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Determination of the Steady-State Response of Viscoelastically Supported


Rectangular Orthotropic Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite
Difference Method

Article  in  Journal of Vibration and Control · December 2005


DOI: 10.1177/1077546305061037

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Determination of the Steady-State Response of
Viscoelastically Supported Rectangular Orthotropic
Mass Loaded Plates by an Energy-Based Finite
Difference Method

GÖKHAN ALTINTAŞ
1
MUHIDDIN BAGCI
Department of Civil Engineering, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye, Manisa, Turkey
(gokhan.altintas@bayar.edu.tr)
(Received 7 July 20042 accepted 19 September 2005)

Abstract: A method based on a variational procedure in conjunction with a finite difference method is used
to examine the free vibration characteristics and steady-state response to a sinusoidally varying force applied
orthotropic elastic rectangular plate carrying masses. Using the energy-based finite difference method, the
problem reduced to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. Due to the significance of the fundamen-
tal natural frequency of the plate, its variation is investigated with respect to the mechanical properties of the
plate material, the translational spring coefficient of the supports, the mass distribution, the mass locations
and the quantity of mass. The steady-state response of the viscoelastically supported plates was also inves-
tigated numerically for the damping coefficient of the supports and the force distribution in addition to the
characteristics of the plate system. Many new results are presented and the validity of the present approach
is demonstrated by comparing the results with other solutions based on the Kirchhoff–Love plate theory.

Key Words: Damping, mass loaded plates, energy-based finite difference, steady state

1. INTRODUCTION

There have been many works on the natural frequency of a rectangular plate in the literature.
For a uniform simply supported rectangular plate carrying a concentrated mass, Greshgorin
(1933) presented an analytic solution and Amba-Rao (1964) presented another analytic so-
lution, which was later extended by Magrab (1968). The free vibration of a rectangular plate
carrying a concentrated mass was studied by Cha (1997). Gorman (1990) investigated the
free vibrations of plates resting on uniform elastic edge supports. Laura and Gutierrez (1981)
studied the transverse vibrations of thin, elastic plates with concentrated masses and inter-
nal elastic supports. Elastically restrained plates arbitrarily loaded with springs and masses
were studied by Li and Daniels (2002). Wu and Lao (1997) used an analytical and numerical
combined method (ANCM) for the free vibration analysis of a rectangular plate with any
number of point masses and translational springs. The effect of distributed mass on plate
vibration behavior was studied by Wong (2002). Kopmaz and Telli (2002) investigated the

Journal of Vibration and Control, 11(12): 1535–1552, 2005 DOI: 10.1177/1077546305061037


1 2005 SAGE Publications
1
Figures 1, 3 appear in color online: http://jvc.sagepub.com
1
1536 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

free vibrations of a mass loaded plate for different mass distributions, aspect ratios and mass
locations. They also obtained modal surfaces and related nodal lines. Romanelli and Laura
(1981) have reported on the forced transverse vibrations of a simply supported rectangu-
lar orthotropic plate in cases where the force acts over a plate subdomain. Yamada et al.
(1985) studied the free vibrations of elastically point-supported plates and forced vibrations
of viscoelastically point-supported isotropic plates.
The energy-based finite difference technique has been applied by several researchers to
examine the vibration characteristics of plates. Aksu and Felemban (1992) and Aksu and
Al-Kaabi (1987) used this technique for the free vibration analysis of plates. Using the same
technique, a forced vibration analysis of Kelvin–Voigt-type viscoelastic supported plates was
investigated by Alt3ntaş (2003). Kocatürk and Alt3ntaş (2003a, 2003b) extended the problem
of Yamada et al. (1985) using the finite difference technique in the case of anisotropic plates.
Using the same procedure, the parametric instability of rectangular plates using the energy-
based finite difference method was also investigated by Singh and Dey (1992). A review of
the related literature provided above has revealed that this problem has not been obviously
addressed. The forced vibration of viscoelastically supported distributed mass loaded plates
has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of variation of the distributed mass area on
the characteristics of free and forced vibrations have been investigated. In the case of forced
vibration, the effects of variation of the distributed force area were also examined. As such,
the plate vibration problem was considered in a more comprehensive way where the behavior
of the plates can be understood. The problems considered were solved within the framework
of the Kirchhoff–Love hypothesis. The convergence study was based on the numerical values
obtained for various mesh sizes. In the numerical examples, the natural frequency parameters
and steady-state responses to a sinusoidally varying force were assessed for the fundamental
mode. The accuracy of the results was partially shown by comparing previously published
accurate results for plates based on thin plate theory. The advantages of the present method
based on the variational principles in conjunction with the finite difference formulation are
simplicity in use, applicability to various geometries and boundary conditions, and capacity
to yield accurate results even with a relatively small number of equations.

