Determination of the Steady-State Response of Viscoelastically Supported Rectangular Orthotropic Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite Difference Method

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Determination of the Steady-State Response of Viscoelastically Supported Rectangular Orthotropic Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite Difference Method

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Rectangular Orthotropic Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite

Difference Method

DOI: 10.1177/1077546305061037

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Determination of the Steady-State Response of

Viscoelastically Supported Rectangular Orthotropic

Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite

Difference Method

GÖKHAN ALTINTAŞ

1

MUHIDDIN BAGCI

Department of Civil Engineering, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye, Manisa, Turkey

(gokhan.altintas@bayar.edu.tr)

(Received 7 July 20042 accepted 19 September 2005)

Abstract: A method based on a variational procedure in conjunction with a finite difference method is used

to examine the free vibration characteristics and steady-state response to a sinusoidally varying force applied

orthotropic elastic rectangular plate carrying masses. Using the energy-based finite difference method, the

problem reduced to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. Due to the significance of the fundamen-

tal natural frequency of the plate, its variation is investigated with respect to the mechanical properties of the

plate material, the translational spring coefficient of the supports, the mass distribution, the mass locations

and the quantity of mass. The steady-state response of the viscoelastically supported plates was also inves-

tigated numerically for the damping coefficient of the supports and the force distribution in addition to the

characteristics of the plate system. Many new results are presented and the validity of the present approach

is demonstrated by comparing the results with other solutions based on the Kirchhoff–Love plate theory.

Key Words: Damping, mass loaded plates, energy-based finite difference, steady state

1. INTRODUCTION

There have been many works on the natural frequency of a rectangular plate in the literature.

For a uniform simply supported rectangular plate carrying a concentrated mass, Greshgorin

(1933) presented an analytic solution and Amba-Rao (1964) presented another analytic so-

lution, which was later extended by Magrab (1968). The free vibration of a rectangular plate

carrying a concentrated mass was studied by Cha (1997). Gorman (1990) investigated the

free vibrations of plates resting on uniform elastic edge supports. Laura and Gutierrez (1981)

studied the transverse vibrations of thin, elastic plates with concentrated masses and inter-

nal elastic supports. Elastically restrained plates arbitrarily loaded with springs and masses

were studied by Li and Daniels (2002). Wu and Lao (1997) used an analytical and numerical

combined method (ANCM) for the free vibration analysis of a rectangular plate with any

number of point masses and translational springs. The effect of distributed mass on plate

vibration behavior was studied by Wong (2002). Kopmaz and Telli (2002) investigated the

1 2005 SAGE Publications

1

Figures 1, 3 appear in color online: http://jvc.sagepub.com

1

1536 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

free vibrations of a mass loaded plate for different mass distributions, aspect ratios and mass

locations. They also obtained modal surfaces and related nodal lines. Romanelli and Laura

(1981) have reported on the forced transverse vibrations of a simply supported rectangu-

lar orthotropic plate in cases where the force acts over a plate subdomain. Yamada et al.

(1985) studied the free vibrations of elastically point-supported plates and forced vibrations

of viscoelastically point-supported isotropic plates.

The energy-based finite difference technique has been applied by several researchers to

examine the vibration characteristics of plates. Aksu and Felemban (1992) and Aksu and

Al-Kaabi (1987) used this technique for the free vibration analysis of plates. Using the same

technique, a forced vibration analysis of Kelvin–Voigt-type viscoelastic supported plates was

investigated by Alt3ntaş (2003). Kocatürk and Alt3ntaş (2003a, 2003b) extended the problem

of Yamada et al. (1985) using the finite difference technique in the case of anisotropic plates.

