened with the crew of the distressed vessel?
4. Who took part in search and rescue operation?
5. Which ship survived the accident? Why?
6. What was the weather like when the ships collided?
7. What do you think about the cause of the accident? Express your opinion.

3. Group work. Complete the spidergram below and see how much vocabulary
you can generate, with reference to the topic of collision.

Text 4. В Балтийском море столкнулись два судна, есть


жертвы

Give a free translation of the story.

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Три человека погибли в результате столкновения двух судов в


Балтийском море. Инцидент произошел в субботу в первой половине дня у
восточного берега шведского острова Готланд.
Спасательная служба Швеции сообщила, что столкновение произошло
между кипрским судном и судном из Антигуа. В общей сложности на обоих
судах находилось 16 человек.
После столкновения изолированными (trapped) оказались три человека
на кипрском судне. Первые попытки извлечь их из перекрытого (blocked)
отсека (compartment) не увенчались успехом. Позже, когда пострадавшее
судно было отбуксировано к берегу, спасатели сообщили, что все трое
моряков были найдены в отсеке мертвыми.
Причина аварии пока не установлена. Национальности членов экипажа
и погибших пока также не сообщаются.

UNIT 2. Sinking
Text 1 (А). Rescuers in search for 50 missing after ferry sinks

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What happened with the ferry?
2. Why did it overturn?
3. How many people were able to survive?
May 4, 2002

Fifty people were missing today after a ferry sank in Bangladesh.


The boat, which had 150 people on board, ran into trouble while sailing in
the south of the country.
About 100 of the passengers managed to swim to shore.
But this morning a search was launched for the remaining 50.
Officials said rescuers rushed to the scene and started looking for passengers
in the water. "The mishap occurred when the overloaded boat capsized on the
Kirtankhola River in fine weather", said a police officer at Barisal town, 190 miles
from the capital, Dhaka.

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17

He said the single-decker ferry listed to one side and sank immediately. The
people on the roof were able to swim to safety. But there were concerns over the
fate1 of about 50 others on deck.
Ferry accidents are relatively common in Bangladesh, with hundreds dying
every year.
Vocabulary
ferry паром
to rush устремляться, бросаться
scene место происшествия, события
mishap происшествие, несчастье
to capsize опрокидываться
to list крениться
concerns вопросы (вызывающие озабоченность)
common частый, обычный
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) disaster, accident, mishap, event;
b) confirm, occur, happen, take place;
c) list, tilt, heel, hit;
d) overturn, capsize, undergo, keel over;
e) common, usual, occasional, regular.
2. Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the vocabulary.
a) Rescuers … to the place of the accident. (hurry)
b) The … happened when the overloaded boat keeled over in the river. (disaster)
c) The overloaded ferry … and … in fine weather. (heel, overturn)
d) Ferry accidents are quite … in Bangladesh. (usual)
III. Grammar Review
1. Find in the text the sentence with a modal verb. Explain its meaning.

1
судьба

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18

2. Transform the sentences using modal verbs (be able to, have to).
a) The people were forced to abandon the ship.
b) About 100 of the passengers managed to swim to shore.
c) The rescuers were pressed to launch a search for passengers in the water.
d) Those remaining on deck failed to escape.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Say what the following words and word-groups mean:
an overloaded boat; a single-decker ferry; to run into trouble; scene; concerns.
2. Speak about the accident. Study the map of the country below paying attention
to its natural conditions. The map will help you get an idea about the transport
system of the country. Now you must be able to make conclusions about the causes
of the accident. Work in pairs.

When discussing the point use the following conversational formulas:


Expressing ignorance/uncertainty
I'm afraid I don't know. Боюсь, что я не знаю.
I've no idea! Не имею представления!
I might be wrong but I think… Я могу ошибаться, но, по-моему,…
Agreeing

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I quite agree with you… Я с тобой абсолютно согласен…


That's true… Да, это так…
Disagreeing
I don't think so… Я не думаю, что…
I don't agree… Я не согласен…

Text 1 (В). Bangladesh's ferry safety failures

I. Read the text about the causes of ferry disasters in Bangladesh and make
sure your suppositions were true.
20 February, 2005

The latest disasters involving ferries in Bangladesh have once again raised
questions about the government's efforts to improve safety.
Thousands of ferries cross the country's rivers and waterways. But many lack
basic safety standards. The vessels are in poor condition, are often overloaded and
do not have passenger lists.
Sudden storms are common at certain times of year in Bangladesh. A fine
day can within minutes turn into strong winds and thick, driving rain where
visibility is reduced to only a few metres. Rivers can quickly become fast flowing
whirlpools.
Such conditions are risky for overloaded and top-heavy ferries which all too
frequently capsize, trapping many of their passengers inside.
The government says one of its top priorities is to improve safety and warn
people of the dangers. Measures to be taken include modernising old ferries, extra
checks to ensure safety certificates are up to date and monitoring to prevent
overloading.
But many people have no alternative other than to travel by boat. There is
also a shortage of ferries, and not enough roads and bridges for people to travel
by land.
Often there are no policemen or safety officials on the riverside to prevent
ferry operators from overloading.
Vocabulary

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20

safety безопасность
failure неудача, провал; недостаток, отсутствие чего-либо;
неспособность
to raise ставить (вопрос); поднимать
effort усилие, попытка
to improve улучшать
to lack не хватать, недоставать
to turn into превращаться в
driving сильный, проливной (дождь)
whirlpool водоворот
top-heavy перевешивающий в верхней части; неустойчивый
to trap ловить; задерживать
top priority высший приоритет
measure мера, мероприятие
extra дополнительный
check проверка
to ensure убедиться
monitoring контроль
shortage нехватка, недостаток
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
A B
1. shortage a) inspection
2. check b) lack
3. effort c) preference
4. priority d) action
5. monitoring e) attempt
6. measure f) supervision
2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. take a) safety

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21

2. improve b) measures
3. raise c) safety standards
4. lack d) question
5. prevent e) passengers
6. trap f) overloading
3. Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the vocabulary.
1. Many ferries … basic safety standards. (be short of)
2. A fine day can within minutes … strong winds. (develop into)
3. Ferries often capsize, and passengers are … inside. (catch)
4. Top priority of the government is to … safety. (make better)
5. Measures to be taken include extra checks to … safety certificates are up to
date. (make sure)
III. Speech Practice
Answer the questions to the text above.
1. What natural conditions contribute to ferry disasters in Bangladesh?
2. What is the state of ferries?
3. What measures will be taken by the government?

Text 2. Ferry sank in Indonesia

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What mishap occurred in Indonesia?
2. How many people did the boat carry?
3. How many of them survived?
4. What was the weather like when the accident happened?
5. What was the cause of the tragedy? Is it similar to that in Bangladesh?
December, 30, 2006

Bad weather has prevented rescue boats from leaving port on Thursday to
search for dozens of people still feared missing after a ferry sank in heavy seas in
eastern Indonesia.

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22

Navy warships on Wednesday picked up 116 survivors who spent a night in


the ocean after their ship had broken apart in heavy seas.
One of them died before he could get to a hospital.
Estimates on the number of people missing ranged from 20 to around 50.
There was a big problem in finding out1 how many people were on the boat
because many people boarded at the last minute.
The ferry was travelling from Kupang port on the western side of Timor
Island to Rote Island late on Tuesday when it reported being battered by waves
as high as 3 meters (10 feet). It tried to return to port, but sank soon after.
Accidents at sea are common in Indonesia, a vast archipelago where boat
travel is the only way to reach many islands.
Safety measures are poorly enforced, and a lot of craft lack enough life
jackets and other safety equipment.
Vocabulary
dozen дюжина
to fear ожидать, опасаться
to pick up поднимать, подбирать
survivor оставшийся в живых, уцелевший
to break apart развалиться на части
estimate оценка
to range колебаться в пределах
to batter сильно бить
vast громадный
safety measures меры безопасности
to enforce проводить в жизнь
craft судно; суда
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form collocations and
translate them into Russian.
A B

1
узнать, выяснить

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23

measures
equipment
jacket (vest)
harness
life boat
safety raft
helmet
certificate
belt
buoy
bag
rails
2. Find an odd word.
a) pick up, rise, recover, raise, lift;
b) hit, list, strike, batter, beat;
c) enforce, confirm, put in force, carry out;
d) huge, extensive, massive, vast, expensive.
3. Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the vocabulary.
1. Some survivors were … by warships. (raise)
2. Number of people missing … from 20 to 50. (vary)
3. The ferry was … by huge waves. (strike)
4. A lot of … are short of proper life saving appliances. (ships)
5. Safety measures are badly … . (carry out)
III. Grammar Review
1. Find in the text the sentences with the Gerund. Translate them into Russian.
2. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. Bad weather has prevented rescue boats from leaving port.
Rescue boats couldn't … because of…
2. There was a big problem in finding out how many people were on the boat.
The number of people on the boat couldn't…
3. The ferry reported being battered by waves.

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The ferry reported that…


4. The ship tried to return to port, but sank soon after.
The ship sank before… (use the Gerund)
IV. Speech Practice
Describe the accident. Make a special mention of its causes.
Group work

Three texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information
which is somewhat confusing. Each student has to read one text. Exchange the
information. Work in groups of three. When discussing the point use the following
conversational formulas:
Perhaps you are right, but on the Возможно, ты и прав, но с другой
other hand… стороны…
I am all adrift about… Я сбит с толку, я в полной
растерянности относительно…
I am totally confused. Я совсем запутался.

Text 3. Hundreds missing in ferry disaster


December 31, 2006

More than 500 people are missing since an Indonesian ferry sank in a storm
off the coast of Java, where search-and-rescue efforts were being hampered by
rough seas.
At least 59 people have been rescued and a life raft has been found with an
unknown number of people in it.
The ferry was carrying 545 passengers and 57 crew when it sank. It was
licensed to carry 850.
Rough seas with waves five to six metres high were hampering search-and-
rescue efforts with only larger navy ships able to go out, as two other ships were
forced to turn back.
The Senopati Nusantara (Archipelago Commander) had been due in
Semarang late on Friday after what should have been a 19-hour voyage.

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25

Navy ships and helicopters could not find any trace of the ship. It was not
known exactly where it went down.
Vocabulary
to hamper препятствовать, затруднять
due должный, обязанный; ожидаемый
trace след, признак

Undated picture of the Senopati Nusantara

Text 4. Search and rescue teams in Indonesia are continuing


a search for about 400 people missing after a ferry sank
in a storm off the coast of Java
January 4, 2007

Aircraft have been dropping food and water to those adrift in lifeboats who
cannot be picked up in bad weather.
People have lived for days in warm tropical waters, but there are fears
survivors could die from dehydration unless rescued soon.
About 180 of the 600 people on board have been found alive so far1.
Rescue workers flying over the area have noticed many more holding on to
life rafts on Sunday and Monday.
However the search operation is being hampered by continued stormy
weather.
The ferry, the Senopati Nusantara, sank early on Saturday about 300 km
(190 miles) north-east of the capital, Jakarta.

1
пока

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The cause of the accident is unclear.


As the Senopati began to sink, passengers rushed to climb aboard lifeboats,
many of which broke apart leaving people drifting in the water. There were not
enough life jackets and the passengers had fought over them as the boat capsized.
Ships and ferries are a cheap and popular means of transport between the
17,000 islands of Indonesia, however, safety standards are not always enforced
and vessels frequently carry more passengers than they are meant to.
Vocabulary
dehydration обезвоживание

Text 5. Ferry survivors found after nine days at sea


January 8, 2007

Fourteen people on board a ferry that sank in Indonesia were picked up by a


passing cargo ship after spending nine days on a life raft. A 15th person died soon
after being rescued by the ship late yesterday.
The Senopati Nusantara car ferry had 628 people on board when it sank late
on December 29 in the Java Sea after being battered by heavy waves for several
hours on a voyage from the Indonesian section of Borneo Island to Java.
Some 245 people have since been found alive.
Only 10 bodies have been recovered, though a navy spokesman said today
that "hundreds" of bodies were likely trapped inside the lower decks of the sunken
ferry.
The Senopati Nusantara was a "roll-on roll-off" car ferry built in 1990 in
Japan.
A government transport investigator said last week she supposed waves
entered the car deck over the door and became trapped, making the ship unstable.
Sea accidents are common in Indonesia. Like in other developing countries,
overcrowding is common and maritime safety standards are often poorly
enforced.
Vocabulary
to recover поднимать (на борт)

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unstable неустойчивый
1. Answer the following questions about the mishap using the information from
the three texts.
1. What is the identity of the ship in distress?
2. How many people did she carry? Was she overloaded?
3. What was the weather like during the accident?
4. How many people were missing after the ferry sank?
5. Who took part in search-and-rescue operation?
6. What assistance was rendered to those people who could not be picked up from
lifeboats?
7. Were there any problems with safety equipment?
8. What is the cause of the accident? Are there any ideas about it?
9. Why are sea accidents common in Indonesia?
2. Look through the text below and find new facts about the accident. Give a free
translation of the text.
12 человек, уцелевших после гибели парома, затонувшего у берегов
Индонезии на прошлой неделе, были обнаружены на нефтяной платформе в
300 км от места катастрофы. Еще шесть человек найдены на близлежащем
острове.
Катастрофа произошла на рассвете в субботу 30 декабря, когда паром
"Сенопати Нусантара", везший не менее 600 человек, затонул во время
свирепого шторма.
Около 200 человек удалось спасти, однако сотни числятся
пропавшими. Точное число пассажиров, бывших на пароме, останется
неизвестным, так как многие индонезийцы не покупают билеты, а платят
прямо членам экипажа.
Минувшие пять суток спасатели доставляли на берег уцелевших,
найденных вертолетами в открытом море, где продолжается шторм, и тела
погибших.
Однако сейчас их становится все меньше. Сильные ветер и волны
раскидали жертвы катастрофы на сотни километров от места гибели парома.

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UNIT 3. Fires
Text 1. Fire on a Russian submarine

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. On what ship did the fire start?
2. What damage did the icebreaker sustain?
3. What was the potential danger?
4. Were there any people injured?
23 December, 1996

One crew member was killed when a fire broke out aboard a nuclear-
powered Russian icebreaker early Monday, Russian news agencies said.
The shipping company said the nuclear reactor powering the ship was not
affected by the fire, which broke out in a cabin, and there was no leak of radiation.
The crew extinguished the blaze within 30 minutes, but could not save the
life of the mechanic whose cabin caught fire.
The ship, the Yamal, was operating out of the port of Murmansk, near
Russia's border with Norway and to the north of the Arctic Circle.
Vocabulary
to break out начаться внезапно
to affect наносить ущерб
leak утечка
to extinguish гасить, тушить
blaze пламя
to catch fire загореться
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) affect, harm, damage, hit, hurt;
b) begin, start, break out, enforce, commence;
c) leak, lack, leakage, escape.
2. Fill in the gaps with one of the words from the vocabulary.
1. A fire … aboard a Russian ice-breaker. (start)

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29

2. The nuclear reactor of the icebreaker was not … by the fire. (damaged)
3. It took the crew 30 minutes to … the … . (put out, fire)
4. There was no … of radiation. (escape)
III. Speech Practice
Speak about the accident. Make use of the following conversational formulas:
Luckily… Fortunately… К счастью,…
Unfortunately… К сожалению,…

Text 2. Search for Jakarta ferry victims

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What happened with the passenger ferry?
2. Were there any casualties (пострадавшие)?
3. Why was the real number of passengers on board not known?
4. What problems are typical of shipping in Indonesia?
Make sure you understand the words below:
previously before
ill-fated unfortunate, unlucky
23 February, 2007

The Indonesian five navy ships are still searching for survivors of ferry fire
in the Bay of Jakarta, which killed at least 16 people.
Another 17 people are known to be missing, but there are fears that more
people than previously thought could have been on board the ill-fated ship.
The Levina I was 80 km (50 miles) from Jakarta's port when the fire broke
out.
The blaze is the latest in a sequence of deadly incidents in Indonesia, leading
to concern over its safety record.
Based on data from the ship's log, 16 people are dead and 17 remain missing.
But officials fear there could have been many more than 307 registered
passengers, as Indonesian ferries regularly have stowaways on board, trying to
avoid paying fares.

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30

"It is common for people who have no ticket to force their way1 on board
using whatever way they find", said an Indonesian navy spokesman.
Many of the survivors from the fire rushed off the blazing vessel into the sea
to escape the flames.
Yas Rijal, 33, was with his wife and son on the upper deck when the fire
broke out.
"Suddenly flames burst from the lower deck. The crew ordered us to put on
yellow life vests and we jumped", he told the Associated Press news agency.
The accident is the most deadly sea disaster since a passenger ferry carrying
around 600 people capsized in late December off Java island, leaving more than
half the passengers feared dead.
Indonesia, an archipelago of thousands of islands, relies on ferries to provide
a cheap and extensive passenger network.
But many vessels are badly maintained, and there have been a number of
new accidents.
Vocabulary
at least по крайней мере
sequence серия, ряд
deadly смертельно опасный
safety record зд. показатель безопасности судов
ship's log судовой журнал
stowaway безбилетный пассажир
flame огонь, пламя
to burst прорываться
life vest спасательный жилет
to rely (on) зависеть (от чего-л.); полагаться
to provide предоставлять; обеспечивать
extensive громадный, большой
network сеть
to maintain поддерживать, сохранять

1
проталкиваться, пробираться

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31

II. Translate the text from English into Russian starting from "The
Indonesian five navy ships…" up to "…to escape the flames".
III. Vocabulary Practice
Find an odd word.
a) fire, blaze, flame, burn;
b) expensive, vast, extensive, widespread;
c) check, series, chain, sequence;
d) burst, explode, enforce, erupt.
IV. Grammar Review
1. Find in the text the sentence with Complex Subject with the Infinitive.
2. Transform the following sentences using Complex Subject with the Infinitive:
1. It is supposed that there were more people on board.
2. It is known that Indonesian ferries regularly carry stowaways.
3. It is reported that many of the survivors jumped into the sea to escape the fire.
4. It was said that the flames burst from the lower deck.
5. This accident will certainly give rise to studies into the safety standards of the
country.
V. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word-groups mean:
archipelago; ship's log; stowaway; to force one's way; life vest.
2. Speak about the accident.

Text 3. Dozens of people are still feared missing

I. Read the text below and complete the unfinished sentences.


Dozens of people are still feared missing after a fire broke out on board
an Indonesian ferry four days ago.

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32

A search is under way for three people who were inspecting the burnt-out
remains1 of the ship on Sunday when it unexpectedly capsized.
At least 42 people died after the Levina I caught fire as it travelled between
Jakarta and Bangka island off Sumatra last Thursday.
Some 250 passengers are thought to have survived the blaze.
The ferry's manifest said 300 people were on board, but officials believe the
figure could have been higher as…
At least five vessels are continuing to search for survivors and bodies in the
Java Sea close to where the ferry…
The ship was anchored but reportedly already listing when a group of around
16 investigators and journalists went on board on Sunday even though some
officials had warned it...
The journalists were interviewing a police official on one deck, when
investigators warned the boat was listing dangerously and they were ordered to
evacuate. People on the ferry panicked and raced down to deck two where they
crowded into a window at the end of the deck to get out to the side of the ship.
An Indonesian television cameraman died, and two investigators and
a reporter are still missing.
There would be a police investigation into what happened.

The burned out ferry

1
останки

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33

II. Speak about the second accident. Think of the safety measures which had
not been taken to prevent the mishap.
Group work

Complete the spidergram below and see how much vocabulary you can generate,
with reference to the topic of fire.

Text 4. Пожар на пароме в Филиппинах: 150 пропавших


Give a free translation of the text below.
По меньшей мере 150 человек все еще не найдено после того, как
сильный пожар вынудил сотни пассажиров покинуть паром на юге бухты
Манила.
Более 600 человек уже спасены, и сейчас сохраняется надежда на то,
что пропавших могут подобрать корабли, курсирующие на месте
катастрофы.
Жертвой пожара уже стал, по меньшей мере, один человек. Трое
получили ранения.
Оказавшееся рядом грузовое судно сразу спасло около 200 человек,
а еще 75 подобрал корабль военно-морского флота.
Судно вышло из порта Манилы около полуночи по местному времени
(16 часов по Гринвичу), а пожар начался примерно час спустя.
По словам спасенных, пожар начался, когда пассажиры собирались
ложиться спать.

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Местное радио передает со ссылкой на пассажиров парома, что перед


пожаром на пароме раздался взрыв (explosion).
На борту парома находились 724 пассажира, в том числе 34 ребенка,
а также 154 члена экипажа.

UNIT 4. Grounding
Text 1. Banana boat rescue will take days

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
salvage rescue
to establish to discover
recognisable well-known
en route on the way

The vessel is carrying hundreds of tonnes of bananas and pineapples

The crew of a cargo vessel stranded after hitting a lighthouse will stay at
least three more days on board until salvage experts work out how to return her
to shore.
An inquiry has been launched to establish how the ship crashed into one of
the Solent's most recognisable landmarks, the Nab Tower.
The vessel's cargo of hundreds of tonnes of bananas and pineapples, which
were bound for Belgium, will have to be removed before the rescue can begin.

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35

Meanwhile1, the 22-strong crew, composed of a Norwegian pilot, a Polish


engineer, Indian officers and an Ecuadorian and Filipino, will all stay on board in
the Solent.
A coastguard spokesperson said a massive barge and crane are en route to
Britain from Rotterdam to remove the cargo, while steel plates have been welded
onto the visible eight-metre hole in the ship's hull above the water line.
But a 26 m gash that lies underwater will remain open, as it is considered
too dangerous to fix on site2.
The vessel, which flies a Liberian flag, will be towed to shore – possibly at
Southampton – where it will be repaired.
Vocabulary
to strand сесть на мель
to work out решать
to crash into наскочить на кого-л., что-л.; врезаться во что-л.
to remove убирать; снимать
to compose составлять
plate плита, лист, полоса (металла)
to weld сваривать
hole отверстие, пробоина
gash разрез
to consider думать, считать
to fix ремонтировать
II. Vocabulary Practice
Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
А В
1. strand a) repair
2. fix b) take away
3. crash c) run aground
4. work out d) make up
5. compose e) collide

1
тем временем
2
на месте

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36

6. remove f) solve
III. Grammar Review
Complete the sentences with the phrases from the right column. Join two parts
using before or until. Comment on the use of tenses. Translate the sentences into
Russian.
The cargo will have to be removed before salvage experts work out how to
return her to shore.
The crew will stay three more days before the ship is towed to shore.
on board
But a 26 m gash will remain open until the rescue begins.
IV. Speech Practice
Answer the questions to the text above.
1. Why did the cargo ship strand?
2. What damage did she sustain?
3. When can the rescue begin?
4. What will be used to remove the cargo?
5. Was any repair made?

Text 2 (A). An operation to evacuate up to 1,600 people


from a stricken cruise ship

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. Why did the Sea Diamond send a distress signal?
2. What happened with the passengers? Were there any people missing?
3. Who took part in rescue operation?

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37

5 April, 2007

An operation to evacuate up to 1,600 people from a stricken cruise ship has


been completed off the coast of the Greek island of Santorini
The Greek-flagged Sea Diamond issued a distress signal after running
aground and starting to take on water.
Passengers told they were taken from the ship on lifeboats. They said the
evacuation proceeded calmly.
More than a dozen ships in the area were involved: a flotilla of commercial
ships plus six navy helicopters and various navy vessels, along with1 emergency
medical crews. The ship was about one nautical mile (1.8 km) off the coast of the
island in the eastern Aegean Sea. After running aground several hundred metres
from shore in Santorini's volcanic lagoon, it was towed off the rocks for the rescue
to take place.
The weather was good and the sea calm. The passengers were to be collected
from Santorini by a sister ship and taken to Piraeus, where they would have ended
the cruise on Saturday anyway. Many of the 1,200 passengers are from Germany
and the United States, and about 20 are believed to be from the UK. There are
also up to 400 crew.
American passenger Cliff Jones said: "We were pulling into the port and I
think the ship hit a few rocks. The ship tilted so far to the right the first five floors
were flooded. We just waited at the top to be rescued".

1
together with

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38

The ship had been on a short tour of the Greek islands.


Vocabulary
stricken потерпевший аварию
to issue выпускать, зд. посылать
to run aground садиться на мель
to proceed протекать, проходить
emergency аварийный; катастрофа, авария
to tow off снимать с мели
to pull into прибывать
to tilt давать крен
to flood заливать, затоплять
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) list, heel, leak, tilt, roll;
b) arrive, set off, pull into, reach;
c) pull, tow, lack, drag;
d) proceed, continue, carry on, confirm, go on.
2. Form collocations with the word emergency and translate them into Russian:
beacon, crew, control, exit, facilities, ladder, medicine, power, receiver, repair,
services, signal.
III. Speech Practice
Rephrase the following sentences:
1. Passengers told they were taken from the ship on lifeboats.
Lifeboats … … for…
2. The evacuation proceeded calmly.
There … … panic during…
3. More than a dozen ships in the area were involved.
The search and rescue operation … … by…
4. The ship was towed off the rocks for the rescue to take place.
The rescue operation could only … … … after…

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39

5. The ship was pulling into the port and I think the ship hit a few rocks.
When entering the port the ship might have…
6. The ship tilted so far to the right the first five floors were flooded.
The first five floors were flooded as a result of…

Text 2 (B). Two lost after the accident

1. Read the text below and fill in the words which fit the best. There is an example.
Two 0) lost after the accident
6 April, 2007

Two French tourists are 1)… after 1,600 passengers and crew were 2)… from
a stricken cruise ship Sea Diamond off the Greek island of Santorini.
The ship sank 15 hours after 3)… .
The names of the missing pair were Jean-Christophe, 45, and his daughter
Maud Allain, 16, from western France.
They were in a four-berth cabin when the vessel 4)… a reef. Mr Allain's wife
and son narrowly managed1 5)… to the upper decks.
The 6)… passengers were being taken to the port of Piraeus, the ship's
destination.
Divers are preparing 7)… the wreck, now about 200 m down.
Greek Tourism Minister has said whoever is responsible for 8)… he will be
made accountable2 in the strictest way.
2. Speak about the accident. Think about the causes of the accident making
deductions (выводы) about why it happened. Use must have (must've) or might
have (might've).

Text 3. Причиной крушения у берегов Чукотки


гидрографического военного судна могли быть сильный
ветер и большая волна

1
едва успели
2
будет привлечен к ответственности

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40

Give a free translation of the text below.


08.07.2008

Следственная комиссия выясняет причины аварии гидрографического


(hydrographic) судна Тихоокеанского флота (Pacific fleet) в Анадырском
лимане (Anadyr estuary). Гидрографическое судно "Глубомер", в ходе
выполнения работ по установке навигационных знаков, получило пробоину
и село на мель в 600 метрах от берега. 30 человек экипажа были
своевременно (in good time) эвакуированы с борта аварийного судна
большим гидрографическим катером. Пострадавших нет. На момент
происшествия скорость ветра в акватории порта достигала 12 м/с.
Неделю назад военные гидрографы прибыли на Чукотку и приступили
к установке плавучих предостерегающих знаков – буев. Сейчас комиссия
решает вопрос, каким образом убрать судно с камней.
Судно "Глубомер" имеет водоизмещение 1300 тонн, длину 60 метров.

UNIT 5. Casualties
Text 1. Four die in fire on Australian Navy tanker

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. What type of ship was the Westralia? Find the information about her activities.
2. Where did the fire break out?
3. How badly was the ship damaged?
4. Were there any casualties?
5. What kind of injuries did the sailors sustain?
Make sure you understand the words below:
to erupt to break out
to conduct to carry out
fractured broken

Four sailors died yesterday when a fire erupted on Australia's largest vessel
as it conducted exercises near Rottnest Island, eight nautical miles off the Western
Australia coast.

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41

Five injured sailors were evacuated from the fuel tanker, HMAS Westralia
and were being treated for burns, smoke inhalation and shock at a hospital in
Perth. The fire broke out around 1100 hrs local time in the engine room and spread
through the lower deck of the 171 m vessel as crew members were repairing a
fractured fuel tank.
It spread through the engine room and the bilges, causing the diesel-engine
Westralia to lose all power and communications. Firefighters took two-and-a-
half hours to extinguish the blaze.
A refueling ship that served in the Gulf War, the Westralia was carrying
a crew of 70.
Vocabulary
inhalation вдыхание
to spread распространяться
bilge трюм
firefighter пожарник
II. Now speak about the accident using the above questions as a plan. Think
of what might have been the cause of the fire.

Text 2. British tourists taken ill on cruise ship

I. Read the text.


July 29, 2007

Seven British pensioners are being treated in hospital for suspected


Legionnaires' disease after falling ill on a cruise around Lapland.
The holidaymakers, who had been on a Fred Olsen cruise ship, are being
treated in Stockholm, Sweden, for "pneumonia-like symptoms".
The five women and two men, aged in their 70s and 80s, are in a stable
condition. They are expected to spend the next few days in hospital.
But the liner, the Black Watch, has already set off for the UK and is due to
arrive tomorrow.
A different ship run by the same company, called the Black Prince, was hit
by a highly contagious vomiting virus twice last year.

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42

The liner set off from Dover for the 17-day trip almost two weeks ago, and
had been due to return to the British port on Wednesday, when it is also due to set
off on another trip.
There are more than 750 passengers on board, almost all of whom are British,
and there are also 329 crew members.
The liner had already visited several ports in northern Europe, including
St Petersburg, Estonia and Finland, before arriving in Stockholm.
It was returning to Britain two days early just as a "precautionary measure".
The ship's pools and Jacuzzi have been closed down "as a precaution" on the
advice of the Swedish health authorities.
Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal form of pneumonia which usually
affects middle-aged or elderly people.
Symptoms are similar to those of flu, and include feeling feverish, muscle
pain, headaches, a cough – possibly leading on to pneumonia. It can be treated
with antibiotics.
Vocabulary
Legionnaires' disease "болезнь легионеров"
stable стабильный, устойчивый
contagious заразный
virus вирус
precautionary measure мера предосторожности
fatal смертельный
II. Vocabulary Practice
Match the words in column A with those in column B to form collocations and
translate them into Russian. Use them in the sentences of your own.
a) A B
1. to run a) people
2. to affect b) antibiotics
3. to fall c) the ship
4. to lead to d) disease
5. to treat for e) pneumonia
6. to treat with f) ill

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43

b) A B
1. stable a) symptoms
2. precautionary b) virus
3. health c) measure
4. contagious d) condition
5. pneumonia-like e) authorities
III. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Where did the tourists catch the disease?
2. What are the symptoms of Legionnaires' disease?
3. What kind of people fall ill with the disease most frequently?
4. What facilities might be the source of infection?
5. What precautionary measures were taken by the authorities?
IV. Speak about the incident using the above questions as a plan.

Text 3. Seafarer loses leg in loading accident

Read the text.


A serious accident on board a ship in Hong Kong while it was loading and
discharging at anchorage resulted in the bosun losing a leg and another seafarer
also being injured.
The two men were involved in transferring very heavy metal plates on the
deck which were being used for rebuilding the interior structure of the vessel, says
Hong Kong chaplain Peter Ellis.
"The plates, weighing over one-and-a-quarter tons were being hoisted when
a gust of wind caused the vessel and the barges alongside to shift violently. As
a result, the two crew members lost control of the sling, leaving them trapped under
the steel work. It took nearly 20 minutes to release them. The bosun's left leg was
cut off which was tragic, but he was so lucky not to lose his life".
Peter said an enduring memory of one of his visits to the hospital to see the
men was of the Turkish bosun rushing down the corridor using a walking frame
to greet the Israeli captain of a sistership who also ran to meet him.

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44

"As they embraced each other, it struck me1 how much the brotherhood of
seafarers can teach the world".

to result in иметь результатом; приводить к


to transfer переносить
to weigh весить
to hoist поднимать (что-л.)
gust порыв (ветра)
to shift перемещаться; передвигаться
violently очень, сильно
sling строп
steel work стальная конструкция
to release освобождать
enduring постоянный, прочный
walking frame ходильная рама, ходунки
to embrace обнимать
brotherhood братство

Active Vocabulary

abandon flame result in


accident flood reveal
affect freighter run aground
batter gust rush
bilge hamper safety
blaze hoist safety measures
break apart hole safety record
break out identity scene
burst improve search (for)
capsize incident sequence
catch fire inhalation shift
cause injure ship's log

1
меня поразило

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45

check injury shortage


coastguard inquiry spokesman
collide investigation spread
collision issue stable
common lack stowaway
compose lane strand
concern(s) launch stricken
confirm leak strike (struck)
consider list sunken
craft measure survive
crash into mishap survivor
dehydration missing sustain
dent monitor take on water
dozen occur tilt
due pick up top priority
effort plate tow off
emergency precautionary measure trace
enforce proceed transfer
ensure pull into trap
escape pump out turn into
extensive raise unstable
estimate range vast
extinguish recover victim
failure release violently
fatal rely on weigh
fear remove weld
ferry rescue widespread
firefighter rescuer work out

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Supplementary Reading
Text 1. A trawler has sunk in the North Sea after a collision
with a Norwegian supply vessel south-east of Shetland

The six crew of the Peterhead-based Harvester have been picked up by


another fishing vessel, the Ocean Harvest.
There are no reports of any injuries. The crew are heading for Peterhead.
The collision with the Strilmoey occurred 72 miles south-east of Sumburgh.
The supply boat is heading for Stavanager for inspection.
Shetland Coastguard said it received a distress call from the trawler at 0622
GMT on Friday, reporting that the crew was in need of urgent assistance following
the collision.
The coastguard made contact with both vessels and arranged to transfer the
crew onto the Ocean Harvest.
A spokesman said the two fishing boats were pair trawling at the time.
He added that there was poor visibility with fog but the seas were quite calm.

Text 2. Master says "I'm no hero"

The master of the methanol carrier Cape Horn dismissed as "ridiculous"


claims that he acted heroically in taking his blazing ship out of port.
The vessel, carrying 14,000 tonnes of methanol, caught fire while berthing
at Livorno, in Italy. Most of the crew were evacuated after trying to control the
blaze, but Captain Eric Leseur stayed on board together with the pilot and four
others while the vessel was towed out to sea by a tug. Less than 20 minutes later
two methanol tanks exploded sending flames 30 metres into the air.
Several of the Cape Horn's crew and two from the tug were reported injured,
but not seriously. Speaking from his hospital bed, Captain Leseur said: "I just did
my duty. Any master would have tried to take a ship carrying fuel away from
port".

Text 3. Fire out on liner off SE England


Saturday, May 6, 2006

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47

Crew members put out a fire in the engine room of a cruise liner with
708 people aboard off the coast of southeast England.
They smothered the engine room with CO2, and they have managed to
extinguish the fire. There are no reports of injuries from the ship.
An emergency call from the ship came in at about 4 a.m. and fire and rescue
services scrambled to reach the vessel. It was called The Calypso and was
operated by Louis Cruise Lines.
Three lifeboats are alongside the liner, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) off the
seaside town of Beachy Head, a coastguard helicopter dropped a team of
firefighters on board to assess the situation and is flying out a team of
reinforcements.
"Basically, it's information collection at the moment and making decisions",
said one of the officials, adding that a coastguard tugboat was also heading to the
liner.
"It's very unlikely we will evacuate", he said.
The liner was heading from the English port of Tilbury to St Peterport in the
Scilly Isles in the English Channel.
The 11,162-tonne Calypso was built in 1968, has 243 cabins and can carry
up to 593 passengers.

Text 4. Storm hampers shipwreck search


25 November, 1999

High seas are hampering attempts to find survivors after what may have been
China's worst shipping disaster for more than 50 years.
At least 150 people are dead and 126 are missing following the shipwreck of
a passenger ferry close to the eastern Chinese port of Yantai.
The Dashun broke up and sank after it was trapped in a violent storm off the
coast of Shandong province.
Only 36 survivors of the 312 passengers and crew aboard the ship had been
found.
The provincial government sent soldiers, police and navy troops for the
rescue effort. But conditions are difficult, with five metre waves and freezing
temperatures. Many of the victims froze to death in life boats as they waited in

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48

vain for help. Officials said a fleet of tugs and other boats was sent to help, but
were unable to approach because of the weather.
The ship had been heading for the port of Dalian, but was forced to turn back
by gale force winds and towering waves. The vessel sent out distress signals when
a fire broke out at 1630 local time. The cause of the fire is still being investigated.
Reports suggest it broke out on the second deck used to carry cars and spread
to the third used for cargo trucks.

Text 5. Breathing gear could have saved lives of two oilmen

Two men who died on an offshore installation could have survived if they
had used their breathing apparatus, a Fatal Accident Inquiry heard yesterday.
Keith Moncrieff, 45, and Sean McCue, 22, were inspecting a pipe repair on
Shell's Brent Bravo platform when they were overcome by a huge release of gas.
Stuart Gale, QC (Queen's Counsel – королевский адвокат), representing
the oil company, told the inquiry in Aberdeen that it was likely the men died after
succumbing to the narcotic effects of the gas.
The court was told that although breathing apparatus could have saved them,
there was "widespread ignorance" in the industry of the potential effects of
hydrocarbons.
Mr Gale said a doctor who made a report for Shell following the incident on
11 September, 2003, stated: "Death may have been avoided had Mr Moncrieff
and Mr McCue donned their breathing apparatus [which] they had with them".
He told the inquiry that Shell had made changes to its working practices.
The inquiry continues.

Text 6. Medical officials in Brazil have ruled out anthrax


Medical officials in Brazil have ruled out anthrax as the cause of an Egyptian
sailor's death.
It was feared that seaman Soliman Ibrahim had been exposed to anthrax after
an autopsy indicated the presence of the poison.
He was found dead in his cabin on the ship Wadi al Arab on April 11,
a few days after arriving in Brazil by plane from Cairo. But, after conducting

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49

a second examination and doing tests on the ship, officials in Brazil and Canada
found no evidence of anthrax – although they say they still do not know what
killed the sailor.
The vessel was shipping a cargo of bauxite from Brazil to Canada and
quarantine measures – imposed by Canada after it received word of the possible
anthrax-related death – have now been lifted.
A first autopsy found the sailor had suffered from vomiting, internal bleeding
and multiple organ failure, but also discovered an indication of anthrax. This
prompted speculation that a suitcase he was given in Cairo and asked to deliver
to someone in Canada may have held the substance.
Canadian health officials had quarantined the ship around the port of Halifax
on the Atlantic coast.
Some health experts say the confusion may have been caused by the
discovery of bacteria in the crew member's body that looked like anthrax.
Group Work
Two texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information.
Each student has to read one text. Exchange the information. Work in pairs.

Text 7. Italian ship sinks, 1 missing after collision


2007-08-03

An Italian research ship sank and a Russian researcher onboard went missing
on Friday after the ship collided with another vessel in the Mediterranean Sea off
Italy's Sicily Island.
The collision took place in heavy fog about 6 km off the Sicilian port of
Mazara del Vallo between the Thetis, which belonged to the Italian National
Research Council, and a Panamanian-registered cargo vessel en route from Israel
to Spain.
The Thetis was carrying a crew of six and eight researchers – two Russians
and six Italians – doing oceanological research.
The other 13 people aboard the Thetis were rescued and taken to hospital as
a precaution but no one appeared to have been seriously injured.

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50

Italian Transport Minister Alessandro Bianchi left a cabinet meeting in Rome


to oversee rescue operations and the investigation into the accident.

Text 8. Italian research ship sinks, all passengers safe


Aug 3, 2007

A research ship operated by Italy's National Research Council (CNR) sank


in the Mediterranean Sea on Friday after colliding with a merchant vessel amid
heavy fog.
Eleven people initially given as missing were eventually rescued by Italy's
coast guards, assisted in their search by air force units.
The accident took place about four miles off the coast of Sicily.
Transport Minister Alessandro Bianchi left a cabinet meeting in Rome to
follow developments and questioned why the ships' radars had not helped the crew
avoid the collision.
The research ship, the Thetis, is 31.5 metres long and carries out research
into fisheries, environment and physical oceanography on behalf1 of CNR.
The other ship involved in the accident, the Heleni, was described by reports
as a Panama-registered merchant vessel operating on the Israel.

TERM 6
UNIT 1. Lost at Sea
Text 1. Death of man on ferry negligent

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
liability responsibility
probability possibility, chance
gap hole
gate door

1
от имени

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51

The High Court1 has decided that the death of a man who drowned when
he fell overboard from the deck of Koningin Beatrix ferry was due to negligence.
Michael Davis, 35, died during a Stena Line2 crossing from Rosslare to
Fishguard in October 2000.
The firm denies liability and said he must have gone overboard deliberately.
But the judge said Mr Davis's death was caused by the negligence of Stena
and of the captain.
About five minutes after Mr Davis went overboard he was seen in the sea by
a number of passengers and the alarm was raised. A lifeboat was launched, two
rescue helicopters were scrambled and a nearby container ship joined in the
search.
About fifty minutes after he had gone overboard, Mr Davis, a well-built man
who was a very strong swimmer, was spotted "still very much alive" by
a crew member on the container ship.
The judge said the probability was that Mr Davis had lost his footing3 and
fallen over the safety rails, or through a gap where an access gate had been left
open. Besides, before Mr Davis was spotted, those on the ferry had no clear and
carefully prepared plan of rescue.
Vocabulary
negligent допущенный по небрежности
to drown тонуть
negligence небрежность
to deny отрицать
deliberately умышленно
judge судья
alarm тревога
to scramble поднимать в воздух (вертолеты) по тревоге
to spot заметить
safety rails защитные поручни
access проход

1
Высокий суд (правосудия) (входит в состав Верховного суда в Великобритании)
2
название компании
3
потерял равновесие

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II. Vocabulary Practice


1. Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
A B
1. spot a) danger signal
2. deny b) go down
3. drown c) carelessness
4. negligence d) responsibility
5. alarm e) refuse
6. liability f) notice
2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. to fall a) death
2. to deny b) a helicopter
3. to go c) overboard
4. to cause d) liability
5. to scramble e) an alarm
6. to raise f) a lifeboat
7. to launch
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. He must have gone overboard deliberately.
2. He was spotted "still very much alive".
2. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. The death of a man who drowned when he fell overboard was due to
negligence.
Negligence resulted in…
2. About five minutes after Mr Davis went overboard he was seen in the sea by
a number of passengers and the alarm was raised.
The alarm was raised after…

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3. A lifeboat was launched, two rescue helicopters were scrambled and


a nearby container ship joined in the search.
The search operation involved…
4. The probability was that Mr Davis had lost his footing and fallen over the
safety rails.
Mr Davis might have…
3. Answer the questions to the text above.
1. What happened with Mr Davis?
2. What is the opinion of the firm about his death?
3. What does the judge consider to be the cause of the accident?
4. What fact proves that this was a casualty (несчастный случай)?
4. Find some ambiguity (неясность) in the description of the accident and
express your opinion about the mishap.

