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Communication - the act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or OHP, LCD projectors
behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, Information Age (1900s-2000s)
thoughts, feelings, etc., to someone else. The Internet paved the way for faster communication and the creation of the
NON-VERBAL social network. People advanced the use of microelectronics with the
COMMUNICATION invention of personal computers, mobile devices, and wearable technology.
• Signs Moreover, voice, image, sound and data are digitalized.
• Symbols
• Colors
• Gestures Four (4) Skills to be Information Literate
• body language
• facial expressions
• Oral
• Written
7 Elements of communication Republic Act 10173
1. Source DATA PRIVACY Act of 2012
2. Message (National Privacy Commission)
3. Encoding people whose personal information is collected, stored, and processed are
4. Channel called data subjects. Organizations who deal with your personal details,
5. Decoding whereabouts, and preferences are dutybound to observe and respect your
6. Receiver data privacy rights.
7. Feedback If you feel that your personal data has been misused, maliciously disclosed,
INFORMATION or improperly disposed, or if any of the rights discussed here have been
 data, knowledge derived from study, experience, or instruction, violated, the data subject has a right to file a complaint with us.
signals or symbols 1. RIGHT TO BE INFORMED
 knowledge of specific events or situations The Right to be Informed is a most basic right as it empowers you as a data
Media messages contain “texts” and “subtexts.” subject to consider other actions to protect your data privacy and assert your
The text is the actual words, pictures and/or sounds in a media message. other privacy rights.
The subtext is the hidden and underlying meaning of the message. 2. RIGHT TO ACCESS
Information Literacy you have a right to obtain from an organization a copy of any information
• The ability to know when there is a need for information, while at relating to you that they have on their computer database and/or manual
the same time, being able to identify, locate and effectively use filing system. It should be provided in an easy-to-access format,
sources of information. accompanied with a full explanation executed in plain language.
Technological Literacy 3. RIGHT TO OBJECT
• The ability to use the appropriate technological tool in a You can exercise your right to object if the personal data processing involved
responsible manner to communicate, solve a problem, analyze is based on consent or on legitimate interest.
data, and acquire new learning. 4. RIGHT TO ERASURE OR BLOCKING
A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher Under the law, you have the right to suspend, withdraw or order the blocking,
using Morse code (or a printing telegraph operator using plain text) was removal or destruction of your personal data.
known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a 5. RIGHT TO DAMAGES
submarine telegraph cable, often shortened to a cable or a wire. You may claim compensation if you suffered damages due to inaccurate,
Pre-Industrial Age (Before 1700s) incomplete, outdated, false, unlawfully obtained or unauthorized use of
People discovered fire, developed paper from plants, and forged weapons personal data, considering any violation of your rights and freedoms as data
and tools with stone, bronze, copper and iron. subject.
Cave paintings (35,000 BC) COMMISSION
Clay tablets in Mesopotamia (2400 BC) If you feel that your personal information has been misused, maliciously
Papyrus in Egypt (2500 BC) disclosed, or improperly disposed, or that any of your data privacy rights
Acta Diurna in Rome (130 BC) have been violated, you have a right to file a complaint with the NPC.
Dibao in China (2nd Century) 7. THE RIGHT TO DATA PORTABILITY
Codex in the Mayan Region (5th Century) Data portability allows you to manage your personal data in your private
Printing Press using Wood Blocks (220 AD) device, and to transmit your data from one personal information controller to
Industrial Age (1700s-1930s) another. As such, it promotes competition that fosters better services for the
People used the power of steam, developed machine tools, established iron public.
production, and the manufacturing of various products (including books Digital Immigrant:
through the printing press). - Adopters of the web technologies
Example: Digital Native:
Printing press for mass production (19th century) - born during or after the digital age
Newspaper- The London Gazette (1640) Types of Media
Motion picture photography/projection (1890) • Print Media
Commercial motion pictures (1913) • Broadcast Media
Motion picture with sound (1926) • Film/ Cinema
Electronic Age (1930s-1980s) • Video Games (Digital Games)
The invention of the transistor ushered in the electronic age. People • New Media
harnessed the power of transistors that led to the transistor radio, electronic New media - digital media that are interactive, incorporate two-way
circuits, and the early computers. communication.
Example: Social Media- forms of electronic communication (such as web sites)
Transistor Radio through which people create online communities to share information, ideas,
Television (1941) personal messages, etc.
Large electronic computers- i.e. EDSAC (1949) and UNIVAC 1 (1951) SIX KEY CONCEPTS IN MEDIA ANALYSIS
Mainframe computers - i.e. IBM 704 (1960) 1. All media messages are “constructed.”
Personal computers - i.e. Hewlett- Packard 9100A (1968), Apple 1 (1976)
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2. Each medium has different characteristics, strengths, and a unique Basic Camera Movements
“language” of construction.
3. Media messages are produced for particular purposes.
4. All media messages contain embedded values and points of view.
5. People use their individual skills, beliefs and experiences to construct their
own meanings from media messages.
6. Media and media messages can influence beliefs, attitudes, values,
behaviors, and the democratic process.
Mass Media - refers to channels of communication that involve transmitting
information in some way, shape or form to large numbers of people.
Media Effects - are the intended or unintended consequences of what the
mass media does.