Using the same procedure, the parametric instability of rectangular plates using the energy-

based finite difference method was also investigated by Singh and Dey (1992). A review of

the related literature provided above has revealed that this problem has not been obviously

addressed. The forced vibration of viscoelastically supported distributed mass loaded plates

has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of variation of the distributed mass area on

the characteristics of free and forced vibrations have been investigated. In the case of forced

vibration, the effects of variation of the distributed force area were also examined. As such,

the plate vibration problem was considered in a more comprehensive way where the behavior

of the plates can be understood. The problems considered were solved within the framework

of the Kirchhoff–Love hypothesis. The convergence study was based on the numerical values

obtained for various mesh sizes. In the numerical examples, the natural frequency parameters

and steady-state responses to a sinusoidally varying force were assessed for the fundamental

mode. The accuracy of the results was partially shown by comparing previously published

accurate results for plates based on thin plate theory. The advantages of the present method

based on the variational principles in conjunction with the finite difference formulation are

simplicity in use, applicability to various geometries and boundary conditions, and capacity

to yield accurate results even with a relatively small number of equations.

2. ANALYSIS

Consider a viscoelastically supported mass loaded plate with side lengths L X , L Y and thick-

ness h subjected to a distributed force as shown in Figure 1. Translational stiffness and

damping coefficients were assigned equally along all edges. The elastic symmetry axis of

the plate material coincides with the O X and OY axes. Therefore, the plate is specially or-

thotropic. Given W is the lateral displacement of the mid-surface of the plate corresponding

to coordinate Z, the maximum strain energy of the plate is

1X 12

L L Y 12 23

1 42 3 42

DX X 42W 42W 42W 42W

U 2 4 25 Y X 4e

2 4 X2 4 X 2 4Y 2 4Y 2

32L X 123 32L Y 123

3 42 5

D66 42W

4 4 dXdY (1)

DX X 4 X 2 4Y 2

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1537

1X 12

L L Y 12 3

1 4 11

6h72 M 5 72

T 2 W dXdY 4 W 2 dA5 (2)

2 2

32L X 123 32L Y 123 A5

where M 5 is the additional mass per unit area. D X X , DY Y , and D66 are expressed as follows

6 7 6 7 6 7

D X X 2 E 5X h 3 1128 DY Y 2 E Y5 h 3 1128 D66 2 G XY h 3 112 (3)

6 7 6 7

5 XY E Y 2 5 Y X E X 8 e 2 E Y 1E X 8 E 5X 2 E X 1 1 3 5 2Y X 1e 8 E Y5 2 E X e1 1 3 5 2Y X 1e 9 (4)

The additive strain energy and dissipation function of per viscoelastic support is

1 5 1 5

Fs 2 k W Si2 8 D 2 c 2W6 Si 32 (5)

2 2

where k 5 and c5 are the spring coefficient and the damping coefficient of the viscoelastic

support, respectively, E X and E Y are Young’s moduli in the O X and OY directions, respec-

tively, and 5 Y X is the Poisson’s ratio for the strain response in the X direction due to an

applied stress in the Y direction. The total energy of whole plate can be found by summing

1

1538 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

of the entire area of the plate with supports and external force. The potential energy from the

external force is

11

55

Fe 2 3FE X T W E dA (6)

55

A

where F E X T and W E are the external force and the corresponding displacement, respectively.

Introducing the following non-dimensional parameters

X Y a 8

x2 8 y 2 8

2 8 2x8

7 y8 t3 2 2x8 y3 ei7t 2 W1a8 i2 31 (7)

a b b

8

DX X 1 6 72

Um8n 2 7 m318n 3 27 m8n 4 7 m418n

2

x 4

2

5 Y X 6 76 7

4 7 m318n 3 27 m8n 4 7 m418n 7 m8n31 3 27 m8n 4 7 m8n41

x y

2 2

4

D66 6 7

4 6 72 7 m318n31 3 7 m418n31 3 7 m318n41 4 7 m418n41

D X X 4x 2 y 2

9

e

3 6 72

4 7 m8n31 3 27 m8n 4 7 m8n41 xy (8a)

y 4

6ha 3 b 6 2 a 4 M 67

Tm8n 2 7 m8n xy 4 xy (8b)

2 2

1 2 5 2

Fs 2 a k 7 m8n (8c)

2

1 2 5 6 6 72

D 2 a c 7 m8n (8d)

2

Fe 2 3a Q 7 m8n 9 (8e)

The derivative terms were approximated in terms of discrete displacements at grid points by

using the following finite difference operators:

3 4

4 2
1 6 7

2
m318n 3 2
m8n 4
m418n

4x2 m8n x 2

3 4

4 2
1 6 7

2
m8n31 3 2
m8n 4
m8n41

4y 2 m8n y 2

3 4

4 2
1 6 7

2
m318n31 3
m418n31 3
m318n41 4
m418n41 9 (9)

4 x4 y m8n 4xy

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1539

The energy for the whole plate can be found by summing over the entire area of the plate.