Text 2. Two rowers trying to cross the Atlantic Ocean


have been rescued

I. Read the text and give answers to the questions below.


1. Who were the men rescued by the tanker?
2. Why were they forced to send a distress call?
3. How long did they have to wait for help?
Make sure you understand the words below:
beside next to, close to
upturned capsized
delight happiness

Two rowers trying to cross the Atlantic Ocean have been rescued by
a tanker. The pair, who are both from Ireland, were taking part in the Atlantic
rowing race and they were rescued after spending six hours in a life-raft.
The men were rescued more than two thousand kilometres southeast of the
island of Bermuda from a life-raft which was floating beside their upturned boat.

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They were saved by the crew on board a huge Spanish tanker, who answered their
distress call and hauled the men on board in heavy seas and high winds.
They had begun the race in the Canary Islands at the end of November and
were heading for the Caribbean island of Antigua. But in a storm they lost the use
of the rudder on their small rowing boat and it quickly capsized. US coastguards
picked up an emergency beacon signal and ships in the area were alerted.
One of them said he thought he was certain to drown but he managed to swim
to find his friend. They then settled down for a long wait in the middle of the
ocean.
The Spanish vessel, the Hispania Spirit, diverted to help and the crew saw a
red flare. The two rowers then clambered safely on board, uninjured. They said
they were disappointed their race was over, but were simply happy to be alive.
And family members back in Ireland expressed their delight. The ship carrying
them is due to reach Spain at the weekend.
Vocabulary
rower гребец
to head направляться, держать курс, следовать
to haul тащить
to alert предупреждать; поднимать по тревоге
to settle down устраиваться
to divert отклоняться (от курса)
flare сигнальная ракета
to clamber карабкаться
disappointed огорченный
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Give synonyms to the following words:
to haul, to clamber, to divert, upturned, to alert, to be alive.
2. Use the above words in the sentences of your own.
III. Grammar Review
Fill in the blanks with the proper preposition.

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1. The rowers were rescued … spending six hours … a life-raft which was
floating … their upturned boat.
2. They had begun the race … the Canary Islands … the end of November and
were heading … the Caribbean island of Antigua.
3. US coastguards picked … an emergency beacon signal.
4. They then settled … … a long wait … the middle … the ocean.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what might have happened with their rudder.
2. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. Two rowers trying to cross the Atlantic Ocean have been rescued by
a tanker.
When crossing…
2. They lost the use of the rudder on their small rowing boat.
They lost control of … after…
3. They said they were disappointed their race was over, but were simply happy
to be alive.
Though the race …, they … to survive.
3. Speak about the accident according to the plan of your own.

Text 3. Mystery of "dumped" man found drifting on raft


of oil drums

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
obvious clear, apparent
response reaction
to schedule to plan

A man found floating on a raft 30 miles (48 km) out to sea between Norway
and Denmark insisted yesterday that he had been thrown overboard from a British
ship.

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The crew on the Norwegian gas tanker Berge Odin thought that they were
mistaken when they spotted the lone man sitting on a raft made of oil drums and
planks in international waters. They had mistaken him for a large piece of debris,
but when they approached him he politely explained in English what had
happened. "I have been dumped from another boat", he said. The Norwegian crew
lowered a rescue boat, helped him aboard their vessel and gave him a hot bath,
dry clothing and food before alerting the Norwegian Sea Rescue Service.
At first the crew believed him to be in good health, but it soon became
obvious that the hours on the raft had taken their toll1. The man was suffering
from hypothermia, was dehydrated and exhausted.
Anders Bang-Andersen, spokesman for the southern Norwegian Sea Rescue
Centre, in Sola, said: "He had hardly any clothes on him and was frozen through.
You hear these Robinson Crusoe stories from other parts of the world, but not
very often here in the far north".
Mr Bang-Andersen praised the ship's crew for its fast response, calling the
effort "an excellent example of seamanship". The man has said little, other than
that his name is George and that he was born in California in 1959.
The ship continued on its way to the southern Swedish port of Marstrand,
where the man was scheduled to be interviewed by police.
Vocabulary
to dump выбрасывать
oil drum бочка для нефтепродуктов
lone одинокий
plank доска
debris обломки, мусор
hypothermia гипотермия, переохлаждение
dehydrated обезвоженный
exhausted истощенный, изможденный
to praise хвалить

1
имели негативные последствия

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II. Vocabulary Practice


1. Find the words from the text describing the condition of the man picked up by
the tanker.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 skill in and knowledge of the work of navigating, maintaining, and
operating a vessel;
 an abnormally low body temperature;
 fragments of something destroyed or broken.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain in your own words what the sentences below mean.
1. The crew had mistaken him for a large piece of debris.
2. He had hardly any clothes on him.
3. Soon became obvious that the hours on the raft had taken their toll.
2. Answer the questions to the text above.
1. How did the man happen to be on the raft in the high seas?
2. What assistance was rendered to him by the crew of the Norwegian tanker?
3. How highly were the efforts of the seamen estimated?
4. What do your think of the events which resulted in the described incident?
When speaking, use must have (must've) or might have (might've) as well as the
conversational formulas below:
Expressing surprise/disbelief
Surprisingly,… Удивительно, неожиданно…
That's incredible/unbelievable! Немыслимо, маловероятно /
неправдоподобно!

Text 4. Российский сухогруз "Нахичевань" затонул

Give a free translation of the text below.

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58

Российский сухогруз "Нахичевань", груженный двумя тоннами серы


(sulphur), затонул 11 ноября 2007 года в Kерченском проливе. На его борту
было 11 человек. Спасти удалось только троих. В бурлящем море были
подобраны двое матросов из Астрахани, проходивших на сухогрузе
практику после окончания училища, а также Анна Рей, кок этого судна. В
ледяной воде они продержались около 40 минут до того, как их заметили
спасатели с буксира "Нептуния". Всех доставили в Керченскую больницу.
Врачи рассказали, что они пережили "смертельную дозу холода".
Волна буквально накрыла судно, и оно стало уходить ко дну. Членов
экипажа смыло за борт. Спасли их жилеты.
Кок сухогруза несколько часов была в обморочном состоянии и только
к вечеру пришла в себя (come to). Когда ее подобрали в море, она держалась
за два спасательных круга. Теряя сознание, успела обмотаться (wind)
веревкой от одного из них.

UNIT 2. Human Errors in Accidents


Text 1. Human error in Greek ship sinking

I. Before reading the text try to remember the information about the accident
the cruise ship Sea Diamond had. Below you can find some more facts
explaining the mishap.
10 April, 2007

Human error almost certainly contributed to the sinking of a cruise ship off
Greece's island of Santorini, a Greek minister said.
A remote-controlled submarine has been taking pictures of the Sea Diamond
in the hope of finding two French passengers who are feared drowned.
Clean-up crews are working to prevent more oil spilling from the sunken
ship.
Nearly 1,600 passengers and crew were evacuated from the Greek-flagged
Sea Diamond when it ran aground, then sank.
The Sea Diamond's captain and five other crew have been charged with
negligence.

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The captain has told investigators that a current took him by surprise1 and
swept the boat onto well-marked rocks just before it was to dock at Santorini's
harbour.
Efforts were now focused on trying to find the two missing French tourists
and on protecting the environment from the oil spilling from the sunken ship.
The three-hour evacuation was criticised by some passengers as slow and
chaotic.
The 143-metre cruise ship, built in 1986, is owned by Cyprus-based Louis
Cruise Lines.
Vocabulary
human error субъективная ошибка, "человеческий фактор"
to contribute способствовать
remote-controlled управляемый дистанционно
clean-up очистка
to spill разливаться
to charge обвинять
to focus сосредоточивать(ся), концентрировать(ся)
to sweep (swept) сносить
to protect защищать, предохранять
environment окружающая среда
II. Vocabulary Practice
Find an odd word.
a) spill, lack, leak, escape;
b) protect, defend, cover, recover;
c) carry, trap, sweep, move.
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word-groups mean:
a remote-controlled submarine; clean-up crews; negligence; environment.
2. Rephrase the sentences using the words in bold.

1
врасплох

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1. Human error almost certainly contributed to the sinking of the cruise ship.
the cause – Human error is sure to … the sinking of the cruise
ship.
2. The captain has told investigators that a current took him by surprise and
swept the boat onto rocks.
expect – The captain has told investigators that he … to sweep
the boat onto rocks.
3. Efforts were now focused on trying to find the two missing French tourists.
direct – Search operation … at finding two missing French
tourists.
3. Answer the questions to the text above.
1. What are the aftereffects (последствия) of the Sea Diamond sinking?
2. What is the main task of the search operation now?
3. Who is engaged in protecting the environment from oil pollution?
4. What charge has been brought against the captain and crew members?
4. Speak about the accident using the above questions as a plan.

Text 2. A number of errors led to a collision between


a UK cargo ship and a Danish fishing boat

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to display to show, to exhibit
responsibilities duties
appropriate proper

The collision between the Scot Explorer, owned by Scotline, based in


Romford, Essex, and the Dorthe Dalso took place in November 2004.
The Maritime Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) says the accident
happened due to a lack of crew on watch and a failure to use radar properly.
The Scot Explorer was heading for Sweden carrying timber when she
collided with the fishing boat Dorthe Dalsoe, which was seriously damaged.

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Investigators from the MAIB found the fishing vessel had a tired and
inexperienced crew, and that it was not displaying proper lights.
However, those on board the Scot Explorer did not take the appropriate
action.
There was only one person on the ship's bridge, and another crew member
who also acted as a look-out was attending to other responsibilities in the galley.
The radar system was not being used properly – and if it had been, the
collision probably would not have happened.
The report is recommending an independent study of safety levels for the
manning of ships, and the use of lookouts on board.
Vocabulary
The Maritime Отделение Морского Агентства Береговой
Accident Investigation Охраны Великобритании по Расследованию
Branch (MAIB) Аварий
to attend to уделять внимание (чему-л.); следить (за чем-л.)
manning укомплектование личным составом
II. Translate into Russian the passages dealing with the causes contributing
to the disaster.
III. Grammar Review
Complete the conditional sentences (Type 3). There is an example.
1. If the radar had been used properly,
2. If proper lights…, the collision probably would not
3. If the crew of the fishing vessel…, have happened.
4. If the crew on the cargo ship…,
5. If a look-out…,
IV. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. The accident happened due to a lack of crew on watch.
There were not enough…
2. The accident happened due to a failure to use radar properly.

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The crew were unable…


3. The fishing vessel was not displaying proper lights.
The lights … not…
4. There was only one person on the ship's bridge.
... lack of…
5. A look-out was attending to other duties in the galley.
… was engaged into…
2. Ask questions to get the necessary information. Work in pairs.
The collision between the Scot Explorer and the Dorthe Dalso took place in
….
The accident happened because … .
As a result of the collision, … was seriously damaged.
… carried out the investigation into the causes of the accident. It was
discovered that the fishing vessel had … crew. Besides, … was not used properly.
The Scot Explorer did not take … either. There was … on the ship's bridge.
A look-out was … in the galley.
The report is recommending …, and the use of lookouts on board.
3. Speak about the accident and its causes.

Text 3. Shape up or face UK prosecution

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to shape up to improve
manslaughter killing, murder
jail prison

Britain's Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) has warned that it will
prosecute seafarers whose poor seamanship leads to accidents.
It issued its warning after a UK court found the watch officer of
a chemicals tanker involved in a fatal collision guilty of manslaughter and
sentenced him to a year in jail. The MCA said the standard of second officer Brian

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Roberts' watch-keeping had fallen "so far below the level required" that the
collision had been inevitable.
His ship, Dutch Aquamarine, ran into the stern of a smaller cargo vessel, the
Ash, while travelling on the same course in the English Channel. According to a
report by the UK's Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB), although the
weather had been fine and visibility good, Mr. Roberts did not notice the Ash until
it was dead ahead1 and very close.
The cargo vessel's crew took to the water; five survived but the master was
found to be dead on arrival in hospital. The MAIB blamed the accident on heavy
congestion in the Dover Straits and slack watch keeping.
Vocabulary
to face сталкиваться; стоять перед
prosecution судебное преследование; обвинение
to prosecute преследовать в судебном порядке
seamanship искусство мореплавания, судовождения
court суд
guilty виновный
to sentence выносить приговор; приговаривать
inevitable неизбежный
to take to зд. перебираться на
to blame возлагать вину; обвинять
congestion скопление (судов)
slack недостаточный; небрежный
II. Translate into Russian the sentences estimating the level of watchkeeping
on the ship and dealing with the causes of the disaster.
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) blame, charge, accuse, guilty;
b) slack, strict, careless, negligent;
c) focus, face, encounter, meet.

1
прямо по носу; прямо по курсу

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2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 to take legal actions against;
 the crime of killing someone illegally;
 responsible for a misdeed;
 sure to happen, unavoidable;
 the state of being overcrowded with ships;
 careless.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. The MCA will prosecute seafarers whose poor seamanship leads to accidents.
The MCA will take … against seafarers for…
2. A UK court found the watch officer of a chemicals tanker guilty of
manslaughter.
A UK court blamed the watch officer of a chemicals tanker for…
3. The standard of watch-keeping was so low that the collision had been
inevitable.
The standard of watch-keeping was so low that the collision could…
4. Although the weather had been fine and visibility good, Mr. Roberts did not
notice the Ash.
In spite of …, Mr. Roberts did not notice the Ash.
5. The MAIB blamed the accident on heavy congestion in the Dover Straits and
slack watch keeping.
It was heavy congestion and slack watch keeping that…
2. Answer the questions.
1. For what misdeeds (проступки) will seafarers be prosecuted by the MCA?
2. What accident forced the MCA to take such a decision?
3. What are the aftereffects of the accident?
3. Speak about the accident and express your opinion about MCA's decision.
Make use of conversational formulas.

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Text 4. Three rescued from capsized ship

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to locate to find
to bang to knock loudly, to bump
sub-zero freezing, icy
20 January, 2004

Three Filipino crew members have been pulled alive from the hull of
a freighter that capsized in a fjord near the Norwegian port of Bergen.
Hours after the accident, rescuers were able to free the trapped sailors by
drilling through the hull of the Norwegian-owned Rocknes.
Eleven other crew members were rescued earlier, but two have since died.
The ship's captain is among 16 crew members still missing, possibly trapped
inside the overturned vessel.
Witnesses said the ship capsized in a matter of1 minutes. It is now lying
upturned in icy waters, though rescue workers were able to drag the vessel to
shallower waters.
Rescuers were able to locate the three crew members, who were in an air
pocket, after hearing cries and banging from inside the vessel.
They managed to communicate using Morse code and then cut a hole to get
them out.
Of the 30 crew members, most were Filipino.
The 166-metre long freighter sent out a distress call before it capsized about
200 metres from the western island of Bjoroey at about 1630 on Monday.
The MS Rocknes is a bulk carrier that had been loaded with heavy rocks
bound for Emden in northern Germany, after loading in the Norwegian port of
Eikefet.

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около, приблизительно

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Boats were sent to the scene of the accident in the Raune fjord. The water
has frozen in the sub-zero conditions and made the hull of the boat as slippery as
a skating rink.
The Rocknes is three-years-old and was found to be safe by Norwegian
maritime authorities last summer. There has been no word on the cause of the
accident.
Vocabulary
drilling просверливание
witness свидетель, очевидец
to drag тянуть, тащить
slippery скользкий
II. Translate into Russian the sentences dealing with the rescue operation.
III. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What is the identity of the ship in distress?
2. Where did the accident occur?
3. What happened with the crew members?
4. What hampered the work of the rescuers?
5. Have you got any ideas about the cause of the ship capsizing?

Group Work

Two texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information.
Each student has to read one text. Exchange the information. Work in pairs.

Text 5. Rescuers working on the wreck in Norway


have found a fourth body
Rescuers working on the wreck on a ship which capsized in Norway, killing
up to 18 people, have found a fourth body.
Only 12 of the crew survived when the Rocknes cargo ship overturned on
Monday, 14 are still missing.

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Investigators said the ship may have struck underwater rocks in the fjord near
Bergen which were not marked on many sea charts.
The fourth body was found by a robot mini-submarine on Thursday. Others
are thought to be in the submerged wreck.

A robot submarine was used to search the wreck

Air has been pumped into the ship in an effort to make it stable enough to
tow from its location.
Terje Langvik, deputy director1 of the Norwegian Hydrographic Service,
said rocks in the narrow channel near Bergen could be to blame for the accident.
He said the rocks, nine metres deep, were only added to charts in 2003.
Police have questioned the Norwegian pilot who boarded the ship to help it
navigate through the fjord but would not comment on what he may have said.

Text 6. Bad loading blamed for capsize

Incorrect loading of a cargo of stone has been blamed for the capsize of the
bulker Rocknes last January. Eighteen seafarers died when the ship struck a reef
outside the Norwegian port of Bergen, ripping open 80 metres of the hull over
three ballast tanks.
An inquiry by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate concluded that the
cargo's centre of gravity had been too high, meaning that there was too much
cargo for the ship's ballast.

1
заместитель директора

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The Rocknes's owner attacked the inquiry's findings, however, accusing


them of being "too narrow" and "too speculative". They were trying to blame the
master, who died in the accident, and paid little attention to chart problems. The
most recent chart of the area did not show the rock, he said. The pilot and master
knew nothing about it.
Another report is due, this one from the Bergen maritime authorities, and this
will consider the navigational issues of the accident.
Vocabulary
to rip open распарывать
to conclude делать вывод
centre of gravity центр тяжести
findings полученные данные
to accuse обвинять
speculative теоретический, гипотетический
issue проблема, вопрос
After reading the texts and exchanging the information about possible causes
of the accident, do your best to describe the disaster using the facts from the
three texts. Say if it can be regarded as resulting from "human error".

Text 7. Officers blamed in Cape Town grounding

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to battle to fight
hazardous dangerous
avoidable needless, preventable

Blame for the grounding of the boxship Sea-Land Express off Cape Town last
year has been laid on its master and three of its officers, although the port's traffic
control staff have also been criticised.
The US-flagged ship dragged its anchor in heavy weather and was blown on
to a sandbar in Table Bay. Salvors battled for weeks before managing to pull it

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free in an operation that required the off-loading of more than 3,500 tonnes of
oil and containers holding hazardous cargo.
A report by the South African Maritime Safety Authority described the
accident as "perfectly avoidable". "We have a situation where four highly
qualified men collectively ignore, or fail to recognise, a developing crisis, or if
they do, they fail to act in time".
The master had been warned at 4 am that the 2,700 teu1 ship was dragging
its anchor but did not think it necessary to go to the bridge. Nor were the engines
made ready. By the time they were started two hours later it was too late.
Port control officers claim to have warned the ship it was in danger, but this
is disputed by the crew. The final bill for salvage and repairs has been put at US$
7 million.
Vocabulary
to lay blame возлагать вину (на кого-л.)
staff штат служащих; служебный персонал
to drag the anchor дрейфовать при отданном якоре
sandbar песчаная отмель
to pull free зд. снять с мели
to ignore игнорировать, пренебрегать
to fail не удаваться
to claim заявлять, утверждать
to dispute оспаривать
salvage спасение имущества
II. Translate the passages describing the master's behaviour.
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) dispute, discuss, discover, argue;
b) claim, say, state, stay.
2. Think of the words or word groups having the similar meaning:

1
twenty-foot container equivalent unit – двадцатифутовый эквивалент (размер стандартного контейнера,
равный двадцати погонным футам = 610 см)

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to ignore; to pull free; staff; boxship; off-loading; hazardous.


IV. Grammar Review
Rephrase the following sentences using proper modal verbs:
1. Salvors battled for weeks before managing to pull it free.
2. Four highly qualified men collectively fail to recognise a developing crisis.
3. Operation required off-loading of oil and containers.
4. The accident was avoidable.
V. Speech Practice
1. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Who was blamed for the grounding of the container ship?
2. What factors contributed to the accident?
3. What measures were taken by salvors to tow off the ship?
4. What is your opinion of the master's behaviour in a dangerous situation?
2. Speak about the accident using the above questions as a plan.

UNIT 3. Piracy
Text 1. Modern pirates on the high seas

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
tip top, end
acoustic sound
to repel to keep away
to turn on to switch on
November, 5, 2005

The attack on the Carnival Cruise Line ship Seabourn Spirit appears to be
the tip of the iceberg when it comes to1 pirating on the high seas.

1
когда речь заходит о

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The cruise liner was equipped with a modern long range acoustic device
(LRAD) used to repel the raiders. It means that a pirate attack was not only
expected, it has become more common at sea.

Armed pirates approach the Seabourn Spirit

What happened to the Seabourn Spirit was enough to frighten the


passengers. Two open boats, apparently launched from a mother ship, approached
the liner with machine guns and a grenade launcher firing. They were
attempting to force the unarmed liner to stop and be boarded.
The crew, however, turned on the sound machine and used it to drive off the
invaders. The LRAD is said to be loud enough to break ear drums of anybody
within a few hundred feet of the direction of the sound blast. It did not affect the
passengers aboard the ship because it was pointed at the pirates.
They said the captain of the liner stood on the bridge, giving commands, as
the Seabourn Spirit attempted first to ram the raiders. Then the liner changed
course and escaped at full speed. The worst that happened was that one member
of the liner's crew was hit by flying shrapnel.
It is believed the pirates are operating from a "mother ship" that is prowling
the busy Indian Ocean corridor.
This unnamed and unidentified "mother ship" has been spotted three times
since late July drifting off the northeast coast of Somalia. It is believed to be the
vessel that launches the speedboats that attack the ships on the open sea.

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This particular gang of pirates has become so threatening that the world's
largest shipping companies have called upon the U.N. to address the problem.
Vocabulary
high seas море за пределами территориальных вод; открытое
море
raider налетчик
to frighten пугать
machine gun пулемет
grenade launcher гранатомет
to attempt пытаться, стараться
to drive off прогонять
invader захватчик
ear drum барабанная перепонка
sound blast звуковая волна
to point направлять, наводить (оружие); целиться
to ram налететь, врезаться (куда-л.) с силой
to prowl рыскать в поисках добычи
threatening угрожающий
to address принимать меры (по поводу, в ответ на); направлять
усилия на
II. Translate the passages describing the acoustic device and the way it
operated.
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) raider, invader, attacker, investigator;
b) reveal, frighten, scare, terrify;
c) attempt, attend to, try, endeavour;
d) ram, hit, rush, strike, collide;
e) spot, notice, observe, identity;
f) address, claim, tackle, deal with.

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2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form word-groups and
translate them into Russian. Use them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. to repel a) ear drums
2. to drive off b) the passengers
3. to break c) the raiders
4. to affect d) the speedboats
5. to launch e) the invaders
6. to attack f) the problem
7. to address g) the ships
IV. Grammar Review
1. Find in the text the sentences with Complex Subject with the Infinitive and
translate them into Russian.
2. Transform the sentences using Complex Subject with the Infinitive.
1. They said the captain of the liner stood on the bridge, giving commands.
2. It is believed the pirates are operating from a "mother ship".
3. It is believed the mother ship is the vessel that launches the speedboats.
3. Complete the sentences with the phrases from the right column. Comment on
the function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The cruise liner was equipped with not to affect the passengers.
a modern acoustic device… to escape.
2. The crew turned on the sound machine… to give commands.
3. The device was pointed at the pirates… to drive off the invaders.
4. The captain of the liner stood on the to attack the ships on the open
bridge… sea.
5. The liner changed course… to repel the raiders.
6. The vessel launched the speedboats… to address the problem.
7. The shipping companies have called upon
the U.N. …
V. Speech Practice
Answer the questions to the text above.

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1. What problem has become common at sea?


2. What up-to-date device was used on the cruise liner to repel the pirates? Tell
how it works.
3. What did the pirates use to approach the liner?
4. How did the liner manage to escape?
5. Why do pirate attacks frequently take place off the Somali coast? Give reasons.
6. Why has the accident been called the "tip of the iceberg"?
7. What measures could stop piracy? Express your opinion.
When discussing the problem make use of the conversational formulas below:
Apparently,… Evidently,… Очевидно, несомненно
Actually,… In fact,… Фактически, на самом деле, в действительности
It seems that… Кажется

Text 2. Pirate mother ship spotted

I. Read the text which will help you look into the problem of piracy off the
Somali coast.
Make sure you understand the words below:
at least not less than
to murder to kill
to appeal to request, to ask
aid help, assistance
November 12, 2005

Since November 5, when pirates tried unsuccessfully to attack a 440-foot


cruise liner operated by Seabourn Cruise Lines, at least five other attacks have
taken place, most of them northeast of Somalia.
Five vessels were attacked in that same area within the past week. Ships have
been commandeered by the pirates and the crews are still believed to be held
captive or possibly murdered after the ships were plundered.
Fishermen in the area spotted a pirate mother ship drifting off the Somali
coast. Officials think the smaller boats used in attacks are launched from the
mother ship.

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A crew of more than 10 people, including a captain and engineer, are


supposed to be on the ship. The crew is believed to be well-organized.
The director of the International Maritime Bureau appealed to vessels off the
Somali coasts to come to the aid of ships under attack. At least they can prevent
the hijackers from taking these ships into Somali waters. Once1 the vessels have
entered these waters, the chance of any law enforcement is negligible.
A major trade route passes just off the coast of Somalia. Passing vessels are
carrying oil, grain and iron ore from the Gulf and the Red Sea down to the
Mozambique Channel. Thousands of merchant ships follow this route on their
way to the Cape of Good Hope every year.
Merchant ships were warned to stay at least 200 nautical miles away from
the Somali coast.
Somalia has been ruled by rival warlords since 1991. Many of the warlords
are believed to run gangs who smuggle drugs, weapons and people by road, sea
and air around the region.
Vocabulary
to commandeer силой забирать (об имуществе), конфисковывать
to hold captive держать в плену
to plunder присваивать незаконно; грабить
hijacker угонщик
enforcement соблюдение закона
negligible незначительный
rival соперничающий; конкурирующий
warlord военный диктатор; военачальник
to smuggle провозить контрабандой
II. Translate into Russian the passage describing the actions taken by pirates
against the ships and their crews.
III. Vocabulary Practice
Find an odd word.
a) commandeer, seize, hijack, repel;

1
when

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b) appeal, demand, accuse, request;


c) precautionary, negligible, insignificant, unimportant;
d) steal, prowl, plunder, rob.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word-groups mean:
hijacker; to smuggle; law enforcement; mother ship; rival warlords.
2. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. Once the vessels have entered these waters, the chance of any law enforcement
is negligible.
2. Many of the warlords are believed to run gangs.
3. Answer the questions to the above text.
1. What area appears to be piracy-prone (подверженный)?
2. What happened to the ships and their crews after they had been attacked by
pirates?
3. What kind of crew is supposed to run the mother ship?
4. What measures could help the ships to avoid being attacked?
5. Why have the Somali waters become a piracy hot spot?
4. Sum up the information from texts 1 and 2. Describe the situation off the Somali
coast according to the plan of your own.

Text 3. Captain counts the cost of piracy

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
tale story
to give up to stop
2 February, 2006

Tales of pirates seizing ships on the high seas are children's stories – real
piracy has a human and financial cost, as one captain knows only too well.

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Capt Rodrigues took command of a small container ship after it was attacked
en route from Australia to Singapore.
When the 10-men crew heard shots in the night most of them locked
themselves in their cabins but the captain and chief officer were later found shot
dead.
It is believed they were killed after the pirates demanded money. The
unmanned ship continued on its course for an hour and a half before the crew
came out to find their shipmates killed.
When Capt Rodrigues took over the helm he had a new crew as the other
men were too traumatised to return.
"We agreed everyone was on piracy watch. I never had to force anyone to
go out. They were always up on the bridge".
On first boarding the ship, he said: "I told myself lightning doesn't strike
twice".
But he may have thought he had spoken too soon when one night a few
months later the ship was approached by a couple of speedboats off the Indonesian
islands, south of Singapore. They got out the search lights and sounded the
alarms.
The measures worked as the speedboats gave up their pursuit.
But he later heard pirates had boarded another ship, tied up the chief engineer
and ransacked the vessel.
Capt Rodrigues said the best way to avoid being taken by pirates was to keep
them off the ship.
"Once they are on board they are armed and you lose control of the ship. You
are defenceless", he said.
In Somalia, pirates are more concerned with getting a ransom rather than
hijacking the ships for parts or cargo. Thirty five piracy incidents were reported
in Somalia last year compared to just two in 2004.
Vocabulary
to seize захватывать
to lock запирать на ключ
to demand требовать
to take over принимать (должность, обязанности) от другого

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to traumatise травмировать
lightning молния
search light прожектор
pursuit преследование; погоня
to ransack ограбить
to keep off держать в отдалении; не подпускать
defenceless беззащитный, уязвимый
ransom выкуп
II. Vocabulary Practice
Find an odd word.
a) seize, catch, smuggle, capture;
b) ransack, plunder, rob, ransom;
c) pursuit, hurry, chase, hunt.
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. Real piracy has a human and financial cost.
2. When Capt Rodrigues took over the helm he had a new crew as the other men
were too traumatised to return.
3. Lightning doesn't strike twice.
4. But he may have thought he had spoken too soon.
5. Pirates are more concerned with getting a ransom rather than hijacking the
ships.
2. Answer the questions to the text above.
1. What does piracy on the high seas involve?
2. Did the attack described have such consequences? What namely?
3. What anti-piracy measures did the new captain take before the attack?
4. How did the crew manage to repel the pirates?
5. Why is it important not to let the pirates board the ship?

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Text 4. Освобождение сухогруза "Леманн Тимбер"


обошлось в 700 тысяч долларов
Make a free translation of the text.
09.07.2008

Освобождение (release) сухогруза "Леманн Тимбер", удерживаемого


сомалийскими пиратами, обошлось компании-судовладельцу более чем в
700 тысяч долларов, сообщает "Интерфакс".
Неизвестное судно, которое должно было также передать членам
экипажа воду, продовольствие и медикаменты, доставило деньги для
выкупа на борт "Леманна Тимбера", однако передача не состоялась из-за
плохой погоды. По информации агентства, пираты пересчитывали деньги
несколько часов. Кроме того, они похитили все ценности (valuables),
находившиеся на борту судна, а также личные вещи экипажа – часы и
мобильные телефоны.
В настоящее время судно находится в нейтральных (neutral) водах, оно
должно прибыть в порт Аден в ближайшие дни. Состояние моряков тяжелое
из-за психологического шока, плохого питания и обезвоживания. Как
сообщается, пираты удерживали их в помещении с высокой температурой и
без питьевой воды.
Cухогруз "Леманн Тимбер" был похищен пиратами у берегов Сомали
28 мая. На борту судна находились капитан – россиянин Валентин Барташев
– и члены команды – четыре украинца, эстонец и девять граждан Мьянмы
(Myanmar).
Active Vocabulary
access ear drum praise
accuse enforcement prosecute
address environment prosecution
alarm exhausted protect
alert face prowl
attempt fail pursuit
attend to findings raider
blame flare ram

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blast focus ransack


centre of gravity frighten ransom
charge grenade launcher remote-controlled
claim guilty rip open
clamber haul rival
clean-up head rower
commandeer high seas salvage
conclude hijacker scramble
congestion hold captive seamanship
contribute human error search light
court hypothermia seize
debris ignore sentence
dehydrated inevitable settle down
deliberately invader slack
demand issue slippery
deny keep off smuggle
dispute lay blame speculative
divert lock spilling
drag machine gun spot
drag the anchor manning staff
drilling negligence sweep
drive off negligent take over
drown negligible take to
dump plunder threatening
point

Supplementary Reading
Text 1. Three die as trawler capsizes off English coast

Three Belgians died after their fishing vessel capsized off the coast of
Sussex.

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The Zeebrugge-registered Noordster Z122 overturned in a busy shipping


lane 11 miles south of Beachy Head, after it snagged its nets while trawling on
Tuesday night.
The alarm was raised just after 8:30 am yesterday when the 19-year-old
nephew of the skipper was spotted holding to the upturned hull.
He was rescued by a coastguard helicopter and taken to hospital suffering
from shock and hypothermia.
Soon afterwards two other members of the family-run fishing business were
confirmed dead.
A third man was confirmed dead at 1:30 pm and the four-and-a-half-hour
search-and-rescue operation, which included four lifeboats, a Royal Navy warship
and several merchant vessels, was called off.

Text 2. Two die in Russian submarine fire


Two men were killed and one was injured in a fire on board a Russian nuclear
submarine in the Barents Sea. Naval sources said that the incident, near Norway,
posed no risk of radioactive contamination.
The Saint Daniel of Moscow was on the surface north of the Rybachy
peninsula when a short circuit caused the fire on Wednesday. The men, who died,
aged 35 and 28, were asphyxiated. They were brought out alive but died during
efforts to resuscitate them. A third man inhaled toxic fumes.
Admiral Vladimir Masorin said that the 16-year-old vessel had exceeded its
deadline for renovation work. The Russian prosecutor-general's said that it had
opened an investigation for "violation of a ship's rules of conduct".
Russia's submarine fleet has experienced numerous such incidents since the
collapse of the Soviet Union, notably the sinking of the Kursk in 2000, also in the
Barents Sea.

Text 3. Ships in Indonesia often carry far more passengers


than recorded
Ships in Indonesia often carry far more passengers than recorded, making it
hard for authorities to say with accuracy how many people are on board. Ferries

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are a main means of transportation in Indonesia, a vast archipelago of more than


17,000 islands with a population of 220 million.
The ferry ran into trouble off Mandalika Island, some 190 miles northeast of
the capital, Jakarta. In a final radio contact, the captain informed port authorities
that the ship was severely damaged and capsizing.
Worried family members gathered at the main office of ferry operator
demanding details about the fate of their loved ones.
Seasonal storms have caused havoc across Indonesia in recent days,
unleashing floods and landslides that have killed more than 145 people and driven
hundreds of thousands from their homes on Sumatra.
Earlier Friday, a different vessel carrying around 100 people capsized in bad
weather off the coast of northwestern Sumatra, killing three and leaving
26 missing.

Text 4. 83 dead, 130 missing in Bangladesh


A ferry boat with 260 people on board capsized overnight when it was hit by
a tornado near the Bangladesh capital, drowning at least 83 people. Another 130
people were missing Sunday as Navy and divers searched the capsized boat and
the waters of the Buriganga River, about 16 km (10 miles) from Dhaka.
"We believe many bodies are still trapped inside the hull and that means
a higher number of deaths is feared", an official with the Bangladesh maritime
authority said by telephone.
"There is no plan to stop the rescue operation during the night. We will be
using search lights".
He said about 70 divers were involved in the search.
Dozens of bodies pulled from the water were placed in a long row near the
river's shore so family members could identify the dead.
The ferry is designed to carry 160 passengers, but officials estimated there
were 260 on board when it capsized.
The ferry MV Maharaj left Dhaka terminal at about 10:15 p.m. Saturday,
but it was hit by a tornado just before midnight, causing it to overturn.
The death toll could rise, as many bodies were feared trapped inside the
sunken ferry.

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Authorities have ordered an investigation into the accident.


Ferry accidents are common in this South Asian nation crisscrossed by
rivers. In the last 28 years, at least 3,000 people have died in 260 ferry accidents
here.

Text 5. Hunt for man overboard called off


22 April, 2005

The search for a man believed to be lost overboard near the mouth of the
Humber has been called off.
The Humber Coastguard launched the search after the Master of a Danish
registered ship reported an engineer missing on Thursday afternoon.
Three lifeboats, an RAF helicopter and coastguard teams were involved in
the hunt for the 45-year-old Danish man.
But the search was called off at nightfall and was not expected to resume on
Friday morning.
The vessel, the Tor Britannia, was making its way from Denmark to the Port
of Humber when the man was reported missing.
A search of the ship failed to uncover him and the coastguard was called to
organise a sea search.
Withernsea and Easington Coastguard Rescue teams, Humber and
Cleethorpes lifeboats and Humber and Cleethorpes independent rescue craft are
all involved in the search.
Coastguard teams also combed the shoreline on Thursday but found no trace
of the man.

Text 6. Sea sighting as crewman lost


Monday, 21 January, 2002

Rescuers looking for a man lost overboard from a fishing boat say they may
have seen storm clothing in the English Channel.
The man went missing at 0330 GMT on Monday from a French fishing
vessel Cotealbatre. He was not wearing a lifejacket when he went overboard,
45 miles south-east of Plymouth.

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84

A spotter plane from the Channel Islands joined the search in near-gale
conditions. Lifeboat crews from Devon decided to remain at sea in the hope of
another sighting.
The spotter plane flew to shore to refuel but then returned to search zone.
They thought they saw something in the water that looked like oilskins, which is
what the fisherman was wearing. They would need a lifeboat on the scene to pick
up the casualty.
The lifeboats were out from four o'clock in the morning.

A Royal Navy helicopter joined the search

Rescue helicopters were launched from RNAS Culdrose and RAF Chivenor.
Both withdrew from the operation during the day.
Three French fishing vessels continued carrying out search sweeps
throughout Monday after answering a distress call.
The missing crewman was 25 years old.
A coastguard spokesman said chances of survival were minimal after four or
five hours in the sea.

Text 7. Lawsuit charges Norwegian Cruise Line negligence


in collision
August 27, 1999

A lawsuit reported Friday accuses Norwegian Cruise Line Limited of


negligence in the recent collision of one of its ships with a cargo ship.
The Norwegian Dream, carrying 1,700 passengers and hundreds of crew
members, collided with the Ever Decent, a 52,000-ton cargo ship, in the English
Channel on Tuesday, the final day of the passenger liner's 12-day voyage.

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The bow of the cruise ship was smashed and some containers from the cargo
ship fell onto its deck. No serious injuries were reported. A fire broke out among
flammable containers aboard the cargo ship.
The suit claims passengers suffered "physical injuries, pain, shock, fear,
emotional distress and a variety of other physically manifested injuries" as
a result of the collision.
It also accuses Norwegian Cruise Line of failing to operate "in a safe and
reasonable manner under the circumstances of the English Channel" as well as
"failing to employ reasonably competent and properly skilled officers and crew
to safely navigate and operate the Norwegian Dream".
Norwegian Cruise Line would not comment on the suit and said the company
is still investigating the cause of the accident.
The cruise began in Dover, England, went on to St. Petersburg, Russia;
Helsinki, Finland; Copenhagen, Denmark; and other destinations before returning
to Dover.

Text 8. A fire apparently started by a cigarette broke out aboard


a giant cruise ship

A fire apparently started by a cigarette broke out aboard a giant cruise ship
early Thursday as it sailed through the Caribbean, leaving one passenger dead, 11
people injured and at least 100 rooms scorched.
The Star Princess, carrying 2,690 passengers and 1,123 crew members, bore
evidence of the nighttime drama as it pulled into Montego Bay's port. About 85
exterior cabins were blackened from the fire, metal was twisted, evidence of the
heat of the blaze.
A smoldering cigarette is suspected as the cause of the blaze. Passengers
grabbed life jackets and raced to "muster stations" after the fire started about
3 a.m. The crew put out the fire, then did a cabin-by-cabin search to check for
victims and make sure everyone else was safe.
The fire melted locks on some of the cabins and burned some passengers'
luggage.
Richard Liffidge, 75, of Georgia, collapsed and died on deck after suffering
cardiac arrest. An autopsy would be performed to determine the cause of death.

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Two passengers suffered significant smoke inhalation injuries and nine


others had minor complications.
The U.S. Coast Guard dispatched investigators and fire engineers to help
determine the fire's cause and whether the ship was seaworthy. Teams were
expected to arrive Thursday afternoon.

Text 9. Fishing boat runs aground


13 June, 2001

A fishing boat with six crew on board has run aground off Shetland.
The Peterhead registered Resplendent is stuck on rocks at the north end of
the island of Yell.
Shetland coastguard said the boat was carrying 20,000 litres of diesel, which
could be a pollution threat.
Another fishing vessel has been unable to tow the stricken vessel clear, and
coastguards say no further attempt will be made until high tide.
Weather conditions are reported to be good and the crew are remaining
aboard the vessel.
A coastguard team was sent to the scene with a lifeboat from Lerwick and
they have reported no obvious damage to the vessel.
A spokesman for Shetland Coastguard said: "Two local fishing vessels
arrived to get a tow line to the Resplendent to try and get her back into the water.
However this operation was not successful and further action will be held off until
high tide this afternoon. The situation is not serious enough to merit any crew
members being removed from the vessel, but we will continue to monitor her
stability and watertight integrity closely whilst she remains grounded. There is no
environmental risk at the moment".

Text 10. Cruise ship comes to sailor's aid


14 May, 2005

A luxury cruise liner has come to the aid of a yacht which lost a man
overboard during a sailing competition.