2. ANALYSIS
Consider a viscoelastically supported mass loaded plate with side lengths L X , L Y and thick-
ness h subjected to a distributed force as shown in Figure 1. Translational stiffness and
damping coefficients were assigned equally along all edges. The elastic symmetry axis of
the plate material coincides with the O X and OY axes. Therefore, the plate is specially or-
thotropic. Given W is the lateral displacement of the mid-surface of the plate corresponding
to coordinate Z, the maximum strain energy of the plate is

1X 12
L L Y 12 23
1 42 3 42
DX X 42W 42W 42W 42W
U 2 4 25 Y X 4e
2 4 X2 4 X 2 4Y 2 4Y 2
32L X 123 32L Y 123
3 42 5
D66 42W
4 4 dXdY (1)
DX X 4 X 2 4Y 2
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1537

Figure 1. Viscoelastically supported mass loaded plate subjected to distributed force.

and the maximum kinetic energy of the plate is

1X 12
L L Y 12 3
1 4 11
6h72 M 5 72
T 2 W dXdY 4 W 2 dA5 (2)
2 2
32L X 123 32L Y 123 A5

where M 5 is the additional mass per unit area. D X X , DY Y , and D66 are expressed as follows
6 7 6 7 6 7
D X X 2 E 5X h 3 1128 DY Y 2 E Y5 h 3 1128 D66 2 G XY h 3 112 (3)

where G XY is the shear modulus. E 5X and E Y5 are derived using


6 7 6 7
5 XY E Y 2 5 Y X E X 8 e 2 E Y 1E X 8 E 5X 2 E X 1 1 3 5 2Y X 1e 8 E Y5 2 E X e1 1 3 5 2Y X 1e 9 (4)

The additive strain energy and dissipation function of per viscoelastic support is

1 5 1 5
Fs 2 k W Si2 8 D 2 c 2W6 Si 32 (5)
2 2

where k 5 and c5 are the spring coefficient and the damping coefficient of the viscoelastic
support, respectively, E X and E Y are Young’s moduli in the O X and OY directions, respec-
tively, and 5 Y X is the Poisson’s ratio for the strain response in the X direction due to an
applied stress in the Y direction. The total energy of whole plate can be found by summing
1
1538 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

of the entire area of the plate with supports and external force. The potential energy from the
external force is
11
55
Fe 2 3FE X T W E dA (6)
55
A

where F E X T and W E are the external force and the corresponding displacement, respectively.
Introducing the following non-dimensional parameters

X Y a 8
x2 8 y 2 8
2 8 2x8
7 y8 t3 2 2x8 y3 ei7t 2 W1a8 i2 31 (7)
a b b

the above energy expressions can be written as


8
DX X 1 6 72
Um8n 2 7 m318n 3 2 7 m8n 4 7 m418n
2
x 4

2
5 Y X 6 76 7
4 7 m318n 3 2 7 m8n 4 7 m418n 7 m8n31 3 2 7 m8n 4 7 m8n41
x y
2 2

4
D66 6 7
4 6 72 7 m318n31 3 7 m418n31 3 7 m318n41 4 7 m418n41
D X X 4 x 2 y 2
9
e
3 6 72
4 7 m8n31 3 2 7 m8n 4 7 m8n41 x y (8a)
y 4
6ha 3 b 6 2 a 4 M 67
Tm8n 2 7 m8n x y 4 x y (8b)
2 2
1 2 5 2
Fs 2 a k 7 m8n (8c)
2
1 2 5 6 6 72
D 2 a c 7 m8n (8d)
2
Fe 2 3a Q 7 m8n 9 (8e)