Thus

m21 n21 m21 n21

where N is taken as the number of mesh points in each of the two directions in the plate

region, and N 9 N is the total number of the area elements on the plate.

The governing differential equation as obtained from the Lagrange equation is given as

3 4

d 4T 4 2T 3 U 3 4D 4 Fs 4 Fe

3 4 4 4 20 (11)

dt 4 67 m8n 4 7 m8n 6

4 7 m8n 4

7 m8n 4 7 m8n

where 7 m8n is the m8 nth discrete displacement and the overdot denotes the partial derivative

with respect to time. Introducing the following non-dimensional parameters,

k j a3 cj 6h72 a 4 Qa

j 2 8 j 2 8 8 2 2 8 q2 (12)

bD11 6h D11 D11 D11

and remembering that 2x7 1 8 x2 8 t3 2 2x1 8 x2 3ei7t , which was given in equation (7), by

using equation (11) for the mesh point m,n with equations (8a)–(8e) results in the following

expression:

8

4 45 Y X

x 4 x 2 y 2

45 Y X

4

3 DY Y

3 2 m318n 3 2 m8n 4 m418n 3 3 2 m8n31 3 2 m8n 4 m8n41 3

x 2 y 2 y 4 D X X

9 8

22 2

3 m8n xy 4 2 m428n 3 2 m418n 4 m8n 3

x 4

9

25 Y X

x 2 y 2

8

2

4 2 m8n 3 2 m318n 4 m328n 3

x 4

9

25 Y X

x 2 y 2

8

25 Y X

x 2 y 2

9

2

3 DY Y

4 2 m8n32 3 2 m8n31 4 m8n 3 xy

y 4 D X X

1

1540 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

8

25 Y X

x 2 y 2

9

2

3 DY Y

4 2 m8n 3 2 m8n41 4 m8n42 3 xy

y 4 D X X

8 9

D66

4 2 m328n32 3 m328n 3 m8n32 4 m8n 3 xy

x 2 y 2 2D X X

8 9

D66

4 3 2 2 2 m328n 3 m328n42 3 m8n 4 m8n42 3 xy

x y 2D X X

8 9

D66

4 3 2 2 2 m8n32 3 m8n 3 m428n32 4 m428n 3 xy

x y 2D X X

8 9

D66

4 2 m8n 3 m8n42 3 m428n 4 m428n42 3 xy

x 2 y 2 2D X X

22 4 i 3 22 m8n q 8

4

S m8n 3

M 2

Q 8 i 2 319 (13)

xy xy 1 xy

Here, is the volumetric mass ratio defined as the total additional mass/plate mass and 1

is the number discrete area with additional mass loaded. In equation (13),

S ,

M , and

Q

are given values 0, 1 depending on the existence of support, mass, and load, respectively, on

pivotal point m8 n.

For the whole mesh points, by using equation (13), the following set of linear algebraic

equations is obtained, which can be expressed in the following matrix form

[A]

4 i [B]

3 2 [C]

2

q (14)

where [A], [B], and [C] are coefficient matrices obtained by using equation (13) for all mesh

points. For free vibration analysis, when the external force and damping of the supports are

zero in equation (14), this situation results in a set of linear homogeneous equations that can

be expressed in the following matrix form:

[A]

3 2 [C]

2

0 9 (15)

The numbering of the mesh points is shown in Figure 2. By decreasing the dimensionless

mesh widths, the accuracy can be increased.

