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CHAPTER 3: Cell Structures and Their Functions - Primarily made up of phospholipids and proteins

+ cholesterol and carbohydrates

Cell - Fluid-mosaic model, model of its structure
- Determine the form and functions of the human body - Polar head, contains phosphate and is
- Human body is composed of trillion cells hydrophilic = water-loving
- Acts as a host to countless other organisms - Non-polar tail, contains fatty acid and is
- Basic living unit of all organisms hydrophobic = water-fearing
- 1/5 of the size of the smallest dot you can make with - Cholesterol, adds strength and stability by
a sharp pencil limiting the amount of movement of phospholipids
- Highly organized unit - Carbohydrates, bounds to some protein
molecules to modify their functions
(insert venn diagram of eukaryote and prokaryote) - Membrane channels, involved with the
movement of substances
Organelles - Receptor molecules, part of intercellular system
- Literally means little organs that enables recognition and coordination of the
- Specialized structures that perform specific functions activities of cells.
- Inside the cell (higher concentration): enzymes,
(insert table of organelles and their location and function) glycogen, K+
- Outside the cell (lower concentration): Na+, Ca2+,
Functions of the Cell Cl-
1. Cell metabolism and energy use - Passive membrane transport, does not energy
o Metabolism, chemical reactions that o Diffusion
occur within cells  moving from an area of high
o Energy is used for cell activities concentration of a solute to an
(synthesis of new molecules, muscle area of lower concentration
contraction, and heat production, which  Solution = solute + solvent
helps maintain body temperature. (predominant)
 Results from natural, constant
2. Synthesis of molecules motion of all solutes in a solution
o Cells synthesize proteins, nucleic acids,  Concentration Gradient,
and lipids difference in the concentration of
a solute in a solvent between two
3. Communication points divided by the distance
o Cells produce and receive chemicals and between it
electrical signals that allow them to  moving from an area of high
communicate with one another concentration of a solute to an
area of lower concentration
4. Reproduction and inheritance  It is said to be steeper if the
o Each cell contains a copy of the genetic concentration difference is large
information of the individual and/or the distance is small
o Sperm cells and oocytes  Substances move down = high to
Cell Membrane  Substances move up = low to
- Aka plasma membrane high
- Outermost component of a cell  Leak Channels, constantly allow
- Selectively permeable ions to pass through
- Encloses the cytoplasm and forms boundary  Gated Channels, limit the
between material inside and outside the cell. movement of ions across the
- Extracellular substances, stuffs outside the cell membrane by opening and
- Intracellular substances, stuffs inside the cell closing
- Supports the cell contents
- The phospholipid bilayer acts as a selective o Osmosis
barrier that determines what moves in and out the
 Diffusion of water (universal  Cystic Fibrosis, genetic disorder
solvent) across a selectively that affects the active transport of
permeable membrane Cl- into cells
 Water, a polar molecule that is  Sodium-Potassium Pump,
small enough to move across the moves Na+ out of cells and K+
membrane into cells
 It is important because large o Secondary Active Transport
volume changes caused by water  Cotransport, same direction
movement can disrupt normal  Countertransport, opposite
cell function direction
 Water diffuses toward areas of o Endocytosis
high solute concentration and  Uptake of material thorugh the
dilute those solutes cell membrane by the formation
 Osmotic pressure, force of a vesicle
required to prevent the  Cholesterol and growth factors
movement of water. It is the can be taken into a cell by
measure of the tendency of water Receptor-mediated
to move endocytosis
 Hydrostatic pressure, produced  Phagocytosis (cell-eating), solid
by the weight of the solution particles are ingested. WBC take
 Osmotic pressure = up and destroy harmful
hydrostatic pressure substance that have entered the
 The greater the concentration of body
a solution = greater its osmotic  Pinocytosis (cell-drinking),
pressure = greater the tendency smaller vesicles are formed and
for water to move they contain liquid rather than
 Hypotonic, ↓ c. of solutes and ↑ solid particles
c. of water meaning solution has  Secretory vesicles, membrane
less tone or osmotic pressure = bound sacs
swells o Exocytosis
 Lysis, a process in which cell  Allows the release of materials
can be ruptured if swelling is from cells
enough -
 Isotonic, c. of solutes is equal to
c. of water = neither shrinks nor
 Hypertonic, ↑ c. of solutes and ↓
c. of water = shrinks (crenation)

o Facilitated Diffusion
 Carrier-mediated transport
 High to low concentration

- Active membrane transport, requires energy

o Active Transport
 Carrier-mediated transport
 low to high concentration
 malfunction of active transport
can lead to serious health