The derivative terms were approximated in terms of discrete displacements at grid points by
using the following finite difference operators:

3 4
4 2 1 6 7
2 m318n 3 2 m8n 4 m418n
4x2 m8n x 2

3 4
4 2 1 6 7
2 m8n31 3 2 m8n 4 m8n41
4y 2 m8n y 2

3 4
4 2 1 6 7
2 m318n31 3 m418n31 3 m318n41 4 m418n41 9 (9)
4 x4 y m8n 4 x y
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1539

The energy for the whole plate can be found by summing over the entire area of the plate.
Thus

U 2 Um8n 8 T 2 Tm8n 8 Fs 2 Fsi


m21 n21 m21 n21

D 2 Dci 8 Fe 2 Fei (10)

where N is taken as the number of mesh points in each of the two directions in the plate
region, and N 9 N is the total number of the area elements on the plate.
The governing differential equation as obtained from the Lagrange equation is given as
3 4
d 4T 4 2T 3 U 3 4D 4 Fs 4 Fe
3 4 4 4 20 (11)
dt 4 67 m8n 4 7 m8n 6
4 7 m8n 4
7 m8n 4 7 m8n

where 7 m8n is the m8 nth discrete displacement and the overdot denotes the partial derivative
with respect to time. Introducing the following non-dimensional parameters,

k j a3 cj 6h72 a 4 Qa
j 2 8 j 2 8 8 2 2 8 q2 (12)
bD11 6h D11 D11 D11

and remembering that 2x7 1 8 x2 8 t3 2 2x1 8 x2 3ei7t , which was given in equation (7), by
using equation (11) for the mesh point m,n with equations (8a)–(8e) results in the following
expression:
8
4 45 Y X

3 2 m418n 3 2 m8n 4 m318n 3 3 2 m8n31 3 2 m8n 4 m8n41 3



x 4 x 2 y 2
45 Y X
4
3 DY Y
3 2 m318n 3 2 m8n 4 m418n 3 3 2 m8n31 3 2 m8n 4 m8n41 3
x 2 y 2 y 4 D X X
9 8
22 2
3 m8n x y 4 2 m428n 3 2 m418n 4 m8n 3


x 4
9
25 Y X

4 2 m418n31 3 2 m418n 4 m418n41 3 x y


x 2 y 2
8
2
4 2 m8n 3 2 m318n 4 m328n 3

x 4
9
25 Y X

4 2 m318n31 3 2 m318n 4 m318n41 3 x y


x 2 y 2
8
25 Y X

4 2 m418n31 3 2 m8n31 4 m318n31 3


x 2 y 2
9
2
3 DY Y
4 2 m8n32 3 2 m8n31 4 m8n 3 x y
y 4 D X X
1
1540 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

8
25 Y X

4 2 m418n41 3 2 m8n41 4 m318n41 3


x 2 y 2
9
2
3 DY Y
4 2 m8n 3 2 m8n41 4 m8n42 3 x y
y 4 D X X
8 9

D66
4 2 m328n32 3 m328n 3 m8n32 4 m8n 3 x y
x 2 y 2 2D X X
8 9

D66
4 3 2 2 2 m328n 3 m328n42 3 m8n 4 m8n42 3 x y
x y 2D X X
8 9

D66
4 3 2 2 2 m8n32 3 m8n 3 m428n32 4 m428n 3 x y
x y 2D X X
8 9

D66
4 2 m8n 3 m8n42 3 m428n 4 m428n42 3 x y
x 2 y 2 2D X X
22 4 i 3 22 m8n  q 8
4
S m8n 3
M 2
Q 8 i 2 319 (13)
x y x y 1 x y

Here,  is the volumetric mass ratio defined as the total additional mass/plate mass and 1
is the number discrete area with additional mass loaded. In equation (13),
S ,
M , and
Q
are given values 0, 1 depending on the existence of support, mass, and load, respectively, on
pivotal point m8 n.
For the whole mesh points, by using equation (13), the following set of linear algebraic
equations is obtained, which can be expressed in the following matrix form