The total magnitude of the reaction forces of the supports is given by

6 7

Pi 2 k j 4 ic j a (16)

TR 2 Pi 1 FE X T 2 2 j 4 i j 31q (17)

where FE X T is the total amount of external force.

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1541

The number of unknown displacements is 2N 4 232 , where N 2 is the mesh size in the

plate region.

3. VERIFICATION

The proposed method is verified by comparing the results of a test case reported by Gresh-

gorin (1933), Wu and Luo (1997), and Wong (2002) with the results obtained by the software

based on the proposed method. The plate geometry and related descriptions are illustrated in

Figure 3.

The data used are: side length in the X direction, L X 2 2 m2 side length in the Y

direction, L Y 2 2 m2 plate thickness, h 2 09005 m2 Young’s modulus, E 2 29051 9 1011

N m32 2 mass per unit area of plate, 6 2 39925 kg m32 2 Poisson’s ratio, 2 093. In the

verified problem, a uniformly supported square plate carries a concentrated mass of 50 kg

located at xAdd 1xPlate 2 0925, yAdd 1yPlate 2 0925. Numerical results for the test case reported

by Greshgorin (1933), Wu and Luo (1997), and Wong (2002) are also listed in Table 1 for

comparison.

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS

The steady-state response to a distributed force acting on an orthotropic square plate which

is viscoelastically supported along all edges is calculated numerically. A brief investigation

of the free vibration of an elastically supported plate is necessary for a better understanding

of the responses presented in this study. Assuming that the damping parameter of the sup-

ports and external force are zeros, the natural frequencies of the elastically supported plate

are determined by calculating the eigenvalues. Poisson’s ratio, , is taken to be 0.3 in all

numerical calculations. When the ratio of the distribution area of mass or force is minimum

on the discretized plate, the term “concentrated” is used.

1

1542 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Table 1. First five natural frequencies, 7 2 D X X 16ha 4 .

71 72 73 74 75

The present method 100 9 100 31.717 62.463 95.395 126.490 179.847

Wu and Luo (1997) (FEM) 32.503 63.913 97.130 130.077 182.947

Wu and Luo (1997) (ANCM) 31.814 63.232 94.415 127.616 180.593

Wong (2002) 31.8536 63.5505 95.4149 128.0735 180.8910

Exact solution (Greshgorin, 1933) 31.825 63.318 95.415 127.741 180.677

In Figure 4, the convergence of the fundamental mode is presented for the following

mass ratios, 2 08 2 09258 2 1, respectively, where is the volumetric mass ratio

defined as (total additional mass)/(total plate mass). It is shown that the convergence with

respect to mesh size is good enough and the frequency parameter is monotonic from below

for all ratios. This is clear from Figure 4. The frequency parameter increases as the mesh

size increases, which mean that the convergence is from below. The convergence properties

are not influenced by the ratio.

Figure 5 shows the frequency parameters versus the stiffness parameters of the sup-

ports for a square plate elastically supported along the edges. The translational stiffness

coefficient is given equally along all edges. The variation frequency parameter with respect

to is plotted for 2 08 2 0925, 2 0950 and the mesh size is (100 9 100). In Fig-

ure 5, the values of ordinates at 2 0 and 2 represent the frequency parameters of a

free plate and a simply supported plate, respectively. As the value of the translational stiff-

ness parameter increases, the frequency parameter also increases and ultimately becomes the

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1543

Figure 4. The effect of mesh size on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988 2 1008

xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958 case of concentrated mass.

Figure 5. The effect of spring stiffness on the non-dimensional fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988

xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958 case of concentrated mass.

