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Morga has explained about the locations of the Philippines before.

And was agreed by rizal at some point


he opposed. They stated there the exact names of the islands that the Philippines have before and of
how many of the islands still exist until today and on how the evolution of names and how the names
faded through the years. It also talks about the latitude and the longitude of the Philippines and stated
the exact number of inhabitants that a certain islands have. (page 1)

The annotations of rizal talks about how the people were looking for this lost island called tandaya
where spaniards were talking of islands, while the Indios were talking about man. This implies that the
spaniards before that they were naming the places with a person's name. This also talks about the
language that they used before in the country which is called SiigbH and tattoes were already present
that has been used by the Japanese until the time of rizal. (Page2)

At some point, the time have come when Government has to order to refuse the traditions and acted
cruelly and inhuman. This also tells that Cagayan was once a place which the people inhibited there
rebelled two times. It also stated the types of clothing that men and women were wearing before the
advent of the Spaniards in the land which were made of Cangan fabric and the origin of colors that
Mindanawans were using until today. This also stated that the type of clothing depends on the bravery of
men or the rank or level in the society. That the longer the bahag the braver the men are. And Potongs
means to crown are also one sign if a man have killed a lot according to the colors he wears. And colors
depends on the number of the men he killed. (page 5)

This also talks about the accessories that they were wearing before. Like in Zambales, they shave their
heads closely from the middle to the forehead and their women wears sayas. Its also emphasized that
Bisayans use robes which can be seen up until now and the way Bisayans were have an analogy to the
coifdure and kimono of the Japanese. (Page 6)

This talks about the difference the prominent men and women and ordinary men and women like how
they dress, how neat they are, how they prepare theirselves everyday, the hygiene they use to keep their
bodies away from dirt and stinks. Unlike the prominent people, ordinary people live the simpliest life and
dont mind if they'd get sick or what as long as they are comfortable and they raise animals and does all
the chores like most of the Filipinos are doing up until now. (page 7)

On page 248 of Morga’s staetement that “The natives of these Islands drink this liquor in the day and
night without end in their meetings, weddings, feasts and circles, accompanied by singing by a few who
are so inclined and who come to drink and have a good time, although this habit does not carry with it,
according to their estimation, any dishonor or infamy.” Then Jose Rizal annotated that “It must be
admitted that the Filipino people have improved in this regard, thanks perhaps to the wine monopoly.
Today hardly can one see in the provinces one or so drunkard and in Manila only foreign sailors are given
to this vice. That drunkenness, however, was not dangerous, for Colin says: “But rarely do they become
furious or wild; rather, after drinking, they preserve proper respect and circumspection. They only
become more gay and talkative and say some amusing things. But it is known that none of them after
leaving a banquet, even at a late hour of the night, fail to reach their home. And if they offer to buy or
sell, and touch and weigh gold or silver, they do it with so much circumspection that neither does their
hand tremble nor do they make a mistake.” Rizal’s annotation could be classified as social. Rizal, agreeing
to Morga only implies that Filipino natives love to socialize and spend a day with their love ones

Another classification is to cite one last example, Morga mentioned on page 252 something about having
ten or twelve varieties of bananas which are very tasteful". Rizal made an annotation saying “Buzeta and
Bravo say that there are more than 57 species” which has some kind o& definitive and correctional
context to it. All these annotations serve supplement Morga’s text and bring light to the
misunderstanding caused by Morga’s text and clarify some confusion with regards to the texts.

Rizal’s footnote in page 257 which states “Not quicklime but very hydrated lime”, contradicts morga’s
statement saying “This nut called bonga is cut lengthwise into slices and placed inside the rolled betel
leaf with a bit of very wet quick-lime.” Rizal being known as a plant lover and a botanist, he seemed to
correct Morga’s error in his statement.

Moving on to another classification, morga stating the native’s economic status in page 260 which states,
“Throughout these Islands are certain places where there is an abundance of rich gold deposits and
other mineral products which are collected by the natives through washing or placer-mining. However,
after the Spaniards had settled in the land, the natives became more lax in the mining of gold”. Then rizal
annotated that “The Indies on seeing that wealth aroused the capacity of the enco- menderos and
soldiers, abandoned the work in the mines, and priest-historians relate that, in order to save them from
vexations, they recommended to them such procedure. However, according to Colin, “informed from
good sources” in his time was obtained from the Islands the value ofpesos in gold on an average
annually after 80 years of discouragement and abandonment. According to “a manuscript of an old and
serious person of these Islands, the first tribute of only the provinces of Ilocos and Pangasinan amounted
to 100,500 pesos. One encomendero alone in 1587 sent from Manila on the ship Santa Ana that
Cavendish seized, 3.0 taels of gold.”

Rizal’s annotations on Morga’s writings show that there has been rich culture and traditions exiting in the
Philippines even before the Spaniards or Westerners came. This is showed in his annotation in page 282
regarding the relationship of Filipinos from different classes which differs from that of the relationship of
slaves and their masters in the West. On the same page, Rizal also made an annotation about the
weddings in pre-Spanish colonialism wherein weddings done in the Philippines are different from that
those on the West in a way that in the Philippines, children do not neglect their parents after the
wedding which is a contradiction to some cases happening in the Western countries. Also, with regards
to weddings, Rizal’s annotations on page 282 and 283 shows the role of women in this union. He stated
that unlike in the west where women are treated differently in marriage and becomes a burden to the
husband, in the Philippines, women are treated with high respect and as a companion of the man to
help him in his daily dealings. Filipino women are treated as someone of value that men should exercise
paying Dowry as a compensation to the loss of the parents. In connection to customs and traditions in
marriage, Rizal also made annotations on page 284 regarding the separation of Filipino couple. He stated
that due to contacts with other people, Filipinos have lost some of the existing customs they had. An
example is when there is adultery, the guilty spouse would pay a certain amount of money and he/she
will then be forgiven and retain his honor. With regards to the Filipinos’ will on who will inherit the
position and wealth of a deceased person, Rizal made mention on page 285 that even before Spanish
came, Filipinos already had an established way in dealing with this matter and that the coming of
Christianism only improved such practices by having notaries, stamp papers and others. Filipinos also
show high value in moral sensibility as shown in the annotations of Rizal on page 287 and 288 which
talks about the punishments done by the Filipinos regarding offenses and how they would choose to be
beaten rather than insulted by words as what the Spaniards commonly do. Filipinos put much weight on
the meaning of a word rather than the force of whipping that they would choose the latter. However,
Spaniards did not understand did sensibility of the Filipinos that they regarded them as animals.

Rizal wanted to convey in his annotations of the Chapter 8 of Morga’s Sucesos Islas Filipinas that there
has already been an existing, established, and flourishing customs, traditions, antiquity, government and
other aspects in the Philippines. He wanted to show how the Filipinos were before the coming of the
Spaniards to open the minds of the Filipinos on the effects brought about by the Spanish colonization of
the country. Through this, Rizal hopes that Filipinos can then fairly judge how much progress the country
has been into during the Spanish colonization. He also hoped to awaken the consciousness of the
Filipinos about the past so that those of the things established at present which are falsified or are
already altered and are influenced by Spaniards would be more understood.