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The sailor from the 51-foot Grandee fell into the sea in a force seven gale on
Saturday off the Dorset coast.
The Aurora and another yacht went to the man's aid but the crew managed
to get him back aboard after 10 minutes.
Two other people were injured as yachts racing from Cowes on the Isle of
Wight to Cherbourg in France were hit by heavy seas in the English Channel.
The coastguard rescue helicopter tried to airlift the man to hospital but this
was unsuccessful, and the yacht is now heading for Weymouth, a coastguard
spokesman said.
Another yacht, Jeu De Spirite, suffered damage and one crew member has a
head injury and she too is heading for Weymouth.
Both yachts were sailing to France in a Royal Ocean Racing Club
competition.
The spokesman said that about nine yachts had called for assistance on
Saturday, though not all of them were involved in the race.
It is understood that a crew member from one of the yachts has suffered
broken ribs.
"Conditions were strong north-easterly winds and rough seas presenting
some challenging conditions", said the spokesman.

Text 11. Egypt has launched an investigation into a collision in the


Suez Canal between a cargo ship and a passenger vessel carrying
Muslim pilgrims

Two people were killed and at least 98 people were injured in the incident,
near Port Tawfiq, about 130 km (80 miles) east of Cairo. More than 1,400 people
were on board the ship, the al-Salam 95.
Egyptian media said the Cypriot cargo vessel made a 5 m hole in its side,
flooding the engine room.
At least 12 rescue boats rushed to the scene and were able to ferry the victims
to hospital. Ninety eight people were wounded, two of them seriously. Most of
them were wounded in the panic that followed.
The passengers, most of whom were Egyptian, had been performing the
pilgrimage to Mecca.

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The al-Salam 95 had been waiting to enter the port when the two ships
collided.
Traffic on the Suez Canal, a major international waterway and Egypt's main
source of income was not affected by the incident.

TERM 7
UNIT 1. Ecological Disasters
Text 1. 1989: Exxon Valdez creates oil slick disaster

I. Read the text.


An oil tanker has run aground on a reef off the Alaskan coast, releasing
gallons of crude oil into the sea.
The Exxon Valdez got into trouble in Prince William Sound when it hit Bligh
Reef, splitting its side open and releasing oil, with reports of an eighth-mile (1.61
km) slick.
High winds are affecting attempts to suck the slick from the sea's surface and
residents have reported poor air quality as emergency crews tried to burn off the
top layer of oil.
Booms, which are acting like necklaces1 on the surface of the sea to contain
the oil, are failing to do the job.

1
ожерелье

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Environmentalists are also battling to save sea ducks1, which number up to


10 million in the area. Ducks and seals2 have been found covered with oil near
the tanker.
The Coast Guard is dropping chemicals in an attempt to break up the slick.
The ship had encountered icebergs in the shipping lanes and Captain Joe
Hazelwood ordered his helmsman to take the Valdez out of the lanes to go around
the icebergs.
The crew failed to make the turn back into the shipping lanes and the ship
ran aground at 1204 local time. Cpt Hazelwood was in his quarters at the time.
A spokesman for the Alaska department of environment said efforts to steer
the Valdez back into the narrow shipping lane was like "trying to park a Cadillac
in a Volkswagen spot".
Vocabulary
to create создавать
to release выпускать, сбрасывать
slick пленка (на поверхности воды), пятно (нефтяное)
crude oil сырая, неочищенная нефть
to split open пробивать
to suck откачивать

1
утки
2
тюлени

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layer слой
(oil containment) нефтезадерживающий бон
boom
to contain останавливать, сдерживать
to encounter (неожиданно) встретиться (с чем-л.)
II. Comprehension Check
Answer the questions to the text.
1. What ship got into trouble?
2. Why did it happen?
3. What are the aftereffects of the accident?
4. What clean-up measures have been taken? Were they successful?
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) attempt, effort, effect, try;
b) encounter, meet, run into, reach;
c) release, reduce, discharge, empty;
d) split, break, rip, hit;
e) involve, contain, hold, control;
f) produce, provide, generate, create.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 someone who lives in a particular place;
 a group of people with special skills working together in an unexpected and
dangerous situation;
 to be unsuccessful in an attempt to do something;
 someone who is concerned about protecting the environment;
 an officially approved path of travel that ships must follow;
 housing or accommodation.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
IV. Grammar Review
Rephrase the following sentences using the Gerund:

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1. The tanker has run aground, releasing gallons of crude oil into the sea.
The tanker released … after…
2. The Exxon Valdez hit Bligh Reef splitting its side open.
The Exxon Valdez split … after…
3. High winds are affecting attempts to suck the slick from the sea's surface.
High winds prevent…
4. Booms are acting like necklaces on the surface of the sea to contain the oil.
Booms are used for…
5. The Coast Guard is dropping chemicals in an attempt to break up the slick.
The Coast Guard is dropping chemicals for…
V. Speech Practice
1. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. Booms used to contain the oil are failing to do the job.
2. Efforts to steer the Valdez back into the narrow shipping lane was like "trying
to park a Cadillac in a Volkswagen spot".
2. Speak about the accident.

Text 2. 1993: Oil tanker runs aground off Shetland

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
ruptured broken
remote distant
in place ready
to predict to forecast
wide-ranging extensive
largely mainly
lack shortage

A tanker carrying 85,000 tonnes of crude oil has run aground in hurricane
force winds off the Shetland Islands. The captain and crew of the vessel were
airlifted to safety by helicopter when it became clear the disaster was imminent.

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The Liberian-registered MV Braer tanker was on its way from Norway to


Canada when it lost power in Force 11 gales early this morning. It ran aground on
rocks in Quendale Bay, just west of Sunburgh Head, on the south tip of Shetland,
just before midday, despite desperate efforts by salvage teams to prevent a
collision.
Early reports suggest oil is already pouring from the ruptured tanks on the
vessel.
The Shetland Islands Council has activated its major disaster plan in an
attempt to prevent a major environmental catastrophe in the area, which is
internationally known for seabirds and marine life.
But Greenpeace spokesperson Paul Horsman said it would be "impossible to
prevent a major ecological catastrophe".
The 800-foot vessel was built in Japan in 1975 and does not have the more
modern double hull which would reduce the chance of an oil spillage.
Local people in Shetland have long-expected an accident on their remote
shores and emergency plans to deal with the environmental impact of such
a disaster are in place.
But a catastrophe on this scale was never predicted. The Braer was carrying
twice as much crude oil as the Exxon Valdez, which ran aground off Alaska four
years ago.
The Shipping Minister Lord Caithness has ordered a wide-ranging inquiry
into the disaster.
A report into the disaster, published in 1994, said bad weather was largely
to blame for the accident. But it also condemned the actions of the ship's captain,
Alexandros Gelis, who demonstrated a fundamental lack of basic seamanship.
Vocabulary
imminent неминуемый, неизбежный
desperate отчаянный; безнадежный
to pour литься
spillage разлив (нефти)
impact воздействие; влияние
to condemn осуждать

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II. Comprehension Check


Answer the questions to the text.
1. What ship was involved in the accident?
2. When were the captain and the crew transported to safety?
3. Why did the tanker run aground?
4. Was there any spill of oil?
5. What is the area of the disaster known for?
6. What's the opinion of the Greenpeace?
7. What might have reduced the oil spillage?
8. Why do you think residents in Shetland were ready for such a disaster?
9. Why is this accident far more serious than the one the Exxon Valdez had?
10.What are the conclusions made in the report of 1994?
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) condemn, contain, criticize, disapprove;
b) trouble, impact, influence, effect;
c) shortage, lack, deficiency, negligence.
2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. salvage a) spillage
2. ruptured b) shores
3. environmental c) tanks
4. oil d) catastrophe
5. remote e) plans
6. ecological f) impact
7. emergency g) team
3. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 to be en route;
 to become out of control;

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 end, top;
 to state something in an indirect way;
 to start, to make something start working;
 to take the necessary action, especially in order to solve a problem;
 the act or process of asking questions in order to get information;
 most basic, important.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
IV. Grammar Review
Rephrase the following sentences using the verbs in brackets in the Passive:
1. It became clear the disaster could not … (prevent).
2. It ran aground despite desperate efforts by salvage teams for the collision …
(avoid).
3. The chance of oil-spillage could … (reduce) with the more modern double hull.
V. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word groups mean:
seamanship; to airlift; emergency plan; wide-ranging inquiry.
2. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. The Shetland Islands Council has activated its major disaster plan.
2. Emergency plans to deal with the environmental impact of such a disaster are
in place.
3. But a catastrophe on this scale was never predicted.
3. Speak about the accident. Say if it is different from the disaster of 1989. Make
use of the conversational formulas.
Stating your Opinion
 I am of the opinion that…  My feelings on the matter are…
 It seems to me (that)…  In my view,…
Agreeing Disagreeing
 I (strongly) agree with…  I (strongly) disagree with…
 I am in favour of…  I am (totally) opposed to…

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Text 3. Disaster strikes

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to bring in to ask for help
devastating damaging, destroying
eventually finally
extent size, level
subsequent following

Early on the evening of 15 February, 1996 the Sea Empress, a single hull oil
tanker, began to enter the mouth of the Cleddau Estuary on her way to Milford
Haven.
Sailing against the outgoing tide, at 2007 GMT she hit rocks in the middle
of the channel, holing her below the waterline. The ship's cargo of 130,000 tonnes
of crude North Sea oil started to spill into the sea.
During the following seven days salvage teams battled the elements1 as they
tried to bring the vessel under control, but 72,000 tonnes of light crude oil escaped.
Planes were brought in to spray chemicals to try to disperse the rapidly-
developing oil slick.
The spill had a devastating effect on the local shellfish2 and some lobster
fishermen claim the industry has never recovered.
After seven days the Sea Empress was eventually brought under control and
taken into dock at Milford Haven.
She remained there until the end of March when she was towed across the
Irish Sea. Only when she was in dry dock in Belfast could the extent of the damage
be seen.

1
стихия
2
моллюск, ракообразное

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The tanker Sea Empress after it ran aground in February, 1996

120 miles of Welsh coastline were contaminated and the total cost of the
clean-up operation was put at ₤60m.
One positive to emerge from the disaster was a review of safety at British
ports and subsequent improvements.
Vocabulary
to hole пробивать
to disperse рассеивать
to contaminate загрязнять, отравлять
to emerge появляться
II. Comprehension Check
Answer the questions to the text.
1. When did the Sea Empress hit rocks?
2. How long did it take the salvage team to bring the ship under control?
3. What measures were taken to remove the oil slick?
4. What was mostly affected by the disaster?
5. What actions would be taken regarding safety at British ports?
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) condemn, contaminate, pollute, poison;

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b) emerge, release, appear, arise;


c) hole, break, rupture, encounter;
d) disperse, spill, break up, split;
e) escape, leak, pour out, seek.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 four substances (earth, air, fire, and water) from which people used to
believe that everything was made;
 to discharge a liquid from an aerosol;
 a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process;
 a sea animal with eight legs, a shell, and two large claws;
 the act of making something better.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. Sailing against the outgoing tide, the ship hit rocks in the middle of the
channel.
The ship hit rocks when…
2. The spill had a devastating effect on the local shellfish grounds.
The local shellfish grounds were badly … by…
3. Only when she was in dry dock in Belfast could the extent of the damage be
seen.
It was possible to inspect…
4. After seven days the Sea Empress was eventually brought under control.
It took the salvage team seven days to…
5. One positive to emerge from the disaster was a review of safety at British
ports and subsequent improvements.
The disaster resulted in…
2. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. Salvage teams battled the elements as they tried to bring the vessel under
control.
2. Some lobster fishermen claim the industry has never recovered.

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3. Speak about the accident.

Text 4. Crippled fuel oil tanker sinks

The Prestige oil slick must be considered one of the most damaging in
the history of maritime transport, and one of the most complex. It is regarded
to be the worst since the Exxon Valdez disaster that hit Alaska in 1989.
"Environmental disaster zone", "black tide", "time-bomb under the
ocean" – these were just a few of the headlines that describe the scale of the
environmental impact of the oil spill from the Prestige oil tanker which sank
off the north-west coast of Spain in November 2002. The sinking of the
Prestige was the latest in a series of oil tanker disasters in European waters
in recent years.
I. Read the text.
Make sure you understand the words below:
crippled damaged
primary basic
seepage leakage
to spring a leak to develop a leak
intact undamaged
to drag out to tow out
Work in groups of two. The text below is divided into two parts, A and B. Each
student has to read one part. Exchange the information.
Wednesday, November 20, 2002

A. A crippled tanker has sunk 130 miles off Spain's northwest coast. Spanish
authorities rushed to protect the coastline in a region where fishing is the primary
industry.
The Bahamian-flagged tanker Prestige broke in half on Tuesday, its stern
sinking quickly with little seepage of fuel from its tanks. Its bow stayed afloat for
several hours but sank later in the day.
The Prestige ran into trouble six days ago in heavy seas and gale-force winds
off Cape Finisterre on the Galicia coast. Its original cargo was

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22.6 million gallons, but it spilled an estimated 1.5 million gallons when it sprang
a leak and another 1.5 million gallons as it broke up.
The stern section, which contained about 7 million gallons tons of oil, sank
with its tanks intact, said an official with the Dutch firm that had been attempting
to move the ship away from the Spanish coast.
Spain's northwest coast has suffered several tanker accidents in recent years.
The area is sometimes called "the coast of death" because of the many shipwrecks
there.

B. The 243-meter tanker began leaking in heavy seas last Wednesday en


route to Gibraltar from the Latvian port of Riga.
A fuel slick 70 miles long and 5 miles wide was moving onto the Spanish
coast. Spanish government teams were stringing barriers to protect the inlets near
the port of La Coruna.
The tanker had already leaked oil into the rich fishing grounds off the coast,
and regional authorities temporarily banned fishing in an area famous for its
shellfish, octopus1 and crabs.
The ship was dragged out to sea after both Spain and Portugal barred
salvagers from towing the Prestige into any of their ports to protect their fishing
and tourism industries.
On Monday two Spanish tugboats tried to pull the tanker as far away from
the coast as possible.

1
осьминог

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The tanker's Greek captain was in custody after five hours of questioning
Sunday by a judge in La Coruna. Maritime authorities said he failed to cooperate
with rescue crews after issuing a distress call.
For hours, as the Prestige drifted dangerously close to shore, he refused to
let tugboats secure cables to the ship.
Spain said it would insist on bringing forward the date to ban from European
waters single-hulled tankers like the Prestige and insist on double-hulled vessels.
Vocabulary
to contain содержать в себе; вмещать
to string натягивать
to ban налагать запрет; запрещать
to bar препятствовать, мешать
custody тюремное заключение
to secure закреплять, прикреплять
II. Comprehension Check
Answer the questions using the information from both texts.
1. What happened with the tanker Prestige?
2. How much oil did it spill?
3. How large was the slick?
4. What area was affected by the disaster?
5. How serious was the environmental impact?
6. What protective measures were taken by emergency teams?
7. Why was the captain kept in custody?
8. What should be done to avoid similar accidents?
III. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
A B
1. ban a) leakage
2. crippled b) pull
3. seepage c) hold
4. bar d) prohibit

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5. drag e) damaged
6. contain f) fasten
7. secure g) prevent
2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. to secure a) barriers
2. to ban b) cables
3. to string c) oil
4. to contain d) fishing
5. to spring e) accidents
6. to suffer f) a leak
IV. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences using the words in bold:
1. Spanish authorities rushed to protect the coastline.
hurry – Spanish authorities … without delay.
2. Spain's northwest coast has suffered several tanker accidents in recent years.
quite a few – There … on Spain's northwest coast in recent years.
3. Spanish government teams were stringing barriers to protect the inlets.
establish – The inlets were protected by…
4. Both Spain and Portugal barred salvagers from towing the Prestige into any
of their ports.
prohibit – Salvagers … the Prestige into any of the ports of
Spain and Portugal.
5. The captain failed to cooperate with rescue crews after issuing a distress call.
succeed – The captain … with rescue crews after issuing
a distress call.
2. Describe the accident. What important information is missing?

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Text 5. Prestige disaster

I. Scan the text below to find the following information:


a) cause of evacuation of the crew from the Prestige;
b) failure to tow the ship using her own emergency system;
c) manoeuvres;
d) a unique nature of the spill.
Make sure you understand the words below:
in charge of responsible for
in many respects in many ways
entire whole
on account of owing to
steady constant

On Wednesday, 13th of November 2002, the single-hulled oil tanker


Prestige, flying the Bahamas flag, sent a distress call offshore the region of Cape
Finisterre (Galicia, Spain). The tanker carrying 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil
loaded in St Petersburg (Russia) and Ventspils (Latvia) was heading to Singapore
via Gibraltar. The vessel developed a reported 30 degrees starboard list whilst on
passage in heavy seas and strong wind and so requested the partial evacuation of
the crew. Twenty-four of the twenty-seven crew members were evacuated by
helicopter while the captain, the first mate and the chief mechanic stayed aboard.
As the engine was damaged, the ship became out of control. An aerial observation
spotted a fuel leak at sea.
All night long, the tug boats from SASEMAR, the Spanish organization in
charge of the sea rescue and pollution control, tried to take in tow the oil tanker.
The emergency towing system of the ship didn't work and different attempts
failed. In the end, the Prestige was taken in tow by a ship from Smit salvage on
the 14th of November. It was towed to the north-northwest all day, and then to
the south. On the 15th, it was torn over 35 metres on the right side. On the 16th,
its towing was turned to the south-west to avoid the Portuguese waters. On the
19th at 9 am, the vessel broke in two at about 130 nautical miles off the Spanish

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coasts, west south-west of Cape Finisterre. At 12 o'clock, the stern part of the
Prestige sank into 3,500 metres of water. The bow part followed at about 4 pm.
One of the characteristics of this spill was the weathering process of the oil
that stood out to sea for a considerable period of time. This spill was unique in
many respects, first with regard to1 drift as it was really the very first time that a
spill managed to contaminate 6 countries, and weathering, as well as the highly
significant effect of the slick break-up process and how it affected the choice of
response measures and techniques off shore and then surely on shore.

The oil was tracked throughout the entire time it was drifting in and around
the Bay of Biscay and the westernmost reaches of the English Channel thanks to
French and Spanish floating buoys and ship based and aerial data that were fed
into various slick drift forecast models. The main slick split up into so many
smaller ones on account of the wind and current regimes eventually landing on
the beaches in France and even then only after a period of steady westerly winds.
Vocabulary
observation наблюдение

1
относительно

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weathering разрушение под влиянием погодных условий


to stand out удаляться (от берега)
unique уникальный, единственный в своем роде
response реакция, ответное действие
technique методика, способ
to track следить
reach участок, район
to feed (fed) вводить (данные)
forecast model модель прогнозирования
to split up разлагаться, распадаться
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words from column A and column B similar in their meaning.
A B
1. out of control a) responsible
2. spot b) split up
3. contaminate c) supply
4. in charge d) disabled
5. break up e) reaction
6. response f) discover
7. feed g) follow
8. track h) pollute
2. Form collocations with the word measures and translate them into Russian:
clean-up, response, safety, preventive, protective, effective, emergency,
immediate, environmental.
3. Fill in the blanks with the proper preposition.
a) … Wednesday, 13th of November 2002, the tanker Prestige sent a distress call
offshore the region … Cape Finisterre.
b) The tanker was heading … Singapore … Gibraltar.
c) The ship became … … control.
d) The Spanish organization … charge … the sea rescue and pollution control
tried to take … tow the oil tanker.

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e) … the 19th … 9 am, the vessel broke … two … about 130 nautical miles …
the Spanish coast.
f) Aerial data were fed … various slick drift forecast models.
g) The main slick split … … so many smaller ones … account … the wind and
current regimes.
III. Speech Practice
1. Work in pairs. Ask questions to the first passage from the text to get the missing
information. The answers can be found in the text.
On November … , the single-hulled oil tanker Prestige, flying the Bahamas
flag, sent a distress call offshore the region of Cape Finisterre (Galicia, Spain).
The tanker carrying … was heading to … . The vessel … in heavy seas and strong
wind and so requested … . … crew members were evacuated by helicopter while
… stayed aboard. As …, the ship became out of control. An aerial observation
spotted … at sea.
2. Look at the map and describe the ship's manoeuvres as well as the chain of
events.
Figure
3. Answer the questions.
1. Why is this spill considered to be unique?
2. What is weathering? Explain.
3. What made it possible to track the slick?
4. What is the forecast model? How can it be applied?
4. Speak about the accident. What measures can help to avoid similar accidents?

Text 6. Prestige oil disaster

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to burst to break
aid help, assistance

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response answer
amount quantity
prevalent common
spot area
to frequent to visit
to endanger to put in danger

On November 13th 2002, the Liberian owned tanker, the Prestige, ran into
trouble in heavy weather off the coast of Galicia. The 240 metre single-hulled ship
had burst one of its tanks and was starting to leak oil. The ship's Greek captain
called the Spanish authorities for aid but instead of the expected tow-in he was
told to steer away from the coast and head North West.
Similar responses were sent out from Spanish and Portuguese coastal
authorities who wanted to see the foundering tanker kept away from their shores.
This ship got into serious trouble on the sixth day of drifting when
a 40 ft section of the hull came away; she split in two that afternoon spilling
a huge amount of oil into the Atlantic 250 km from the coast of Galicia. The
Prestige sank later that day in over 3,000 metres of water starting Spain's worst
environmental disaster.
The decision to take the ship away from the coast was not a good one; by
this time 5000 tons of fuel were already spilt and the strong westerly winds that
are prevalent in the region at this time of year were already pushing a huge slick
of oil towards the Galician coastline. Galicia is known as an extremely rich fishing
ground, the area is also home to coral, sharks and thousands of sea birds.

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The clean up operation was huge with a lot of volunteers. Thousands of tons
of oil were removed from beaches and aid was provided for hundreds of birds
covered in the Prestige's noxious cargo. It was six months until the fishing fleets
dropped their nets again and locals still claim that old fishing spots they
frequented before the disaster are now completely barren.
In the wake of the incident many have called for the ban of single-hulled
tankers, the IMO (International Maritime Organisation) called for their phasing
out to be brought forward and the European Commission did exactly that by
moving the date forward from 2015 to 2005.
The effects of the disaster not only affected the Galician coast – oil was
washed up in Portugal, on the beaches of Normandy and even England's south
coast. Such is the quantity of oil contained in tankers that a spill can have
catastrophic effects – with thousands of single hulled tankers still in operation
there are fears that we're endangering our environment unnecessarily.
Vocabulary
to founder пойти ко дну
to remove убирать, уносить
noxious вредный; ядовитый
barren бесплодный
in the wake of в кильватере, по следам (событий)
to phase out постепенно выводить из эксплуатации

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to bring forward перенести на более ранний срок


to wash up прибивать к берегу, выносить на берег
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.
A B
1. fishing a) winds
2. noxious b) operation
3. clean up c) disaster
4. environmental d) effect
5. catastrophic e) cargo
6. prevalent f) ground
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 to gradually stop using or providing something;
 someone who does a job willingly without being paid;
 unproductive, unprofitable.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. It was six months until the fishing fleets dropped their nets again.
2. Locals still claim that old fishing spots are now completely barren.
3. In the wake of the incident many have called for the ban of single-hulled
tankers.
2. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What new information have you acquired from the text?
2. What might be a critical decision to the problem of sea pollution by oil from
tankers?
3. Summarise the information from the three stories and describe the disaster.

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IV. Written Practice


Write a brief summary of the accident (12–15 sentences).

Text 7. Stricken cargo ship runs aground

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the word below:
firmly securely
Sunday, 21 January, 2007

Coastguards and anti-pollution teams are on alert after a ship carrying


potentially dangerous chemicals was beached off the Devon coast.
The MSC Napoli, holed in storms on Thursday, was run aground following
"serious structural failure".

The ship is carrying almost 2,400 containers, about 150 of which are said to
hold hazardous chemical substances.
Fifty containers were thrown into the sea on Saturday, but it is not thought
they contained hazardous goods.
The ship's 26-man crew was rescued by helicopter on Thursday after it
developed two long gashes on each side just above the water line in stormy
weather.

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The Maritime and Coastguard Agency decided to beach it in Lyme Bay


instead, following the structural failure.
It is now firmly aground but rolling in storms. Two French coastguard tugs
are holding the ship in place.
Chris Lawson of the Environment Agency said containers holding the most
hazardous substances, such as pesticides, were in the cargo hold of the boat, and
there was "very little risk" of them leaking.
50 coastguards are out looking for the missing containers, which include one
containing hundreds of thousands of pounds worth of BMW motorbikes.
The rescue team has been using the high tide to move the Napoli closer to
shelter whilst weighing it down by pumping in sea water as ballast.
The ship has been surrounded by a 1 km oil-containment boom to protect the
sea from any possible pollution.
The 275 m, 62,000-tonne Napoli is registered in London and owned by the
Swiss Mediterranean Shipping Company.
It was last inspected by the MCA in May 2005 when officials said it met
safety standards.
Vocabulary
to be on alert быть в состоянии готовности
to beach посадить на мель
hazardous опасный
substance вещество
gash разрез
to weigh down нагружать
the Maritime and Управление мореплавания и береговой охраны
Coastguard Agency Великобритании
(MCA)
to meet отвечать, соответствовать (требованиям, стандартам)
II. Vocabulary Practice
Give synonyms to the following words:
hazardous, to beach, to be on alert, to contain, to meet (standards).
Use the above words in the sentences of your own.

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III. Speech Practice


1. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. It is not thought the containers had hazardous goods.
There were hardly…
2. The Maritime and Coastguard Agency decided to beach the ship in Lyme Bay
following the structural failure.
As the ship received…
3. There was "very little risk" of the containers leaking.
The containers could not…
4. The rescue team has been weighing the ship down by pumping in sea water
as ballast.
To weigh the ship down the rescue team…
2. Explain in English what the following words and collocations mean:
anti-pollution team; potentially dangerous chemicals; serious structural failure;
the ship developed gashes; hundreds of thousands of pounds worth of BMW
motorbikes; to weigh the ship down.
3. Answer the questions.
1. Why was the holed ship run aground?
2. What potential danger did the ship create? Why?
3. When was the crew airlifted to safety?
4. What measures were taken to rescue the ship and to avoid any pollution?
4. Describe the accident.

Text 8. Stricken container ship refloated

I. Read the text.


Monday, 9 July, 2007

The stricken container ship MSC Napoli has been refloated, nearly six
months after it was grounded off the east Devon coast.
The 62,000-ton vessel floated free a mile off Sidmouth after 58,000 tons of
water was pumped from her holds.

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112

The ship has been towed 500 m south of its original position where it will be
inspected by divers for several days before its next move.
A barge with winches and cranes, along with1 tugs and an anti-pollution
vessel are assisting at sea in Branscombe Bay.
The Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) said the decision to refloat the
vessel had been made to prevent further deterioration in the structure of the ship
and to prevent further damage to the environment.
Since the decision was made in January to beach the vessel, salvors have
worked around the clock to remove all of the containers from the stricken ship.
Approximately 150 of them were classed as having potentially hazardous
contents.
More than 100 containers went overboard and 58 were washed ashore,
leading to a scavenging and looting2.
Of the containers that went overboard, one contained battery acid3 and
perfumes, and one small gas bottles for car airbags.
Others housed a variety of goods including BMW motorbikes and car parts.
Vocabulary
to refloat снимать судно с мели
deterioration ухудшение (состояния), повреждение
contents содержимое
II. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences using the words in bold:
1. The decision to refloat the vessel had been made to prevent further
deterioration in the structure of the ship and damage to the environment.
decide – In order to prevent …, it … to refloat the vessel.
2. Salvors have worked around the clock to remove all of the containers from
the stricken ship.
be busy – Salvors … with … all of the containers from the
stricken ship.

1
together with
2
копание в мусоре и мародерство
3
электролит

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3. The vessel floated free after 58,000 tons of water was pumped from her holds.
by means of – The vessel was refloated … from her holds.
2. Look at the figure below and give account of the operation. Make use of the
information from Text 8.
HOW THE MSC NAPOLI WAS REFLOATED

MSC Napoli: On Monday, 58,000 tons of water pumped out. More than 2,000
containers and about 4,000 tons fuel already removed.
Big Foot Barge: Winches/cranes used to lift Napoli from seabed.
Lead tug: Helped turn Napoli and tow it to new position for checks.
Anti-pollution/support vessels: Dispersant carried by vessels, to tackle
remaining pollutants. Supported by spotter planes looking for pollution.
Steering tug, workboats and crew boat also present.
Hull damage: Divers will inspect bottom of hull following refloat. Damage to be
assessed and decision on moving Napoli to be taken.

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Group work

Two texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information.
Each student has to read one text. Exchange the information. Work in pairs.

Text 9. Attempts to break Napoli in two


Make sure you understand the words below:
to facilitate to make easy
option alternative
Friday, 13 July, 2007

Attempts are being made to break the stricken container ship MSC Napoli in
two in east Devon.
The container vessel was rebeached on Thursday after earlier being refloated
when a diving survey revealed it was more severely damaged than feared.
The vessel was rebeached at high tide on Thursday and is now lying just
a short distance from where she has been stranded for the past six months.
The ship was originally grounded in January after being damaged in storms.
Salvors have been working overnight to remove ballast in an attempt to
facilitate a controlled break-up of the vessel by causing the hull to sag.
Toby Stone, from the MCA, said that if the operation works it would leave
the bow section afloat which could then be towed away and the stern would sink
to the seabed and eventually be removed.
An East Devon District Council spokesperson said there was disappointment
that the refloating option had not worked.
The council said it would continue to monitor the situation closely.
Vocabulary
to sag прогибаться
disappointment разочарование, недовольство

Text 10. Ship split after new explosions

Make sure you understand the words below:

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to trigger to activate
to recycle to reprocess, to reuse
20 July, 2007

A third round of explosives has split a beached container ship in two off the
Devon coast.
Explosions were triggered soon after midday on MSC Napoli, which has
been stranded off Branscombe since it was damaged in a storm in January.
The stern of the ship will stay on site and be cut up while the bow section
has been towed away for recycling, possibly in mainland Europe.
Two previous explosions had been unsuccessful.
The operation was carried out by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency
(MCA) and the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The MSC Napoli had been en route from Antwerp to South Africa when her
26 crew members abandoned ship and were flown to safety.
The ship was refloated last week but the results of a diving survey revealed
the hull was severely damaged and it was beached again last week.
A large boom was in position to catch any oil which may leak from the vessel
in her position about half a mile off Sidmouth on east Devon's coast.
After reading the texts and exchanging the information about the accident,
describe the disaster according to the plan below using the facts from the
four texts.
1. Deliberate grounding following structural failure.
2. Potential danger to environment.
3. Six months later: refloated for inspection.
4. Rebeached after a diving survey.
5. Attempts to break the ship in two.

Group work

Complete the spidergrams below and see how much vocabulary you can generate,
with reference to the topic of sea pollution by oil.

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Text 11. В Дании объявлена мазутная опасность

Give a free translation of the text below.


30 марта 2001 г.

Корабли береговой охраны и экологических служб Дании, Швеции и


Германии пытаются собрать несколько нефтяных пятен, угрожающих
датскому побережью. Нефть разлилась из-за столкновения танкера Baltic
Carrier со стоявшим на якоре сухогрузом в порту Росток на севере Германии.
Работа специалистов затрудняется тяжелыми погодными условиями и
тем обстоятельством, что разлившийся топливный мазут является тяжелым
веществом, а потому находится несколько ниже поверхности моря. Экологи
и пограничники установили специальные плавучие барьеры,
предотвращающие дальнейшее расползание нефтяных пятен.
Из танкера вытекло без малого две из трех тысяч тонн мазута, бывшего
на его борту. Причина столкновения пока не установлена, однако известно,
что в результате в одном из танков образовалась 20-метровая пробоина.

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Правда, как заявили в четверг представители германских властей, сейчас


течи уже нет. Оставшееся на судне топливо перекачано в неповрежденные
отсеки. Сам танкер поставлен на якорь, и затопление ему не грозит.
На месте происшествия работают четыре датских судна,
оборудованных специальными установками для сбора разлившейся нефти.
В 1985 году в этом районе было несколько серьезных инцидентов,
связанных с разливом нефти. Тогда 300 тонн топлива выплеснулись на берег
одного из островов.
Всего же по акватории Балтийского моря ежегодно проходит до
160 тысяч судов.

UNIT 2. Breaking the Rules


Text 1. The captain of a Russian trawler could face criminal
charges

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to flee (fled) to run away
to chase to follow
to hand back to return
ongoing continuing
dispute argument
to state to say
October 2005

Valery Yarantsev is being investigated on suspicion of illegal fishing and


illegal detention, the local Russian prosecutor general's office said.
The trawler, the Elektron, was boarded by the inspectors near Svalbard1
islands on suspicion of illegal fishing. But instead of heading to Norway as
directed, it fled to Russian waters.
It was chased by Norwegian coastguards until it reached Russian territory.
1
a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, about 650 km (400 miles) north of Norway: consists of the main
group (Spitsbergen, North East Land, Edge Island, Barents Island, and Prince Charles Foreland) and
a number of outlying islands; sovereignty long disputed but granted to Norway in 1920

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The two inspectors had spent five days on board the trawler before they were
handed back to the Norwegian authorities by a Russian rescue ship.
The prosecutor of the northern Murmansk region, where the Elektron
returned to, confirmed a criminal case was being opened on the basis of
information supplied by Norway.
"According to the Norwegians, a check revealed a number of serious
violations", a statement said.
The incident began on 15 October, when the Elektron was fishing in waters
claimed by Norway.
The Norwegian authorities claim the Elektron was using illegal fishing
equipment which violated quota rules on fishing catches.
The trawler was ordered by the two inspectors to go towards the Norwegian
port of Tromso, but unexpectedly changed its course towards Russia.
Although both sides wished to minimize the incident, it has started again an
ongoing dispute between Russia and Norway over fishing rights in the Barents
Sea.
The conflict appears to have been intensified by an incident with another
Russian trawler, the Grigory Arlashkin, which was following the Elektron and
trying to prevent Norwegian vessels from seizing it.
The Grigory Arlashkin's captain stated that Norwegian Navy officers threw
a net from a helicopter that entangled the Russian ship's propeller, rendering it
immobile and forcing the ship to seek help from rescue vessels.
Norwegian military officials denied the allegation, saying that an
illumination flare had been dropped over the trawler.
Norway claims sovereignty over the waters where the Elektron was arrested
but Russia and other fishing nations disagree. They state Norway has no right to
detain foreign vessels in that area even if they are breaking fishing regulations.
Vocabulary
criminal charge обвинение в совершении преступления, уголовное
обвинение
suspicion подозрение
illegal незаконный
detention задержание, арест

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prosecutor прокурор
case судебное дело
violation нарушение
statement заявление
to claim заявлять о своих правах на что-л.
to violate нарушать
quota доля, квота
to entangle запутывать
to render приводить в какое-л. состояние
to seek обращаться (за помощью)
to deny отрицать; отвергать
allegation голословное утверждение; заявление
sovereignty независимость, суверенитет
to detain задерживать, арестовывать
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Fill in the table.
Verb Noun
– violation
to allege –
– seizure
to suspect –
to detain –
– statement
to prosecute –
2. Find an odd word.
a) arrest, detain, detect, seize;
b) face, emerge, encounter, meet;
c) charge, chase, follow, hunt, run after;
d) claim, demand, require, respond.
3. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase. Use
them in the sentences of your own.

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A B
1. to violate a) allegation
2. to seek b) quota rules
3. to deny c) help
4. to break d) sovereignty
5. to detain e) regulations
6. to claim f) vessels
4. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 forbidden by law;
 an action that breaks a law;
 an official limit on the amount of something;
 a lawyer who is trying to prove in a court of law that someone is guilty of
a crime;
 complete freedom and power to manage.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
III. Grammar Review
Rephrase the following sentences using the proper form of Passive Voice:
1. The captain … of illegal fishing. (suspect)
2. The two Norwegian inspectors … by the Russian captain for five days before
they were able to return home. (detain)
3. A number of serious violations … . (reveal)
4. Sovereignty over waters near Svalbard … by Norway. (claim)
IV. Speech Practice
1. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. The Norwegian authorities claim the Elektron was using illegal fishing
equipment which violated quota rules on fishing catches.
2. Both sides wished to minimize the incident.
3. Norwegian Navy officers threw a net from a helicopter that entangled the
Russian ship's propeller, rendering it immobile.
2. Answer the questions to the text.

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121

1. What charges does the Russian captain face?


2. What area is the subject of the dispute? Why?
3. Do you approve of the actions of the Russian captain?
4. What do you think the captain was to do having two fishery inspectors on
board?
5. Were there any illegal actions on the part of the Norwegians?
6. What kind of argument is going on between Norway and some fishing
countries?
3. Describe the incident using the conversational formulas below.
Demanding and Giving Explanations
 I don't really understand why …?  To be honest…
 I can't make head or tail of…  To tell the truth,…
 As a matter of fact,…

Text 2. Charges read out against captain of Elektron

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to detect to spot, to discover
to set up to establish
on the strength of on the basis of
sign indication
to present to give
exposed revealed
29 June, 2006

Prosecutors in Russia's Murmansk region read out the charges against Valery
Yarantsev, captain of the Elektron on Wednesday. He is accused of violating
international fishing rules and of illegally depriving foreign citizens of their
freedom.
The trial is likely to be long. It will take the judge much time to examine and
analyze all the 14 volumes of materials and hear out the witnesses for the
prosecution and the defence. The case is tried behind closed doors.

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On October 15, Norwegian coastguards detected the Elektron fishing off


Spitsbergen. Inspectors found illegal fishing tackle on board and tried to convoy
it to the port of Tromso.
Two Norwegian coastguard service officers came on board the Elektron, but
its captain unexpectedly changed the course toward Murmansk.
Norwegian vessels failed to intercept the Elektron during a four-day chase
across the stormy sea, and the trawler entered Russia's territorial waters on
October 20.
The captain was hospitalized with a heart attack after the vessel arrived in
the Russian port. A special commission was set up to investigate the incident, and
on the first of November, Murmansk region prosecutors instituted criminal
proceedings on the strength of the materials submitted by Norway.
Norway insisted that the Elektron had violated a number of rules; in
particular1, it failed to send a notification on the beginning of fishing, and used
a net with the meshes smaller than the norm.
In addition, Norwegian inspectors found several stamps lacking the vessel's
registration number, intended for marking fish boxes. In their opinion, these were
signs of poaching.
Although the fish net was not found on board, the Norwegians presented the
pictures of the fishing tackle made during the inspection.
The exposed violations qualify as offences both under Norwegian and
Russian laws.
Vocabulary
to deprive (of) лишать
trial судебное разбирательство
witness for the свидетель со стороны обвинения
prosecution
defence защита
to try проводить расследование
tackle снасти; оснастка, такелаж
to intercept останавливать, задерживать

1
в частности

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123

to institute начинать
to submit представлять на рассмотрение
mesh ячея сети
stamp штамп, печать; пломба или ярлык (на товаре)
intended предназначенный
poaching браконьерство
to qualify зд. расцениваться
offence преступление, правонарушение
II. Translate into Russian the passages defining the violations committed by
the Russian ship, according to Norwegian inspectors.
III. Vocabulary Practice
Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 catching fish, wild animals etc illegally;
 the equipment used in some activities, especially fishing;
 a legal process in which a judge examines information to decide whether
someone is guilty of a crime;
 a violation of a law, rule, etc.
Read and translate the sentences in which they are used.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Rephrase the following sentences using the words in bold:
1. Norwegian vessels failed to intercept the Elektron during a four-day chase
across the stormy sea.
Though – … Norwegian vessels chased … to intercept the
Elektron.
2. The ship failed to send a notification on the beginning of fishing.
succeed – The ship … a notification on the beginning of
fishing.
3. Although the fish net was not found on board, the Norwegians presented the
pictures of the fishing tackle made during the inspection.

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In spite of – … the fish net was not found on board, the


Norwegians presented the pictures of the fishing
tackle made during the inspection.
4. The exposed violations qualify as offences both under Norwegian and
Russian laws.
consider – Both Norwegian and Russian laws … as offences.
2. Explain the underlined part in your own words.
The case is tried behind closed doors.
3. Restore the chain of events on the basis of the two texts and make up a plan.
Describe the incident according to the plan.

Text 3. Captain Yarantsev is ordered to pay a fine of 100,000


rubles

Read the text about the court decision concerning the case of the Elektron
and express your opinion.
26 April, 2007

The court of Murmansk announced the verdict on the case of the captain of
the trawler Elektron.
The trial has been closed. The verdict is being read in the open court. Captain
of the trawler Elektron Valery Yarantsev has been justified. The court ordered
him to pay a fine of 100,000 rubles for illegal fishing.
As to unlawful detention of the Norwegian inspectors, Yarantsev was
justified.
No suspended sentence of three years imprisonment has followed. Defence
and the captain himself are satisfied with the verdict.
Vocabulary
fine штраф
to announce объявлять, оглашать
verdict решение, приговор
to justify оправдывать

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unlawful противозаконный
suspended условный
sentence приговор
imprisonment лишение свободы

Text 4. У капитана "Электрона" не выдержало сердце

Give a free translation of the text.


21.10.2005

У капитана траулера "Электрон" Валерия Яранцева произошел


сердечный приступ. Он госпитализирован в Мурманскую больницу.
Сам траулер "Электрон" прибыл в порт Мурманска вчера около
22:00 мск. Самочувствие всех остальных членов экипажа нормальное.
Корабль в настоящее время отбуксирован на свое место в порту Мурманска.
Для разбора ситуации уже прибыли члены специальной комиссии, они
осмотрели корабль, опечатали трюмы, компьютеры и промысловое
вооружение.
Траулер "Электрон" был задержан норвежской береговой охраной
15 октября во время промысла в районе архипелага Шпицберген за
нарушение правил рыболовства. На борт судна поднялись два инспектора
норвежской береговой охраны. Капитану было предложено вести судно в
порт Тромсё для дальнейшего разбирательства. Однако капитан отказался
выполнить это требование и взял курс на российские территориальные
воды, после чего корабли норвежской береговой охраны начали
преследование.
Суда и самолеты норвежского ВМФ не раз пытались остановить
"Электрон" перерезая ему курс, давая залпы и сбрасывая на него сеть,
однако российскому траулеру удалось успешно ускользнуть от
преследователей и благополучно с двумя норвежскими инспекторами войти
в территориальные воды РФ.