1

1544 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1 6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1

6 Plate APlate 6 Plate APlate

0.7 0 0.6 100 5.387 5 0.01 0.65 500 3.268

1.5 0 0.6 100 4.127 0.5 0.01 0.65 10.363

0.7 0 0.6 250 6.505 5 0.01 0.65 3.892

1.5 0 0.6 250 4.877 0.5 0.01 0.75 50 4.910

0.7 0 0.6 1000 7.714 5 0.01 0.75 50 2.183

1.5 0 0.6 1000 5.680 0.5 0.01 0.75 500 8.510

0.7 0 0.7 100 5.481 5 0.01 0.75 500 3.342

1.5 0 0.7 100 4.208 0.5 0.01 0.75 10.708

0.7 0 0.7 250 6.642 5 0.01 0.75 4.022

1.5 0 0.7 250 4.986 0.5 0.01 0.9 50 4.966

0.7 0 0.7 1000 7.913 5 0.01 0.9 50 2.220

1.5 0 0.7 1000 5.831 0.5 0.01 0.9 500 8.738

0.7 0 0.8 100 5.560 5 0.01 0.9 500 3.442

1.5 0 0.8 100 4.276 0.5 0.01 0.9 11.182

0.7 0 0.8 250 6.764 5 0.01 0.9 4.201

1.5 0 0.8 250 5.085 0.5 0.04 0.65 50 4.933

0.7 0 0.8 1000 8.094 5 0.04 0.65 50 2.238

1.5 0 0.8 1000 5.969 0.5 0.04 0.65 500 8.764

0.7 0.01 0.6 100 5.471 5 0.04 0.65 500 3.570

1.5 0.01 0.6 100 4.220 0.5 0.04 0.65 11.160

0.7 0.01 0.6 250 6.662 5 0.04 0.65 4.3713

1.5 0.01 0.6 250 5.034 0.5 0.04 0.75 50 4.9785

0.7 0.01 0.6 1000 7.982 5 0.04 0.75 50 2.268

1.5 0.01 0.6 1000 5.927 0.5 0.04 0.75 500 8.933

0.7 0.01 0.7 100 5.562 5 0.04 0.75 500 3.646

1.5 0.01 0.7 100 4.298 0.5 0.04 0.75 11.529

0.5 0 0.65 50 4.826 5 0.04 0.75 4.516

5 0 0.65 50 2.108 0.5 0.04 0.9 50 5.030

0.5 0 0.65 500 8.137 5 0.04 0.9 50 2.302

5 0 0.65 500 3.126 0.5 0.04 0.9 500 9.160

0.5 0 0.65 9.982 5 0.04 0.9 500 3.748

5 0 0.65 3.670 0.5 0.04 0.9 12.039

0.5 0 0.75 50 4.877 5 0.04 0.9 4.716

5 0 0.75 50 2.140 0.5 0.09 0.65 50 5.029

0.5 0 0.75 500 8.309 5 0.09 0.65 50 2.354

5 0 0.75 500 3.200 0.5 0.09 0.65 500 9.337

0.5 0 0.75 10.316 5 0.09 0.65 500 4.018

5 0 0.75 3.7940 0.5 0.09 0.65 12.251

0.5 0 0.9 50 4.935 5 0.09 0.65 5.108

5 0 0.9 50 2.180 0.5 0.09 0.75 50 5.070

0.5 0 0.9 500 8.538 5 0.09 0.75 50 2.379

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1545

Figure 6. The effect of mass on the fundamental frequency: 2 2508 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958

AAdd 1APlate 2 112100 9 10039

6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1 6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1

6 Plate APlate 6 Plate APlate

5 0 0.9 500 3.299 0.5 0.09 0.75 500 9.506

0.5 0 0.9 10.774 5 0.09 0.75 500 4.096

5 0 0.9 3.963 0.5 0.09 0.75 12.655

0.5 0.01 0.65 50 4.861 5 0.09 0.75 5.277

5 0.01 0.65 50 2.151 0.5 0.09 0.9 50 5.116

0.5 0.01 0.65 500 8.340 5 0.09 0.9 50 2.409

value of a simply supported plate. All eigenvalues approach zero as their lower limits as ex-

pected. Table 2 depicts benchmark eigenvalues of the frequency parameter for an elastically

supported anisotropic plate. The combined effects of plate parameters result in the variation

of fundamental natural frequency in a rather large interval as given in Table 2.

It can also be seen from Figure 5 that the effect of magnitude of on the fundamental

frequency of the plate is significant. To illustrate the effect of magnitude of additional mass

on the fundamental frequency, values are plotted against values, as seen in Figure 6. This

figure shows how the frequency parameter decreases as the mass ratio increases rapidly in

the given range of .