[A]
4 i [B]
3 2 [C]
2
q (14)

where [A], [B], and [C] are coefficient matrices obtained by using equation (13) for all mesh
points. For free vibration analysis, when the external force and damping of the supports are
zero in equation (14), this situation results in a set of linear homogeneous equations that can
be expressed in the following matrix form:

[A]
3 2 [C]
2
0 9 (15)

The numbering of the mesh points is shown in Figure 2. By decreasing the dimensionless
mesh widths, the accuracy can be increased.
The total magnitude of the reaction forces of the supports is given by


6 7
Pi 2 k j 4 ic j a (16)

and therefore the force transmissibility at the supports is determined by




TR 2 Pi 1 FE X T 2 2 j 4 i j 3 1q (17)

where FE X T is the total amount of external force.
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1541

Figure 2. Typical finite difference mesh on part of a plate.

The number of unknown displacements is 2N 4 232 , where N 2 is the mesh size in the
plate region.

3. VERIFICATION

The proposed method is verified by comparing the results of a test case reported by Gresh-
gorin (1933), Wu and Luo (1997), and Wong (2002) with the results obtained by the software
based on the proposed method. The plate geometry and related descriptions are illustrated in
Figure 3.
The data used are: side length in the X direction, L X 2 2 m2 side length in the Y
direction, L Y 2 2 m2 plate thickness, h 2 09005 m2 Young’s modulus, E 2 29051 9 1011
N m32 2 mass per unit area of plate, 6 2 39925 kg m32 2 Poisson’s ratio,  2 093. In the
verified problem, a uniformly supported square plate carries a concentrated mass of 50 kg
located at xAdd 1xPlate 2 0925, yAdd 1yPlate 2 0925. Numerical results for the test case reported
by Greshgorin (1933), Wu and Luo (1997), and Wong (2002) are also listed in Table 1 for
comparison.

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS

The steady-state response to a distributed force acting on an orthotropic square plate which
is viscoelastically supported along all edges is calculated numerically. A brief investigation
of the free vibration of an elastically supported plate is necessary for a better understanding
of the responses presented in this study. Assuming that the damping parameter of the sup-
ports and external force are zeros, the natural frequencies of the elastically supported plate
are determined by calculating the eigenvalues. Poisson’s ratio, , is taken to be 0.3 in all
numerical calculations. When the ratio of the distribution area of mass or force is minimum
on the discretized plate, the term “concentrated” is used.
1
1542 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 3. Location details of mass and force on a viscoelastically supported plate.


Table 1. First five natural frequencies, 7 2  D X X 16ha 4 .
71 72 73 74 75
The present method 100 9 100 31.717 62.463 95.395 126.490 179.847
Wu and Luo (1997) (FEM) 32.503 63.913 97.130 130.077 182.947
Wu and Luo (1997) (ANCM) 31.814 63.232 94.415 127.616 180.593
Wong (2002) 31.8536 63.5505 95.4149 128.0735 180.8910
Exact solution (Greshgorin, 1933) 31.825 63.318 95.415 127.741 180.677

In Figure 4, the convergence of the fundamental mode is presented for the following
mass ratios,  2 08  2 09258  2 1, respectively, where  is the volumetric mass ratio
defined as (total additional mass)/(total plate mass). It is shown that the convergence with
respect to mesh size is good enough and the frequency parameter is monotonic from below
for all  ratios. This is clear from Figure 4. The frequency parameter increases as the mesh
size increases, which mean that the convergence is from below. The convergence properties
are not influenced by the  ratio.
Figure 5 shows the frequency parameters  versus the stiffness parameters  of the sup-
ports for a square plate elastically supported along the edges. The translational stiffness
coefficient is given equally along all edges. The variation frequency parameter with respect
to  is plotted for  2 08  2 0925,  2 0950 and the mesh size is (100 9 100). In Fig-
ure 5, the values of ordinates at  2 0 and  2 represent the frequency parameters of a
free plate and a simply supported plate, respectively. As the value of the translational stiff-
ness parameter increases, the frequency parameter also increases and ultimately becomes the
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1543

Figure 4. The effect of mesh size on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988  2 1008
xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958 case of concentrated mass.