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126

Text 5. Trawlers "caught" in Canada's net

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to retrieve to recover, to get back
to reject to refuse
Sunday, 9 May, 2004

Canada has produced evidence of what it says is illegal fishing just outside
its waters by Portuguese trawlers.
Officials said one boat was found with protected fish on board, and that
another had cut loose a net just before they boarded the vessel.
Fisheries officials say the net was illegal, as its mesh was too small under
international regulations.
The net was retrieved after a 30-hour search of the ocean floor in the Grand
Banks area of the North Atlantic.
Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans said 65% of the fish found in
the net were from species protected under a fishing moratorium "namely cod,
American plaice and red fish". The ministry showed pictures of the net and its
catch on its website.
The ship's Portuguese captain says the net got stuck on the bottom of the
ocean and broke off shortly before Canadian fisheries officers boarded the vessel.
The Canadians say the net was clearly cut.
But Portugal rejected the claims at the highest level.
The Brites was one of seven ships inspected last week just outside Canada's
200-mile waters. Another vessel was mentioned for two violations, including
fishing for banned species.
Within its waters, Canada has strictly enforced a fishing moratorium for cod
and other endangered fish.
Canada has often protested to the European Union and the governments of
Spain and Portugal that their vessels regularly break the rules in the North
Atlantic.
Commercial fishing for cod and American plaice has been banned for
a decade because stocks were so weak in the Grand Banks.

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127

Vocabulary
to produce представить доказательство
evidence
protected защищённый, находящийся под защитой, охраной
(закона)
to cut loose освободиться, избавиться
to stick (stuck) застрять
to break off отрываться
endangered находящийся под угрозой исчезновения (о виде)
stock запас (популяции)
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find an odd word.
a) illegal, banned, protected, prohibited;
b) slick, stuck, trapped, caught;
c) reject, detect, refuse, deny;
d) enforce, put into effect, carry out, submit.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 a period of ten years;
 facts that show clearly that something exists or is true;
 an official stopping of an activity for a period of time;
 a place on the Internet where you can find information about something;
 a statement that something is true, even though it has not been proved.
3. Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a phrase.
A B
1. to retrieve a) evidence
2. to produce b) a moratorium
3. to reject c) a net
4. to break d) a claim
5. to cut e) loose
6. to enforce f) fishing
7. to ban g) the rules

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128

III. Grammar Review


Fill in the blanks with the proper preposition where necessary.
1. Canada has produced evidence … illegal fishing … Portuguese trawlers.
2. Fisheries officials say the net mesh was too small … international regulations.
3. The net was recovered … a 30-hour search … the sea bed.
4. 65% of the fish found … the net were species protected … a fishing
moratorium.
5. The net got stuck … the bottom … the ocean and broke … shortly … Canadian
fisheries officers boarded … the vessel.
IV. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word groups mean:
to produce evidence; a fishing moratorium; endangered fish; to reject claims at
the highest level.
2. Rephrase the following sentences:
1. Canada has produced evidence of illegal fishing by Portuguese trawlers.
Canada has proved…
2. The net was retrieved after a 30-hour search of the ocean floor. 65% of the
fish found in the net were from species protected under a fishing moratorium.
When the net had been retrieved … it was discovered that…
3. Canada has often protested to the governments of Spain and Portugal that
their vessels regularly break the rules in the North Atlantic.
Canada has often protested to the governments of Spain and Portugal about…
3. Answer the questions.
1. What charges has Canada brought against Portugal?
2. What facts were provided to prove the charges?
3. What does a fishing moratorium mean?
4. What fish species are considered endangered under the Canada's law?
5. How did the Portuguese captain explain the incident?
6. Is it the only case of violating the fishing regulations?
7. Why has commercial fishing for some species been banned?

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129

4. Speak about the accident.

Text 6. Pirate fishing ships head for the scrap heap

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
repeatedly frequently
to nickname to call
commonly usually
to secure to obtain
to police to control
to show up to appear
to demand to require
obligation duty
primarily mainly
15 May, 2007

Five blacklisted fishing trawlers that have been repeatedly exposed for
illegal fishing in the North Atlantic by Greenpeace are now heading for the scrap
heap.
Greenpeace documented the activities of five fishing trawlers (nicknamed
the "trawler girls" due to the ships names all being women's names) since
September 2005 while they illegally caught redfish in the Irminger Sea (in the
North Atlantic between Iceland and Greenland).
The ships overwintered in European ports and then returned to their old
fishing grounds. This happened despite the fact that all five vessels were
blacklisted by the European Union, Iceland as well as the North East Atlantic
Fisheries Commission.
In December 2005 and again in March 2006, Greenpeace activists called on
the German government to prevent the ships from leaving the port. Before their
arrival in Germany these trawlers were called the Oyra, Ostroe, Okhotino, Olchan
and Ostrovets. While they were in Rostock harbour the owners registered the ships
under a new flag (Georgia) and changed their names to Eva, Juanita, Rosita,

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130

Isabella and Carmen, a make-over commonly practised by pirate fishing vessels


in order to disguise their identity and avoid inspections. The German authorities
promised not to re-supply the vessels but the ships managed to secure enough fuel
and supplies and were able to leave port.
In March 2006 the same ships showed up in Lithuania along with several
other pirate fishing vessels. Greenpeace demanded that Lithuania refuse
blacklisted pirate vessels.
European Union member states like Germany, Poland and Lithuania violated
EU law by giving these pirate ships shelter, fuel, service and assistance. The port
of Klaipeda in Lithuania, where these ships showed up, has poor reporting and
registration systems, which enables pirate fishing ships and "flag-of-
convenience" ships to unload illegally caught fish.
Despite having their crimes so widely exposed, the "trawler girls" returned
to the North Atlantic last April and spent another five months fishing illegally.
They were aimed at fish species such as red fish, a species which is showing signs
of over-exploitation. Since November 2006 the ships were tied up in Kaliningrad.
The Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise informed the Russian authorities about
their illegal nature and the obligation of Russian authorities to stop them. In the
last few weeks the ships have completed their final voyage to the Liyepaya scrap
yard in Latvia!
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a global problem that
needs global solutions. It is primarily caused by the huge over-capacity of the
world's fishing fleets, the lack of effective laws and the failure of many countries
to police their waters.
Local and regional solutions are not sufficient if the international community
is to deal effectively with pirate fishing and the theft of marine life from honest
fishermen and future generations.
Vocabulary
scrap heap свалка, груда лома
to blacklist заносить в черный список
to expose разоблачать
make-over создание нового облика
to disguise скрывать

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131

to enable давать возможность


flag-of-convenience удобный флаг1
to aim направлять, нацеливать
over-exploitation чрезмерная эксплуатация2
to tie up швартоваться
solution решение
over-capacity избыточные производственные мощности
sufficient достаточный
theft воровство, кража
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Give synonyms to the following words:
to disguise, to enable, to tie up, solution, sufficient.
Use the above words in the sentences of your own.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 to record or report in detail, as in the press, on television, etc;
 a moral or legal requirement; duty;
 all the countries of the world;
 the crime of stealing;
 all people of about the same age.
III. Speech Practice
1. Explain in English what the following words and word groups mean:
to blacklist; a make-over; over-exploitation; "flag-of-convenience" ships; scrap
yard; theft; global problem.
2. Explain the underlined parts in your own words.
1. A make-over is commonly practiced by pirate fishing vessels in order to
disguise their identity and avoid inspections.
2. It is caused by the huge over-capacity of the world's fishing fleets.

1
приписка судна к порту той страны, которая предоставляет лучшие условия по налогообложению,
безопасности и т.п.
2
использование природных ресурсов выше уровня их естественного восстановления

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132

3. The international community is to deal effectively with the theft of marine life
from honest fishermen and future generations.
3. Answer the questions.
1. Who initiated the investigation into the activities of the pirate ships?
2. What ships are usually blacklisted?
3. What charges were brought against the mentioned ships?
4. What do pirate ships usually do to disguise their identity?
5. What states repeatedly violate the European Union law with regard to pirate
ships?
6. What factors contribute to the IUU fishing?
7. In what way should this problem be addressed?
4. Speak about the accident.

Text 7. Pirate trawlers put fish stocks on the line1


I. Read the text.
Make sure you understand the words below:
to urge to insist on
recipient receiver
traffic commerce
to account for to make up
jurisdiction authority
to oppose to be against
Wednesday February 21, 2001

Japan is urging the EU to outlaw pirate fishing vessels which are plundering
Atlantic fish stocks and putting legitimate fishermen out of business.
Although the pirate vessels operate under notorious flags of convenience,
many of the trawler owners live comfortably in Spain and the UK.

1
подвергают риску запасы рыб

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133

Japan, one of the main recipients of illegally caught Atlantic tuna1, has been
trying to stop the traffic partly because it fears stocks will become exhausted and
partly because its fishing unions believe they are being deprived of work.
Without international cooperation to prosecute the owners, Japan believes it
will be difficult to stamp out the global trade which accounts for more than 10%
of total world catches.
Among the species being destroyed by pirate boats is the patagonian tooth
fish2 caught on longlines. Each line has 50,000 hooks which also kill albatross
and other sea birds.
Estimates based on Lloyd's Maritime Information Services show there are
around 1,300 fishing vessels flying flags of convenience. Belize3 has
404 registered trawlers, Honduras, 395, Panama, 214 and Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines4 108. A flag registration can be bought over the internet for as little
as £350.
The owners are often registered in the same country as the ship, at least on
paper, although the real recipients are far away. Taiwan tops the list of beneficial
owners with 169 vessels while the EU has 168. Of these Spain and the Canary
Islands have 116, Portugal 12, Greece 11 and the UK 10.
In addition there is a fish-carrying vessel which collects the catch from
industrial trawlers at sea and takes it to market, disguising its origins.
Attempts to reach agreement are opposed by Mexico and Brazil, who say
that stamping out pirate boats is a restriction of free trade, and by the EU which
managed to delete most measures calling on governments to penalize or take other
action against companies under their jurisdiction.
Greenpeace, which has followed illegal ships, says pirate vessels are
successfully evading all fishing conservation and management regulations.
"We must close ports to these vessels, close markets to the fish, and penalize
the companies involved in the jurisdiction of their home country", said
Greenpeace. "All fishing agreements are worthless if pirate fishing is allowed to
continue".
1
тунец
2
патагонский клыкач
3
Белиз (государство в Центральной Америке; столица - Бельмопан)
4
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины (вулканические острова в Атлантическом океане, в архипелаге Малые
Антильские о-ва)

133
134

Pirate fishing has doubled in the last 10 years. The illegal trade in patagonian
tooth fish catch alone is worth £300m annually.
Vocabulary
to outlaw объявлять незаконным; запрещать
legitimate законный, легальный
notorious пользующийся дурной славой; печально известный
exhausted истощенный
to stamp out искоренять (что-л.), положить конец (чему-л.)
longline ярус (орудие лова)
beneficial owner владелец-пользователь; подлинный владелец
restriction ограничение
to delete вычёркивать, исключать
to penalize штрафовать, накладывать штраф
to evade ускользать (от преследования и т. п.)
conservation сохранение; защита
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Give synonyms to the following words:
to outlaw, legitimate, to plunder, notorious, exhausted, to stamp out, to penalize,
to evade, conservation.
2. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 to endanger;
 the right to use an official power to make legal decisions;
 allowed by law;
 someone who receives something;
 to charge someone with a crime and try to show that they are guilty of it in
a court of law;
 to hide a fact or feeling so that people will not notice it;
 good-for-nothing.
III. Speech Practice
Answer the questions.

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135

1. Why does Japan insist on prohibition of pirate fishing?


2. What is typical of pirate ships?
3. What countries sell flag registration to fishing ships?
4. What is necessary to stop plundering the high seas?
5. What measures are suggested by Greenpeace?
6. Is there any world-wide agreement concerning stamping out pirate fishing?
Why?

Active Vocabulary

aim evade noxious statement


allegation exhausted observation solution
announce emerge offence spill
ban enable outlaw spillage
bar encounter over-exploitation split
barren endangered over-capacity split up
beach entangle penalize stamp
blacklist expose phase out stick (stuck)
boom feed poaching stock
break off fine pour submit
case flag-of- produce evidence substance
convenience
claim founder prosecutor suck
condemn gash protected sufficient
conservation hazardous qualify suspended
contain hole quota suspicion
contents illegal reach tackle
create imminent refloat technique
criminal charge impact release theft
crude oil imprisonment remove tie up
custody intended render track
cut loose intercept response trade
defence jail term restriction trial

135
136

delete justify scrap heap try


deny layer secure verdict
deprive (of) legislation seek violate
disguise legitimate sentence violation
detain meet slick in the wake of
detention mesh split up weigh down
deterioration notorious stamp out weathering
disperse stand out witness

Supplementary Reading
Text 1. Oil leaks from Gulf of Mexico pipe hit by anchor

An undersea crude oil pipeline ruptured on Sunday after being hit by


a ship's anchor, spilling over 20,000 gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico
and leaving a half-mile long oil slick on the water.
A spokesman for the U.S. Department of Transportation said the extent of
the damage to the High Island Pipeline was still being evaluated.
"Investigations are still ongoing, but it appears the pipeline was struck by
a tanker's anchor", said a DOT spokesman.
A 60-yard-wide oil sheen was visible on the water extending half a mile from
the site of the accident, which occurred about 30 miles southeast of Galveston,
Texas, a Coast Guard spokesman said.
"The pipeline is still leaking about 80 to 400 gallons per day of oil", Coast
Guard spokesman Adam Wine said.
Crude oil flows through the pipeline were halted as soon as a drop in pressure
was detected. The pipeline is currently able to pump 26,000 barrels per day of
crude oil.
Text 2. Pollution fears after Athena explosion

Environmental fears have been sparked in the outer harbour of Trincomalee,


Sri Lanka, since the 1979-built dry bulk carrier Athena, was damaged by an
underwater explosion.
The hazard has arisen from Athena's engine room which is holding around
7,000 tonnes of water and oil. Small amounts of contamination are already taking

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137

place as water moves in and out of the engine room with the tide, but large-scale
pollution has so far been avoided as most of the oil sludge has settled at the bot-
tom.
The Sri Lankan authorities have denied permission for the high oil content
mixture to be discharged into the sea, as Trincomalee is renowned for its rich
marine life and whales. The matter has now been referred to Sri Lanka's Maritime
Pollution Prevention Authority which will have to resolve the problem.
One possibility is to pump the water into a tanker.
However, there are additional problems as the damaged vessel had yet to
discharge 52,000 tonnes of Argentine wheat when the explosion occurred.
Officials will not allow unloading to take place until the engine room is cleared
as the activity might upset the ship's balance.
Sri Lankan rebels operating under the name of The Liberation Tigers of
Tamil Eelam, who have been fighting for an independent homeland in the north
and east of the island, are said to have engineered the underwater explosion.
Text 3. A ship involved in a collision in the English Channel had
failed a number of safety checks around the world
Serious deficiencies were found on board the 23,000-tonne bulk carrier the
General Grot-Rowecki during inspections in Canada, Norway and Belgium.
The Maltese-registered carrier was in a collision with the chemical tanker
Ece about 30 miles off Guernsey.
The General Grot-Rowecki, built in 1985, was detained for two days after an
inspection in the port of Quebec in 2003. Problems were found with fire doors, its
engines, safety equipment and paperwork. Oil pollution prevention equipment
was also found to be inoperative. Other checks in 1998 and 1999 also resulted in
the ship being held in ports. Six deficiencies were found when the ship was
inspected in the port of Belfast in 2004, but the vessel was allowed to leave.
The details of the accident were not known and the owners refused to
comment on the ship's safety record.
The other ship involved in the collision – the 8,131-tonne Ece, which is now
in danger of sinking – has also been inspected, but has a better safety record.

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138

Twelve people were rescued from the vessel by a coastguard helicopter


based at Lee-on-Solent and another 10 by the St Peter Port lifeboat from
Guernsey.
The Ece's operator has not commented on the collision or the vessel's record.
More than 140,000 ships pass through the Channel each year. In 2001, there
were more than 360 contraventions of collision prevention regulations in the
Dover Strait.
Text 4. Barge with oil spill debris sinks in Philippines

A barge carrying 59,000 sacks of sludge from a devastating oil spill in the
central Philippines capsized off the south coast of the country, raising fears of
another environmental mishap.
The barge, hired by oil refiner Petron, was being towed to a processing plant
on the southern island of Mindanao when it sank on Monday night about four
miles off the coastline of Plaridel town.
"We're still investigating the incident", said Danilo Abinoja, deputy chief
coast guard, adding that there were no clear indications the oily sludge had spilled.
The vessel's crew was rescued.
The barge was carrying debris from the site of the Solar 1, which sank in
rough seas in August and leaked around 500,000 liters of bunker oil, affecting
40,000 people and more than 200 km (125 miles) of coastline in the central
Philippines.
Around 1.4 million liters of oil remain trapped in the tanker, buried about
640 meters under water off central Guimaras Island, and authorities have said they
will wait until calmer weather in January to siphon it off.
A spokesman for Petron, which had also chartered the Solar 1, said the
company had sent equipment to clean up this latest sinking, adding that the debris
"poses no threat to health".
Environment group Greenpeace said the oil group should be held
accountable for the barge capsizing.
Local officials said giant waves and strong winds could have caused the
accident. Fishing had been prohibited in the area for four days ago due to bad
weather.

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Text 5. Deadly accident on Staten Island ferry


March 02, 2007

Ten people were killed and many others seriously injured when a Staten
Island ferry collided with a concrete construction pier while docking Wednesday
afternoon. Ferry service was suspended in both directions but resumed early
Thursday morning. The accident occurred shortly before 3:30PM at the ferry's
Staten Island terminal.
The 300-foot-long ferry, carrying about 1,500 passengers, slammed into
a concrete construction pier at the St. George Station on Staten Island. The crash
occurred on a very windy day when the water in New York Harbor was unusually
choppy. Many witnesses said the ferry appeared to be travelling faster than
normal.
Police say one woman and nine men, ranging in age from 25 to 32, died in
the crash. At least 34 were injured, some of them critically in the city's worst
accident. The victims were taken to Staten Island University Hospital and St.
Vincent's Hospital. Firefighters aboard the damaged ferry sifted through debris
looking for victims, said a fire spokesman.
The cause of the crash remains unknown. But law enforcement officials said
the ferry's pilot fled the scene to his nearby home, and attempted suicide. The
National Transportation Safety Board says it will conduct its first organizational
meeting Thursday. Human factors, engineering factors, deck operations and
weather conditions will all be considered. The NTSB will also look into records
of the vessel's crew members and how they spent the previous 72 hours.
Text 6. Capsized ship recovery continues
Salvage crews are continuing efforts to recover the Norwegian oil supply
ship which capsized north-west of Shetland.
Seven of the crew survived the accident but three sailors have been
confirmed dead. The search for five other crew members has been abandoned.
A coastguard spokesman said on Friday it was "extremely unlikely" that they
would be found alive.
The tug overturned on Thursday when it moved an anchor for a drilling rig,
about 86 miles (138 km) off Shetland.

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Royal Navy divers entered the submerged vessel three times on Friday but
found no signs of life.
They were later forced to withdraw amid rough seas.
Seven of the 15 Bourbon Dolphin crew were taken to hospital and later
moved into a local hotel, while three have been confirmed dead.
Among those still unaccounted for is a 15-year-old boy on work experience
and his father, believed to be the ship's captain.
The operation around the upturned Bourbon Dolphin has now switched focus
to the salvage of the vessel, which currently remains afloat.
Ten crew members in total were found in the seas around the vessel after
Thursday's incident, about 86 miles west of the Shetland coast.
An offshore union leader has said he believed the boat, which is less than
one year old, could have been caused to capsize by an anchor slipping up the side
of the vessel.
The Bourbon Dolphin had a number of roles in the North Sea, including
anchor handling and towing, the installation of subsea construction blocks and
operations involving remote vehicles.
Anchor handling tugs are also used to supply oil platforms, tow them to
location, anchor them up and, in some cases, serve as rescue vessels.
They are fitted with winches for towing and anchor handling and have an
open stern to allow the decking of anchors.
The coastguard confirmed that the ship had still been attached to Transocean
Rather rig by an anchor chain.
Grampian Police said they would begin an investigation into the incident. A
marine accident inquiry will also be carried out.
The ship had been working in the vicinity of the Rosebank oilfield.
Text 7. Fire ferry arrives safely
Saturday, 18 May, 2002

A North Sea ferry which was left drifting 140 miles off the UK coast after
two fires has arrived safely at its destination of Kristiansand in Norway.
Fire investigators have boarded the Princess of Scandinavia, which was
carrying 758 passengers and more than 100 crew, to find out what happened.

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Black scorch marks were visible on the side of the vessel's funnel, and
a faint smell of burning paint lingered in the air when it arrived.
The drama began on Friday night, when blazes erupted in the engine room
and spread to the funnel of the vessel as it made its way to Kristiansand from
North Shields, near Newcastle.
The fires prompted a mayday call from the ship, which had lost power, and
a massive rescue operation involving the RAF and coastguards from several
countries was begun.
Passengers were escorted onto the deck ready for evacuation, and lifeboats
were lowered.
But the evacuations plans were abandoned after the fires were extinguished
by onboard firefighters about two hours later, and the crew managed to restart
some of the engines.
There were no casualties, although two passengers collapsed on deck and
were treated for shock.
Passengers leaving the ship in Norway told the ship's public address system
was disabled and there was confusion about what was happening.
One passenger said: "It was like Titanic without the iceberg". She said
passengers were woken in their cabins by worried crew members and told to go
to the upper deck where the lifeboats were being made ready.
Others praise the crew and said there was little sign of panic during the
incident.
Initial reports suggest the fires were started by a leak from a hydraulic
system.
Among the passengers there were 246 Britons, 428 Swedes, 71 Norwegians
and 13 Danes.
The ferry limped into Kristiansand, its first scheduled port of call, nearly
eight hours late just before 1500 GMT (1600 BST) on Saturday evening.
The ferry, which left the English port of Newcastle on Friday, had been
scheduled to sail on to Gothenburg, Sweden, but will remain in Norway for repairs
and the investigation.
Travel arrangements were being made for passengers who wanted to reach
Gothenburg or return to Britain.

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Text 8. About Greenpeace

Greenpeace is a non-profit organisation, with a presence in 40 countries


across Europe, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
To maintain its independence, Greenpeace does not accept donations from
governments or corporations but relies on contributions from individual
supporters and grants.
As a global organisation, Greenpeace focuses on the most crucial worldwide
threats to our planet's environment.
They campaign to stop climate change, protect ancient forests, save the
oceans, stop whaling, say no to genetic engineering, stop the nuclear threat,
eliminate toxic chemicals, encourage sustainable trade.
They take the name of their flagship, the Rainbow Warrior, from a North
American Indian legend. It described a time when humanity's greed has made the
Earth sick. At that time, a tribe of people known as the Warriors of the Rainbow
would rise up to defend her.
One of the banners summed things up, "When the last tree is cut, the last
river poisoned, and the last fish dead, we will discover that we can't eat money..."
In 1971, motivated by their vision of a green and peaceful world, a small
team of activists set sail from Vancouver, Canada, in an old fishing boat. These
activists, the founders of Greenpeace, believed a few individuals could make
a difference.
Their mission was to "bear witness" to US underground nuclear testing at
Amchitka, a tiny island off the West Coast of Alaska, which is one of the world's
most earthquake-prone regions.
Amchitka was the last refuge for 3000 endangered sea otters, and home to
bald eagles and other wildlife.
Even though their old boat, the Phyllis Cormack, was intercepted before it
got to Amchitka, the journey sparked a flurry of public interest.
The US still detonated the bomb, but the voice of reason had been heard.
Nuclear testing on Amchitka ended that same year, and the island was later
declared a bird sanctuary.
Today, Greenpeace is an international organisation that prioritises global
environmental campaigns.

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Based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Greenpeace has 2.8 million


supporters worldwide, and national as well as regional offices in 41 countries.

TERM 8
UNIT 1. Deadly Maritime Disasters
Text 1. The Admiral Nakhimov

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to acquire to obtain
to retire to to go away
breach opening, hole
in reverse in a backward direction
to perish to die

The last day of August will always remain the day of an awful tragedy for
the Russian passenger fleet forever.
At 10:00 p.m. on August 31, 1986, the Admiral Nakhimov sailed from
Novorossiysk accompanied with
sounds of music and shining with
bright lights en route to Sochi, its
next stop. In about an hour the
motor ship was wrecked. There
were 888 passengers and 346 crew
members aboard. Most of the
passengers were Ukrainian, with
others from Moldavia, the Baltic
republics and Central Asia. The captain of the ship was Vadim Markov.

M/V Admiral Nakhimov, built in 1925 (Germany)


Flag state: USSR
Port of registry: Odessa

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Ship owner: Black Sea Shipping Company


Length: 174 m
Beam: 21 m
Draught: 9 m
II. Now you are going to work in groups of three. Each student has to read
one text. Exchange the information.

Text 2 (A). Navigational aspects of the disaster

Just minutes into the voyage, the ship's pilot noticed that the large bulk
carrier Pyotr Vasev was on a
collision course with the Admiral
Nakhimov. The Pyotr Vasev was
a Japanese-built, 18,604-ton
freighter recently acquired by the
Soviet Union, and was carrying a
cargo of oats and barley.
According to the navigation
regulations, the Admiral
Nakhimov motor ship was to
allow the bulk carrier pass. The pilot radioed a warning to the Pyotr Vasev, and
the bulk carrier's captain Tkachenko reported that his vessel would let the motor
ship pass. There was enough place and time for the vessels to manoeuvre. At
11:05 p.m. Admiral Nakhimov once again asked the bulk carrier to let her pass.
Captain Tkachenko once again confirmed his manouevre. Captain Markov of the
Admiral Nakhimov retired to his cabin, leaving his second mate in charge. The
pilot of the Admiral Nakhimov continued to warn the freighter, and the dispatcher
at Novorossiysk radioed repeated warnings to both ships. When it was clear that
the freighter was heading directly for the ship, the Pyotr Vasev's engines were
thrown in reverse. The Admiral Nakhimov turned hard to port1, but it was too
late.

1
лево на борт (о перекладке руля)

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M/VPyotr Vasev, built in 1981 (Japan)


Flag state: USSR
Port of registry: Odessa
Ship owner: Black Sea Shipping Company
Length: 183 m
Beam: 26 m
Loaded draught: 10 m
Vocabulary
oats овес
barley ячмень
dispatcher диспетчер

Text 2 (B). Damage to the ship

The Admiral Nakhimov was struck by the Pyotr Vasev eight miles from the
port at Novorossiysk and two miles from shore line. While many passengers had
gone to bed by this time, some were on deck listening and dancing to a jazz band.
They could only watch helplessly as the freighter rammed into the starboard side
of the ship at a speed of about 5 knots (9.269 km/h). The Admiral Nakhimov
continued forward with the freighter's bow in its side, ripping
a 900 square foot (84 m²) hole in the hull between the engine and boiler rooms.
The Admiral Nakhimov immediately took on a list on her starboard side, and
her lights went out upon impact. After a few seconds, the emergency diesel
generator powered on, but the lights went out again two minutes later. People
below decks found themselves lost in the dark and rapidly canting hallways.
There was no time to launch the lifeboats. Hundreds of people dived into the
oily water, clinging to lifejackets, barrels and pieces of debris.
Vocabulary
to rip распарывать
boiler room котельное отделение
impact удар; столкновение
to cant наклоняться; накрениться
hallway проход

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to cling цепляться

Text 2 (C). Rescue operation and the death toll

The Admiral Nakhimov sank in only eight minutes. Rescue ships began
arriving just 10 minutes after the ship had gone down. The Pyotr Vasev was not
badly damaged, and assisted in the rescue effort. Sixty-four rescue ships and
20 helicopters rushed to the scene, and 836 people were pulled from the water.
Some people were so slick with fuel oil that they could not keep hold of the hands
of their rescuers. Sailors had to jump into the water to save people.
Passengers and crew had little time to escape, and 423 of the 1,234 on board
perished. Sixty-four of those killed were crew members and 359 were passengers.
Vocabulary
slick скользкий
III. After reading the texts and exchanging the information about the
accident, describe the disaster according to the plan of your own using the
facts from the texts.

Text 3. Afterword

The Soviet government formed a commission of inquiry to investigate the


disaster. It was determined that both Captain Markov of the Admiral Nakhimov
and Captain Tkachenko of the Pyotr Vasev had violated navigational safety rules.
Despite repeated orders to let the Admiral Nakhimov pass, Tkachenko refused to
slow his ship and only reported the accident 40 minutes after it occurred. Captain
Markov was absent from the bridge. Captain Tkachenko was found guilty of
criminal negligence and sentenced to 15 years in prison. The event was not
reported in the news for five days. The survivors were only allowed to send
telegrams saying "Alive and well in Novorossiysk". All mention of the wreck was
censored until the September 5 when the newspaper Pravda published a
condolence for the victims.
The wreck of the Admiral Nakhimov lies on its starboard side in 150 feet (45
m) of water in Tsemes Bay off Novorossiysk.

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Text 4 (A). 1987: Hundreds trapped as car ferry capsizes

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to smash to break
to clamber to climb
to tip over to capsize
to unfold to develop

Forty-nine people have been confirmed dead – and dozens are missing – after
a car ferry capsized just outside the Belgian port of Zeebrugge.
The tragedy happened just before 1900 GMT as the ferry left Zeebrugge
bound for Dover with 650 passengers on board.
It is not clear how the disaster happened. Survivors say the boat went over
in seconds and began filling rapidly with water. There was no time to send an
SOS.
The only way out for many was to smash windows and clamber onto the side
of the ship and wait to be lifted off.
Rescue helicopters, including two RAF Sea Kings, were at the scene within
minutes. Dutch and Belgian boats in the area were also diverted to help in the
rescue operation.
A woman told how her husband had made himself into a human bridge so
she and her daughter could climb across to safety – but when she called to him to
follow he said there were others who needed help getting out. He has not been
seen since.
Rescuers say more than 400 people have been brought out of the ship alive.
Many have been taken to hospitals in Bruges and Blankenburg suffering from cuts
and bruises, hypothermia and shock.
Divers are still searching the upturned hull of the Herald of Free Enterprise
for air pockets in which passengers may have survived. But hope is fading of
finding anyone alive.
Questions are already being asked about how the ferry tipped over so fast.

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The final death toll was 193. The disaster had unfolded in just 90 seconds, in
calm conditions and shallow water, only 100 yards (91 m) from the shore.
Vocabulary
to fade постепенно исчезать
II. Give your versions of the causes of the disaster relating to the ship design,
stability and safety measures.
III. Read the continuation of the text and make sure if your suppositions were
true.

Text 4 (B). It appears the water may have got in through


the bow doors
It appears the water may have got in through the bow doors.
The turnaround time for loading and unloading at Zeebrugge was longer
than at most other ports because there was only room for access to a single ramp
onto the car deck. Water had to be pumped into the ballast tanks to lower the level
of the ferry.
It appears the ferry then left port with her bow doors open and the extra
ballast still in her tanks. Water began flowing onto the car deck and the vessel
quickly became unstable.
A formal investigation blamed company management for failing to give clear
instructions about safety procedures.
It was not until the end of April 1987 that the ferry was refloated. The disaster
brought the highest death toll of any British vessel in peacetime since the sinking
of the luxury liner Titanic 75 years earlier.
***
New safety measures were finally brought into effect in 1999 following
a second ferry disaster. The Estonia sank in 1994 with the loss of 850 lives.
Passenger details now have to be recorded before a ship sails so the harbour
authorities know who is on board.
Cameras have also been fitted to the front of ships so the crew can see from
the bridge whether or not the doors have been closed before sailing.

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Vocabulary
turnaround оборот (судна) с учетом времени на погрузку и
выгрузку
ramp аппарель
death toll потери; жертвы
IV. After reading the texts and exchanging the information about the
accident, describe the disaster according to the plan of your own using the
facts from the texts. Express your opinion about the measures taken to
improve safety.

Text 5. A contemporary disaster – The Estonia

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to bear (bore) to carry
prior to before
to purchase to buy
bang bump, thump
to pour into to flood
to heel over to list
contemporary present-day

During the 14 years it sailed the seas, the Swedish car-ferry Estonia bore
four different names, was owned by even more different shipping companies, and

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150

suffered numerous mishaps prior to the disaster on September 28, 1994 that
claimed 852 lives.
Launched in 1980 as the Finnish ship Viking Sally, the vessel grounded at
Turku in 1982, was nearly run ashore because of propeller damage at the island
of Yxla in Stockholm archipelago in 1983, went on the rocks at Hjulgrund in
1984, suffered propeller damage in 1985, and collided with a fishing boat in fog
near Mariehamn in 1989.
Under new owners, the ship was named the Silja Star in 1990, then was
renamed Wasa King, operating under the Wasa Line, the following year.
She became the Estonia in 1992, after being purchased by the Estonian
Shipping Company of Stockholm. The ship was still operating under that flag
when it capsized and sank in the Baltic Sea, taking 852 souls to the bottom with
it. Only 137 people were rescued.
The Estonia was sailing from the Estonian capital of Tallinn with
989 people onboard, bound for Stockholm the following day.
There was a severe storm that day out of the southwest, and the ship was
taking waves measuring from six to eight meters as it made its way into the raging
seas.
Shortly before midnight, loud noises from the bow door to the car deck were
reported to the bridge. A seaman was sent to the deck to investigate, but he
reported nothing out of the ordinary.
About 12:10 a.m., two loud bangs were heard and the ship soon began taking
on a list. Water was found pouring into the car deck. The ship sent
a distress call which was picked up by nearby vessels and the Turku sea rescue
center. After that, the Estonia went silent. The ship heeled over and sank so
quickly that many passengers were trapped aboard ship. Those that escaped didn't
have time to get dressed. Because of the storm and the severe list, the crew was
unable to launch lifeboats and many people failed to find life jackets, or get them
properly on before they were thrown into the water.
Because of the storm, few assisting ships successfully took people aboard
from the violent seas. Most of the people saved were picked up by helicopters
from the Turku rescue center and flown directly to nearby hospitals for treatment
of hyperthermia.

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The sinking of the Estonia thus became one of the worst contemporary ship
disasters on record.
Vocabulary
to claim уносить жизни (о стихийном бедствии, аварии)
II. Answer the questions to the text.
1. What is peculiar in the life history of the Estonia?
2. What factors contributed to the disaster?
3. Can you make out any violations of safety procedures which resulted in such
a high death toll?
III. Speak about the accident according to the plan of your own.

Text 6. Scientists unveil cause of Estonia ferry disaster

I. Read the text.


Make sure you understand the words below:
to unveil to uncover
to simulate to imitate
roughly about
findings data
outcome result
January 12, 2008

Scientists in Hamburg recently simulated the sinking of the Estonia, the 1994
Baltic Sea ferry disaster that killed 852 people. They discovered that the vessel
was travelling much too fast in stormy seas and that the crew's attempts to save
the ship by turning it actually caused it to capsize.
The research team's findings suggest that speed, wave conditions and
a turning maneuver sealed the fate1 of the Estonia.
On the night of the disaster the ship's Estonian crew had pushed the ferry at
full speed through four-meter (13-foot) waves to make up for2 delays. The

1
решили судьбу
2
компенсировать

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resulting stress caused the bow visor to break off from the hull, and the vehicle
ramp, which formed a second barrier against the waves, to open. The vehicle deck,
normally about three meters (10 feet) above the water line, was suddenly flooded
with water.
The Estonia's last course shows that it turned to portside. The ferry also
slowed down within a few minutes, from 14 knots at the time the visor broke to 9
knots. The turn to portside was an attempt to use wind and wave action to stabilize
the ship, a maneuver that makes sense1 from a seaman's point of view.
But the maneuver did not save the ship as expected. The computer simulation
reveals why physics prevailed over the crew's efforts, finally leading to such a
shocking outcome.
When the Estonia turned to portside, the centrifugal force produced by the
ship's curving motion pushed the water in the opposite direction. As a result, the
ship's list, instead of being reduced by the emergency maneuver, was in fact
increased by the force that now pushed all the seawater on the deck against the
right side of the vessel.
At this point water rushed into the passenger deck below the vehicle deck.
According to the simulation, the Estonia was listing at 50 degrees at 1:20 a.m. and
tilted onto its side at 1:32 a.m. Meanwhile, the sea was already tearing new holes
into the hull.
The simulation also helped the researchers understand why only 137 people
survived the disaster.
If the standards of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) had been
observed on the night that shocked Europe, most of the Estonia's passengers and
crew members would still be alive. According to the IMO's evacuation standards
for the construction of passenger ships, hallways, doors and stairways should be
designed so that, in an emergency, all passengers and crew members can reach
the open decks from the ship's interior and escape in lifeboats and rafts.
In the case of the Estonia, the roughly 40 minutes between the breaking of
the bow visor and the capsizing of the ship should have been enough time to
enable everyone on board to escape from the ship. But the reality belies the IMO

1
имеет смысл

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153

standard. Only 250 to 300 passengers and crew members managed to escape from
the ferry.
According to the researchers, the data they obtained diverged substantially
from the IMO standards. The calculations show that when a ship lists, its
evacuation routes become almost impassable. In the simulation, only 278 of the
989 people on board the ship managed to reach the open decks. The ferry became
a grave for the rest.
Vocabulary
to unveil раскрывать; разоблачать (тайну, планы и т. п.)
bow visor носовой козырек
centrifugal центробежный
hallway проход
stairway лестница
interior внутренняя часть
to belie противоречить
grave могила
II. What is the simulation method used for? Give examples of its application.
III. What causes of the accident were discovered? Speak about each of them.

Text 7. Egyptian ferry sinks in Red Sea

I. Skim the text and express your opinion of the causes of the accident.
3 February, 2006

A ferry carrying about 1,400 people, most of them Egyptians, has sunk in the
Red Sea. Fourteen bodies and about 100 survivors have so far been pulled from
the water.
The al-Salam Boccaccio'98 went down about 80 km (50 miles) off the
Egyptian coast during an overnight journey from Duba in Saudi Arabia to Safaga.
Rescue boats and helicopters are searching the area, but are being hampered by
poor weather.
The cause of the sinking is not known, but there were high winds when it left
Duba.

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154

The ship was carrying 1,310 passengers and 96 Egyptian crew. Most of the
passengers were Egyptians working in Saudi Arabia, but some were said to be
pilgrims returning from Mecca.
The head of administration at al-Salam Maritime Transport said he was not
aware of any SOS from the crew.
The 35-year-old ship had been due to arrive at Safaga at about 0300 local
time (0100 GMT).
Four Egyptian frigates were looking for survivors. Britain has sent the
warship HMS Bulwark to help and it will arrive in a day-and-a-half.
The rescue operation started just after midnight, within an hour or an hour-
and-a-half of the ship going missing.
The general manager of the Saudi branch of maritime insurance company
Lloyds said the ship had met all safety requirements. "The vessel was well
equipped with all lifeboats and all her certificates were valid". He ruled out the
possibility of a collision with another ship, saying the other vessel would have
reported the incident.
There was a possibility one or more of the vehicles the ship was transporting
could have moved, particularly in bad weather.
II. Vocabulary Practice
1. Find the words from the text which mean the following:
 a religious person who travels a long way to a holy place;
 to make it difficult for someone to do something;
 to decide that something is not possible or suitable;
 legally acceptable;
 the act, system, or business of providing financial protection for property,
life, health, etc., against specified contingencies.
2. Give synonyms or synonymous phrases which mean the following:
to go down; high winds; not aware of smth; due to arrive.

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Group Work

Two texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information.
Each student has to read one text. Exchange the information. Work in pairs.