The effect of orthotropy can also be seen in Figure 6: when E2 /E1 decreases, the funda-

mental modes takes lower values of frequency parameters than those in the case of isotropy.

The effects of the ratio AAdd 1APlate on the frequency parameter are shown in Figure 6. For

a constant amount of the additional mass, the distribution of additional mass was changed.

1

1546 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 7. The effect of the AAdd 1APlate ratio on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988 2 2508

2 08 dxAdd 1d yAdd 2 1.

The center of its distribution area coincides with the geometric center of the plate. When

increasing the distribution area of additional mass, the fundamental natural frequency in-

creases monotonically. The benchmark eigenvalues were determined depending on E 2 1E 1 ,

, AAdd 1APlate ratios and are given in Table 3.

Figure 8 gives the frequency parameter versus the location of concentrated masses for a

square plate. Concentrated masses are located symmetrically with respect to the geometric

center of the plate as type I and type II. As the concentrated masses come closer to the

boundaries, the frequency parameter remains the same as that in a single concentrated mass

loaded at the center of the plate (AAdd 1 APlate 2 090001 in this case) for both types. It is also

noted that the frequency parameter shows rapid changes for the two types as the concentrated

masses come closer to the boundaries of the plate.

The transmissibilities are shown as a function of frequency parameter for the sets of

, , and in Figure 9. It can be seen from the figure that the peak values of the trans-

missibility curves for each pair of and increase, while ratios decrease as predicted

for free vibration. This means that the effect of the damper decreases as the magnitude of

the additional mass increases. In other words, the damping effect of the supports decreases

while increases. The damping of the external force is better managed when its distribution

area is increased. For a constant amount of mass, when its distribution area is increased the

most considerable variation in the transmissibility curves is the increase of frequency val-

ues at which the peak values of the curves occur. The curves as detailed presentations of

curve parts where the peaks occur given in Figure 10 are obtained to illustrate the effects of

variations of mass and force areas mentioned above on transmissibility curves.

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1547

Table 3. The effect of the AAdd 1 APlate ratio on the fundamental frequency 2 2 2003.