Figure 5. The effect of spring stiffness on the non-dimensional fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988
xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958 case of concentrated mass.
1
1544 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Table 2. Fundamental natural frequency parameters of an elastically supported plate.


6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1   6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1  
6 Plate APlate 6 Plate APlate
0.7 0 0.6 100 5.387 5 0.01 0.65 500 3.268
1.5 0 0.6 100 4.127 0.5 0.01 0.65 10.363
0.7 0 0.6 250 6.505 5 0.01 0.65 3.892
1.5 0 0.6 250 4.877 0.5 0.01 0.75 50 4.910
0.7 0 0.6 1000 7.714 5 0.01 0.75 50 2.183
1.5 0 0.6 1000 5.680 0.5 0.01 0.75 500 8.510
0.7 0 0.7 100 5.481 5 0.01 0.75 500 3.342
1.5 0 0.7 100 4.208 0.5 0.01 0.75 10.708
0.7 0 0.7 250 6.642 5 0.01 0.75 4.022
1.5 0 0.7 250 4.986 0.5 0.01 0.9 50 4.966
0.7 0 0.7 1000 7.913 5 0.01 0.9 50 2.220
1.5 0 0.7 1000 5.831 0.5 0.01 0.9 500 8.738
0.7 0 0.8 100 5.560 5 0.01 0.9 500 3.442
1.5 0 0.8 100 4.276 0.5 0.01 0.9 11.182
0.7 0 0.8 250 6.764 5 0.01 0.9 4.201
1.5 0 0.8 250 5.085 0.5 0.04 0.65 50 4.933
0.7 0 0.8 1000 8.094 5 0.04 0.65 50 2.238
1.5 0 0.8 1000 5.969 0.5 0.04 0.65 500 8.764
0.7 0.01 0.6 100 5.471 5 0.04 0.65 500 3.570
1.5 0.01 0.6 100 4.220 0.5 0.04 0.65 11.160
0.7 0.01 0.6 250 6.662 5 0.04 0.65 4.3713
1.5 0.01 0.6 250 5.034 0.5 0.04 0.75 50 4.9785
0.7 0.01 0.6 1000 7.982 5 0.04 0.75 50 2.268
1.5 0.01 0.6 1000 5.927 0.5 0.04 0.75 500 8.933
0.7 0.01 0.7 100 5.562 5 0.04 0.75 500 3.646
1.5 0.01 0.7 100 4.298 0.5 0.04 0.75 11.529
0.5 0 0.65 50 4.826 5 0.04 0.75 4.516
5 0 0.65 50 2.108 0.5 0.04 0.9 50 5.030
0.5 0 0.65 500 8.137 5 0.04 0.9 50 2.302
5 0 0.65 500 3.126 0.5 0.04 0.9 500 9.160
0.5 0 0.65 9.982 5 0.04 0.9 500 3.748
5 0 0.65 3.670 0.5 0.04 0.9 12.039
0.5 0 0.75 50 4.877 5 0.04 0.9 4.716
5 0 0.75 50 2.140 0.5 0.09 0.65 50 5.029
0.5 0 0.75 500 8.309 5 0.09 0.65 50 2.354
5 0 0.75 500 3.200 0.5 0.09 0.65 500 9.337
0.5 0 0.75 10.316 5 0.09 0.65 500 4.018
5 0 0.75 3.7940 0.5 0.09 0.65 12.251
0.5 0 0.9 50 4.935 5 0.09 0.65 5.108
5 0 0.9 50 2.180 0.5 0.09 0.75 50 5.070
0.5 0 0.9 500 8.538 5 0.09 0.75 50 2.379
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1545

Figure 6. The effect of mass on the fundamental frequency:  2 2508 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 0958
AAdd 1APlate 2 112100 9 10039

Table 2. Fundamental natural frequency parameters of an elastically supported plate.