Text 8. There are conflicting reports on whether the al-Salam


Boccaccio'98 met all regional safety requirements

There are conflicting reports on whether the al-Salam Boccaccio'98 met all
regional safety requirements. The speed at which the ship sank and the fact there
were not enough life rafts on board confirmed that there was a safety problem.
The 35-year-old ship, previously operated in Italy, was of a design that has
not been allowed to operate everywhere. Besides, the ship was modified in the
1980s, with two more passenger decks placed on the top of the vessel.
As a result, the ferry had an unusually high profile, sitting much taller in the
water than it was originally designed to do.
The ship was a "roll on-roll off" (ro-ro) ferry, on which vehicles drive on at
one end of the ferry, and then off at the other. Ships are equipped with large doors
close to the waterline at the front and rear of the vessel, which create
a risk of flooding if they are not properly sealed. Even if a small amount of water
enters through the doors, it starts slopping from side to side, making the ship rock.
As the water moves it gathers momentum, causing the rocking to become
more pronounced. The shifting water quickly makes the ship unstable and can
capsize it within a short space of time.
This phenomenon – known as the Free Surface Effect – played a key role in
the sinking of the Herald of Free Enterprise ferry off Zeebrugge in 1987, after it
set sail with its bow doors open.
After this, and the loss of the Estonia ferry in the Baltic Sea in 1994, the EU
reinforced its regulations on ro-ro ferries, but less stringent regulations continue
to apply in some other parts of the world.
Experts call on the government to stop certifying old ships. Buying older
vessels and then charging cheap prices allows ship owners turn a much quicker
profit than if they operated newer, more expensive vessels.
Vocabulary

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156

to slop плескаться (о воде)


to rock качать(ся)
momentum движущая сила
pronounced резко выраженный, отчетливый
stringent строгий, обязательный

Text 9. The sinking of a passenger ferry in the Red Sea Friday


is one of the deadliest maritime disasters in recent years

to push over to capsize


to flee to run away, to escape

The sinking of a passenger ferry in the Red Sea Friday with some 460
survivors – out of 1,400 passengers and crew members – is one of the deadliest
maritime disasters in recent years.
Initial reports indicate that soon after departing from Dubah, Saudi Arabia a
fire started in the 35-year-old vessel's parking bay. Assuring passengers that the
fire was under control, the crew decided to continue on the 120-mile journey to
the Red Sea port of Safaga, Egypt.
"We told the crew, 'Let's turn back, let's call for help', but they refused and
said everything was under control", said an Egyptian passenger who works in
Saudi Arabia.
The car deck flooded as crew members pumped water in to battle the fire.
An explosion was heard and within minutes the ship began to list, and high winds
reportedly helped push the ship over. The ship reportedly sank before most of the
life boats could be lowered or inflated.
Some survivors claimed the ship's captain and some crew members fled the
sinking ship in a lifeboat. The captain is still reported missing.
Analysts questioned whether the crew members on the al-Salam
Boccaccio'98 were properly trained. If so, they should have been able to put out
the fire, or at least to safely evacuate all the ship's passengers.
Vocabulary

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parking bay участок для парковки автомобилей


to inflate надувать, накачивать
After reading the texts and exchanging the information about causes of the
accident, do your best to describe the disaster using the facts from the three
texts.
Text 10. Divers to survey Channel wreck

Skim the text and express your opinion of the causes of the accident.

The 55,000-ton Tricolor – carrying nearly 3,000 luxury cars – capsized and
sank in the early hours of Saturday (Dec 14, 2002) after a collision with a cargo
freighter Kariba about 48 km east of Ramsgate, Kent.
No-one was injured. A salvage team is preparing to send divers down to the
sunken car carrier in the English Channel on Sunday.
A team had been at the scene of the wreck overnight but had been hampered
by bad weather conditions and a high tide.
None of the ship's estimated 2,000 tons of oil was leaking into the sea.
The method of removing the ship had still to be decided by the owners and
insurers. It could be refloated or lifted by floating cranes.

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The Norwegian-registered Tricolor had been travelling from Zeebrugge,


Belgium, to Southampton with its multi-million pound cargo of vehicles,
including BMWs, Volvos and Saabs, and 77 containers.
The 20,000-ton Bahamas-registered freighter Kariba was badly damaged in
the collision but limped back to port in Antwerp, Belgium.
The wreck must really go as soon as possible, because the Dover Straits is
one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world – and this is the actual crossroads
where ships come from and to the European ports.
The value of the cargo was put at £30m, though the cars would have fetched
double that at retail prices.
The estimated value of the Tricolor itself is about £25m.
The Tricolor was initially only partly submerged because of a low tide but
later disappeared from view.
An inquiry will be launched by the French authorities into the cause of the
accident.

Group Work
Two texts below are about the same accident but comprise different information.
Each student has to read one text. Exchange the information. Work in pairs.

Text 11(A). Raising the Tricolor


The giant vessel capsized on December 14, after being hit from behind by
another boat that was trying to overtake it.
Two days after the initial accident a freighter ploughed into the wreck, and
two weeks on from that (after several marker buoys and a radio beacon had been
positioned to warn shipping) a tanker carrying flammable paraffin managed to
wedge itself on top. To make matters worse, a salvage tug boat knocked out safety
valves on the Tricolor in bad weather in January, producing an oil slick
4 km long.
The wreck is effectively blocking the main route that ships from Belgium
take into the Channel – which has the busiest shipping lanes in the world.

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159

The wreck is some 200 m long and 30 m wide and is considered too badly
damaged to refloat. And it's heavy. Car carriers are not the very largest boats afloat
but they have little internal structure to stop water pouring in. Add the cargo of
cars – some 2,862 luxury BMWs, Volvos and Saabs sit rusting away inside – and
the weight of the beached Tricolor rises to an estimated
20,000 tonnes.
Vocabulary
to plough врезаться (во что-л.) с силой
to wedge втискиваться
safety valve предохранительный клапан
to rust away ржаветь

Text 11 (B). The wreck lay on its side in the English Channel
until August 2003
The wreck lay on its side in the English Channel until August 2003, when
the operation to cut it up was finally put into action – the method was to cut the
whole ship into pieces as if it were a huge cake. To achieve this, two large
platforms were placed either side of the wreck and a chain placed beneath the
wreck. This chain was then used as a saw, which cut the Tricolor up into
manageable chunks that could then be lifted away by means of a heavy lift crane.
A similar method was used to remove the nose of the sunken Russian submarine
Kursk before it was raised in October 2001. In that case, technical mishaps,
including a broken saw cable, hampered the project.
The team removed most of the oil from the Tricolor's tanks, though some
could still escape. A specially equipped boat was standing by to deal with any
spill.
The Tricolor has been removed from the seabed. Her propeller is placed in
front of the Smit office in Rotterdam-Waalhaven.
Vocabulary
saw пила
manageable зд. удобный (для работы)

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160

chunk глыба, огромный кусок


After reading the texts and exchanging the information about the causes of
the accident, do your best to describe the disaster using the facts from the
three texts.

UNIT 2. MAIB Accident Reports

The Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) examines and


investigates all types of marine accidents to or on board UK ships worldwide, and
other ships in UK territorial waters. The objective of MAIB accident
investigations is to determine the circumstances and causes of the accident with
a view1 to preserve life and avoid accidents in the future. They analyse the
relevant issues and make recommendations aimed at preventing similar accidents
in the future. The lessons learnt can be found in a variety of MAIB publications:
Safety Bulletins, Safety Digests, Safety Studies and others.
The Safety Digest draws the attention of the marine community to some of
the lessons arising from investigations into recent accidents and incidents. The
purpose of the Safety Digest is to prevent similar accidents happening again.
Below you can find an example of a typical description of the accident
(narrative) and the lessons drawn from it.

Text 1. Seaman lost while waiting for pilot

Safety Digest 01/00


Case 6
I. Read the narrative.
Narrative
In the early hours of a November morning, the fully laden 42,259 gt
Panamanian registered container vessel Ambassador Bridge was inbound to the

1
с целью

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161

English Channel, and had closed the south Devon coast to embark a pilot off
Brixham.
In preparing to embark the pilot at the port side pilot station situated some
4 m above the waterline, a seaman was detailed off1 to rig the pilot ladder and
stand by to receive him. He made a radio check with the bridge when he arrived,
but when the bridge tried to contact him again as the pilot boat approached, there
was no reply. An officer was sent down to investigate.
The chief officer found the pilot door wide open, the ladder unrigged, water
sloshing around the station deck, but no sign of the seaman detailed off to prepare
the ladder for embarkation. The body of a man, later identified as the deceased2
seaman, was recovered from the sea some four hours later. He was not wearing a
lifejacket.
II. Discussion
1. Have you ever taken part in embarkation of the pilot? Do you consider the
operation dangerous?
2. What violations of safety procedures can you observe in this narrative?
3. What lessons can be drawn from this accident?
Now read the conclusions made by the MAIB.
The Lessons
1. Rigging a pilot ladder is a potentially dangerous operation. It can occur in
any conditions; in the dark, with the ship rolling, and will at some stage involve
opening a side door, or a bulwark opening. Unless the height of the embarkation
station above the waterline puts it well clear of the effects of the sea, water can be
shipped.
2. Anyone being sent down to rig a ladder or hoist, should be briefed3 by
those on watch about the expected conditions.
3. Because of the risks involved rigging a pilot ladder in circumstances such
as this, more than one person should be assigned to the task. One should be an
experienced seaman, probably an officer.

1
был направлен
2
dead
3
инструктировать

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162

4. Anybody working in the vicinity of an open door or rail should wear


a lifejacket.

Text 2. Look out or lose out

Safety Digest 01/08


Case 17
I. Read the narrative.
Narrative
On a dark winter's evening, with good visibility and calm seas, two vessels
underway off the south coast of England were in collision, even though each had
seen the other 30 minutes earlier. As a result of the accident, the fishermen lost
over 2 weeks' income at a time when the catches had been excellent.
The two vessels involved were a small commercial vessel and a fishing
vessel. The commercial vessel observed the fishing vessel on its starboard bow,
and was thus the give way vessel. However, after only a cursory1 glance the
assumption was made that the fishing vessel would in fact pass clear to starboard.
The vessel was equipped with a combined track plotter/radar set and
a young, inexperienced deckhand had just taken the wheel and was steering by
reference to the track plotter. Thus, the radar was not in use and no distance off
the fishing vessel was obtained. The skipper initially remained in the vicinity of
the wheelhouse to supervise the deckhand. However, assuming everything to be
in order he then decided to go below to make a drink. Due to the layout of the
wheelhouse, the skipper was unable to see out of the forward windows once he
had left the wheel position, and he therefore had not rechecked the position of the
fishing vessel before going below.
While the skipper was below, the deckhand saw the fishing vessel coming
very close on the starboard side, and he called out for assistance. The skipper
returned to the wheelhouse, but only had time to stop the engines before
a collision occurred.

1
беглый

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163

On the fishing vessel, during the time leading up to the collision, the crew of
three were preparing to haul the trawl; everyone was on deck for this task. The
vessel's floodlights were all switched on. At the start of the operation the skipper,
who was on the foredeck, glanced around and saw the navigation lights of the
other vessel. He assumed, incorrectly, that this was another fishing vessel
returning to its home port, and he did not look for the vessel again. During
recovery and stowage of the trawl net the fishing vessel maintained a relatively
steady course and speed which meant that they were on a collision course. With
the net safely stowed, the skipper returned to the wheelhouse and increased to full
speed on the engine. Unfortunately, he did this without looking out, and thus
failed to see the other vessel very close on the port bow.
The collision occurred within a minute of the skipper returning to the
wheelhouse. As a result of the collision, the fishing boat suffered extensive
damage to its bow area and the repairs took more than 2 weeks; this represented
a significant loss of income for the skipper and crew at a time when the catches
had been particularly good. The commercial vessel was also damaged by the
collision, and was off charter for a day.
II. Discussion
1. Analyze the situation on the merchant ship. Find false steps taken by the
skipper. What wrong did the deckhand do?
2. Now describe the wrong actions taken by the skipper of the fishing ship.
3. Make conclusions and draw the lessons from this narrative.
Turn to page … for lessons made by MAIB.

Text 3. Fishing vessel grounds after skipper falls asleep

I. Read the narrative.


Safety Digest 01/00
Case 20
Narrative
After 4½ days of none too successful fishing around wrecks, a steel-hulled
15 m gill netter was returning to harbour ahead of schedule. The sea was calm

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164

with a slight swell, and visibility was poor due to mist. The vessel was steaming
at reduced speed with the skipper alone on watch.
About 3 miles from the harbour entrance, the skipper sat down and promptly
fell asleep. The next thing he remembered was being woken when his vessel ran
aground. By the time he realised what had happened, the rest of the crew had
arrived in the wheelhouse. The engine was reversed and she came free of the
ground. The crew meanwhile had donned lifejackets and were preparing the
liferaft. Two went forward and found that the fish hold was flooding. Pumping
had little effect, and the skipper decided to make for shallower water so that he
could beach his vessel before she foundered. An RNLI lifeboat transferred salvage
pumps to her, and these successfully contained the flooding sufficiently for her to
make harbour. Since the accident, the skipper has fitted
a new autopilot with a watch alarm. It sounds both in the wheelhouse and in the
cabin. He has also equipped the vessel with two more salvage pumps, and has
taken on additional crew to reduce workloads and increase rest periods.
II. Discussion
Study the situation on board and find the main cause of the accident. Draw some
lessons from it.
Turn to page … for lessons made by MAIB.

Supplementary Reading
Text 1. One of the versions of the causes of the accident

On the very first days after the collision the tragedy gave rise to numerous
rumors. One interesting version suggests that the tragedy occurred for some
electromagnetic reasons. During the last days of August 1986 (August 27 –
September 1) the solar data provided by the Crimean observatory turned out to be
unusually high.
Many Novorossiysk citizens say that they saw the unnaturally red sky in the
evening of August 31. The supporters of the electromagnetic version state that too
high data could be accounted for by some electromagnetic impact exerted upon
communication facilities of the vessels in order to cause strong interference on

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165

the screens of their radars. This idea is supported by the statement of Captain
Tkachenko who said there was some third vessel in the area of the wreckage which
was registered by the devices on board the Pyotr Vasev bulk carrier.
Until the very collision, Captain Tkachenko stayed almost always near the
automated course plotter. Even though Tkachenko's assistant who watched
Admiral Nakhimov warned that it was necessary to reduce speed to let the motor
ship pass, the captain still didn't reduce the speed or change the course; the man
was concentrated on the screen of the automated system. The device showed that
there were two miles between the vessels and the bearing angle was increasing.
Accordingly, the position of the unknown vessel created an illusion that the
situation was absolutely safe. As it turned out later, the bearing angle checked
from board of the Admiral Nakhimov motor ship at the same very period disagreed
with the showing registered by the bulk carrier. So, it proves there was some third
vessel which position misled Captain Tkachenko.
However, it is not quite clear whether the third vessel actually existed, or she
was a ghost vessel or this third vessel was created on the screen of the onboard
system.

Text 2. The Estonia disaster killed 852 people

New evidence has been put forward suggesting that the Estonia ferry, which
sank in 1994, was damaged by an explosion.
More than 850 people died when the ferry went down in the Baltic Sea.
A representative of survivors and victims' families, who are pressing for
a criminal investigation into the sinking of the ferry, said three separate sets of
tests had been carried out on metal fragments recovered from the wreck by divers.
He said that distortion in the metal showed there had been an explosion.
The campaigners are not saying the explosion caused the sinking, but have
sent their evidence to police in Sweden.
An official report in 1997 made no mention of an explosion. It said the ship's
bow door, which had been missing a bolt, had been torn off in heavy seas.
Lennart Berglund, chairman of a victims' families' association, said that an
explosion could have occurred before or after the sinking.

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166

"To us, it's now clear without a doubt that this hole has been caused by
a detonation. There is no other possibility", he said.
Seismological data from the University of Helsinki seemed to have ruled out
the possibility that an explosion could have caused the accident.
Records kept by the station, which can detect blasts caused by as little as 800
grams (two pounds) of explosives, showed no evidence of an explosion in the
Baltic Sea on the day of the accident.
The three laboratory reports which reportedly show evidence of an explosion
have been submitted to the Swedish authorities.
The Estonia was sailing from Tallinn in Estonia to Stockholm in Sweden in
September 1994 when waves ripped off its bow door and water poured into the
vehicle deck.
The ship capsized and sank off the Finnish coast, trapping most passengers
inside. Only 137 people survived the disaster, while 94 who managed to leave the
vessel died in freezing water.

Text 3. 154 rescued on sinking ship


Saturday, November 24, 2007

A Canadian cruise ship struck submerged ice off Antarctica and began
sinking on Friday, but all 154 people on board, including Americans and Britons,
took to lifeboats and were plucked to safety by another cruise liner.
The ship finally slipped beneath the waves Friday evening, about 20 hours
after the predawn1 accident near Antarctica's South Shetland Islands.
Injuries reported among the crew and passengers were minor cases of
hypothermia, none serious, although they endured subfreezing temperatures for
several hours in bobbing lifeboats before being picked up by a Norwegian vessel.
The Norwegian cruise ship MS Nord Norge took the stranded passengers and
crew on board, said a spokesman for Gap Adventures, based in Toronto, Canada,
which owns the sinking vessel.

1
предрассветный

166
167

Wearing bright orange suits to protect against the bitter temperatures and
a blustery storm, those rescued disembarked on King George Island in Antarctica
and were housed at Chilean and Uruguayan military bases.
The Explorer struck submerged ice and began taking on water through its
cracked hull early on Friday. Photos released by the Chilean navy showed the ship
later lying nearly on its side, surrounded by floating blocks of ice.
Andrea Salas, an Argentine aboard the Explorer, said passengers felt an
initial bump that seemed minor.
"Then we heard the captain announcing that there was another iceberg
approaching us and that he was waiting ... for it to pass by. But that didn't happen",
and there was a second, larger collision.
"They started pumping water out to keep the ship afloat", said Salas.
Initial reports suggested only a small hole was punched into the hull, but the
Argentine navy later said in a statement it observed "significant" damage.
The ship's entire crew, and 91 passengers from more than a dozen nations –
including 24 Britons, 17 Dutch, 14 Americans, 12 Canadians and 10 Australians
– calmly abandoned ship when the captain's order came and the pumps helped
keep it stable for an orderly evacuation. The ship also carried nine expedition staff
members and a crew of 54.

Text 4. Submarines are a hidden threat to smaller craft


Collisions between submarines and surface vessels are an unfortunate
inevitability given to the world's increasingly crowded oceans.
Submarines operate in many busy shipping lanes, and with their immensely
strong hulls – built to withstand huge underwater pressure – will always come off
the better in the event of a collision.
About 25% of all recorded collisions involving British and American
submarines took place in coastal waters, either when a submarine was berthing or
in the mouth of a harbour.
Even huge supertankers are not safe from the hidden threat.
In 1993, the French submarine Rubin collided with a supertanker in the
Mediterranean. The ship was damaged and oil leaked into the sea.

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168

But incidents involving smaller vessels – often fishing boats – are more
common and far more likely to involve loss of life.
In 1989, the USS Houston snagged a towing cable and sank the commercial
tugboat Barcona, 10 miles off Long Beach, California. One crewman drowned
and two more were rescued.
By the nature of their work, fishing boats run the risk of making a far deadlier
catch.
Every year, several instances are recorded of boats being dragged along the
surface for miles after ensnaring submarines in their nets.
The results are sometimes fatal – in the Irish Sea from 1980 to 1989, at least
17 trawlers from various countries disappeared without trace claiming
37 lives, often in calm waters.
The levels of secrecy submarines operate under, and the fact that they spend
90% of their time under water, means that many accidents are never properly
investigated.
But the US Navy alone receives claims for thousands of dollars of
compensation from trawlermen who have had to cut their nets to escape being
dragged under.
These accidents occur as the result of the way in which submarines operate.
By using active sonar, they are able to accurately identify other vessels around
them. However, active sonar gives away the submarine's position – so they often
rely on passive sonar. This device provides information which is difficult to
interpret, especially if the vessel is carrying out a series of manoeuvres.
The use of passive sonar at shallow depths can mean that submariners are as
blind to the threat of collision as those on the surface.

Text 5. Fire aboard Russian submarine kills two


September 7, 2006

A fire on board a Russian nuclear submarine in the Barents Sea killed two
crew members but there was no threat of a radiation leak, the Defence Ministry
said.

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169

The fire in an electrical equipment room late on Wednesday was away from
the submarine's reactor and was put out by the crew, officials said. The vessel, the
St Daniil Moskovsky, is being towed back to port.
The Russian navy's safety record has been under scrutiny since the Kursk
atomic submarine sank in the Barents Sea six years ago, killing all 118 crew
members.
"Our initial information is that the fire broke out in a power distribution panel
in compartment No. 6", said a spokesman for Russia's Northern Fleet. "The crew
did everything within their power to put out the fire. Two people suffered smoke
inhalation from the thick smoke. They were evacuated from the submarine but it
was not possible to save their lives".
The vessel is a Viktor class attack submarine which would likely have been
carrying torpedoes but not nuclear weapons, said defence experts.
It entered service in 1990, making it one of the fleet's more modern
submarines.
The vessel was north of the Rybachiy peninsula near Russia's border with
Finland when it caught fire, Interfax news agency quoted navy sources as saying.
It was being taken to Vidyayevo, a Russian submarine base in the Barents
Sea. Vidyayevo is about 50 km north of the Russian city of Murmansk, where just
under one million people live.
Interfax quoted a navy source as saying: "The device protecting the nuclear
reactor was activated. There is no radioactive contamination threat whatsoever".
Russia has the second largest submarine fleet in the world after the United
States. Many of its atomic submarines date to the Soviet Union.
Environmental campaigners – and governments in some neighbouring states
– worry about the condition of some of the vessels, especially decommissioned
atomic submarines that are rusting in docks as they wait to be dismantled.
The same submarine had a fire in its torpedo compartment in 1994, said Nils
Bohmer with the Norwegian environmental group Bellona, which tracks Russia's
submarine fleet.
"It wouldn't surprise me if the reason for this fire is faulty equipment. The
maintenance of the Northern Fleet is slightly neglected because of economic
problems", said Bohmer.

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170

Russia's navy has been dogged by accidents, of which the Kursk sinking was
the worst in recent years.
Last year, the British navy helped rescue the crew of a Russian navy mini-
submarine that was stranded 600 feet down in the Pacific with dwindling air
supplies.
In July, the navy reported a spill of radioactive water on one of its submarines
during repairs at Vidyayevo.
"This incident shows once again that we are faced with a very serious
question: should we have these reactors at sea at all?" said Vladimir Tchouprov,
head of the energy unit at Greenpeace Russia.
Bellona said its records showed the St Daniil Moskovsky had a crew of
between 85 and 100 men.

Text 6. Soldiers and emergency workers are battling to clean


up an oil spill that has reportedly killed some 30,000 birds
in the Kerch Strait, by the Black Sea
13 November, 2007

Alexander Tkachev, governor of Russia's Krasnodar region, said the incident


was an "ecological catastrophe".
Some 2,000 tons of fuel oil leaked into the straits between the Black Sea and
the Azov Sea after a fierce storm broke a tanker apart on Sunday.
About 10 ships sank or ran aground in the region and 20 sailors are missing.
So far, 35 crew members from the stricken vessels have been plucked to
safety by rescue teams. The bodies of three sailors were found on Monday
morning.
At least two other ships were carrying potentially hazardous cargo when they
sank, including nearly 6,000 tons of sulphur.
The Russian tanker Volganeft-139, with more than 4,000 tons of fuel aboard,
came apart after it was smashed by 108 km/h (67 mph) winds and 5 m (16 ft)
waves in the narrow Kerch Strait between Russia and Ukraine.
Officials estimate that nearly half the tanker load has already leaked out in
the water.

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171

"The damage is so great that it's hard to assess. It can be equated with an
ecological catastrophe", the governor said.
Oil-soaked birds have been seen struggling in the polluted water, and
a number of them have been found dead on the sandy shores. Others have been
seen hopping weakly along the beaches, weighed down by a thick coating of fuel
oil.
Hundreds of Russian soldiers have deployed to clean up the spill, but the
operation is being hampered by stormy weather. Soil-excavating vehicles have
been sent to clear affected beaches around the Russian port of Kavkaz.
Helicopter and ships equipped with tackling the oil spill at sea have been
hampered by more stormy weather.
The heavy oil was sinking to the seabed and could take years to clean up.
Russian prosecutors say they are investigating whether the ships' captains
ignored warnings of the approaching storm.

Text 7. Russian frigate begins anti-piracy patrols off Somalia


coast
October 28, 2008

A missile frigate from Russia's Baltic Fleet has started patrolling waters in
the Gulf of Aden to protect Russian ships and crews from pirate attacks.
The Neustrashimy (Fearless) frigate arrived at the port of Aden on Sunday
to replenish food and water supplies after a trip from the Mediterranean. On
Monday it entered waters off the Somali coast where local pirates have sharply
increased hijackings of ships for ransom.
Somali pirates have seized around 60 ships so far this year off the coast of
the east African nation, which has no effective government and no navy to police
its coastline.
At the beginning of June, the UN Security Council passed a resolution
permitting countries to enter Somalia's territorial waters to combat "acts of piracy
and armed robbery at sea".
In order to ensure safety of Russian ships the Neustrashimy will use all
means and measures sanctioned by the UN Security Council.

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172

The Russian warship may join, if necessary, an international naval group


fighting piracy in the region.
U.S. warships from the 5th Fleet are currently surrounding a Ukrainian ship,
the MV Faina that was seized by Somali pirates on September 25. The Faina,
which was carrying 33 T-72 tanks and other heavy weaponry, has a crew of 17
Ukrainian nationals, two Russians, and one Lithuanian on board.
The Faina's Russian captain died of a heart attack after the vessel was seized.
The pirates holding the ship have demanded an $8 million ransom, and have
threatened to kill the hostages if a military operation is launched against them.
NATO and the EU have announced plans to increase by the end of the year
their naval presence in the Gulf of Aden, which is one of the world's busiest and
most dangerous shipping lanes with about 20,000 ships passing through the area
annually.

The lessons to Case 17

Safety Digest 01/08


Look Out or Lose Out

1. Both vessels failed to keep a proper lookout. On the commercial vessel


the one person who could have seen the approaching vessel was inexperienced
and was unable to appreciate the developing situation.
2. Both vessels saw each other at a sufficiently early stage to have taken
appropriate action in ample time to avoid a collision. However, both had assumed,
at a glance, that no risk of collision existed, and neither vessel then continued to
monitor the situation.
3. Neither vessel made use of all the means available to them to determine if
a risk of collision existed; both made assumptions based on scanty information.
4. When training new recruits, ensure that they are never left unsupervised.

The lessons to Case 20

Safety Digest 01/00


Fishing Vessel Grounds after Skipper Falls Asleep

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173

1. There can be few skippers who do not relate to at least part of this
narrative. During the two days before the accident, the skipper had slept for no
more than a total of 5 hours. Some people think they can manage on this and still
remain alert. But you can't. Your senses are dulled, rational thought becomes
elusive, and you make mistakes. To deprive yourself of so much sleep invites
trouble. It might only take seconds to fall asleep, and in so doing you betray the
trust of those others onboard who look to having an alert watchkeeper to ensure a
safe passage home. Fatigue is one of the greatest enemies of safe fishing.
2. This skipper has learned from his experience. He has recognised the need
for adequate rest periods, and has fitted a watch alarm, which sounds not only in
the wheelhouse, but also just as importantly, in the cabin. Other skippers should
heed the lessons, and take appropriate action before they too take the ground or,
worse still hit another vessel.
3. There is however a cautionary note to sound. Fitting watch alarms only
goes part way to solving a problem. It does nothing to relieve fatigue. The MAIB
has several instances on record where very tired fishermen have slept through
even the loudest and most ear-piercing alarms. Fatigue can kill. Make sure the
operating cycle allows time for adequate rest.

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174

Vocabulary
Aa
abandon [əbændən] гл. покидать, оставлять
able [eıbl] прил. способный
abnormally [æbno:m(ə)lı] нареч. аномально, необычно
aboard [əbo:d] нареч. на борт
about [əbaut] нареч. приблизительно, около
above [əbΛv] предл. над
absent [æbs(ə)nt] прил. отсутствующий
accept [əksept] гл. принимать
access [æksəs] сущ. проход
accident [æksıd(ə)nt] сущ. несчастный случай,
авария
accommodation [əkomədeı∫(ə)n] сущ. помещение; жильё
accompany [əkΛmpənı] гл. сопровождать
according to [əko:dıŋ] предл. в соответствии с,
согласно, по
account [əkaunt] сущ. основание, причина
on ~ of из-за, вследствие, на
основании
гл. (for) объяснять; составлять
(определённую) часть от
общего количества
accountable [əkauntəbl] прил. ответственный
accuracy [ækjərəsı] сущ. точность
accuse [əkju:z] гл. обвинять
achieve [ət∫i:v] гл. добиваться, достигать
acoustic [əku:stık] прил. акустический, звуковой
acquire [əkwaıə] гл. приобретать, покупать;
получать

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175

across [əkros] предл. через


act [ækt] сущ. действие;
гл. действовать, поступать;
вести себя
action [æk∫(ə)n] сущ. действие, поступок;
воздействие; работа
put into ~ приводить в действие
activate [æktıveıt] гл. приводить в действие,
включать
active [æktıv] прил. активный
activist [æktıvıst] сущ. активист
activity [əktıvətı] сущ. деятельность
actual [æktjuəl] прил. фактический;
действующий сейчас
actually [æktjuəlı] нареч. фактически, на самом
деле
add [æd] гл. прибавлять (к сказанному);
добавлять
addition [ədı∫(ə)n] сущ. дополнение
additional [ədı∫(ə)n(ə)l] прил. дополнительный
address [ədres] гл. принимать меры
(по поводу, в ответ на);
направлять усилия на
adequate [ædıkwıt] прил. достаточный
adrift [ədrıft] прил. дрейфующий
advice [ədvaıs] сущ. совет, рекомендация
aerial [εərıəl] прил. воздушный;
авиационный
aerosol [εərəsol] сущ. аэрозоль
affect [əfekt] гл. приносить вред; наносить
ущерб; оказывать влияние
afloat [əfləut] нареч. на плаву

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176

after [a:ftə] предл. после


afterwards [a:ftəwə:dz] нареч. впоследствии, позднее,
после, потом
against [əgenst] предл. против
age [eıdз] сущ. возраст
aged [eıdзd] прил. достигший такого-то
возраста, в таком-то
возрасте
agency [eıdз(ə)nsı] сущ. агентство; организация
news ~ [nju:z] информационное агентство
the Maritime and [mærıtaım] [kəustga:d] Управление мореплавания и
Coastguard ~ (MCA) береговой охраны
Великобритании
agree [əgri:] гл. соглашаться
agreement [əgri:mənt] сущ. договор, соглашение
aground [əgraund] нареч. на мели
run ~ [rΛn] садиться на мель
aid [eıd] сущ. помощь
aim [eım] гл. направлять, нацеливать
air [εə] сущ. воздух
aircraft [εəkra:ft] сущ. самолет
airlift [εəlıft] гл. перевозить по воздуху,
транспортировать самолётом
alarm [əla:m] сущ. тревога, сигнал тревоги
alert [ələ:t] сущ. состояние боевой
готовности
be on ~ быть в состоянии готовности
гл. предупреждать; поднимать
по тревоге;
прил. бдительный,
внимательный
alive [əlaıv] прил. живой, в живых

176
177

allegation [ֽælıgeı∫ən] сущ. голословное


утверждение; заявление
allege [əledз] гл. утверждать
безосновательно,
бездоказательно
allow [əlau] гл. позволять, разрешать;
предоставлять; давать
almost [o:lməust] нареч. почти; едва не
alone [ələun] прил. единственный, один;
нареч. исключительно,
единственно, только
alongside [əֽloŋsaıd] предл. около, рядом, у
already [o:lredı] нареч. уже
also [o:lsəu] нареч. тоже, также, к тому же
although [o:lðəu] союз несмотря на то, что
always [o:lweız] нареч. всегда, неизменно
amid [əmıd] предл. посреди, среди
among [əmΛŋ] предл. среди
amount [əmaunt] сущ. количество
ample [æmpl] прил. достаточный
analyst [æn(ə)lıst] сущ. аналитик; комментатор,
обозреватель
analyze [æn(ə)laız] гл. анализировать
anchor [æŋkə] сущ. якорь;
гл. ставить на якорь; бросить
якорь, стать на якорь
anchorage [æŋk(ə)rıdз] сущ. якорная стоянка
ancient [eın∫(ə)nt] прил. древний; старый
angle [æŋgl] сущ. угол
bearing ~ [bεərıŋ] пеленг
animal [ænım(ə)l] сущ. животное
announce [ənauns] гл. объявлять, оглашать

177
178

annually [ænjuəlı] нареч. ежегодно


another [ənΛðə] прил. ещё один
answer [a:nsə] гл. отвечать
anthrax [ænθræks] сущ. сибирская язва
antibiotic [ֽæntıbaıotık] сущ. антибиотик
apparatus [ֽæp(ə)reıtəs] сущ. прибор; аппарат
breathing ~ [bri:ðıŋ] дыхательный аппарат
apparently [əpær(ə)ntlı] нареч. очевидно, вероятно,
предположительно
appeal [əpi:l] гл. обращаться, взывать
(к кому-л.)
appear [əpıə] гл. производить впечатление;
казаться
apply [əplaı] гл. применяться
appreciate [əpri:∫ıeıt] гл. оценивать; разбираться
(в чём-л.)
approach [əprəut∫] гл. подходить, приближаться
appropriate [əprəuprıət] прил. соответствующий;
должный
approve [əpru:v] гл. одобрять; утверждать
approximately [əproksımətlı] нареч. приблизительно, около,
почти
archipelago [ֽa:kəpeləgəu] сущ. архипелаг; группа
островов
area [εərıə] сущ. район; область
argue [a:gju:] гл. обсуждать (в полемике)
arise [əraız] гл. (arose, arisen) возникать,
появляться
armed [a:md] прил. вооружённый
around [əraund] предл. вокруг, около;
приблизительно
arrange [əreındз] гл. устраивать, организовывать

178
179

arrangements [əreındзmənts] сущ. меры, мероприятия


arrest [ərest] сущ. остановка;
приостановление
cardiac ~ [ka:dıæk] остановка сердца
гл. арестовывать, задерживать
arrival [əraıv(ə)l] сущ. прибытие
on ~ по прибытии
arrive [əraıv] гл. прибывать, приезжать
ask [a:sk] гл. (по)просить
asleep [əsli:p] прил. спящий
fall ~ [fo:l] заснуть
aspect [æspəkt] сущ. аспект
asphyxiate [æsfıkseıt] гл. задыхаться
assess [əses] гл. оценивать, давать оценку
assign [əsaın] гл. назначать; давать, поручать
assist [əsıst] гл. помогать, содействовать
assistance [əsıst(ə)ns] сущ. помощь
render ~ [rendə] оказывать помощь
assistant [əsıst(ə)nt] сущ. помощник
associated [əsəu∫ıeıtıd] прил. объединённый
association [əֽsəusıeı∫ən] сущ. ассоциация, общество
assume [əsju:m] гл. допускать, предполагать
assumption [əsΛmp∫(ə)n] сущ. предположение
assure [ə∫uə] гл. уверять; заверять (кого-л.)
attack [ətæk] сущ. нападение; приступ
болезни
heart ~ [ha:t] сердечный приступ
гл. критиковать, нападать
attacker [ətækə] сущ. атакующий, взломщик
attempt [ətempt] сущ. попытка;
гл. пытаться, стараться

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180

attend [ətend] гл. (to) уделять внимание


(чему-л.); следить (за чем-л.)
attention [əten∫(ə)n] сущ. внимание
pay ~ [peı] обращать внимание
authorities [o:θorıtız] сущ. власти, администрация,
полномочный орган
health ~ [helθ] органы здравоохранения
automated [ֽo:təmeıtıd] прил. автоматический
autopilot [o:təuֽpaıl(ə)t] сущ. авторулевой
autopsy [o:təpsı] сущ. аутопсия
(патологоанатомическое
вскрытие трупа)
available [əveıləbl] прил. имеющийся в
распоряжении
avoid [əvoıd] гл. избегать, остерегаться
avoidable [əvoıdəbl] прил. тот, которого можно
избежать
aware [əwεə] прил. знающий,
осведомлённый
be ~ of знать
away [əweı] нареч. далеко; прочь
awful [o:f(ə)l] прил. страшный, ужасный
Bb
back [bæk] нареч. назад (в обратном
направлении)
bacteria [bæktıərıə] сущ. бактерии
badly [bædlı] нареч. очень сильно
balance [bæləns] сущ. равновесие
ballast [bæləst] сущ. балласт;
стабилизирующий фактор;
устойчивость
ban [bæn] сущ. запрещение;
гл. налагать запрет; запрещать

180
181

band [bænd] сущ. оркестр


jazz ~ [dзæzֽbænd] джаз-оркестр
bang [bæŋ] сущ. громкий удар;
гл. стучать
banner [bænə] сущ. лозунг, девиз
bar [ba:] гл. препятствовать, мешать;
запрещать
barge [ba:dз] сущ. баржа
barley [ba:lı] сущ. ячмень
barrel [bær(ə)l] сущ. бочка
barren [bær(ə)n] прил. бесплодный
barrier [bærıə] сущ. барьер, ограждение
base [beıs] сущ. база;
гл. базировать; основывать
basic [beısık] прил. главный, основной
basically [beısık(ə)lı] нареч. по существу,
в основном
basis [beısıs] сущ. основа
on the ~ of исходя из, на основе
bath [ba:θ] сущ. ванна
batter [bætə] гл. сильно бить
battle [bætl] гл. бороться, сражаться
bauxite [bo:ksaıt] сущ. боксит, алюминиевая
руда
bay [beı] сущ. отсек
parking ~ [pa:kıŋ] участок для парковки
автомобилей
beach [bi:t∫] сущ. (морской) берег;
гл. посадить на мель
beacon [bi:kn] сущ. знак, бакен
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийный радиомаяк
radio ~ [reıdıəu] радиомаяк; радиобуй

181
182

beam [bi:m] сущ. ширина (судна)


bear [bεə] гл. (bore, born) нести на себе,
иметь (знаки, признаки,
следы); рождать
because [bıkoz] союз потому что, так как
~ of из-за, вследствие
become [bıkΛm] гл. (became, become)
становиться, делаться
before [bıfo:] союз прежде чем, до того как
begin [bıgın] гл. (began, begun) начинать(ся)
beginning [bıgınıŋ] сущ. начало
begun [bıgΛn] гл. прич. прош. вр. от begin
behind [bıhaınd] предл. за, сзади, позади
belie [bılaı] гл. противоречить
believe [bıli:v] гл. думать, полагать
belong [bıloŋ] гл. принадлежать (кому-л.)
below [bıləu] предл. ниже, хуже
beneath [bıni:θ] предл. ниже; под
berth [bə:θ] сущ. место; койка;
гл. ставить (судно) на якорь
beside [bısaıd] предл. рядом с; близ, около
besides [bısaıdz] нареч. кроме того
betray [bıtreı] гл. не оправдывать (доверия);
подводить
between [bıtwi:n] предл. между
bilge [bıldз] сущ. трюм
bill [bıl] сущ. счёт
bird [bə:d] сущ. птица
blacken [blæk(ə)n] гл. чернеть
blacklist [blæklıst] гл. заносить в черный список
blame [bleım] сущ. вина, ответственность
lay ~ возлагать вину (на кого-л.)