Case of concentrated mass AAdd 1APlate 2 0901 AAdd 1APlate 2 0909

E 2 1E 1 E 2 1E 1 E 2 1E 1

1 0.1 9.836 1 0.1 9.874 1 0.1 10.080

1 0.2 9.034 1 0.2 9.102 1 0.2 9.456

1 0.3 8.384 1 0.3 8.475 1 0.3 8.931

1 0.4 7.849 1 0.4 7.955 1 0.4 8.484

1 0.5 7.399 1 0.5 7.517 1 0.5 8.097

1 0.75 6.537 1 0.75 6.669 1 0.75 7.319

1 1 5.914 1 1 6.052 1 1 6.728

1 1.25 5.439 1 1.25 5.577 1 1.25 6.259

1 1.5 5.062 1 1.5 5.199 1 1.5 5.877

1 1.75 4.753 1 1.75 4.887 1 1.75 5.556

1 2 4.494 1 2 4.626 1 2 5.283

1 2.5 4.082 1 2.5 4.208 1 2.5 4.839

1 3 3.766 1 3 3.886 1 3 4.490

0.8 0.1 9.625 0.8 0.1 9.664 0.8 0.1 9.879

0.8 0.2 8.822 0.8 0.2 8.893 0.8 0.2 9.259

0.8 0.3 8.174 0.8 0.3 8.268 0.8 0.3 8.739

0.8 0.4 7.643 0.8 0.4 7.753 0.8 0.4 8.297

0.8 0.5 7.199 0.8 0.5 7.320 0.8 0.5 7.915

0.8 0.75 6.350 0.8 0.75 6.485 0.8 0.75 7.148

0.8 1 5.739 0.8 1 5.879 0.8 1 6.567

0.8 1.25 5.275 0.8 1.25 5.415 0.8 1.25 6.108

0.8 1.5 4.906 0.8 1.5 5.045 0.8 1.5 5.732

0.8 1.75 4.605 0.8 1.75 4.741 0.8 1.75 5.418

0.8 2 4.353 0.8 2 4.486 0.8 2 5.151

0.8 2.5 3.953 0.8 2.5 4.079 0.8 2.5 4.716

0.8 3 3.645 0.8 3 3.766 0.8 3 4.376

0.6 0.1 9.352 0.6 0.1 9.393 0.6 0.1 9.619

0.6 0.2 8.549 0.6 0.2 8.623 0.6 0.2 9.005

0.6 0.3 7.906 0.6 0.3 8.004 0.6 0.3 8.493

0.6 0.4 7.381 0.6 0.4 7.496 0.6 0.4 8.057

0.6 0.5 6.944 0.6 0.5 7.070 0.6 0.5 7.682

0.6 0.75 6.113 0.6 0.75 6.253 0.6 0.75 6.931

0.6 1 5.519 0.6 1 5.662 0.6 1 6.364

0.6 1.25 5.068 0.6 1.25 5.211 0.6 1.25 5.915

0.6 1.5 4.711 0.6 1.5 4.853 0.6 1.5 5.550

0.6 1.75 4.420 0.6 1.75 4.559 0.6 1.75 5.245

0.6 2 4.177 0.6 2 4.312 0.6 2 4.984

0.6 2.5 3.791 0.6 2.5 3.919 0.6 2.5 4.562

0.6 3 3.495 0.6 3 3.617 0.6 3 4.232

1

1548 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 8. The effect of different mass locations on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988 2 2508

2 08 2 09258 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 8 AAdd 1APlate 2 090004.

Figures 10(a) and (b) show the effects of the mass distribution and the force distribution

on the fundamental frequency respectively. As the magnitude of the mass distribution area

changes, the frequency parameter where the peak value occurs changes slightly in association

with the magnitude of transmissibility as seen in Figure 10(a). Contrary to Figure 10(a),

when the value of the force distribution area changes, the value of the frequency parameter

changes and significant changes do not occur for the frequency parameter in Figure 10(b).

Peak values of force transmissibilities for the fundamental frequency parameter are given in

Table 4.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, we have investigated the effects of variation of the distributed mass area on

the characteristics of free and forced vibrations. In the case of forced vibration, the effects

of the variation of the distributed force area were also examined. As such, the plate vibra-

tion problem is considered in a more comprehensive way where the behavior of the plates

can be understood. The effects of the orthotropy on the fundamental frequency parameters

and response curves were analyzed. The convergence study is based on the numerical val-

ues obtained for various mesh sizes. From the main findings of this study, the following

conclusions are drawn.

Although the number of equations used in the finite difference formulation is relatively

small, the accuracy obtained is quite satisfactory.

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1549

Figure 9. Force transmissibilities: (a) concentrated mass and force, 2 100 3 2 51 (b) concentrated

mass and force, 2 200 3 2 51 (c) concentrated mass, AForce 1APlate 2 09098 2 200 3 2 51 (d)

concentrated force, AMass 1APlate 2 0909 2 200 3 2 5. The center of mass and force is at the center

of the plate 2E 2 1E 1 2 13 9

1

1550 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 10. (a) Influence of mass distribution on force transmissibilities for AForce 1APlate 2 090001). (b)

Influence of mass distribution on force transmissibilities for AAdd 1APlate 2 08 3. ( E 2 1E 1 2 18 2 2008

2 48 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 xForce 1xPlate 2 yForce 1yPlate 2 095)

Table 4. The frequencies at which the peak values of the force transmissibilities occur.

AAdd 1APlate AForce 1APlate 6 Add 16 Plate E 2 1E 1

0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 150 1 6.540

0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 150 1 5.235

0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 500 1 8.045

0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 500 1 6.286

0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 150 5 6.564

0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 150 5 5.246

0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 500 5 8.048

0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 500 5 6.287

0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 150 1 6.540

0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 150 1 5.235

0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 500 1 8.045

0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 500 1 6.286

0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 150 5 6.562

0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 150 5 5.245

0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 500 5 8.048

DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1551

Table 4. The frequencies at which the peak values of the force transmissibilities occur.