6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1   6 Add 1 AAdd 1 E 2 1E 1  
6 Plate APlate 6 Plate APlate
5 0 0.9 500 3.299 0.5 0.09 0.75 500 9.506
0.5 0 0.9 10.774 5 0.09 0.75 500 4.096
5 0 0.9 3.963 0.5 0.09 0.75 12.655
0.5 0.01 0.65 50 4.861 5 0.09 0.75 5.277
5 0.01 0.65 50 2.151 0.5 0.09 0.9 50 5.116
0.5 0.01 0.65 500 8.340 5 0.09 0.9 50 2.409

value of a simply supported plate. All eigenvalues approach zero as their lower limits as ex-
pected. Table 2 depicts benchmark eigenvalues of the frequency parameter for an elastically
supported anisotropic plate. The combined effects of plate parameters result in the variation
of fundamental natural frequency in a rather large interval as given in Table 2.
It can also be seen from Figure 5 that the effect of magnitude of  on the fundamental
frequency of the plate is significant. To illustrate the effect of magnitude of additional mass
on the fundamental frequency,  values are plotted against  values, as seen in Figure 6. This
figure shows how the frequency parameter decreases as the mass ratio  increases rapidly in
the given range of .
The effect of orthotropy can also be seen in Figure 6: when E2 /E1 decreases, the funda-
mental modes takes lower values of frequency parameters than those in the case of isotropy.
The effects of the ratio AAdd 1APlate on the frequency parameter are shown in Figure 6. For
a constant amount of the additional mass, the distribution of additional mass was changed.
1
1546 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 7. The effect of the AAdd 1APlate ratio on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988  2 2508
 2 08 dxAdd 1d yAdd 2 1.

The center of its distribution area coincides with the geometric center of the plate. When
increasing the distribution area of additional mass, the fundamental natural frequency in-
creases monotonically. The benchmark eigenvalues were determined depending on E 2 1E 1 ,
, AAdd 1APlate ratios and are given in Table 3.
Figure 8 gives the frequency parameter versus the location of concentrated masses for a
square plate. Concentrated masses are located symmetrically with respect to the geometric
center of the plate as type I and type II. As the concentrated masses come closer to the
boundaries, the frequency parameter remains the same as that in a single concentrated mass
loaded at the center of the plate (AAdd 1 APlate 2 090001 in this case) for both types. It is also
noted that the frequency parameter shows rapid changes for the two types as the concentrated
masses come closer to the boundaries of the plate.
The transmissibilities are shown as a function of frequency parameter for the sets of
,  , and  in Figure 9. It can be seen from the figure that the peak values of the trans-
missibility curves for each pair of  and  increase, while  ratios decrease as predicted
for free vibration. This means that the effect of the damper decreases as the magnitude of
the additional mass increases. In other words, the damping effect of the supports decreases
while  increases. The damping of the external force is better managed when its distribution
area is increased. For a constant amount of mass, when its distribution area is increased the
most considerable variation in the transmissibility curves is the increase of frequency val-
ues at which the peak values of the curves occur. The curves as detailed presentations of
curve parts where the peaks occur given in Figure 10 are obtained to illustrate the effects of
variations of mass and force areas mentioned above on transmissibility curves.
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1547