182
183

гл. обвинять; возлагать вину


blank [blæŋk] сущ. пустое, свободное место
blast [bla:st] сущ. взрыв; ударная волна
blaze [bleız] сущ. пламя
blazing [bleızıŋ] сущ. горение; блеск, сверкание
bleeding [bli:dıŋ] сущ. кровотечение
blind [blaınd] прил. слепой
block [blok] сущ. (строительный) блок;
гл. заграждать, блокировать
blow [bləu] гл. (blew, blown) гнать
(ветром); уносить (о ветре)
blown [bləun] гл. прич. прош. вр. от blow
board [bo:d] гл. всходить на борт, садиться
на судно; идти на абордаж
boat [bəut] сущ. лодка, шлюпка; судно
fishing ~ [fı∫ıŋ] промысловое судно
rescue ~ [reskju:] спасательный катер
rowing ~ [rəuıŋ] гребная шлюпка
body [bodı] сущ. тело
bolt [bolt] сущ. болт, винт
boom [bu:m] сущ. нефтезадерживающий
бон
border [bo:də] сущ. граница
bore [bo:] гл. прош. вр. от bear
born [bo:n] гл. прич. прош. вр. от bear
bosun [bəus(ə)n] сущ. боцман
both [bəuθ] прил. оба, обе
bottle [botl] сущ. бутылка; флакон
gas ~ [gæs] газовый баллон
bottom [botəm] сущ. дно; грунт
bought [bo:t] гл., прош. вр., прич. прош. вр.
от buy
bound [baund] прил. направляющийся

183
184

bow [bau] сущ. нос; носовая часть


(судна); носовая скула
box [boks] сущ. коробка
branch [bra:nt∫] сущ. отделение, филиал
break [breık] гл. (broke, broken)
разламываться, разрушаться;
ломать, разбивать; нарушать
~ apart [əpa:t] развалиться на части
~ in half [ha:f] разламываться пополам
~ off [of] отрываться
~ out [aut] начаться внезапно
~ up [Λp] делить (на более мелкие
части)
~ the rule [ru:l] нарушать правило
breaking [breıkıŋ] сущ. поломка
brief [bri:f] гл. инструктировать;
информировать
bridge [brıdз] сущ. мост; (ходовой) мостик
bright [braıt] прил. яркий
bring [brıŋ] гл. (brought) приносить,
привозить; доставлять
~ forward перенести на более ранний
срок
~ in просить кого-л. о помощи
~ out выявлять, обнаруживать
broken [brəuk(ə)n] прил. сломанный
brotherhood [brΛðəhud] сущ. братство
bruise [bru:z] сущ. синяк, кровоподтёк;
ушиб
build [bıld] гл. (built) сооружать, строить
bulker [bΛlkə] сущ. балкер (судно для
перевозки насыпных грузов)
bulwark [bulwək] сущ. фальшборт

184
185

bump [bΛmp] сущ. глухой тяжелый удар


buoy [boı] сущ. буй
marker ~ [ma:kə] указательный буй, буй-
отметчик
bureau [bjuərəu] сущ. бюро; комитет;
управление
buried [berıd] прил. утопленный;
погруженный
burn [bə:n] сущ. ожог;
гл. (burnt) жечь, сжигать
~ off сжигать
burnt-out [bə:ntaut] прил. сгоревший, выжженный
burst [bə:st] гл. (burst) прорываться;
внезапно начинаться;
взрываться
business [bıznəs] сущ. дело, занятие; работа
busy [bızı] прил. оживленный
buy [baı] гл. (bought) покупать
Cc
cabin [kæbın] сущ. каюта
cable [keıbl] сущ. канат, трос
cake [keık] сущ. торт
calculation [ֽkælkjuleı∫(ə)n] сущ. размышление, расчёт
call [ko:l] сущ. сигнал
distress ~ [dıstres] сигнал бедствия
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] сигнал бедствия; аварийный
сигнал
mayday ~ [meıdeı] сигнал бедствия
гл. позвать; называть
~ for требовать; звать
~ off отменять; прекращать
~ upon (on) призывать
calm [ka:m] прил. спокойный (о море)

185
186

cameraman [kæm(ə)rəmæn] сущ. фоторепортёр;


телеоператор
campaign [kæmpeın] сущ. кампания;
гл. проводить кампанию
campaigner [kæmpeınə] сущ. участник кампании
cant [kænt] гл. наклоняться; накрениться
capital [kæpıtəl] сущ. столица
capsize [kæpsaız] гл. опрокидываться
captive [kæptıv] прил. взятый в плен
hold ~ [həuld] держать в плену
capture [kæpt∫ə] гл. захватывать, брать силой
carefully [kεəf(ə)lı] нареч. тщательно
carelessness [kεələsnəs] сущ. недобросовестность,
небрежность;
невнимательность
cargo [ka:gəu] сущ. груз
carrier [kærıə] сущ. транспортное судно
bulk ~ [bΛlk] балктанкер; балкер
carry [kærı] гл. везти, перевозить
~ on продолжать
~ out выполнять
case [keıs] сущ. случай; судебное дело
casualty [kæзuəltı] сущ. человек, пострадавший
от несчастного случая
catastrophe [kətæstrəfı] сущ. катастрофа, трагедия
catastrophic [ֽkætəstrofık] прил. катастрофический
catch [kæt∫] сущ. улов;
гл. (caught) ловить; поймать;
схватить
~ fire [faıə] загореться
cause [ko:z] сущ. причина;

186
187

гл. послужить причиной,


поводом (для чего-л.);
заставлять
cautionary [ko:∫(ə)n(ə)rı] прил. предупреждающий,
предостерегающий
censor [sensə] гл. проверять, подвергать
цензуре
central [sentr(ə)l] прил. центральный
centre [sentə] сущ. центр
~ of gravity [grævıtı] центр тяжести
centrifugal [ֽsentrıfju:g(ə)l] прил. центробежный
certain [sə:tn] прил. точный, определенный;
некий, определенного вида;
уверенный, убеждённый
certainly [sə:tnlı] нареч. конечно, несомненно
certificate [sətıfıkıt] сущ. документ, свидетельство
safety ~ [seıftı] свидетельство о безопасности
certify [sə:tıfaı] гл. сертифицировать
chain [t∫eın] сущ. цепь, цепочка; вереница,
череда
chairman [t∫εəmən] сущ. председатель
challenging [t∫elındзıŋ] прил. требующий напряжения
(сил); испытывающий
(способности, стойкость)
chance [t∫a:ns] сущ. возможность,
вероятность
change [t∫eındз] сущ. изменение;
гл. менять, изменять
channel [t∫æn(ə)l] сущ. канал; фарватер
chaotic [keıotık] прил. беспорядочный,
хаотический
chaplain [t∫æplın] сущ. капеллан, священник
в армии, на флоте

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characteristic [ֽkærəktərıstık] сущ. характерная черта;


особенность
charge [t∫a:dз] сущ. руководство;
ответственность; обвинение
criminal ~ [krımın(ə)l] обвинение в совершении
преступления, уголовное
обвинение
in ~ of ответственный за
гл. обвинять; назначать,
запрашивать цену
chart [t∫a:t] сущ. карта
charter [t∫a:tə] сущ. фрахт;
гл. фрахтовать
chase [t∫eıs] сущ. преследование, погоня;
гл. гнаться, преследовать
cheap [t∫i:p] прил. дешевый
check [t∫ek] сущ. проверка; контроль
make a ~ осуществлять контроль
гл. проверять
chemical [kemık(ə)l] сущ. химический продукт;
прил. химический
chemistry [kemıstrı] сущ. химия
chief [t∫i:f] сущ. начальник
deputy ~ [depjutı] заместитель начальника
children [t∫ıldr(ə)n] сущ. дети
choice [t∫oıs] сущ. выбор
choppy [t∫opı] прил. неспокойный
(о море)
chunk [t∫Λŋk] сущ. глыба, огромный кусок
circuit [sə:kıt] сущ. цепь, схема
short ~ [∫o:t] короткое замыкание
circumstances [sə:kəmstənsız] сущ. обстоятельства, условия

188
189

under the ~ при данных обстоятельствах,


в этих условиях
citizen [sıtız(ə)n] сущ. гражданин
claim [kleım] сущ. иск; заявление,
утверждение;
гл. заявлять, утверждать;
заявлять о своих правах на
что-л.; уносить жизни (о
стихийном бедствии, аварии)
clamber [klæmbə] гл. карабкаться
class [kla:s] гл. классифицировать
claw [klo:] сущ. клешня
clean-up [kli:nΛp] сущ. очистка
clear [klıə] прил. чёткий, ясный;
нареч. в стороне;
гл. освобождать, очищать
clearly [klıəlı] нареч. несомненно; отчетливо
climb [klaım] гл. взбираться, влезать,
подниматься
cling [klıŋ] гл. (clung) цепляться
close [kləuz] гл. (down) закрывать;
подходить близко;
приближаться
[kləus] нареч. близко, около; рядом
closely [kləuslı] нареч. внимательно,
тщательно
clothes [kləuðz] сущ. одежда, платье
clothing [kləuðıŋ] сущ. одежда
coast [kəust] сущ. морское побережье
coastal [kəust(ə)l] прил. береговой, прибрежный
coastguard [kəustga:d] сущ. береговая охрана
coastline [kəustlaın] сущ. береговая линия
coating [kəutıŋ] сущ. слой

189
190

cod [kod] сущ. треска


code [kəud] сущ. код, шифр
Morse ~ [mo:s] азбука, код Морзе
collapse [kəlæps] сущ. крушение, крах;
гл. сильно ослабеть
collect [kəlekt] гл. собирать
collectively [kəlektıvlı] нареч. коллективно, вместе
collide [kəlaıd] гл. сталкиваться
collision [kəlıз(ə)n] сущ. столкновение
collocation [ֽkoləkeı∫(ə)n] сущ. словосочетание
comb [kəum] гл. прочёсывать (местность)
combined [kəmbaınd] прил. комбинированный
come [kΛm] гл. (came, come)
~ off преодолеть (трудности),
справиться
~ out выходить
comfortably [kΛmf(ə)təblı] нареч. уютно
command [kəma:nd] сущ. команда, приказ;
командование
take ~ [teık] принять командование
commandeer [ֽkoməndıə] гл. силой забирать (об
имуществе), изымать,
конфисковывать
commence [kəmens] гл. начинать
comment [koment] гл. комментировать
commercial [kəmə:∫(ə)l] прил. промышленный
commission [kəmı∫(ə)n] сущ. комиссия, комитет
~ of inquiry [ınkwaıərı] комиссия по расследованию
common [komən] прил. частый, обычный
commonly [komənlı] нареч. обычно, как правило,
в большинстве случаев
communicate [kəmju:nıkeıt] гл. общаться

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communications [kəֽmju:nıkeı∫(ə)nz] сущ. связь, система [средства]


связи
community [kəmju:nətı] сущ. сообщество; общество
company [kΛmpənı] сущ. общество, компания
oil ~ [oıl] нефтяная компания
shipping ~ [∫ıpıŋ] судоходная компания
compare [kəmpεə] гл. сравнивать
compartment [kəmpa:tmənt] сущ. отсек
compensation [ֽkompənseı∫(ə)n] сущ. компенсация,
возмещение
competent [kompıt(ə)nt] прил. компетентный, знающий
competition [ֽkompətı∫(ə)n] сущ. соревнование, состязание
complete [kəmpli:t] гл. заканчивать
completely [kəmpli:tlı] нареч. полностью, совершенно
complex [kompleks] прил. сложный
complication [ֽkomplıkeı∫(ə)n] сущ. осложнение
compose [kəmpəuz] гл. составлять
comprise [kəmpraız] гл. заключать в себе,
содержать
concentrated [kons(ə)ntreıtıd] прил. сосредоточенный
concern [kənsə:n] сущ. беспокойство;
гл. волноваться, беспокоиться
concerns [kənsə:nz] сущ. вопросы (вызывающие
озабоченность)
conclude [kənklu:d] гл. делать вывод
conclusion [kənklu:з(ə)n] сущ. вывод
make a ~ [meık] делать вывод
concrete [konkri:t] прил. бетонный;
бетонированный
condemn [kəndem] гл. осуждать
condition [kəndı∫(ə)n] сущ. состояние; условие
conditions [kəndı∫(ə)nz] сущ. условия, обстоятельства

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condolence [kəndəuləns] сущ. соболезнование,


сочувствие
conduct [kondΛkt] сущ. поведение;
[kəndΛkt] гл. вести, выполнять
confirm [kənfə:m] гл. подтверждать
conflict [konflıkt] сущ. конфликт, столкновение
conflicting [kənflıktıŋ] прил. противоречивый
confusion [kənfju:з(ə)n] сущ. неразбериха, путаница
congestion [kəndзest∫(ə)n] сущ. скопление (судов)
conservation [ֽkonsəveı∫(ə)n] сущ. сохранение; защита
consider [kənsıdə] гл. думать, полагать, считать
considerable [kənsıd(ə)rəbl] прил. большой, значительный
consist [kənsıst] гл. состоять, быть
составленным из
construction [kənstrΛk∫(ə)n] сущ. конструкция
contact [kontækt] сущ. связь
make ~ with установить связь с
гл. связываться
contagious [kənteıdзəs] прил. заразный
contain [kənteın] гл. содержать в себе; вмещать;
останавливать, сдерживать
container [kənteınə] сущ. контейнер
contaminate [kəntæmıneıt] гл. загрязнять, отравлять
contamination [kənֽtæmıneı∫(ə)n] сущ. загрязнение; заражение
contemporary [kəntemp(ə)r(ə)rı] прил. современный
content [kontent] сущ. содержание
contents [kontents] сущ. содержимое
continue [kəntınju] гл. продолжать
continued [kəntınjud] прил. непрерывный;
продолжающийся
contravention [ֽkontrəven∫(ə)n] сущ. нарушение (закона)
contribute [kəntrıbju:t] гл. способствовать

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contribution [ֽkontrıbju:∫(ə)n] сущ. пожертвование, взнос


control [kəntrəul] сущ. руководство, управление,
контроль
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийное управление
lose ~ [lu:z] потерять управление
port ~ [po:t] портовый контроль
traffic ~ [træfık] регулирование движения
гл. управлять, руководить;
сдерживать
convoy [konvoı] гл. сопровождать
cooperate [kəuop(ə)reıt] гл. сотрудничать с кем-л.;
содействовать
cooperation [kəuֽopəreı∫(ə)n] сущ. сотрудничество
coral [korəl] сущ. коралл
corporation [ֽko:p(ə)reı∫(ə)n] сущ. городские власти
corridor [korıdo:] сущ. коридор, проход
cost [kost] сущ. цена; стоимость
cough [kof] сущ. кашель
council [kauns(ə)l] сущ. совет
Security ~ [sıkjuərətı] Совет Безопасности (ООН)
count [kaunt] гл. подсчитывать, считать
counter [kauntə] прил. противоположный,
обратный, встречный
country [kΛntrı] сущ. страна
couple [kΛpl] сущ. пара, два
course [ko:s] сущ. курс, направление
collision ~ [kəlıз(ə)n] встречно-пересекающийся
курс
court [ko:t] сущ. суд
cover [kΛvə] гл. покрывать
crab [kræb] сущ. краб
craft [kra:ft] сущ. судно; суда

193
194

crane [kreın] сущ. (грузо)подъёмный кран


floating ~ [fləutıŋ] плавучий кран
crash [kræ∫] сущ. авария, крушение;
гл. потерпеть аварию,
крушение
~ into наскочить на кого-л., что-л.;
врезаться во что-л.
create [krıeıt] гл. создавать
crew [kru:] сущ. судовая команда; экипаж
(судна)
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийная бригада
crime [kraım] сущ. преступление;
правонарушение
criminal [krımın(ə)l] прил. уголовный
crippled [krıpld] прил. поврежденный
crisis [kraısıs] сущ. кризис
crisscross [krıskros] гл. пересекать
critical [krıtık(ə)l] прил. переломный, решающий;
важный, необходимый
critically [krıtık(ə)lı] нареч. опасно, серьёзно
criticise [krıtısaız] гл. критиковать; осуждать
cross [kros] гл. пересекать
crossing [krosıŋ] сущ. переход
crossroads [krosrəudz] сущ. пересечение дорог
crowd [kraud] гл. протискиваться,
проталкиваться
crowded [kraudıd] прил. переполненный
crucial [kru:∫(ə)l] прил. ключевой; решающий
crude [kru:d] прил. необработанный,
неочищенный
cry [kraı] сущ. крик
current [kΛr(ə)nt] сущ. течение

194
195

currently [kΛr(ə)ntlı] нареч. теперь, в настоящее


время
curve [kə:v] гл. изгибаться
custody [kΛstədı] сущ. тюремное заключение
cut [kΛt] сущ. порез; глубокая рана;
гл. (сut) резать, разрезать
~ loose [lu:s] освободиться, избавиться
~ off отрезать
~ up разрезать
cycle [saıkl] сущ. цикл
operating ~ [op(ə)reıtıŋ] рабочий цикл,
производственный цикл
Dd
damage [dæmıdз] сущ. повреждение;
гл. повреждать
dance [da:ns] гл. танцевать
dangerous [deındзərəs] прил. опасный
dangerously [deındзərəslı] нареч. опасно
dark [da:k] сущ. темнота;
прил. темный
data [deıtə] сущ. данные, факты, сведения;
информация
date [deıt] сущ. дата, число, день
up to ~ современный, новейший
гл. существовать (с такого-то
времени)
daughter [do:tə] сущ. дочь
dead [ded] прил. мертвый, умерший
deadline [dedlaın] сущ. предельный срок
deadly [dedlı] нареч. смертельно опасный
deal [di:l] гл. (dealt) иметь дело;
рассматривать; принимать
меры (для решения проблемы)

195
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death [deθ] сущ. смерть


debris [deıbri:] сущ. обломки, мусор
decade [dekeıd] сущ. десятилетие
decide [dısaıd] гл. решать
decision [dısi:зn] сущ. решение
deck [dek] сущ. палуба
car ~ [ka:] автомобильная палуба
deckhand [dekhænd] сущ. палубный матрос
declare [dıklεə] гл. объявлять
decommission [ֽdi:kəmı∫(ə)n] гл. списывать, переводить
в резерв
deep [di:p] прил. глубокий
defence [dıfens] сущ. защита; оборона
defend [dıfend] гл. защищать
defenseless [dıfensləs] прил. беззащитный, уязвимый
deficiency [dıfı∫(ə)nsı] сущ. отсутствие (чего-л.),
нехватка; дефект
degree [dıgri:] сущ. градус
dehydrated [ֽdi:haıdreıtıd] прил. обезвоженный
dehydration [ֽdi:haıdreı∫(ə)n] сущ. обезвоживание
delay [dıleı] сущ. задержка
delete [dıli:t] гл. вычёркивать, исключать
deliberate [dılıb(ə)rıt] прил. преднамеренный
deliberately [dılıb(ə)rıtlı] нареч. преднамеренно,
умышленно
delight [dılaıt] сущ. восторг, восхищение
deliver [dılıvə] гл. доставлять
demand [dıma:nd] гл. требовать
demonstrate [demənstreıt] гл. демонстрировать,
проявлять
dense [dens] прил. густой, плотный
dent [dent] гл. оставлять вмятину

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deny [dınaı] гл. отрицать


depart [dıpa:t] гл. отправляться; покидать
(что-л.)
department [dıpa:tmənt] сущ. ведомство, департамент,
министерство
deploy [dıploı] гл. развёртываться (о войсках)
deprive [dıpraıv] гл. отбирать, отнимать, лишать
(чего-л.)
depth [depθ] сущ. глубина
describe [dıskraıb] гл. описывать, рассказывать
design [dızaın] сущ. конструкция;
гл. проектировать;
конструировать;
предназначать
desperate [desp(ə)rət] прил. отчаянный;
безнадежный
despite [dıspaıt] предл. несмотря на, вопреки
(чему-л.)
destination [ֽdestıneı∫(ə)n] сущ. место назначения, пункт
назначения
destroy [dıstroı] гл. разрушать; истреблять,
уничтожать
destroyed [dıstroıd] прил. разрушенный
detail [di:teıl] сущ. подробность; деталь
detain [dıteın] гл. задерживать, арестовывать
detect [dıtekt] гл. замечать, открывать,
обнаруживать
detention [dıten∫(ə)n] сущ. задержание, арест
deterioration [dıֽtıərıəreı∫(ə)n] сущ. ухудшение (состояния),
повреждение
determine [dıtə:mın] гл. определять, устанавливать
detonate [detəneıt] гл. взрывать
detonation [ֽdetəneı∫(ə)n] сущ. детонация; взрыв

197
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devastating [devəsteıtıŋ] прил. опустошительный,


разрушительный
develop [dıveləp] гл. (постепенно) приобретать;
превращаться (into)
developing [dıveləpıŋ] прил. развивающийся;
экономически слабый,
развивающийся
developments [dıveləpmənts] сущ. события
device [dıvaıs] сущ. устройство; механизм;
прибор
die [daı] гл. умирать
diesel [di:z(ə)l] сущ. дизельное топливо
difference [dıf(ə)r(ə)ns] сущ. существенное изменение,
перемена (обычно к лучшему)
make a ~ [meık] положительно повлиять на
(что-л.), сделать доброе дело,
принести пользу
different [dıf(ə)r(ə)nt] прил. другой
difficult [dıfık(ə)lt] прил. трудный, сложный;
тяжёлый
digest [daıdзest] сущ. сборник
direct [dırekt] гл. приказывать, указывать
direction [dırek∫(ə)n] сущ. направление
directly [dırektlı] нареч. прямо
disable [dıseıbl] гл. делать непригодным;
вывести из строя
disagree [ֽdısəgri:] гл. не совпадать; расходиться
во взглядах, не соглашаться
disappear [ֽdısəpıə] гл. исчезать
disappointed [ֽdısəpoıntıd] прил. огорченный
disapprove [ֽdısəpru:v] гл. не одобрять, осуждать
disaster [dıza:stə] сущ. бедствие, несчастье

198
199

discharge [dıst∫a:dз] гл. разгружать; выпускать;


спускать, сливать; выливать
discover [dıskΛvə] гл. обнаруживать, узнавать
discovery [dıskΛv(ə)rı] сущ. открытие
discuss [dıskΛs] гл. обсуждать; спорить
disease [dızi:z] сущ. болезнь
Legionnaires' ~ [ֽli:dзənεəz] болезнь "легионеров"
disguise [dısgaız] гл. утаивать, скрывать
dismantle [dısmæntl] гл. снимать оснащение
dismiss [dısmıs] гл. отвергать
dispatch [dıspæt∫] гл. посылать
dispatcher [dıspæt∫ə] сущ. диспетчер
dispersant [dıspə:sənt] сущ. диспергатор,
диспергирующее средство
disperse [dıspə:s] гл. рассеивать
display [dıspleı] гл. выставлять
dispute [dıspju:t] сущ. дискуссия, дебаты,
полемика;
гл. оспаривать
distance [dıst(ə)ns] сущ. расстояние
distortion [dısto:∫(ə)n] сущ. деформация
distress [dıstres] сущ. горе, несчастье,
душевное страдание;
бедствие, бедственное
положение
dive [daıv] гл. нырять, бросаться в воду
diver [daıvə] сущ. водолаз
diverge [daıvə:dз] гл. отличаться; различаться; не
совпадать
divert [daıvə:t] гл. отклоняться (от курса);
направлять в другую сторону

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200

do [du:] гл. (did, done) делать,


выполнять
dock [dok] сущ. док; портовый бассейн;
гл. швартоваться к причалу
document [dokjumənt] гл. подтверждать
документами;
документировать
dog [dog] гл. преследовать
don [don] гл. надевать
donation [dəuneı∫(ə)n] сущ. денежное пожертвование
door [do:] сущ. дверь
fire ~ [faıə] противопожарная дверь
double [dΛbl] прил. двойной;
гл. удваиваться
doubt [daut] сущ. сомнение
down [daun] нареч. внизу
dozen [dΛz(ə)n] сущ. дюжина
drag [dræg] гл. тянуть, тащить
~ out [aut] вытаскивать
~ the anchor [æŋkə] дрейфовать при отданном
якоре
drama [dra:mə] сущ. драма; трагедия
draught [dra:ft] сущ. осадка
loaded ~ грузовая осадка судна
draw [dro:] гл. (drew, drawn) привлекать
~ the attention [əten∫(ə)n] привлечь внимание
drench [drent∫] гл. намокать
dressed [drest] прил. одетый
get ~ одеваться
drift [drıft] сущ. дрейф, снос корабля с
курса под влиянием течений;
гл. дрейфовать
drilling [drılıŋ] сущ. свидетель, очевидец

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201

drink [drıŋk] сущ. питьё; напиток


drive [draıv] гл. (drove, driven) ездить; гнать
~ off прогонять
driving [draıvıŋ] прил. сильный, проливной
(дождь)
drop [drop] сущ. падение, понижение;
гл. сбрасывать
drown [draun] гл. тонуть
drug [drΛg] сущ. наркотик
drum [drΛm] сущ. барабанная перепонка;
бочка
ear ~ [ıə] барабанная перепонка
oil ~ бочка для нефтепродуктов
dry [draı] прил. сухой
due [dju:] прил. должный, обязанный;
ожидаемый
due to [dju:] предл. благодаря; вследствие;
в результате; из-за
dull [dΛl] гл. притуплять
dump [dΛmp] гл. выбрасывать
during [djuərıŋ] предл. в течение, в
продолжение, во время
duty [dju:tı] сущ. служебные обязанности
dwindle [dwındl] гл. уменьшаться, убывать,
истощаться
Ee
eagle [i:gl] сущ. орёл
bald ~ [bo:ld] белоголовый орлан
early [ə:lı] нареч. рано
earth [ə:θ] сущ. земля
eat [i:t] гл. (ate, eaten) есть
ecological [ֽı:kəlodзık(ə)l] прил. экологический
effect [ıfekt] сущ. воздействие; эффект

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202

effective [ıfektıv] прил. эффективный


effectively [ıfektıvlı] нареч. фактически,
практически
effort [efət] сущ. усилие, попытка
either [aıðə] прил. каждый
elderly [eld(ə)lı] прил. пожилой
electrical [ılektrık(ə)l] прил. электрический
electromagnetic [ılektrəumægnetık] прил. электромагнитный
eliminate [ılımıneıt] гл. уничтожать, ликвидировать
elusive [ılu:sıv] прил. ускользающий;
труднодостижимый; слабый
embark [ımba:k] гл. принимать на борт
embrace [ımbreıs] гл. обнимать
emerge [ımə:dз] гл. появляться
emergency [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] прил. аварийный;
сущ. катастрофа, авария
in an ~ в экстренном случае; при
аварии
emotional [ıməu∫(ə)n(ə)l] прил. эмоциональный
employ [ımploı] гл. держать на службе, иметь
в штате
empty [emptı] прил. пустой
emulsify [ımΛlsıfaı] гл. эмульгировать,
превращаться в эмульсию
en route [ֽon ru:t] нареч. по пути
enable [ıneıbl] гл. давать возможность
encounter [ınkauntə] гл. (неожиданно) встретиться
encourage [ınkΛrıdз] гл. поддерживать
end [end] сущ. конец, край;
гл. прекращать
endanger [ındeındзə] гл. подвергать опасности

202
203

endangered [ındeındзəd] прил. находящийся под


угрозой исчезновения (о виде)
endeavour [ındevə] гл. пытаться, стараться
enduring [ındjuərıŋ] прил. постоянный, прочный
enemy [enımı] сущ. враг
enforce [ınfo:s] гл. осуществлять, приводить
в исполнение
enforcement [ınfo:smənt] сущ. соблюдение
правопорядка, закона
engage [ıngeıdз] гл. заниматься (чем-л.)
engine [endзın] сущ. машина, двигатель
engineer [ֽendзınıə] сущ. механик;
гл. вызывать, провоцировать
engineering [ֽendзınıərıŋ] сущ. инженерия
genetic ~ [dзınetık] генная инженерия
enough [ınΛf] нареч. достаточно
ensnare [ınsnεə] гл. поймать в ловушку
ensure [ın∫uə] гл. обеспечивать,
гарантировать; убедиться
entangle [ıntæŋgl] гл. запутывать
enter [entə] гл. входить, проникать
(в какое-л. помещение)
entire [ıntaıə] прил. целый, весь
entrance [entrəns] сущ. вход
environment [ınvaıər(ə)nmənt] сущ. окружающая среда
environmental [ınֽvaıər(ə)nment(ə)l] прил. относящийся к
окружающей среде
~ risk [rısk] экологический риск, риск для
окружающей среды
environmentalist [ınֽvaıər(ə)nmentəlıst] сущ. защитник окружающей
среды
equate [ıkweıt] гл. приравнять

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204

equip [ıkwıp] гл. оснащать; оборудовать


equipment [ıkwıpmənt] сущ. оборудование
safety ~ [seıftı] оборудование для обеспечения
безопасности
error [erə] сущ. оплошность, ошибка
erupt [ırΛpt] гл. извергаться, прорываться
escape [ıskeıp] гл. бежать, спастись
escort [ısko:t] гл. сопровождать
especially [ıspe∫(ə)lı] нареч. особенно
establish [ıstæblı∫] гл. устанавливать
estimate [estımət] сущ. оценка;
[estımeıt] гл. оценивать
estimated [estımeıtıd] прил. предполагаемый
evacuate [ıvækjueıt] гл. эвакуировать
evacuation [ıֽvækjueı∫(ə)n] сущ. эвакуация
evade [ıveıd] гл. ускользать (от
преследования и т. п.)
evaluate [ıvæljueıt] гл. оценивать
even [i:v(ə)n] нареч. даже
evening [i:vnıŋ] сущ. вечер
event [ıvent] сущ. происшествие, случай
eventually [ıvent∫uəlı] нареч. в конечном счёте,
в итоге, в конце концов
every [evrı] прил. каждый
everywhere [evrıwεə] нареч. везде, повсюду
evidence [evıdəns] сущ. доказательство,
подтверждение
exactly [ıgzæktlı] нареч. точно
examination [ıgֽzæmıneı∫(ə)n] сущ. осмотр, обследование
examine [ıgzæmın] гл. рассматривать; изучать
example [ıgza:mpl] сущ. пример, иллюстрация
excavate [ekskəveıt] гл. вынимать грунт

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205

exceed [ıksi:d] гл. превышать; выходить за


пределы
excellent [eks(ə)l(ə)nt] прил. превосходный,
прекрасный
exchange [ıkst∫eındз] гл. обменивать
exercise [eksəsaız] сущ. учение
exert [ıgzə:t] гл. прилагать (усилия)
exhausted [ıgzo:stıd] прил. истощенный,
изможденный
exist [ıgzıst] гл. существовать
exit [eksıt] сущ. выход
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийный выход, запасный
выход
expect [ıkspekt] гл. ждать, ожидать
expensive [ıkspensıv] прил. дорогой, дорогостоящий
experience [ıkspıərıəns] сущ. опыт работы
work ~ стажировка, учебная практика
гл. испытывать
experienced [ıkspıərıənst] прил. знающий, опытный
expert [ekspə:t] сущ. знаток, эксперт;
специалист
explain [ıkspleın] гл. объяснять
explode [ıkspləud] гл. взрываться; взрывать
explosion [ıkspləuз(ə)n] сущ. взрыв
explosive [ıkspləusıv] сущ. взрывчатое вещество
expose [ıkspəuz] гл. разоблачать; подвергать
(опасности)
express [ıkspres] гл. выражать; высказывать
extend [ıkstend] гл. простираться, тянуться;
длиться
extensive [ıkstensıv] прил. громадный, большой
extent [ıkstent] сущ. степень; размер

205
206

exterior [ıkstıərıə] прил. наружный


extinguish [ıkstıngwı∫] гл. гасить, тушить
extra [ekstrə] прил. дополнительный
extremely [ıkstri:mlı] нареч. чрезвычайно, крайне,
очень
Ff
face [feıs] гл. сталкиваться;
стоять перед; встречаться
facilitate [fəsılıteıt] гл. облегчать;
способствовать
facilities [fəsılətız] сущ. средства, оборудование
emergency ~ [ıֽmə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийное оборудование
fact [fækt] сущ. обстоятельство; факт
fade [feıd] гл. постепенно исчезать
fail [feıl] гл. не удаваться
failure [feıljə] сущ. неудача, провал;
недостаток, отсутствие
(чего-л.); неспособность;
авария, повреждение, отказ
multiple organ ~ [mΛltıpl] полиорганная недостаточность
faint [feınt] прил. слабый
fall [fo:l] гл. падать
familiar [fəmılıə] прил. легко узнаваемый
family [fæm(ə)lı] сущ. семья
famous [feıməs] прил. известный
far [fa:] прил. далёкий, дальний;
нареч. гораздо, в значительной
степени
so ~ до сих пор; пока; до
настоящего времени
fast [fa:st] прил. быстрый
fasten [fa:s(ə)n] гл. прикреплять, привязывать
fatal [feıt(ə)l] прил. смертельный

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207

fate [feıt] сущ. судьба


fatigue [fəti:g] сущ. усталость, утомление
faulty [fo:ltı] прил. неисправный
fear [fıə] сущ. страх; опасение;
гл. ожидать, опасаться
feed [fi:d] гл. (fed) вводить (данные)
feet [fi:t] сущ. мн. число от foot
ferry [ferı] сущ. паром
passenger ~ [pæsındзə] пассажирский паром
roll-on roll-off ~ трейлерный паром
гл. перевозить (на лодке,
пароме)
fetch [fet∫] гл. приносить доход
feverish [fıv(ə)rı∫] прил. лихорадочный,
лихорадящий
few [fju:] прил. (a few) несколько
fierce [fıəs] прил. жестокий
fight [faıt] гл. (fought) драться; бороться
figure [fıgə] сущ. иллюстрация, рисунок
final [faın(ə)l] прил. завершающий;
окончательный
finally [faın(ə)lı] нареч. в конечном счёте,
в конце концов
financial [faınæn∫(ə)l] прил. денежный
find [faınd] гл. (found) находить,
обнаруживать
~ oneself оказываться
~ out узнать, выяснить
findings [faındıŋz] сущ. полученные данные
fine [faın] сущ. штраф;
прил. ясный, хороший
(о погоде)
fire [faıə] сущ. огонь, пламя; пожар

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208

firefighter [faıəֽfaıtə] сущ. пожарник


firing [faıərıŋ] сущ. стрельба
firm [fə:m] сущ. фирма
firmly [fə:mlı] нареч. плотно, надёжно
first [fə:st] нареч. сначала
at ~ вначале, сначала
fish [fı∫] сущ. рыба
red ~ [red] морской окунь
fisherman [fı∫əmən] сущ. рыбак
fishery [fı∫(ə)rı] сущ. рыболовство; рыбный
промысел
fishing [fı∫ıŋ] сущ. рыболовство; рыбный
промысел
fit [fıt] гл. (fit) оснащать
fix [fıks] гл. ремонтировать, чинить
fjord [fjo:d] сущ. фьорд
flag [flæg] сущ. флаг
flag-of-convenience [kənvi:njəns] сущ. удобный флаг
flagship [flæg∫ıp] сущ. флагманский корабль
flame [fleım] сущ. огонь, пламя
flammable [flæməbl] прил. легковоспламеняющийся
flare [flεə] сущ. сигнальная ракета
fled [fled] гл., прош. вр., прич. прош. вр.
от flee
flee [fli:] гл. (fled) убегать, спасаться
бегством
fleet [fli:t] сущ. флот
flew [flu:] гл. прош. вр. от fly
float [fləut] гл. плавать, всплывать
flood [flΛd] сущ. наводнение, потоп;
гл. заливать, затоплять
floodlight [flΛdlaıt] сущ. прожектор заливающего
света

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209

floor [flo:] сущ. дно


flow [fləu] сущ. поток, струя;
гл. течь
flown [fləun] гл. прич. прош. вр. от fly
flu [flu:] сущ. грипп
flurry [flΛrı] сущ. вспышка или волна
возбуждения
fly [flaı] гл. (flew, flown) летать;
переправлять по воздуху
focus [fəukəs] сущ. центр;
гл. сосредоточивать(ся),
концентрировать(ся)
fog [fog] сущ. туман
follow [foləu] гл. следовать; следить
following [foləuıŋ] прил. следующий;
предл. после, вслед за
food [fu:d] сущ. питание; еда;
продовольствие
foot [fut] сущ. фут (единица длины;
= 30,48 см)
force [fo:s] сущ. сила; вооружённые силы,
войска
air ~ [εə] воздушные войска
гл. принуждать, вынуждать
forecast [fo:ka:st] сущ. прогноз,
прогнозирование
foredeck [fo:dek] сущ. носовая часть палубы
foreign [forın] прил. иностранный
forest [forıst] сущ. лес
forever [fərevə] нареч. всегда, вечно
form [fo:m] сущ. форма, вид;
гл. образовывать
forward [fo:wəd] прил. передний;

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210

нареч. вперёд, дальше


fought [fo:t] гл., прош. вр.,
прич. прош. вр. от fight
founder [faundə] сущ. основатель;
гл. пойти ко дну
fractured [frækt∫əd] прил. расколотый;
разломанный
fragment [frægmənt] сущ. кусок, часть
free [fri:] прил. свободный;
гл. освобождать
freedom [fri:dəm] сущ. свобода
freeze [fri:z] гл. (froze, frozen) замерзать
~ through [θru:] промерзать
freezing [fri:zıŋ] прил. ледяной, холодный
freighter [freıtə] сущ. грузовое судно
frequent [fri:kwənt] гл. часто посещать, бывать
frequently [fri:kwəntlı] нареч. часто
friend [frend] сущ. друг
frigate [frıgət] сущ. фрегат; сторожевой
корабль
frighten [fraıt(ə)n] гл. пугать
from [from] предл. с, от, из
front [frΛnt] сущ. передняя сторона чего-л.
in ~ of перед
fuel [fju:əl] сущ. топливо, горючее
full [ful] прил. полный
fume [fju:m] сущ. дым, газы
fundamental [ֽfΛndəment(ə)l] прил. существенный
funnel [fΛn(ə)l] сущ. дымовая труба
further [fə:ðə] прил. дальнейший
future [fju:t∫ə] сущ. будущее;
прил. будущий
Gg

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211

gale [geıl] сущ. шторм; буря; ветер


от 7 до 10 баллов
near ~ [nıə] ветер, близкий к шторму
galley [gælı] сущ. камбуз
gallon [gælən] сущ. галлон (мера жидких и
сыпучих тел; английский
галлон = 4,54 л; американский
= 3,78 л)
gang [gæŋ] сущ. банда, шайка
gap [gæp] сущ. брешь, щель, дыра
gas [gæs] сущ. газ
gash [gæ∫] сущ. разрез
gate [geıt] сущ. ворота; дверь
gather [gæðə] гл. собираться; приобретать
gear [gıə] сущ. устройство, прибор
breathing ~ [bri:ðıŋ] дыхательный аппарат
generate [dзen(ə)reıt] гл. вызывать; производить
generation [ֽdзenəreı∫(ə)n] сущ. поколение
generator [dзen(ə)reıtə] сущ. генератор
emergency diesel ~ [di:z(ə)l] аварийный дизель-генератор
genetic [dзınetık] прил. генетический
get [get] гл. (got) (to) добираться
~ back [bæk] возвращать
~ on надевать (что-л.)
~ out [aut] уходить, сбегать; выводить
наружу
ghost [gəust] сущ. привидение, призрак
giant [dзaıənt] прил. гигантский, огромный,
громадный
gillnetter [gılnetə] сущ. судно для лова рыбы
жаберной сетью
give [gıv] гл. (gave, given) дать
~ away [əweı] выдавать, разоблачать

211
212

~ rise [raız] вызывать; возбуждать


~ up оставить, отказаться; бросить
~ way [weı] давать дорогу; пропустить
glance [gla:ns] сущ. взгляд
at a ~ сразу
гл. взглянуть мельком
global [gləub(ə)l] прил. общий, всеобщий;
глобальный
go [gəu] гл. (went, gone) идти, ехать,
двигаться
~ down [daun] пойти ко дну, затонуть
~ on [on] продолжать
~ out [aut] выходить; погаснуть
~ over [əuvə] зд. опрокидываться
goods [gudz] сущ. товар; груз
government [gΛv(ə)nmənt] сущ. правительство
governor [gΛv(ə)nə] сущ. губернатор
grab [græb] гл. хватать
gradually [grædjuəlı] нареч. постепенно
grain [greın] сущ. зерно
grant [gra:nt] сущ. грант; дотация, субсидия;
гл. предоставлять
grave [greıv] сущ. могила
greed [gri:d] сущ. жадность
greet [gri:t] гл. приветствовать
ground [graund] сущ. район; дно (морское)
fishing ~ [fı∫ıŋ] район промысла рыбы
take the ~ [teık] сесть на мель
гл. сесть на мель
grounded [graundıd] прил. сидящий на мели
grounding [graundıŋ] сущ. посадка на мель
group [gru:p] сущ. группа
guilty [gıltı] прил. виновный

212
213

gun [gΛn] сущ. огнестрельное оружие


machine ~ [mə∫i:n] пулемет
gust [gΛst] сущ. порыв (ветра)
Hh
half [ha:f] сущ. половина
hallway [ho:lweı] сущ. проход
halt [ho:lt] гл. останавливать
hamper [hæmpə] гл. препятствовать, затруднять
hand [hænd] гл. давать, передавать, вручать
~ back [bæk] возвращать
handling [hændlıŋ] сущ. оперирование (чем-л.)
happen [hæp(ə)n] гл. случаться, происходить
happy [hæpı] прил. счастливый
hard [ha:d] прил. трудный, тяжёлый
hardly [ha:dlı] нареч. едва ли; почти не
harm [ha:m] гл. причинять вред; наносить
ущерб
haul [ho:l] гл. тащить
havoc [hævək] сущ. разрушение
hazard [hæzəd] сущ. опасность
hazardous [hæzədəs] прил. опасный
head [hed] гл. направляться, держать
курс, следовать
headache [hedeık] сущ. головная боль
health [helθ] сущ. здоровье
heap [hi:p] сущ. груда, куча
scrap ~ [skræp] свалка; груда лома
hear [hıə] гл. (heard) слышать, услышать
~ out [aut] выслушать
heart [ha:t] сущ. сердце
heat [hi:t] сущ. нагрев, накал
heavy [hevı] прил. тяжелый; массивный;
сильный

213
214

heed [hi:d] гл. учитывать, принимать во


внимание
heel [hi:l] гл. крениться
height [haıt] сущ. высота
helicopter [helıkoptə] сущ. вертолет
helm [helm] сущ. рулевое колесо; штурвал
helmsman [helmzmən] сущ. рулевой
help [help] сущ. помощь;
гл. помогать
helplessly [helpləslı] нареч. беспомощно
here [hıə] нареч. здесь
hero [hıərəu] сущ. герой
heroically [hıərəuık(ə)lı] нареч. героически
hidden [hıd(ə)n] прил. скрытый; невидимый
hide [haıd] гл. (hid, hidden) прятать,
скрывать
high [haı] прил. высокий
highly [haılı] нареч. весьма, очень, сильно,
чрезвычайно
hijack [haıdзæk] гл. совершать угон (какого-л.
транспортного средства)
hijacker [haıdзækə] сущ. угонщик
hijacking [haıdзækıŋ] сущ. нападение; угон
hire [haıə] гл. нанимать
hit [hıt] гл. (hit) поражать; удариться
(обо что-л.)
hoist [hoıst] сущ. подъёмник;
гл. поднимать (что-л.)
hold [həuld] сущ. трюм;
гл. (held) содержать в себе,
вмещать; удерживать,
задерживать; полагать,
считать

214
215

~ off [of] откладывать


~ on [on] держаться (за что-л.)
hole [həul] сущ. отверстие, пробоина;
гл. пробивать
holidaymaker [holədıֽmeıkə] сущ. отдыхающий; турист
home [həum] сущ. дом, жилище
homeland [həumlænd] сущ. родина
honest [onıst] прил. честный
hook [huk] сущ. рыболовный крючок
hop [hop] гл. подпрыгивать
hope [həup] сущ. надежда
hospital [hospıt(ə)l] сущ. больница
hospitalize [hospıt(ə)laız] гл. госпитализировать,
помещать в больницу
hostage [hostıdз] сущ. заложник
hot [hot] прил. горячий
hour [auə] сущ. час
how [hau] нареч. как, каким образом
however [hauevə] союз однако, тем не менее
huge [hju:dз] прил. большой, гигантский,
огромный
hull [hΛl] сущ. корпус
human [hju:mən] прил. людской, человеческий;
свойственный человеку
~ error [erə] субъективная ошибка,
"человеческий фактор"
humanity [hju:mænətı] сущ. человечество
hundred [hΛndrıd] сущ. сотня
hunt [hΛnt] сущ. охота, ловля; поиски
hurricane [hΛrıkən] сущ. ураган
hurry [hΛrı] гл. торопиться, спешить

215
216

hurt [hə:t] гл. (hurt) причинить боль;