AAdd 1APlate AForce 1APlate 6 Add 16 Plate E 2 1E 1

0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 500 5 6.287

0.01 0.01 0.5 0.8 100 10 6.384

0.01 0.01 1 0.8 100 10 5.150

0.01 0.01 0.5 0.8 250 10 7.714

0.01 0.01 1 0.8 250 10 6.147

0.01 0.04 0.5 0.8 100 10 6.365

0.01 0.04 1 0.8 100 10 5.140

0.01 0.04 0.5 0.8 250 10 7.709

0.01 0.04 1 0.8 250 10 6.144

0.04 0.0001 1 0.7 50 10 4.386

0.04 0.0001 2 0.7 50 10 3.378

0.04 0.0001 1 0.7 500 10 7.109

0.04 0.0001 2 0.7 500 10 5.423

0.04 0.01 1 0.7 50 10 4.373

0.04 0.01 2 0.7 50 10 3.372

0.04 0.01 1 0.7 500 10 7.108

0.04 0.01 2 0.7 500 10 5.423

0.04 0.04 1 0.7 50 10 4.341

0.04 0.04 2 0.7 50 10 3.362

0.04 0.04 1 0.7 500 10 7.109

0.04 0.04 2 0.7 500 10 5.423

0.01 0.0001 1 0.65 200 5 5.731

0.01 0.0001 2 0.65 200 5 4.363

0.01 0.0001 1 0.65 200 20 5.866

0.01 0.0001 2 0.65 200 20 4.418

0.01 0.01 1 0.65 200 5 5.730

0.01 0.01 2 0.65 200 5 4.363

0.01 0.01 1 0.65 200 20 5.862

0.01 0.01 2 0.65 200 20 4.417

0.04 0.0001 0.5 0.75 1000 10 9.806

0.04 0.0001 1 0.75 1000 10 7.809

0.04 0.0001 0.5 0.75 1000 50 9.951

0.04 0.0001 1 0.75 1000 50 7.879

0.04 0.01 0.5 0.75 1000 10 9.806

0.04 0.01 1 0.75 1000 10 7.809

0.04 0.01 0.5 0.75 1000 50 9.950

0.04 0.01 1 0.75 1000 50 7.879

When increasing the distribution area of additional mass, the fundamental natural fre-

quency increases monotonically.

For a constant mass, when its distribution area is increased the most considerable variation

in transmissibility curves is the increase of frequency values at which the peak values of

curves occur.

1

1552 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

When the value of the force distribution area changes, the values of the transmissibilities

change and significant changes do not occur for the frequency parameter.

The damping of the external force is better managed when its distribution area is in-

creased.

Since the problem of this form has been solved for the first time, the results obtained are

expected to be used as benchmark values by further studies.

REFERENCES

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of Sound and Vibration 119, 189–205.

Aksu, G. and Felemban, M., 1992, “Frequency analysis of corner point supported Mindlin plates by a finite differ-

ence energy method,” Journal of Sound and Vibration 158, 531–544.

Alt3ntaş, G., 2003, “Forced vibration analysis of plates with Kelvin–Voigt type viscoelastic point supports located

out of symmetry axis,” Journal of Yildiz Technical University 4, 41–50.

Amba-Rao, C., 1964, “On the vibration of a rectangular plate carrying a concentrated mass,” Journal of Applied

Mechanics 31, 550–551.

Cha, P., 1997, “Free vibration of a rectangular plate carrying a concentrated mass,” Journal of Sound and Vibration

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Gorman, D., 1990, “A general solution for the free vibration of rectangular plates resting on uniform elastic edge

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Greshgorin, S., 1933, “Vibrations of plates located by concentrated masses,” Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika

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in the case where the force acts over a plate subdomain,” Ocean Engineering 28, 1135–1144.

Singh, J. and Dey, S., 1992, “Parametric instability of rectangular plates by the energy based finite difference

method,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 97, 1–21.

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