Table 3. The effect of the AAdd 1 APlate ratio on the fundamental frequency 2 2 2003.
Case of concentrated mass AAdd 1APlate 2 0901 AAdd 1APlate 2 0909
E 2 1E 1   E 2 1E 1   E 2 1E 1  
1 0.1 9.836 1 0.1 9.874 1 0.1 10.080
1 0.2 9.034 1 0.2 9.102 1 0.2 9.456
1 0.3 8.384 1 0.3 8.475 1 0.3 8.931
1 0.4 7.849 1 0.4 7.955 1 0.4 8.484
1 0.5 7.399 1 0.5 7.517 1 0.5 8.097
1 0.75 6.537 1 0.75 6.669 1 0.75 7.319
1 1 5.914 1 1 6.052 1 1 6.728
1 1.25 5.439 1 1.25 5.577 1 1.25 6.259
1 1.5 5.062 1 1.5 5.199 1 1.5 5.877
1 1.75 4.753 1 1.75 4.887 1 1.75 5.556
1 2 4.494 1 2 4.626 1 2 5.283
1 2.5 4.082 1 2.5 4.208 1 2.5 4.839
1 3 3.766 1 3 3.886 1 3 4.490
0.8 0.1 9.625 0.8 0.1 9.664 0.8 0.1 9.879
0.8 0.2 8.822 0.8 0.2 8.893 0.8 0.2 9.259
0.8 0.3 8.174 0.8 0.3 8.268 0.8 0.3 8.739
0.8 0.4 7.643 0.8 0.4 7.753 0.8 0.4 8.297
0.8 0.5 7.199 0.8 0.5 7.320 0.8 0.5 7.915
0.8 0.75 6.350 0.8 0.75 6.485 0.8 0.75 7.148
0.8 1 5.739 0.8 1 5.879 0.8 1 6.567
0.8 1.25 5.275 0.8 1.25 5.415 0.8 1.25 6.108
0.8 1.5 4.906 0.8 1.5 5.045 0.8 1.5 5.732
0.8 1.75 4.605 0.8 1.75 4.741 0.8 1.75 5.418
0.8 2 4.353 0.8 2 4.486 0.8 2 5.151
0.8 2.5 3.953 0.8 2.5 4.079 0.8 2.5 4.716
0.8 3 3.645 0.8 3 3.766 0.8 3 4.376
0.6 0.1 9.352 0.6 0.1 9.393 0.6 0.1 9.619
0.6 0.2 8.549 0.6 0.2 8.623 0.6 0.2 9.005
0.6 0.3 7.906 0.6 0.3 8.004 0.6 0.3 8.493
0.6 0.4 7.381 0.6 0.4 7.496 0.6 0.4 8.057
0.6 0.5 6.944 0.6 0.5 7.070 0.6 0.5 7.682
0.6 0.75 6.113 0.6 0.75 6.253 0.6 0.75 6.931
0.6 1 5.519 0.6 1 5.662 0.6 1 6.364
0.6 1.25 5.068 0.6 1.25 5.211 0.6 1.25 5.915
0.6 1.5 4.711 0.6 1.5 4.853 0.6 1.5 5.550
0.6 1.75 4.420 0.6 1.75 4.559 0.6 1.75 5.245
0.6 2 4.177 0.6 2 4.312 0.6 2 4.984
0.6 2.5 3.791 0.6 2.5 3.919 0.6 2.5 4.562
0.6 3 3.495 0.6 3 3.617 0.6 3 4.232
1
1548 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 8. The effect of different mass locations on the fundamental frequency: E 2 1E 1 2 0988  2 2508
 2 08  2 09258 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 8 AAdd 1APlate 2 090004.

Figures 10(a) and (b) show the effects of the mass distribution and the force distribution
on the fundamental frequency respectively. As the magnitude of the mass distribution area
changes, the frequency parameter where the peak value occurs changes slightly in association
with the magnitude of transmissibility as seen in Figure 10(a). Contrary to Figure 10(a),
when the value of the force distribution area changes, the value of the frequency parameter
changes and significant changes do not occur for the frequency parameter in Figure 10(b).
Peak values of force transmissibilities for the fundamental frequency parameter are given in
Table 4.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, we have investigated the effects of variation of the distributed mass area on
the characteristics of free and forced vibrations. In the case of forced vibration, the effects
of the variation of the distributed force area were also examined. As such, the plate vibra-
tion problem is considered in a more comprehensive way where the behavior of the plates
can be understood. The effects of the orthotropy on the fundamental frequency parameters
and response curves were analyzed. The convergence study is based on the numerical val-
ues obtained for various mesh sizes. From the main findings of this study, the following
conclusions are drawn.
Although the number of equations used in the finite difference formulation is relatively
small, the accuracy obtained is quite satisfactory.
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1549

Figure 9. Force transmissibilities: (a) concentrated mass and force,  2 100 3  2 51 (b) concentrated
mass and force,  2 200 3  2 51 (c) concentrated mass, AForce 1APlate 2 09098  2 200 3  2 51 (d)
concentrated force, AMass 1APlate 2 0909  2 200 3  2 5. The center of mass and force is at the center
of the plate 2E 2 1E 1 2 13 9
1
1550 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