Indigenous - native; local; originating or produced naturally in a particular

Indigenous Knowledge - knowledge that is unique to a specific culture or
society; most often it is not written down.
Indigenous Communication - transmission of information through local
channels or forms. It is a means by which culture is preserved, handed down,
and adapted.
Indigenous Media and Information - original information created by a local COPYRIGHT - A set of rights granted to the author or creator of a work, to
group of people. This also refers to content about indigenous people that restrict others’ ability to copy, redistribute and reshape the content.
may be distributed through dominant forms of media or through forms of FAIR USE - The limitation and to the exclusive right granted by copyright law
communication unique to their people group. to the author of a creative work.
Forms of indigenous media and their local examples: PLAGIARISM - The act of taking another person's similar intellectual
- Folk or traditional media products as one's own without consent.
- Gatherings and social organizations NETIQUETTE
- Direct observation Rule 1. Remember the human
- Records - may be written, carved, or oral Rule 2. Adhere to the same standards of behavior online that you follow in
- Oral instruction real life
LIBRARY Rule 3. Know where you are in cyberspace
- place where books are kept: a room, building, or institution where Rule 4. Respect other people’s time and bandwidth
a collection of books or other research materials is kept Rule 5. Make yourself look good online
- collection of things: a collection of books, newspapers, records, Rule 6. Share expert knowledge
tapes, or other materials that are valuable for research Rule 7. Help keep flame wars under control
TYPES OF LIBRARIES Rule 8. Respect other people’s privacy
- academic, public, school and special. Rule 9. Don’t abuse your power
MEDIA INFORMATION LANGUAGES Rule 10. Be forgiving of other people’s mistakes
the technical and symbolic ingredients or codes and conventions that media DIGITAL DIVIDE
and information professionals may select and use in an effort to Inequality between groups in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of ICT.
communicate ideas, information, and languages. COMPUTER ADDICTION
CODES • The excessive use of computers;
tools that are used to construct or suggest meaning in media forms and • To the extent that it interferes with daily life.
SYMBOLIC CODES, WRITTEN CODES, TECHNICAL CODES Bullying that takes place online, or using electronic technology.
the accepted ways of using media codes that are closely connected to the • Is a social identity that an Internet user establishes in online
audience expectations of a media product communities
MESSAGES - Address legal issues concerning online interactions and the Internet.
People responsible for the circulation of media and information
the group of consumers for whom a media text was constructed as well as
anyone else exposed to the text
People who are involved in media and information such as libraries, archives,
museums, and internet; may also include media professionals, media owners
and managers, advertisers, and state
people engaged in the process of creating and putting together media
content to make a finished media product

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