ранить; ушибить;
травмировать
husband [hΛzbənd] сущ. муж
hydraulic [haıdro:lık] прил. гидравлический
hydrocarbon [haıdrəuka:bən] сущ. углеводород
hydrographic [ֽhaıdrəgræfık] прил. гидрографический
hypothermia [ֽhaıpəuθə:mıə] сущ. гипотермия,
переохлаждение
Ii
iceberg [aısbə:g] сущ. айсберг
icebreaker [aısֽbreıkə] сущ. ледокол
icy [aısı] прил. ледяной
idea [aıdıə] сущ. идея; мысль
identify [aıdentıfaı] гл. опознавать, распознавать
identity [aıdentıtı] сущ. личность,
зд. принадлежность и
название судна
ignorance [ıgn(ə)r(ə)ns] сущ. невежество; незнание
ignore [ıgno:] гл. игнорировать,
пренебрегать
ill [ıl] прил. больной
fall ~ [fo:l] заболеть
be taken ~ [teık(ə)n] заболеть
ill-fated [ılfeıtıd] прил. несчастливый,
несчастный; злополучный
illegal [ıli:g(ə)l] прил. незаконный
illumination [ılu:mınei∫(ə)n] сущ. освещение
immediate [ımi:djət] прил. безотлагательный,
незамедлительный
immediately [ımi:djətlı] нареч. прямо,
непосредственно; немедленно

216
217

immensely [ımenslı] нареч. необычайно


imminent [ımınənt] прил. неминуемый,
неизбежный
immobile [ıməubaıl] прил. неподвижный
impact [ımpækt] сущ. воздействие; влияние;
удар; столкновение
impassable [ımpa:s(ə)bl] прил. непроходимый
important [ımpo:t(ə)nt] прил. важный, значительный
importantly [ımpo:t(ə)ntlı] нареч. важно
impose [ımpəuz] гл. налагать
impossible [ımposəbl] прил. невозможный
imprisonment [ımprız(ə)nmənt] сущ. лишение свободы
improve [ımpru:v] гл. улучшать;
совершенствовать
improvement [ımpru:vmənt] сущ. улучшение; исправление
inbound [ınbaund] прил. прибывающий,
возвращающийся
incident [ınsıd(ə)nt] сущ. происшествие
incline [ınklaın] гл. наклонять
include [ınklu:d] гл. заключать, включать в себя
income [ınkΛm] сущ. доход, прибыль
incorrect [ֽınkərekt] прил. неправильный
incorrectly [ֽınkərektlı] нареч. неверно, неправильно
increase [ınkri:s] гл. увеличивать; усиливать
increasingly [ınkri:sıŋlı] нареч. все больше и больше
independence [ֽındıpendəns] сущ. независимость,
самостоятельность
independent [ֽındıpendənt] прил. независимый
indicate [ındıkeıt] гл. показывать, указывать
indication [ֽındıkeı∫(ə)n] сущ. знак, симптом, признак
indirect [ֽındərekt] прил. непрямой
individual [ֽındıvıdjuəl] сущ. личность, человек;

217
218

прил. отдельный, частный


industrial [ֽındΛstrıəl] прил. промышленный
industry [ındəstrı] сущ. производство;
отрасль промышленности
inevitability [ınֽevıtəbılətı] сущ. неизбежность
inevitable [ֽınevıtəbl] прил. неизбежный
inexperienced [ֽınıkspıərıənst] прил. неопытный,
необученный
infection [ınfek∫(ə)n] сущ. инфекция
inflate [ınfleıt] гл. надувать, накачивать
inform [ınfo:m] гл. сообщать
information [ֽınfəmeı∫(ə)n] сущ. информация, сообщения,
сведения
inhalation [ֽınhəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. вдыхание
inhale [ınheıl] гл. вдыхать
initial [ını∫(ə)l] прил. первоначальный
initially [ını∫(ə)lı] нареч. в начале
initiate [ını∫ıeıt] гл. начать, приступать
injure [ındзə] гл. ранить
injury [ındзərı] сущ. рана, травма
inlet [ınlet] сущ. фиорд, небольшая бухта
inoperative [ınop(ə)rətıv] прил. неисправный
inquiry [ınkwaıərı] сущ. расследование, следствие
inside [ֽınsaıd] нареч. внутри
insignificant [ֽınsıgnıfık(ə)nt] прил. незначительный,
несущественный
insist [ınsıst] гл. настойчиво утверждать,
настаивать (на)
inspect [ınspekt] гл. инспектировать,
производить осмотр;
обследовать

218
219

inspection [ınspek∫(ə)n] сущ. (о)смотр;


инспектирование,
обследование
inspector [ınspektə] сущ. инспектор
installation [ֽınstəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. установка
offshore ~ [ֽof∫o] морская установка
instance [ınst(ə)ns] сущ. пример, случай
instead of [ınsted] предл. вместо (чего-л.), взамен
(чего-л.)
institute [ınstıtju:t] гл. начинать
insurance [ın∫uər(ə)ns] сущ. страхование
insurer [ın∫uərə] сущ. страховая компания,
страховщик
intact [ıntækt] прил. неповреждённый, целый
integrity [ıntegrıtı] сущ. целостность
intensify [ıntensıfaı] гл. усиливать, углублять
intercept [ֽıntəsept] гл. останавливать, задерживать
interference [ֽıntəfıər(ə)ns] сущ. помехи
interior [ıntıərıə] сущ. внутренняя часть
помещения;
прил. внутренний
internal [ıntə:n(ə)l] прил. внутренний
international [ֽıntənæ∫(ə)n(ə)l] прил. международный
internationally [ֽıntənæ∫(ə)n(ə)lı] нареч. на международном
уровне; в международном
масштабе
interpret [ֽıntə:prıt] гл. объяснять,
интерпретировать
interview [ıntəvju:] гл. брать интервью
invader [ınveıdə] сущ. захватчик
investigate [ınvestıgeıt] гл. расследовать
investigation [ınֽvestıgeı∫(ə)n] сущ. расследование

219
220

investigator [ınvestıgeıtə] сущ. следователь


invite [ınvaıt] гл. вызывать, способствовать
involve [ınvolv] гл. вовлекать (in); включать
(в себя)
island [aılənd] сущ. остров
issue [ı∫u:] сущ. проблема, вопрос;
гл. выпускать, зд. посылать
Jj
jacket [dзækıt] сущ. жилет
life ~ [laıf] спасательный жилет
Jacuzzi [dзəku:zı] сущ. джакузи
(гидромассажная ванна; по
названию торговой марки)
jail [dзeıl] сущ. тюрьма
~ term [tə:m] срок тюремного заключения
job [dзob] сущ. задание, работа
join [dзoın] гл. присоединяться
journalist [dзə:n(ə)lıst] сущ. журналист
journey [dзə:nı] сущ. путешествие
judge [dзΛdз] сущ. судья
jump [dзΛmp] гл. прыгать
jurisdiction [ֽdзuərısdık∫(ə)n] сущ. власть, полномочия, сила
just [dзΛst] нареч. точно, как раз, именно
justify [dзΛstıfaı] гл. оправдывать
Kk
keel over [kı:l] гл. перевернуться
keep [kı:p] гл. (kept) держать
~ away [əweı] держать на расстоянии
~ hold [həuld] держать
~ off держать в отдалении; не
подпускать
key [ki:] прил. основной, ключевой
kill [kıl] гл. убивать

220
221

knock [nok] гл. ударять


~ out выбивать
knot [not] сущ. узел (единица скорости,
используемая в навигации =
1,87 км в час)
know [nəu] гл. (knew, known) знать
knowledge [nolıdз] сущ. знание
known [nəun] прил. известный
Ll
lack [læk] сущ. недостаток; отсутствие
(чего-л.);
гл. не хватать, недоставать
ladder [lædə] сущ. лестница (приставная,
верёвочная); трап
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] запасная лестница
(напр. пожарная)
pilot ~ [paılət] лоцманский трап
laden [leıdn] прил. груженый
land [lænd] сущ. земля, суша;
гл. прибывать; достигать
(какого-л. места)
landmark [lændma:k] сущ. береговой знак
landslide [lændslaıd] сущ. оползень
lane [leın] сущ. морской путь; полоса
движения
shipping ~ [∫ıpıŋ] полоса движения (судов)
large [la:dз] прил. большой, крупный
large-scale [ֽla:dзskeıl] прил. крупномасштабный
largely [la:dзlı] нареч. в значительной степени
last [la:st] прил. прошлый;
нареч. в последний раз
late [leıt] прил. поздний, в конце;
нареч. поздно

221
222

later [leıtə] нареч. позже


latest [leıtıst] прил. самый поздний; самый
последний
launch [lo:nt∫] гл. запускать; спускать судно
на воду; начинать
launcher [lo:nt∫ə] сущ. пусковая установка
grenade ~ [grəneıd] гранатомет
law [lo:] сущ. закон
lawsuit [lo:sjut] сущ. судебный процесс; иск
layer [leıə] сущ. слой
layout [leıaut] сущ. планировка, расположение
lead [li:d] гл. (led) вести, приводить
leader [li:də] сущ. руководитель, лидер
leak [li:k] сущ. утечка;
гл. просачиваться; давать течь
learn [lə:n] гл. (learnt) учиться; учить
least [li:st] сущ. минимальное количество;
малейшая степень
at ~ по крайней мере
leave [li:v] гл. (left) покидать; оставлять
(в каком-л. положении или
состоянии)
left [left] прил. левый
leg [leg] сущ. нога; лапа
legend [ledзənd] сущ. легенда
legislation [ֽledзısleı∫(ə)n] сущ. законодательство
legitimate [ledзıtəmət] прил. законный, легальный
less [les] нареч. меньше
lesson [les(ə)n] сущ. урок, предостережение;
опыт
let [let] гл. (let) позволять, разрешать
level [lev(ə)l] сущ. уровень

222
223

liability [ֽlaıəbılıtı] сущ. обязательство,


ответственность
license [laıs(ə)ns] гл. разрешать, давать право
lie [laı] гл. (lay, lain) лежать
life [laıf] сущ. жизнь
lifeboat [laıfbəut] сущ. спасательная шлюпка
lift [lıft] гл. снимать, отменять
light [laıt] сущ. огонь
navigation ~ ходовой огонь
search ~ [sə:t∫] прожектор
прил. лёгкий; легковесный
lighthouse [laıthaus] сущ. маяк
lightning [laıtnıŋ] сущ. молния
like [laık] прил. подобный, похожий,
сходный
likely [laıklı] прил. вероятный, возможный
limp [lımp] гл. медленно двигаться,
с трудом передвигаться
line [laın] сущ. верёвка; линь; линия
tow ~ [təu] буксирный канат, буксир
water ~ [wo:tə] ватерлиния
liner [laınə] сущ. лайнер, рейсовое судно
cruise ~ [kru:z] круизное судно
linger [lıŋgə] гл. сохраняться
liquid [lıkwıd] сущ. жидкость
list [lıst] сущ. список; крен;
гл. крениться
litre [li:tə] сущ. литр
little [lıtl] нареч. мало
load [ləud] сущ. груз;
гл. грузить, нагружать
loading [ləudıŋ] сущ. погрузка

223
224

lobster [lobstə] сущ. омар


local [ləuk(ə)l] прил. местный
locate [ləukeıt] гл. определять
местонахождение
location [ləukeı∫(ə)n] сущ. положение,
местоположение
lock [lok] сущ. замок;
гл. запирать на ключ
log [log] сущ. вахтенный журнал
lone [ləun] прил. одинокий
long [loŋ] прил. длинный
longline [loŋlaın] сущ. ярус (орудие лова)
look [luk] гл. смотреть
~ for [fo:] искать
~ into изучать, расследовать
~ like [laık] выглядеть как, быть похожим
на
~ out вести наблюдение
~ to рассчитывать, надеяться на
(что-л.)
look-out [lukaut] сущ. впередсмотрящий;
наблюдение
keep a ~ [ki:p] вести наблюдение
lose [lu:z] гл. (lost) терять
~ out потерпеть неудачу, поражение
loss [los] сущ. потеря; гибель; крушение
lost [lost] прил. потерянный;
потерявшийся, заблудившийся
loud [laud] прил. громкий
low [ləu] прил. низкий
lower [ləuə] прил. нижний;
гл. спускать

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225

lucky [lΛkı] прил. счастливый, удачный;


удачливый
luggage [lΛgıdз] сущ. багаж
luxury [lΛk∫(ə)rı] сущ. богатство, роскошь
Mm
machine [mə∫i:n] сущ. машина, механизм
main [meın] прил. основной
mainland [meınlənd] сущ. континент, материк
maintain [meınteın] гл. поддерживать, сохранять;
обслуживать; содержать в
исправности
maintenance [meınt(ə)nəns] сущ. содержание и
техническое обслуживание
major [meıdзə] прил. главный
make [meık] гл. (made) делать,
изготавливать; заставлять;
достигать; входить
~ for направляться
~ up придумывать, сочинять
makeover [meıkֽəuvə] сущ. создание нового облика
man [mæn] сущ. человек, мужчина
manage [mænıdз] гл. справляться, суметь
сделать (что-л.)
manageable [mænıdзəbl] прил. зд. удобный
(для работы)
management [mænıdзmənt] сущ. управление
manager [mænıdзə] сущ. руководитель,
управляющий
manifest [mænıfest] сущ. декларация груза и
пассажиров;
гл. проявляться,
обнаруживаться

225
226

manner [mænə] сущ. способ, метод; образ


действий
manning [mænıŋ] сущ. укомплектование личным
составом
manoeuvre [mənu:və] сущ. манёвр;
гл. маневрировать
manslaughter [mænֽslo:tə] сущ. человекоубийство
marine [məri:n] прил. морской
maritime [mærıtaım] прил. морской
mark [ma:k] гл. отмечать, обозначать
market [ma:kıt] сущ. рынок
massive [mæsıv] прил. массивный; большой,
крупный
master [ma:stə] сущ. капитан
material [mətıərıəl] сущ. данные, материал,
сведения, факты
matter [mætə] сущ. тема, вопрос; дело
mean [mi:n] гл. (meant) предназначать;
означать
means [mi:nz] сущ. средство, способ
meant [ment] гл. прош. вр.,
прич. прош. вр. от mean
meanwhile [ֽmi:nwaıl] нареч. тем временем, между
тем, пока
measure [meзə] сущ. мера, мероприятие
precautionary ~ [prıko:∫(ə)n(ə)rı] мера предосторожности
гл. иметь размер
mechanic [mıkænık] сущ. механик
media [mi:dıə] сущ. средства массовой
информации
medicine [medısın] сущ. медицина
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] экстренная медицинская
помощь

226
227

meet [mi:t] гл. (met) встречать; отвечать,


соответствовать
(требованиям, стандартам)
meeting [mi:tıŋ] сущ. заседание
melt [melt] гл. плавить
member [membə] сущ. член (какой-л.
структуры)
crew ~ [kru:] член экипажа
memory [mem(ə)rı] сущ. воспоминание
mention [men∫(ə)n] сущ. упоминание;
гл. упоминать, ссылаться
merit [merıt] гл. заслуживать, быть
достойным (чего-л.)
mesh [me∫] сущ. ячея сети
metal [met(ə)l] сущ. металл;
прил. металлический
methanol [meθənol] сущ. метанол
method [meθəd] сущ. метод, способ
midday [ֽmıddeı] сущ. полдень
middle [mıdl] сущ. середина, центр
middle-aged [ֽmıdleıdзd] прил. средних лет
midnight [mıdnaıt] сущ. полночь
mile [maıl] сущ. миля
military [mılıt(ə)rı] прил. военный
minimize [mınımaız] гл. сводить к минимуму
ministry [mınıstrı] сущ. министерство
minor [maınə] прил. незначительный,
несущественный
minute [mınıt] сущ. минута
mishap [mıshæp] сущ. происшествие, несчастье
mislead [mısli:d] гл. (misled) вводить в
заблуждение

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228

missile [mısaıl] сущ. реактивный снаряд;


ракета
missing [mısıŋ] прил. пропавший
mission [mı∫ən] сущ. призвание,
предназначение, цель
mist [mıst] сущ. (лёгкий) туман; дымка
mistake [mısteık] гл. (mistook, mistaken)
ошибаться; (for) принять
(кого-л. за другого или что-л.
за другое)
mixture [mıkst∫ə] сущ. смесь
model [mod(ə)l] сущ. модель
forecast ~ [fo:ka:st] модель прогнозирования
modern [mo:d(ə)n] прил. современный
modernise [mo:d(ə)naız] гл. модернизировать
modify [modıfaı] гл. трансформировать,
модифицировать
momentum [məmentəm] сущ. движущая сила
money [mΛnı] сущ. деньги
monitor [monıtə] гл. наблюдать, следить
monitoring [monıt(ə)rıŋ] сущ. контроль
month [mΛnθ] сущ. месяц
moratorium [ֽmorətorıəm] сущ. мораторий
motion [məu∫(ə)n] сущ. движение
motivate [məutıveıt] гл. побуждать
motorbike [məutəbaık] сущ. мотоцикл
mouth [mauθ] сущ. устье; вход
move [mu:v] сущ. движение; перемена
места;
гл. передвигать, перемещать
multiple [mΛltıpl] прил. разнообразный;
многочисленный, различный

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229

murder [mə:də] гл. убивать, совершать


зверское убийство
muscle [mΛsl] сущ. мускул, мышца
music [mju:zık] сущ. музыка
mystery [mıst(ə)rı] сущ. тайна, загадка
Nn
named [neımd] прил. названный
namely [neımlı] нареч. а именно, то есть
narcotic [na:kotık] прил. наркотический
narrative [nærətıv] сущ. описательная часть
(документа)
narrow [nærəu] прил. узкий
nation [neı∫(ə)n] сущ. страна
national [næ∫(ə)n(ə)l] сущ. соотечественник;
подданный, гражданин
nature [neıt∫ə] сущ. сущность; характер
nautical [no:tık(ə)l] прил. морской
navigate [nævıgeıt] гл. вести (судно)
navigational [ֽnævıgeı∫(ə)n(ə)l] прил. навигационный
navy [neıvı] сущ. военно-морской флот
near [nıə] предл. возле, у, около, рядом
nearby [ֽnıəbaı] прил. соседний; ближайший
nearly [nıəlı] нареч. почти; приблизительно;
около
necessary [nesəs(ə)rı] прил. необходимый, нужный
need [ni:d] сущ. необходимость, нужда
be in ~ of нуждаться
гл. нуждаться (в чём-л.)
negligence [neglıdзəns] сущ. небрежность
negligent [neglıdзənt] прил. допущенный по
небрежности
negligible [neglıdзəbl] прил. незначительный

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230

neighbouring [neıbərıŋ] прил. сопредельный, соседний


neither [naıðə] прил. никакой (из двух
представленных)
nephew [nevju:] сущ. племянник
net [net] сущ. сеть
network [netwə:k] сущ. сеть
never [nevə] нареч. никогда
new [nju:] прил. новый
news [nju:z] сущ. известия, сообщения
печати, радио
next [nekst] прил. следующий; будущий
nickname [nıkneım] гл. давать прозвище
night [naıt] сущ. ночь; вечер
nightfall [naıtfo:l] сущ. сумерки; наступление
ночи
noise [noız] сущ. шум, грохот
none [nΛn] мест. нисколько, никакая
часть (чего-л.);
нареч. совсем не
non-profit [ֽnonprofıt] прил. некоммерческий, не
предназначенный для
получения прибыли
norm [no:m] сущ. стандарт
normal [no:m(ə)l] прил. обычный
normally [no:m(ə)lı] нареч. обычно
northern [no:ð(ə)n] прил. северный
nose [nəuz] сущ. нос, передняя часть
notably [nəutəblı] нареч. особенно
note [nəut] сущ. примечание
nothing [nΛθıŋ] мест. ничего, ничто
notice [nəutıs] гл. замечать
notification [ֽnəutıfıkeı∫(ə)n] сущ. извещение, сообщение;
предупреждение

230
231

notorious [nəuto:rıəs] прил. пользующийся дурной


славой; печально известный
nuclear [nju:klıə] прил. ядерный
nuclear-powered [pauəd] прил. с ядерной, атомной
установкой
number [nΛmbə] сущ. количество, число; номер;
гл. насчитывать
numerous [nju:m(ə)rəs] прил. многочисленный
Oo
oats [əuts] сущ. овес
objective [əbdзektıv] сущ. цель
obligation [ֽoblıgeı∫(ə)n] сущ. обязанность; долг
observation [ֽobzəveı∫(ə)n] сущ. наблюдение
observatory [əbzə:vətrı] сущ. обсерватория
observe [əbzə:v] гл. замечать, обращать
внимание
obtain [əbteın] гл. получать
obvious [obvıəs] прил. очевидный, заметный
occasional [əkeıзnl] прил. редкий, случайный
occur [əkə:] гл. случаться, происходить
ocean [əu∫(ə)n] сущ. океан
oceanography [ֽəu∫(ə)nogrəfı] сущ. океанография
oceanological [ֽəu∫(ə)nəlodзık(ə)l] прил. океанологический
odd [od] прил. лишний
off [of] предл. указывает на удаление
или отделение от чего-л.
offence [əfens] сущ. преступление,
правонарушение
office [ofıs] сущ. канцелярия, офис
prosecutor's ~ [prosıkju:tə] прокуратура
officer [ofısə] сущ. служащий; офицер
watch ~ [wot∫] вахтенный офицер

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232

official [əfı∫(ə)l] сущ. чиновник, служащий


health ~ [helθ] организаторы
здравоохранения
прил. официальный
off-loading [ֽofləudıŋ] сущ. разгрузка
offshore [ֽof∫o:] прил. находящийся на
некотором расстоянии от
берега (в море), прибрежный
often [of(ə)n] нареч. часто
oil [oıl] сущ. нефтепродукт
bunker ~ [bΛŋkə] флотский мазут
crude ~ [kru:d] сырая, неочищенная нефть
oilfield [oılֽfi:ld] сущ. месторождение нефти
oilman [oılmæn] сущ. смазчик
oilskin [oılskın] сущ. штормовка, одежда из
непромокаемой ткани
oily [oılı] прил. маслянистый
onboard [onbo:d] прил. бортовой,
расположенный на борту
once [wΛns] союз как только
ongoing [onֽgəuıŋ] прил. продолжающийся
onto [ontu:] предл. на
open [əup(ə)n] прил. открытый, раскрытый;
гл. открывать
opening [əup(ə)nıŋ] сущ. отверстие, проход
operate [opəreıt] гл. работать; управлять
operation [ֽopəreı∫ən] сущ. работа; действие,
операция
rescue ~ [reskju:] спасательная операция
in ~ в действии

232
233

operator [op(ə)reıtə] сущ. компания,


предоставляющая какие-л.
услуги
opinion [əpınjən] сущ. мнение
oppose [əpəuz] гл. препятствовать;
противодействовать
opposite [opəzıt] прил. противоположный;
обратный
option [op∫(ə)n] сущ. альтернатива,
(возможный) вариант
order [o:də] сущ. порядок; хорошее
состояние
in ~ to для того, чтобы
гл. приказывать; давать
инструкции; заказывать
ordinary [o:d(ə)n(ə)rı] сущ. что-л. привычное,
обычное, нормальное
out of the ~ необычный
ore [o:] сущ. руда
iron ~ [aıən] железная руда
organ [o:gən] сущ. орган
organisation [ֽo:g(ə)naızeı∫(ə)n] сущ. организация
organise [o:gənaız] гл. организовывать, устраивать
origin [orıdзın] сущ. происхождение
original [ərıdзın(ə)l] прил. первоначальный
originally [ərıdзın(ə)lı] нареч. первоначально; сначала
otter [otə] сущ. выдра
outcome [autkΛm] сущ. исход, последствие,
результат
outer [autə] прил. внешний
outgoing [ֽautgəuıŋ] прил. выходящий, исходящий
outlaw [autlo:] гл. объявлять незаконным;
запрещать

233
234

outlying [autֽlaıŋ] прил. удалённый


outside [ֽautsaıd] предл. вне, за пределами
over [əuvə] предл. над; через; свыше
overboard [əuvəbo:d] нареч. за борт; за бортом
over-capacity [əuvəkəpæsıtı] сущ. избыточные
производственные мощности
overcome [ֽəuvəkΛm] гл. (overcame, overcome)
зд. подвергаться
overcrowd [ֽəuvəkraud] гл. переполнять (людьми)
over-exploitation [ֽəuvəֽeksploıteı∫(ə)n] сущ. чрезмерная эксплуатация
overloaded [ֽəuv(ə)ləudıd] прил. перегруженный
overloading [ֽəuvələudıŋ] сущ. перегрузка
overnight [ֽəuvənaıt] нареч. всю ночь; с вечера;
быстро, мгновенно
oversee [ֽəuvəsi:] гл. (oversaw, overseen)
наблюдать; следить, смотреть
(за чем-л.)
overtake [ֽəuvəteık] гл. (overtook, overtaken)
обогнать
overturn [ֽəuvətə:n] гл. опрокидываться,
переворачиваться
overwinter [ֽəuvəwıntə] гл. перезимовать
own [əun] гл. владеть
owner [əunə] сущ. владелец
beneficial ~ [ֽbenıfı∫(ə)l] сущ. владелец-пользователь;
подлинный владелец
Pp
pain [peın] сущ. боль
paint [peınt] сущ. краска
pair [pεə] сущ. пара, двое
panel [pæn(ə)l] сущ. распределительный щит
panic [pænık] сущ. паника, переполох,
тревога;

234
235

гл. паниковать, впадать


в панику, терять голову
paper [peıpə] сущ. бумага
paperwork [peıpəwə:k] сущ. техническая
документация
paraffin [pærəfın] сущ. парафин; керосин
park [pa:k] гл. парковаться
part [pa:t] сущ. часть; деталь; участие
take ~ [teık] участвовать
partial [pa:∫(ə)l] прил. частичный
particular [pətıkjulə] прил. особый; особенный;
исключительный
particularly [pətıkjələlı] нареч. особенно
partly [pa:tlı] нареч. отчасти, в некоторой
степени
pass [pa:s] гл. идти; проходить
passage [pæsıdз] сущ. переход; рейс
passenger [pæsındзə] сущ. пассажир
passing [pa:sıŋ] прил. проходящий мимо
passive [pæsıv] прил. пассивный
past [pa:st] прил. прошлый, минувший
path [pa:θ] сущ. путь
patrol [pətrəul] сущ. патрулирование;
гл. патрулировать; охранять
pay [peı] гл. (paid) платить
peaceful [pi:sful] прил. тихий, спокойный
penalize [pi:n(ə)laız] гл. штрафовать, накладывать
штраф
peninsula [pənınsjələ] сущ. полуостров
pensioner [pen∫(ə)nə] сущ. пенсионер
people [pi:pl] сущ. люди
perfectly [pə:fıktlı] нареч. совершенно, полностью

235
236

perform [pəfo:m] гл. выполнять; делать


perfume [pə:fju:m] сущ. духи; парфюмерные
изделия
period [pıərıəd] сущ. период; промежуток
времени
perish [perı∫] гл. погибать
permission [pəmı∫(ə)n] сущ. разрешение
permit [pə:mıt] сущ. лицензия, разрешение
person [pə:s(ə)n] сущ. человек
pesticide [pestısaıd] сущ. пестицид, средство для
борьбы с вредителями
phase out [feız] гл. постепенно выводить из
эксплуатации
phenomenon [fınomınən] сущ. феномен, явление
physical [fızık(ə)l] прил. относящийся к физике,
физический
physically [fızık(ə)lı] нареч. физически
physics [fızıks] сущ. физика
pick up [pık] гл. поднимать, подбирать;
принимать
picture [pıkt∫ə] сущ. фотография
take ~s [teık] фотографировать
piece [pi:s] сущ. кусок; обломок
pier [pıə] сущ. пирс, причал
piercing [pıəsıŋ] прил. пронзительный; резкий
pilgrim [pılgrım] сущ. паломник
pilgrimage [pılgrımıdз] сущ. паломничество
pilot [paılət] сущ. лоцман
pineapple [paınæpl] сущ. ананас
pipe [paıp] сущ. труба, трубопровод
pipeline [paıplaın] сущ. трубопровод
piracy [paıərəsı] сущ. пиратство

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pirate [paıərət] сущ. пират, морской


разбойник; пиратское судно
pirating [paıərətıŋ] сущ. пиратство, пиратская
деятельность
place [pleıs] сущ. место
take ~ [teık] случаться, иметь место
гл. размещать
plaice [pleıs] сущ. камбала
American ~ [əmerıkən] камбала-ерш
plan [plæn] сущ. план
plane [pleın] сущ. самолёт
spotter ~ [spotə] самолёт-разведчик,
воздушный наблюдатель
plank [plæŋk] сущ. доска
plant [pla:nt] сущ. завод; установка
processing ~ [prəusesıŋ] нефтехимический завод;
нефтехимическая установка
plate [pleıt] сущ. плита, лист, полоса
(металла)
platform [plætfo:m] сущ. морская платформа
play [pleı] гл. играть
plotter [plotə] сущ. плоттер,
графопостроитель
course ~ [ko:s] курсопрокладчик
track ~ [træk] путепрокладчик
plough [pləu] гл. врезаться (во что-л.)
с силой
pluck [plΛk] гл. тащить
plunder [plΛndə] гл. присваивать незаконно или
силой; воровать, грабить;
разорять
ply [plaı] гл. упорно, усердно
заниматься (чем-л.)

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pneumonia [nju:məunıə] сущ. воспаление лёгких,


пневмония
poaching [pəut∫ıŋ] сущ. браконьерство
pocket [pokıt] сущ. карман
air ~ [εə] воздушный карман
point [poınt] сущ. точка
~ of view [vju:] точка зрения
гл. направлять, наводить
(оружие); целиться
poison [poız(ə)n] сущ. яд;
гл. отравлять; заражать
police [pəli:s] сущ. полиция;
гл. управлять, контролировать
politely [pəlaıtlı] нареч. вежливо
pollutant [pəlu:tənt] сущ. загрязняющий агент
polluted [pəlu:tıd] прил. загрязнённый
pollution [pəlu:∫(ə)n] сущ. загрязнение
pool [pu:l] сущ. (плавательный) бассейн
poor [puə] прил. плохой; слабый
poorly [puəlı] нареч. плохо, безуспешно,
неудачно
popular [popjulə] прил. популярный, широко
распространённый
population [ֽpopjuleı∫(ə)n] сущ. население
pose [pəuz] гл. представлять собой,
являться
position [pəzı∫(ə)n] сущ. местоположение;
расположение;
гл. помещать, ставить
positive [posətıv] сущ. позитив, нечто хорошее
possibility [ֽposəbılətı] сущ. возможность
possible [posəbl] прил. вероятный, возможный
possibly [posəblı] нареч. возможно; может быть

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potential [pəten∫(ə)l] прил. вероятный, возможный;


скрытый
potentially [pəten∫(ə)lı] нареч. потенциально
pound [paund] сущ. фунт (мера веса); фунт
стерлингов
pour [po:] гл. литься
power [pauə] сущ. мощность; энергия;
возможность;
гл. приводить в действие или
движение
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] резервный источник питания
practice [præktıs] сущ. практика
working ~ [wə:kıŋ] рабочая [трудовая] практика
practise [præktıs] гл. применять, осуществлять
на практике
praise [preız] гл. хвалить
precaution [prıko:∫(ə)n] сущ. предосторожность; мера
предосторожности
precautionary [prıko:∫(ə)n(ə)rı] прил. применяемый для
предосторожности;
предупреждающий
predict [prıdıkt] гл. прогнозировать
preference [pref(ə)r(ə)ns] сущ. предпочтение;
преимущество
prepare [prıpεə] гл. готовить, подготавливать
presence [prez(ə)ns] сущ. присутствие; наличие
present [prızent] гл. представлять
preserve [prızə:v] гл. сохранять; охранять,
защищать
press [pres] гл. настаивать на (чём-л.)
pressure [pre∫ə] сущ. давление
prevail [prıveıl] гл. одержать победу;
преобладать

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prevalent [prev(ə)lənt] прил. преобладающий


prevent [prıvent] гл. предотвращать; не
допускать; мешать
preventive [prıventıv] прил. предупредительный;
профилактический
previous [prı:vıəs] прил. предыдущий;
предшествующий
previously [prı:vıəslı] нареч. ранее
price [praıs] сущ. цена
primarily [praım(ə)rılı] нареч. в основном, главным
образом
primary [praım(ə)rı] прил. основной; важнейший
prior to [praıətu] предл. до, до момента, перед
prioritise [praıorıtaız] гл. уделять первостепенное
внимание
priority [praıorıtı] сущ. приоритет
top ~ [top] высший приоритет
prison [prız(ə)n] сущ. тюрьма
probability [ֽprobəbılətı] сущ. вероятность,
возможность, шанс
probably [probəbl] нареч. вероятно, наверное
proceed [prəsi:d] гл. протекать, проходить
proceedings [prəsi:dıŋz] сущ. судебное преследование
process [prəusəs] сущ. процесс
produce [prədju:s] гл. представлять, предъявлять;
создавать
~ evidence [evıdəns] представить доказательство
profile [prəufaıl] сущ. очертание; вертикальный
разрез, сечение; профиль
profit [profıt] сущ. прибыль
turn a ~ [tə:n] получать прибыль
prohibited [prəhıbıtıd] прил. запрещенный

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project [prodзekt] сущ. проект, план


promise [promıs] гл. обещать
prompt [prompt] гл. вызывать (мысль и т. п.)
promptly [promptlı] нареч. быстро, сразу
pronounced [prənaunst] прил. резко выраженный,
отчетливый
propeller [prəpelə] сущ. гребной винт
proper [propə] прил. надлежащий
properly [prop(ə)lı] нареч. должным образом; как
следует
prosecute [prosıkju:t] гл. преследовать в судебном
порядке
prosecution [ֽprosıkju:∫(ə)n] сущ. судебное преследование;
обвинение
prosecutor [prosıkju:tə] сущ. прокурор
~'s office [ofıs] прокуратура
protect [prətekt] гл. защищать, предохранять
protected [prətektıd] прил. защищённый,
находящийся под защитой,
охраной (закона)
protective [prətektıv] прил. защитный;
предохранительный
protest [prətest] гл. протестовать, возражать
prove [pru:v] гл. доказывать
provide [prəvaıd] гл. предоставлять;
обеспечивать
province [provıns] сущ. провинция
provincial [prəvın∫(ə)l] прил. местный
prowl [praul] гл. рыскать в поисках добычи
public [pΛblık] прил. общественный
publication [ֽpΛblıkeı∫(ə)n] сущ. издание
publish [pΛblı∫] гл. публиковать

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pull [pul] гл. тянуть, тащить


~ free [fri:] зд. снять с мели
~ into [ıntə] прибывать
pump [pΛmp] сущ. насос
salvage ~ аварийно-спасательный
водоотливной насос
гл. закачивать (воздух и пр.);
выкачивать
~ in закачивать
~ out [aut] откачивать
purchase [pə:t∫əs] гл. приобретать, покупать
purpose [pə:pəs] сущ. основная мысль, предмет,
тема, суть
pursuit [pəsju:t] сущ. преследование; погоня
push [pu∫] гл. толкать
~ over опрокидывать
put [put] гл. (put) оценивать, исчислять,
определять
~ forward [fo:wəd] выдвигать
~ on надевать
~ out [aut] тушить, гасить
Qq
qualified [kwolıfaıd] прил. квалифицированный
qualify [kwolıfaı] гл. зд. расценивать(ся)
quality [kwolətı] сущ. качество
quantity [kwontətı] сущ. количество
quarantine [kwor(ə)nti:n] сущ. карантин;
гл. подвергать карантину
quarter [kwo:tə] сущ. четверть
quarters [kwo:təz] сущ. помещение
question [kwest∫(ə)n] сущ. вопрос;
гл. спрашивать, задавать
вопрос

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quick [kwık] прил. быстрый


quickly [kwıklı] нареч. быстро
quite [kwaıt] нареч. вполне, совершенно
quota [kwəutə] сущ. доля, квота
quote [kwəut] гл. цитировать; ссылаться
Rr
race [reıs] сущ. гонка;
гл. мчаться, нестись
radar [reıda:] сущ. радиолокатор, радар
radiation [ֽreıdıeı∫(ə)n] сущ. радиация, радиоактивное
излучение
radio [reıdıəu] гл. передавать по радио
radioactive [ֽreıdıəuæktıv] прил. радиоактивный
raft [ra:ft] сущ. плот
raging [reıdзıŋ] прил. неистовый, свирепый
raider [reıdə] сущ. налетчик
rail [reıl] сущ. поручни; ограждение
safety ~ [seıftı] защитные поручни
rain [reın] сущ. дождь
rainbow [reınbəu] сущ. радуга
raise [reız] гл. ставить (вопрос);
поднимать; вызывать
ram [ræm] гл. налететь, врезаться
(куда-л.) с силой, таранить
ramp [ræmp] сущ. аппарель
range [reındз] сущ. дальность, дистанция;
гл. колебаться в пределах
ransack [rænsæk] гл. ограбить
ransom [ræns(ə)m] сущ. выкуп
rapidly [ræpıdlı] нареч. быстро
rational [ræ∫(ə)n(ə)l] прил. разумный;
целесообразный

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reach [ri:t∫] сущ. участок, район;


гл. достигать, доходить
reactor [rıæktə] сущ. реактор
ready [redı] прил. готовый
(к использованию)
make ~ [meık] готовить
real [rıəl] прил. настоящий
realise [rıəlaız] гл. понимать, осознавать
reality [rıælıtı] сущ. действительность
really [rıəlı] нареч. действительно, в самом
деле
rear [rıə] сущ. задняя (кормовая) часть
reason [ri:z(ə)n] сущ. причина; разум
reasonable [ri:z(ə)nəbl] прил. разумный;
рациональный
reasonably [ri:z(ə)nəblı] нареч. довольно, достаточно
rebel [reb(ə)l] сущ. повстанец
rebuild [ֽri:bıld] гл. (rebuilt) отстроить заново,
восстановить,
реконструировать
receive [rısi:v] гл. получать, приобретать;
принимать
receiver [rısi:və] сущ. радиоприёмник
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийный приемник;
приемник сигналов бедствия
recent [ri:s(ə)nt] прил. недавний, последний
recently [ri:s(ə)ntlı] нареч. недавно
recipient [rısıpıənt] сущ. адресат, получатель
recognisable [rekəgnaızəbl] прил. легко узнаваемый;
распознаваемый
recognise [rekəgnaız] гл. осознавать
recommend [ֽrekəmend] гл. рекомендовать, советовать,
предлагать

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recommendation [ֽrekəmendeı∫(ə)n] сущ. рекомендация, совет


record [reko:d] сущ. запись; характеристика
on ~ зафиксированный
safety ~ [seıftı] показатель (индекс)
безопасности (судов)
[rıko:d] гл. записывать, регистрировать
recover [rıkΛvə] гл. поднимать (на борт);
возвращать в исходное
положение; восстанавливаться
recovery [rıkΛvərı] сущ. возврат; восстановление;
подъем на борт (из воды)
recruit [rıkru:t] сущ. новичок
recycling [rısaıklıŋ] сущ. переработка;
повторное использование
red [red] прил. красный
redfish [redfı∫] сущ. морской окунь
reduce [rıdju:s] гл. ослаблять, уменьшать
reef [ri:f] сущ. риф
refer [rıfə:] гл. направлять
reference [ref(ə)r(ə)ns] сущ. ссылка; упоминание
with ~ to ссылаясь на кого-л. / что-л.
refiner [rıfaınə] сущ. предприятие по
нефтепереработке
refloat [rıfləut] гл. снимать (судно) с мели
refuel [ֽri:fju:əl] гл. дозаправиться
refuge [refju:dз] сущ. убежище; прибежище
refuse [rıfju:z] гл. отвергать;
отказываться
regard [rıga:d] гл. расценивать, рассматривать
regarding [rıga:dıŋ] предл. относительно
regime [reıзi:m] сущ. режим
region [ri:dз(ə)n] сущ. территория; зона

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earthquake-prone ~ [ə:θkweıkprəun] сейсмический район


regional [ri:dз(ə)n(ə)l] прил. региональный
register [redзıstə] гл. регистрировать
registered [redзıstəd] прил. зарегистрированный
registration [ֽredзıstreı∫(ə)n] сущ. регистрация
regular [regjələ] прил. постоянный
regularly [regjələlı] нареч. регулярно, постоянно
regulation [ֽregjəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. правило
reject [rıdзekt] гл. отвергать, отклонять
reinforce [ֽri:ınfo:s] гл. усиливать, укреплять
reinforcement [ֽri:ınfo:smənt] сущ. подкрепление;
пополнение
relate [rıleıt] гл. иметь отношение; быть
связанным
related [rıleıtıd] прил. связанный (с чем-л.)
relatively [relətıvlı] нареч. относительно;
соответственно
release [rıli:s] сущ. утечка, выброс;
гл. освобождать; выпускать,
сбрасывать
relevant [reləvənt] прил. значимый;
существенный; важный;
имеющий отношение к делу
relieve [rıli:v] гл. ослаблять, уменьшать
rely [rılaı] гл. (on) зависеть (от чего-л.);
полагаться
remain [rımeın] гл. оставаться
remaining [rımeınıŋ] прил. остальной
remember [rımembə] гл. помнить; вспоминать,
припоминать

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remote [rıməut] прил. дальний, далёкий;


дистанционный; действующий
на расстоянии
remote-controlled [rıməutkəntrəuld] прил. управляемый
дистанционно
remove [rımu:v] гл. убирать; снимать
rename [ֽri:neım] гл. переименовать
render [rendə] гл. приводить в какое-л.
состояние
renovation [ֽrenəveı∫(ə)n] сущ. реконструкция
renowned [rınaund] прил. знаменитый, известный
repair [rıpεə] сущ. ремонт
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийный ремонт;
неотложный ремонт
гл. ремонтировать
repeated [rıpi:tıd] прил. повторяющийся
repeatedly [rıpi:tıdlı] нареч. часто, неоднократно
repel [rıpel] гл. отражать (нападение);
оказывать сопротивление
replenish [rıplenı∫] гл. пополнять
reply [rıplaı] сущ. ответ
report [rıpo:t] сущ. отчёт, доклад,
сообщение;
гл. сообщать
reportedly [rıpo:tıdlı] нареч. по сообщениям; как
сообщают
reporter [rıpo:tə] сущ. репортёр; корреспондент
represent [ֽreprızent] гл. означать; быть
представителем, представлять
(какое-л. лицо или
организацию)
representative [ֽreprızentətıv] сущ. представитель