Figure 10. (a) Influence of mass distribution on force transmissibilities for AForce 1APlate 2 090001). (b)
Influence of mass distribution on force transmissibilities for AAdd 1APlate 2 08 3. ( E 2 1E 1 2 18  2 2008
 2 48 xAdd 1xPlate 2 yAdd 1yPlate 2 xForce 1xPlate 2 yForce 1yPlate 2 095)

Table 4. The frequencies at which the peak values of the force transmissibilities occur.
AAdd 1APlate AForce 1APlate 6 Add 16 Plate E 2 1E 1   
0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 150 1 6.540
0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 150 1 5.235
0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 500 1 8.045
0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 500 1 6.286
0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 150 5 6.564
0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 150 5 5.246
0.0001 0.01 0.5 0.6 500 5 8.048
0.0001 0.01 1 0.6 500 5 6.287
0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 150 1 6.540
0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 150 1 5.235
0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 500 1 8.045
0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 500 1 6.286
0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 150 5 6.562
0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 150 5 5.245
0.0001 0.04 0.5 0.6 500 5 8.048
DETERMINATION OF THE STEADY-STATE RESPONSE 1551

Table 4. The frequencies at which the peak values of the force transmissibilities occur.
AAdd 1APlate AForce 1APlate 6 Add 16 Plate E 2 1E 1   
0.0001 0.04 1 0.6 500 5 6.287
0.01 0.01 0.5 0.8 100 10 6.384
0.01 0.01 1 0.8 100 10 5.150
0.01 0.01 0.5 0.8 250 10 7.714
0.01 0.01 1 0.8 250 10 6.147
0.01 0.04 0.5 0.8 100 10 6.365
0.01 0.04 1 0.8 100 10 5.140
0.01 0.04 0.5 0.8 250 10 7.709
0.01 0.04 1 0.8 250 10 6.144
0.04 0.0001 1 0.7 50 10 4.386
0.04 0.0001 2 0.7 50 10 3.378
0.04 0.0001 1 0.7 500 10 7.109
0.04 0.0001 2 0.7 500 10 5.423
0.04 0.01 1 0.7 50 10 4.373
0.04 0.01 2 0.7 50 10 3.372
0.04 0.01 1 0.7 500 10 7.108
0.04 0.01 2 0.7 500 10 5.423
0.04 0.04 1 0.7 50 10 4.341
0.04 0.04 2 0.7 50 10 3.362
0.04 0.04 1 0.7 500 10 7.109
0.04 0.04 2 0.7 500 10 5.423
0.01 0.0001 1 0.65 200 5 5.731
0.01 0.0001 2 0.65 200 5 4.363
0.01 0.0001 1 0.65 200 20 5.866
0.01 0.0001 2 0.65 200 20 4.418
0.01 0.01 1 0.65 200 5 5.730
0.01 0.01 2 0.65 200 5 4.363
0.01 0.01 1 0.65 200 20 5.862
0.01 0.01 2 0.65 200 20 4.417
0.04 0.0001 0.5 0.75 1000 10 9.806
0.04 0.0001 1 0.75 1000 10 7.809
0.04 0.0001 0.5 0.75 1000 50 9.951
0.04 0.0001 1 0.75 1000 50 7.879
0.04 0.01 0.5 0.75 1000 10 9.806
0.04 0.01 1 0.75 1000 10 7.809
0.04 0.01 0.5 0.75 1000 50 9.950
0.04 0.01 1 0.75 1000 50 7.879

When increasing the distribution area of additional mass, the fundamental natural fre-
quency increases monotonically.
For a constant mass, when its distribution area is increased the most considerable variation
in transmissibility curves is the increase of frequency values at which the peak values of
curves occur.
1
1552 G. ALTINTAŞ and M. BAGCI

When the value of the force distribution area changes, the values of the transmissibilities
change and significant changes do not occur for the frequency parameter.
The damping of the external force is better managed when its distribution area is in-
creased.
Since the problem of this form has been solved for the first time, the results obtained are
expected to be used as benchmark values by further studies.

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