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request [rıkwest] гл. просить; требовать


require [rıkwaıə] гл. требовать (чего-л.)
required [rıkwaıəd] прил. необходимый;
требуемый
requirement [rıkwaıəmənt] сущ. требование
rescue [reskju:] гл. спасать
rescuer [reskju:ə] сущ. спасатель
research [rısə:t∫] сущ. (научное) исследование
researcher [rısə:t∫ə] сущ. исследователь; учёный
resident [rezıdənt] сущ. житель
resolve [rızolv] гл. решать
respect [rıspekt] сущ. отношение
in many ~s во многих отношениях
respond [rıspond] гл. отвечать
response [rıspons] сущ. ответ; реакция, ответное
действие
responsibility [rıֽsponsəbılətı] сущ. ответственность;
обязанность
responsible [rısponsəbl] прил. ответственный,
отвечающий (за что-л.)
rest [rest] сущ. отдых; (the rest)
остальные
restart [ֽrısta:t] гл. возобновлять
restriction [rıstrık∫(ə)n] сущ. ограничение
result [rızΛlt] сущ. результат; итог,
следствие;
гл. происходить в результате
(чего-л.)
~ in иметь результатом; приводить к
resulting [rızΛltıŋ] прил. получающийся
resume [rızju:m] гл. возобновлять
re-supply [ֽri:səplaı] гл. дозаправить

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249

resuscitate [rısΛsıteıt] гл. реанимировать


retail [ri:teıl] прил. розничный
retire [rıtaıə] гл. уходить
retrieve [rıtri:v] гл. доставать, вынимать
return [rıtə:n] гл. возвращаться; возвращать
reveal [rıvi:l] гл. открывать,
зд. разглашать; обнаруживать,
показывать
reverse [rıvə:s] сущ. задний ход
in ~ в обратном направлении
гл. поворачивать в
противоположном
направлении
review [rıvju:] сущ. проверка
revoke [rıvəuk] гл. отзывать (лицензию),
аннулировать
rib [rıb] сущ. ребро
rich [rıt∫] прил. богатый
ridiculous [rıdıkjələs] прил. нелепый, смешной
rig [rıg] сущ. буровая установка
drilling ~ [drılıŋ] буровая установка
гл. устанавливать, крепить
right [raıt] сущ. право;
прил. правый
rink [rıŋk] сущ. каток
skating ~ [skeıtıŋ] каток
rip [rıp] гл. разрезать, распарывать
~ off отрывать
~ open [əup(ə)n] распарывать
rise [raız] сущ. возникновение, начало
give ~ to давать начало; вызывать

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гл. (rose, risen) вставать,


подниматься; увеличиваться,
возрастать
risk [rısk] сущ. опасность, угроза; риск
run the ~ [rΛn] подвергаться риску
risky [rıskı] прил. опасный
rival [raıv(ə)l] прил. соперничающий;
конкурирующий
river [rıvə] сущ. река
riverside [rıvəsaıd] сущ. берег реки, прибрежная
полоса
road [rəud] сущ. дорога
rob [rob] гл. грабить
robot [rəubot] сущ. автоматическое
устройство
rock [rok] сущ. скала, утёс;
гл. качать(ся)
rocking [rokıŋ] сущ. качание
role [rəul] сущ. роль
roll [rəul] гл. испытывать бортовую
качку
roof [ru:f] сущ. крыша
room [ru:m] сущ. помещение
boiler ~ [boılə] котельное отделение
engine ~ [endзın] машинное отделение
rough [rΛf] прил. бурный (о море)
roughly [rΛflı] нареч. приблизительно
round [raund] сущ. ряд; цикл; порция
route [ru:t] сущ. маршрут; путь; курс;
направление
en ~ [ֽon ru:t] по пути, по дороге
row [rəu] сущ. ряд
rower [rəuə] сущ. гребец

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251

rowing [rəuıŋ] сущ. гребля


rudder [rΛdə] сущ. руль
rule [ru:l] сущ. правило
~s of conduct [kondΛkt] правила поведения
safety ~s [seıftı] правила безопасности
гл. править
rule out [ru:l aut] гл. исключать
rumor [ru:mə] сущ. молва; слух
run [rΛn] гл. (ran, run) налетать,
наталкиваться на (что-л.);
сталкиваться с (чем-л.);
руководить, управлять; вести
(дело, предприятие и т. п.)
~ aground [əgraund] садиться на мель
~ into столкнуться, врезаться
~ into trouble [trΛbl] попасть в беду
rupture [rΛpt∫ə] гл. разрывать, прорывать
ruptured [rΛpt∫əd] прил. разбитый
rush [rΛ∫] гл. устремляться, бросаться
rust [rΛst] гл. ржаветь
Ss
sack [sæk] сущ. мешок
safe [seıf] прил. безопасный;
находящийся в безопасности
safely [seıflı] нареч. безопасно,
благополучно
safety [seıftı] сущ. безопасность
~ measures [meзə] меры безопасности
~ record [reko:d] показатель (индекс
безопасности судов)
sag [sæg] гл. прогибаться

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252

sail [seıl] гл. плавать, совершать


плавание; отправляться
(о судне)
sailor [seılə] сущ. матрос, моряк
salvage [sælvıdз] сущ. спасение имущества
salvager [sælvıdзə] сущ. спасатель
salvor [sælvə] сущ. спасатель
same [seım] прил. тот (же) самый; такой же
sanctuary [sæŋkt∫uərı] сущ. заповедник
sandbar [sæn(d)ba:] сущ. песчаная отмель
sandy [sændı] прил. песчаный
satisfied [sætısfaıd] прил. довольный,
удовлетворённый
save [seıv] гл. спасать
saw [so:] сущ. пила
say [seı] гл. (said) говорить; сказать
scale [skeıl] сущ. размер, протяжённость
scanty [skæntı] прил. недостаточный,
ограниченный
scare [skεə] гл. пугать; испугать
scene [si:n] сущ. место происшествия,
события
schedule [∫edju:l] сущ. график
ahead of ~ [əhed] с опережением графика
гл. назначать, планировать
scientist [saıəntıst] сущ. учёный
scorch [sko:t∫] сущ. ожог
scorched [sko:t∫t] прил. выжженный
scores [sko:z] сущ. множество
scramble [skræmbl] гл. поднимать в воздух
(вертолеты) по тревоге
scrap [skræp] сущ. скрап (металлический
лом и металлические отходы

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253

производства, идущие на
переплавку)
screen [skri:n] сущ. экран
scrutiny [skru:tını] сущ. исследование,
наблюдение
sea [si:] сущ. море
heavy ~ [hevı] сильное волнение; бурное
море
high ~s [haı] море за пределами
территориальных вод;
открытое море
seabed [si:bed] сущ. морское дно
seabird [si:bə:d] сущ. морская птица
seafarer [si:ֽfεərə] сущ. мореплаватель, моряк
seal [si:l] гл. плотно закрывать
seamanship [si:mən∫ıp] сущ. искусство мореплавания,
судовождения
search [sə:t∫] сущ. поиск;
гл. искать (for)
seaside [si:saıd] сущ. морское побережье
seasonal [si:z(ə)n(ə)l] прил. сезонный
seaworthy [si:ֽwə:ðı] прил. мореходный;
обладающий хорошими
мореходными качествами
second [sekənd] прил. второй
secrecy [si:krəsı] сущ. секретность
section [sek∫(ə)n] сущ. секция; часть; район
secure [sıkjuə] гл. закреплять, прикреплять;
обеспечивать; завладевать
security [sıkjuərətı] сущ. безопасность
see [si:] гл. (saw, seen) видеть

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seek [si:k] гл. (sought) обращаться (за


помощью), просить; искать
(for)
seem [si:m] гл. казаться
seepage [si:pıdз] сущ. течь; просачивание
seismological [ֽsaızməlodзık(ə)l] прил. сейсмологический
seize [si:z] гл. захватывать
send [send] гл. (sent) посылать
sense [sens] сущ. чувство; сознание
sentence [sentəns] сущ. приговор;
гл. выносить приговор;
приговаривать
separate [sep(ə)rət] прил. независимый
sequence [si:kwəns] сущ. серия, ряд
series [sıərı:z] сущ. ряд; серия
serious [sıərıəs] прил. имеющий тяжёлые
последствия; внушающий
опасения
seriously [sıərıəslı] нареч. серьёзно, опасно,
тяжело
serve [sə:v] гл. служить (чем-л.)
service [sə:vıs] сущ. служба; обслуживание;
эксплуатация
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] неотложная помощь, скорая
помощь; аварийная служба
set [set] сущ. ряд, серия; комплект,
набор;
гл. (set) устанавливать,
определять
~ off отправляться (в путь)
~ sail [seıl] отправляться в плавание
~ up учреждать

254
255

settle [setl] гл. поселиться, обосноваться;


оседать; отстаиваться, давать
осадок
~ down [daun] устраиваться
several [sevr(ə)l] прил. несколько
severe [sıvıə] прил. сильный (о ветре и т. п.)
severely [sıvıəlı] нареч. очень, сильно
shallow [∫æləu] прил. мелкий, мелководный
shape [∫eıp] гл. приводить в порядок
shark [∫a:k] сущ. акула
sharply [∫a:plı] нареч. внезапно
sheen [∫i:n] сущ. блеск
shell [∫el] сущ. панцирь
shellfish [∫elfı∫] сущ. моллюск; ракообразное
shelter [∫eltə] сущ. укрытие
shift [∫ıft] гл. перемещаться;
передвигаться
shine [∫aın] гл. (shone) светить, сиять
ship [∫ıp] сущ. судно
cargo ~ [ka:gəu] грузовое судно
container ~ [kənteınə] контейнеровоз, контейнерное
судно
cruise ~ [kru:z] круизное судно
mother ~ [mΛðə] плавучая база
motor ~ [məutə] теплоход
refueling ~ [ֽri:fju:əlıŋ] танкер-заправщик
research ~ [rısə:t∫] научно-исследовательское
судно
sister ~ [sıstə] однотипный корабль
гл. перевозить; черпать,
набирать бортом воду
shipmate [∫ıpmeıt] сущ. товарищ по плаванию

255
256

shipwreck [∫ıprek] сущ. кораблекрушение;


обломки судна
shock [∫ok] сущ. потрясение, удар; шок;
гл. поражать, потрясать;
вызывать шок
shocking [∫okıŋ] прил. ужасный
shoot [∫u:t] гл. (shot) стрелять; попасть,
поразить
shore [∫o:] сущ. берег (моря, океана);
побережье
shoreline [∫o:laın] сущ. береговая линия
short [∫o:t] прил. (of) испытывающий
недостаток (чего-л.)
shortage [∫o:tıdз] сущ. нехватка, недостаток
shortly [∫o:tlı] нареч. скоро, вскоре
~ before [bıfo:] незадолго до
shot [∫ot] сущ. выстрел
show [∫əu] гл. (showed, shown) показывать
~ up появляться, обнаруживаться
showing [∫əuıŋ] сущ. показатели
shrapnel [∫ræpn(ə)l] сущ. шрапнель
sick [sık] прил. больной
side [saıd] сущ. сторона; борт (судна)
sift [sıft] гл. тщательно рассматривать
sighting [saıtıŋ] сущ. визуальное наблюдение
sign [saın] сущ. признак
signal [sıgn(ə)l] сущ. знак, сигнал
distress ~ [dıstres] сигнал бедствия
emergency ~ [ımə:dз(ə)nsı] аварийный сигнал
significant [sıgnıfıkənt] прил. значительный
silent [saılənt] прил. безмолвный, молчащий
similar [sımılə] прил. подобный; похожий

256
257

simply [sımplı] нареч. просто, только


simulate [sımjəleıt] гл. моделировать,
воспроизводить
simulation [ֽsımjəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. моделирование;
воспроизведение, имитация
since [sıns] нареч. с тех пор;
предл. с;
союз так как
single [sıŋgl] прил. единственный;
единичный
single-hulled [sıŋglhΛld] прил. однокорпусной
sink [sıŋk] гл. (sank, sunk) тонуть
(о морском судне); топить
(судно)
sinking [sıŋkıŋ] сущ. потопление
siphon [saıf(ə)n] гл. откачивать
sit [sıt] гл. (sat) сидеть
site [saıt] сущ. место; позиция
situation [ֽsıt∫ueı∫(ə)n] сущ. ситуация
size [saız] сущ. размер, величина
skill [skıl] сущ. умение; навык
skilled [skıld] прил. квалифицированный,
умелый, опытный
skim [skım] гл. бегло просматривать (что-л.)
skipper [skıpə] сущ. капитан, владелец
коммерческого судна
sky [skaı] сущ. небо
slack [slæk] прил. недостаточный;
небрежный
slam [slæm] гл. врезаться (во что-л.)
sleep [sli:p] сущ. сон;
гл. (slept) спать

257
258

slick [slık] сущ. пленка (на поверхности


воды), пятно (нефтяное);
прил. скользкий
slight [slaıt] прил. лёгкий, незначительный
slightly [slaıtlı] нареч. незначительно, слегка
sling [slıŋ] сущ. строп
slip [slıp] гл. выскальзывать,
соскальзывать; вытравить
(якорную цепь)
slippery [slıp(ə)rı] прил. скользкий
slop [slop] гл. плескаться (о воде)
slosh [slo∫] гл. плескаться (о воде)
slow [sləu] прил. медленный;
неторопливый;
гл. замедлять, снижать
скорость
sludge [slΛdз] сущ. густая грязь; осадок,
отложения в котлах
small [smo:l] прил. маленький
smash [smæ∫] гл. разбивать; ломать
smell [smel] сущ. запах
smoke [sməuk] сущ. дым
smolder [sməuldə] гл. тлеть
smother [smΛðə] гл. гасить, тушить
smothering [smΛðərıŋ] сущ. густое облако дыма
smuggle [smΛgl] гл. провозить контрабандой
snag [snæg] гл. зацепиться (за что-л.)
soak [səuk] гл. промочить; впитываться
soil [soıl] сущ. грунт, земля
solar [səulə] прил. солнечный
~ data [deıtə] данные наблюдений Солнца,
солнечные данные

258
259

soldier [səuldзə] сущ. военнослужащий,


военный
solution [səlu:∫(ə)n] сущ. решение
solve [solv] гл. решать, разрешать
(проблему и т. п.)
something [sΛmθıŋ] мест. что-то
sometimes [sΛmtaımz] нареч. иногда
son [sΛn] сущ. сын
sonar [səuna:] сущ. гидролокатор, сонар
soon [su:n] нареч. скоро, вскоре; рано
soul [səul] сущ. душа; человек
sound [saund] сущ. звук;
гл. давать сигнал
~ the alarm [əla:m] сыграть тревогу
source [so:s] сущ. причина, источник
(информации)
south [sauθ] сущ. юг
sovereignty [sovr(ə)ntı] сущ. независимость,
суверенитет
space [speıs] сущ. промежуток
spark [spa:k] гл. вызывать
speak [spi:k] гл. (spoke, spoken) говорить;
сказать
special [spe∫(ə)l] прил. специальный
species [spi:∫ız] сущ. вид
speculation [ֽspekjəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. предположение
speculative [spekjələtıv] прил. теоретический,
гипотетический
speed [spi:d] сущ. скорость
speedboat [spi:dbəut] сущ. быстроходный катер
spend [spend] гл. (spent) проводить (время)
spill [spıl] сущ. разливание (жидкости);
гл. (spilt, spilled) проливаться

259
260

spillage [spılıdз] сущ. разлив (нефти)


spilling [spılıŋ] сущ. разливание
split [splıt] гл. разбивать, раскалывать
~ up разлагаться, распадаться
spokesman [spəuksmən] сущ. представитель
spot [spot] сущ. место, местность;
hot ~ [hot] "горячая точка", опасный
район
гл. увидеть, заметить
spray [spreı] гл. распылять
spread [spred] гл. (spread) распространяться
spring [sprıŋ] гл. (sprang, sprung)
раскалываться, давать
трещину
~ a leak [li:k] дать течь
square [skwεə] прил. квадратный
stability [stəbılıtı] сущ. остойчивость
stabilize [steıb(ə)laız] гл. стабилизировать, делать
устойчивым
stable [steıbl] прил. стабильный, устойчивый
staff [sta:f] сущ. штат служащих;
служебный персонал
stage [steıdз] сущ. этап
stairway [stεəweı] сущ. лестница
stamp [stæmp] сущ. штамп, печать; пломба
или ярлык (на товаре);
гл. подавлять, уничтожать
~ out искоренять (что-л.), положить
конец (чему-л.)
stand [stænd] гл. (stood) стоять
~ by быть наготове
~ out [aut] удаляться (от берега)
standard [stændəd] сущ. норма; критерий; уровень

260
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starboard [sta:bo:d] прил. правый, правого борта


start [sta:t] сущ. начало;
гл. начинать; запускать
(машину, механизм)
state [steıt] сущ. государство, страна;
гл. заявлять; утверждать;
констатировать
statement [steıtmənt] сущ. заявление
station [steı∫(ə)n] сущ. место; пункт, станция
muster ~ [mΛstə] место сбора
stay [steı] гл. оставаться
steady [stedı] прил. постоянный
steal [sti:l] гл. (stole, stolen) воровать,
красть
steam [sti:m] гл. двигаться
steel [sti:l] сущ. сталь
~ work [wə:k] сущ. стальная конструкция
steer [stıə] гл. вести (судно)
stern [stə:n] сущ. корма
stick [stık] гл. (stuck) застрять
still [stıl] нареч. (все) еще, по-прежнему
stock [stok] сущ. запас (популяции)
stone [stəun] сущ. камень
stop [stop] сущ. остановка;
гл. останавливаться;
прекращать
storm [sto:m] сущ. шторм
stormy [sto:mı] прил. бурный; штормовой
stow [stəu] гл. укладывать
stowage [stəuıdз] сущ. укладка, складывание
stowaway [stəuəֽweı] сущ. безбилетный пассажир
straight [streıt] нареч. немедленно, сразу
strait [streıt] сущ. пролив

261
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strand [strænd] гл. сесть на мель


strength [streŋθ] сущ. сила
on the ~ of на основании чего-л.
stress [stres] сущ. давление; нагрузка
stricken [strık(ə)n] прил. потерпевший аварию
strict [strıkt] прил. строгий, суровый
strictly [strıktlı] нареч. строго; сурово,
беспощадно
strike [straık] гл. (struck) поражать; сражать;
ударяться
string [strıŋ] гл. (strung) натягивать
stringent [strındзənt] прил. строгий, обязательный
strong [stroŋ] прил. сильный; прочный,
крепкий
structural [strΛkt∫(ə)r(ə)l] прил. структурный;
конструктивный
structure [strΛkt∫ə] сущ. строение, структура;
конструкция, устройство
struggle [strΛgl] гл. биться; делать усилия;
стараться изо всех сил
~ free [fri:] выбраться на свободу
stuck [stΛk] прил. засевший, застрявший
study [stΛdı] сущ. изучение, исследование
submarine [ֽsΛbm(ə)ri:n] сущ. подводная лодка
submerged [səbmə:dзd] прил. затопленный;
находящийся под водой
submit [səbmıt] гл. представлять на
рассмотрение
subsea [sΛbsi:] прил. подводный
subsequent [sΛbsıkw(ə)nt] прил. последующий
substance [sΛbst(ə)ns] сущ. вещество
substantially [səbstæn∫(ə)lı] нареч. существенно, в
значительной степени

262
263

sub-zero [sΛbzıərəu] прил. ниже нуля


(о температуре)
succeed [səksi:d] гл. достигать цели,
преуспевать; иметь успех
successful [səksesful] прил. удачный, успешный
successfully [səksesfulı] нареч. успешно; благополучно
succumb [səkΛm] гл. стать жертвой (чего-л.)
such [sΛt∫] прил. такой
suck [sΛk] гл. откачивать
sudden [sΛd(ə)n] прил. внезапный,
неожиданный
suddenly [sΛd(ə)nlı] нареч. вдруг, внезапно,
неожиданно
suffer [sΛfə] гл. страдать; испытывать
sufficient [səfı∫(ə)nt] прил. достаточный
sufficiently [səfı∫(ə)ntlı] нареч. достаточно,
в достаточной мере
suggest [sədзest] гл. предлагать; наводить на
мысль
suicide [su:ısaıd] сущ. самоубийство
suit [sju:t] сущ. процесс, тяжба
suitcase [sju:tkeıs] сущ. чемодан
sulphur [sΛlfə] сущ. сера
sum [sΛm] гл. (up) резюмировать
summer [sΛmə] сущ. лето
sunken [sΛŋkən] прил. затонувший
supervise [su:pəvaız] гл. смотреть, наблюдать
(за чем-л.)
supervision [ֽsu:pəvıз(ə)n] сущ. наблюдение; контроль
supplies [səplaız] сущ. запасы
supply [səplaı] гл. снабжать (чем-л.)
support [səpo:t] гл. поддерживать

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264

supporter [səpo:tə] сущ. сторонник


suppose [səpəuz] гл. полагать, думать
supposition [ֽsΛpəzı∫(ə)n] сущ. предположение
sure [∫uə] прил. уверенный;
несомненный
make ~ [meık] убедиться; удостовериться
surely [∫uəlı] нареч. несомненно
surface [sə:fıs] сущ. поверхность
surround [səraund] гл. окружать
survey [sə:veı] сущ. осмотр
[səveı] гл. внимательно осматривать
survival [səvaıv(ə)l] сущ. выживание
survive [səvaıv] гл. выживать
survivor [səvaıvə] сущ. оставшийся в живых,
уцелевший
suspect [səspekt] гл. подозревать; думать,
полагать
suspend [səspend] гл. (временно) прекращать
suspended [səspendıd] прил. условный
suspicion [səspı∫(ə)n] сущ. подозрение
sustain [səsteın] гл. испытывать; переносить,
претерпевать
~ damage [dæmıdз] получать повреждение
sustainable [səsteınəbl] прил. (экологически)
устойчивый (не наносящий
ущерба окружающей среде)
sweep [swi:p] сущ. поиск;
гл. (swept) сносить
swell [swel] сущ. волнение, зыбь
swim [swım] гл. (swam, swum) плавать,
плыть
swimmer [swımə] сущ. пловец

264
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switch [swıt∫] гл. включать; выключать;


переключаться, менять
направление
~ on включать
symptom [sımptəm] сущ. симптом
system [sıstəm] сущ. система, устройство
public address ~ [pΛblık ədres] система оповещения
Tt
tackle [tækl] сущ. оборудование;
снаряжение; снасти; оснастка,
такелаж;
гл. приниматься (за что-л.)
take [teık] гл. (took, taken) брать
~ away [əweı] убирать; уносить
~ on water [wotə] набирать воду
~ over [əuvə] принимать (должность,
обязанности) от другого
~ place [pleıs] происходить, случаться
~ to зд. перебираться на
tale [teıl] сущ. рассказ; сказка
tall [to:l] прил. высокий
tank [tæŋk] сущ. танк; цистерна
ballast ~ [bæləst] балластная цистерна
fuel ~ [fju:əl] топливная цистерна
tanker [tæŋkə] сущ. танкер, нефтеналивное
судно
chemical(s) ~ [kemık(ə)l(z)] танкер для перевозки
химикатов
fuel ~ [fju:əl] танкер для перевозки топлива
oil ~ [oıl] нефтеналивное судно
task [ta:sk] сущ. задача
teach [ti:t∫] гл. (tought) учить, давать уроки
team [ti:m] сущ. команда, группа

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tear [tεə] гл. (tore, torn) разрывать,


отрывать
technical [teknık(ə)l] прил. технический
technique [tekni:k] сущ. методика, способ
tell [tel] гл. (told) говорить;
рассказывать
temperature [temp(ə)rət∫ə] сущ. температура
freezing ~ [fri:zıŋ] температура замерзания
temporarily [temp(ə)r(ə)rılı] нареч. временно, на время
terminal [tə:mın(ə)l] сущ. терминал; причал
terrify [terıfaı] гл. запугивать
territorial [ֽterıtorıəl] прил. территориальный
territory [terıt(ə)rı] сущ. территория
test [test] сущ. проверка
testing [testıŋ] сущ. испытание
thanks [θæŋks] сущ. благодарность,
признательность
~ to благодаря
theft [θeft] сущ. воровство, кража
then [ðen] нареч. затем; потом
therefore [ðεəfo:] нареч. поэтому, следовательно
thick [θık] прил. густой, плотный
thing [θıŋ] сущ. вещь, что-то
think [θıŋk] гл. (thought) думать, полагать,
считать
third [θə:d] прил. третий
though [ðəu] союз хотя, несмотря на
thought [θo:t] сущ. мышление
thousand [θauz(ə)nd] сущ. тысяча
threat [θret] сущ. опасность, угроза
threaten [θret(ə)n] гл. угрожать (чем-л.)
threatening [θret(ə)nıŋ] прил. угрожающий

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through [θru:] предл. через, сквозь, по,


внутри
throughout [θruaut] предл. на всем протяжении
throw [θrəu] гл. (threw, thrown) бросать
ticket [tıkıt] сущ. билет
tide [taıd] сущ. прилив и отлив
high ~ [haı] полная вода; прилив
tie [taı] гл. связывать
~ up швартоваться
tilt [tılt] гл. давать крен
timber [tımbə] сущ. лесоматериалы
time [taım] сущ. время; раз
in ~ вовремя
tiny [taını] прил. крошечный
tip [tıp] сущ. верхушка; оконечность;
гл. наклонять
~ over [əuvə] опрокидываться
tired [taıəd] прил. уставший, утомлённый
together [təgeðə] нареч. вместе
toll [təul] сущ. потери; жертвы
tomorrow [təmorəu] нареч. завтра
tonne [tΛn] сущ. метрическая тонна, тонна
too [tu:] нареч. слишком
top [top] сущ. верх;
прил. верхний; самый
главный; ведущий; основной;
гл. быть первым
top-heavy [ֽtophevı] прил. перевешивающий в
верхней части; неустойчивый
topic [topık] сущ. тема, предмет
обсуждения
torn [to:n] гл. прич. прош. вр. от tear
tornado [to:neıdəu] сущ. смерч, торнадо

267
268

torpedo [to:pi:dəu] сущ. торпеда


total [təut(ə)l] сущ. сумма; итог;
прил. общий, суммарный
tourism [tuərız(ə)m] сущ. туризм
tourist [tuərıst] сущ. путешественник, турист
tow [təu] гл. буксировать
~ off снимать с мели
towards [təwo:dz] предл. к, по направлению к
tower [tauə] сущ. башня
towering [tauərıŋ] прил. высокий,
вздымающийся;
возвышающийся
town [taun] сущ. город
toxic [toksık] прил. токсический, ядовитый
trace [treıs] сущ. след, признак
track [træk] гл. следить
trade [treıd] сущ. занятие, ремесло,
профессия; торговля;
прил. торговый
traffic [træfık] сущ. движение;
перевозки; торговля
tragedy [trædзədı] сущ. несчастье, трагедия
tragic [trædзık] прил. трагический
train [treın] гл. тренировать, готовить,
обучать
transfer [trænsfə:] гл. переносить; переправлять;
пересаживать
transport [trænspo:t] сущ. перевозка;
[trænspo:t] гл. перевозить,
транспортировать
transportation [ֽtrænspo:teı∫(ə)n] сущ. перевозка,
транспортировка
trap [træp] гл. ловить; задерживать

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traumatise [tro:mətaız] гл. травмировать


travel [træv(ə)l] гл. двигаться
trawl [tro:l] сущ. трал; траловая сеть;
гл. тралить, ловить рыбу
тралом
pair-trawl [pεə] вести промысел близнецовым
тралом
trawler [tro:lə] сущ. траулер
treat [tri:t] гл. лечить
treatment [tri:tmənt] сущ. лечение
tree [tri:] сущ. дерево
trial [traıəl] сущ. судебный процесс
tribe [traıb] сущ. племя
trigger [trıgə] гл. вызывать; приводить в
действие
trip [tri:p] сущ. путешествие; рейс
troop [tru:p] сущ. войска, армия,
вооружённые силы
tropical [tropık(ə)l] прил. тропический
trouble [trΛbl] сущ. затруднение, трудность
truck [trΛk] сущ. грузовой автомобиль
trust [trΛst] сущ. доверие
try [traı] гл. пытаться; проводить
расследование
tug [tΛg] сущ. буксирное судно
tugboat [tΛgbəut] сущ. буксирное судно, буксир
tuna [tju:nə] сущ. тунец
turn [tə:n] сущ. поворот;
гл. поворачивать(ся)
~ back [bæk] возвращаться
~ into превращаться в
~ on включать
~ out оказываться

269
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turnaround [tə:n(ə)raund] сущ. оборот (судна) с учетом


времени на погрузку
и выгрузку
twice [twaıs] нареч. дважды
twisted [twıstıd] прил. искривлённый,
покоробившийся
type [taıp] сущ. тип, вид
Uu
unable [Λneıbl] прил. неспособный
unaccounted [ֽΛnəkauntıd] прил. необъяснённый, неясный
unarmed [Λna:md] прил. безоружный;
невооружённый
uncertainty [Λnsə:t(ə)ntı] сущ. неуверенность,
нерешительность
unclear [Λnklıə] прил. непонятный, неясный
uncover [ΛnkΛvə] гл. обнаруживать
undated [Λndeıtıd] прил. недатированный, без
указания даты
under [Λndə] предл. под
undergo [ֽΛndəgəu] гл. подвергаться (чему-л.)
underground [Λndəgraund] прил. подземный
undersea [ֽΛndəsi:] прил. подводный
understand [ֽΛndəstænd] гл. (understood) понимать
underwater [ֽΛndəwo:tə] прил. подводный
underway [ֽΛndəweı] нареч. на ходу; в движении
unexpected [ֽΛnıkspektıd] прил. неожиданный,
непредвиденный
unexpectedly [ֽΛnıkspektıdlı] нареч. внезапно; неожиданно
unfold [Λnfəuld] гл. развертываться;
развиваться
unfortunate [Λnfo:t∫(ə)nət] прил. прискорбный;
заслуживающий сожаления

270
271

unfortunately [Λnfo:t∫(ə)nətlı] нареч. к несчастью,


к сожалению
unidentified [ֽΛnaıdentıfaıd] прил. неопознанный
unimportant [ֽΛnımpo:t(ə)nt] прил. несущественный,
незначительный
uninjured [Λnındзəd] прил. неповреждённый,
непострадавший
union [ju:nıən] сущ. союз
the Soviet ~ [səuvıət] Советский Союз
unique [ju:ni:k] прил. уникальный,
единственный в своем роде
unit [ju:nıt] сущ. подразделение;
соединение
unknown [Λnnəun] прил. неизвестный
unlawful [Λnlo:f(ə)l] прил. противозаконный
unleash [Λnli:∫] гл. высвобождать, давать волю
unless [ənles] союз если не, пока не
unlikely [Λnlaıklı] нареч. вряд ли, маловероятно
unload [Λnləud] гл. разгружать; выгружать
unmanned [Λnmænd] прил. безлюдный
unnamed [Λnneımd] прил. не имеющий имени,
безымянный
unnaturally [Λnnæt∫(ə)r(ə)lı] нареч. неестественно
unnecessarily [Λnnesəs(ə)rılı] нареч. незачем, излишне
unproductive [ֽΛnprədΛktıv] прил. непродуктивный
unprofitable [Λnprofıtəbl] прил. невыгодный,
неприбыльный
unregulated [Λnregjəleıtıd] прил. нерегулируемый,
неконтролируемый
unrig [Λnrıg] гл. демонтировать, снимать
unstable [Λnsteıbl] прил. неустойчивый

271
272

unsuccessful [ֽΛnsəksesful] прил. безуспешный,


неудачный
unsuccessfully [ֽΛnsəksesfulı] нареч. неудачно
unsupervised [Λnsu:pəvaızd] прил. безнадзорный
until [Λntıl] союз (до тех пор) пока (не)
unusually [Λnju:з(ə)lı] нареч. необычно
unveil [Λnveıl] гл. раскрывать; разоблачать
(тайну, планы и т. п.)
upper [Λpə] прил. верхний
upset [Λpset] гл. (upset) опрокидываться;
нарушать
upturned [Λptə:nd] прил. перевёрнутый
urge [ə:dз] гл. убеждать, советовать
urgent [ə:dз(ə)nt] прил. срочный
use [ju:z] сущ. применение,
использование; способность
пользования (чем-л.);
гл. использовать, пользоваться
usual [ju:з(ə)l] прил. обыкновенный, обычный
usually [ju:з(ə)lı] нареч. обычно
Vv
valid [vælıd] прил. действительный,
имеющий силу
value [vælju:] сущ. стоимость, цена;
рыночная цена
valve [vælv] сущ. клапан
safety ~ [seıftı] предохранительный клапан
variety [vəraıətı] сущ. ряд, множество
various [vεərıəs] прил. различный
vast [va:st] прил. громадный
vehicle [vi:ıkl] сущ. транспортное средство
verdict [və:dıkt] сущ. решение, приговор

272
273

version [və:∫(ə)n] сущ. версия


very [verı] прил. самый
vessel [ves(ə)l] сущ. судно
distressed ~ [dıstrest] судно, терпящее бедствие
fishing ~ [fı∫ıŋ] промысловое судно
merchant ~ [mət∫(ə)nt] торговое судно
motor ~ [məutə] теплоход
supply ~ [səplaı] судно снабжения
vest [vest] сущ. жилет
life ~ [laıf] спасательный жилет
vicinity [vısınətı] сущ. близость
victim [vıktım] сущ. пострадавший; жертва
view [vju:] сущ. поле зрения, видимость
vinegar [vınıgə] сущ. уксус
violate [vaıəleıt] гл. нарушать
violation [ֽvaıəleı∫(ə)n] сущ. нарушение
violent [vaıəl(ə)nt] прил. интенсивный, сильный,
резкий; неистовый
violently [vaıəl(ə)ntlı] нареч. очень, сильно
virus [vaı(ə)rəs] сущ. вирус
visibility [ֽvızıbılıtı] сущ. видимость
visible [vızəbl] прил. видимый, видный
vision [vıз(ə)n] сущ. видение; образ,
представление
visit [vızıt] сущ. посещение, визит;
гл. посещать
visor [vaızə] сущ. защитный козырёк
bow ~ [bau] сущ. носовой козырек
voice [voıs] сущ. голос
volume [volju:m] сущ. книга, том

273
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volunteer [ֽvoləntıə] сущ. человек, безвозмездно


выполняющий какую-л.
работу
vomiting [vomıtıŋ] сущ. рвота
voyage [voııdз] сущ. плавание, морское
путешествие
Ww
wait [weıt] сущ. ожидание;
гл. ждать
wake [weık] сущ. кильватер, попутный
поток
in the ~ of в кильватере, по следам
(событий)
гл. (woke, woken) будить
warlord [wo:lo:d] сущ. военный диктатор;
военачальник
warm [wo:m] прил. теплый
warn [wo:n] гл. предупреждать;
предостерегать
warning [wo:nıŋ] сущ. предупреждение
warrior [worıə] сущ. воин
warship [wo:∫ıp] сущ. военный корабль
wash [wo∫] гл. мыть
~ up прибивать к берегу, выносить
на берег
watch [wot∫] сущ. вахта;
гл. смотреть, наблюдать
watch-keeping [wot∫ki:pıŋ] сущ. несение вахты
water [wo:tə] сущ. вода
waterline [wo:təlaın] сущ. ватерлиния
watertight [wo:tətaıt] прил. водонепроницаемый
waterway [wo:təweı] сущ. водный путь; судоходное
русло, фарватер

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wave [weıv] сущ. волна


way [weı] сущ. путь; способ
~ out [aut] выход из положения
under ~ [Λndə] полным ходом
weak [wi:k] прил. слабый
weakly [wi:klı] нареч. слабо
weapon [wepən] сущ. оружие
weaponry [wepənrı] сущ. боевая техника
wear [wεə] гл. (wore, worn) носить
weather [weðə] сущ. погода
heavy ~ [hevı] штормовая погода
weathering [weð(ə)rıŋ] сущ. разрушение под
влиянием погодных условий
wedge [wedз] гл. втискиваться
week [wi:k] сущ. неделя
weekend [ֽwi:kend] сущ. выходные дни, уикэнд
weigh [weı] гл. весить
~ down [daun] нагружать
weld [weld] гл. сваривать
well [wel] прил. здоровый
well-built [ֽwelbılt] прил. крепкий; хорошо
сложённый
well-known [ֽwelnəun] прил. знаменитый, известный
well-marked [ֽwelma:kt] прил. чётко обозначенный
well-organized [ֽwelo:g(ə)naızd] прил. хорошо организованный
western [westən] прил. западный
whale [weıl] сущ. кит;
гл. вести китобойный
промысел
whatever [wotevə] прил. какой бы ни; любой
wheat [wi:t] сущ. пшеница
wheel [wi:l] сущ. штурвал

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wheelhouse [wi:lhaus] сущ. рулевая рубка


where [wεə] нареч. где; куда; откуда
whether [weðə] союз ли
while [waıl] союз пока, в то время как
whilst [waılst] союз пока
whirlpool [wə:lpu:l] сущ. водоворот
who [hu:] мест. который, кто
whoever [huevə] мест. кто бы ни
whose [hu:z] мест. чей, чьё, чьи, чья
wide [waıd] прил. широкий
widely [waıdlı] нареч. в значительной
степени, широко
wide-ranging [ֽwaıdreındзıŋ] прил. широкомасштабный
widespread [waıdspred] прил. широко
распространённый
wife [waıf] сущ. жена
wildlife [waıldlaıf] сущ. живая природа
willingly [wılıŋlı] нареч. охотно, с готовностью
winch [wınt∫] сущ. лебёдка
wind [wınd] сущ. ветер
high ~ [haı] сильный ветер
gale force ~ [geıl fo:s] штормовой ветер
window [wındəu] сущ. окно; иллюминатор
windy [wındı] прил. ветреный
wish [wı∫] гл. желать, хотеть
withdraw [wıðdro:] гл. (withdrew, withdrawn)
отказываться; удаляться,
уходить
within [wıðın] предл. в, внутри
withstand [wıðstænd] гл. (withstood) выдержать
(что-л.)
witness [wıtnəs] сущ. свидетель, очевидец

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bear ~ [bεə] быть свидетелем


woken [wəuk(ə)n] гл. прич. прош. вр. от wake
word [wə:d] сущ. известие, сообщение
work [wə:k] сущ. конструкция,
сооружение;
гл. работать; быть
эффективным
~ out решать
workload [wə:kləud] сущ. рабочая нагрузка, объём
работы
world [wə:ld] сущ. мир
worldwide [ֽwə:ldwaıd] прил. распространённый во
всём мире
worried [wΛrıd] прил. озабоченный
worry [wΛrı] гл. беспокоиться, волноваться
worse [wə:s] нареч. хуже
worst [wə:st] прил. наихудший
worth [wə:θ] прил. имеющий стоимость
worthless [wə:θləs] прил. бесполезный
wound [wu:nd] гл. ранить
wreck [rek] сущ. авария, гибель;
остов разбитого судна;
остатки кораблекрушения;
гл. терпеть крушение
wreckage [rekıdз] сущ. крушение, гибель
Yy
yacht [jot] сущ. яхта
yard [ja:d] сущ. склад открытого
хранения
year [jıə] сущ. год
yellow [jeləu] прил. жёлтый
yesterday [jestədeı] нареч. вчера
yet [jet] нареч. ещё, всё ещё

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young [jΛŋ] прил. молодой


Zz
zone [zəun] сущ. зона; область, район

Abbreviations
EU European Union ЕС, Европейский союз
GMT Greenwich Mean Time Гринвичское время, всемирное время,
(среднее) время по Гринвичу
IMO International Maritime ММО, Международная морская
Organisation организация
MAIB Maritime Accident Бюро по расследованию морских
Investigation Branch аварий
MCA the Maritime and Управление мореплавания и
Coastguard Agency береговой охраны Великобритании
MoD the Ministry of Defence Министерство обороны
MSC Mediterranean Shipping Средиземноморская пароходная
Company компания
NATO North Atlantic Treaty НАТО, Североатлантический союз
Organization
RAF Royal Air Force Военно-воздушные силы
Великобритании
RNAS Royal Naval Air Королевская Морская Воздушная
Service(s) Служба
RNLI Royal National Lifeboat Королевское общество спасания на
Institution водах (добровольное; работает в
контакте со службой береговой
охраны [Coastguard Service])
UK United Kingdom Соединенное Королевство
Великобритании и Северной
Ирландии
UN United Nations ООН, Организация Объединённых
Наций

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USS United States Ship военный корабль США

References

1. 1. A large Anglo-Russian dictionary: 2 t./ed. and r. Galperina.-m.: Russian,


1972-2 t.
2. 2. Russian-English Dictionary of maritime/AGG ed. n. m. Elagina.-Tallinn:
"Mary", 2000 . - with 782.
3. 3. Favorov, VP maritime English-Russian dictionary/p. Favorov; edited by w.
p. Stepanov.-m.: Marine Engineering Service, 1996 . - with 736.
4. 4. Favorov, p. a. English-Russian marine technical dictionary/p. a. Favorov.-
m.: Voenizdat, 1977. - 932 c.
5. Fergusson, R. The Penguin Dictionary of English Synonyms and Antonyms /
R. Fergusson. – Revised Edition. – Market House Books Limited, 1992. – 442 p.
6. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – 5th Edition. – 2006. – 1949 p.

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