THERMODYNAMICS
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HOW TO STUDY:
In classical thermodynamics, we will try to establish relation between measurable and non-measurable properties Measurable properties → temperature, pressure, volume Non-measurable properties → enthalpy, entropy, internal energy, etc.
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CONCEPT OF CONTINUUM:
Everything external to the system is surrounding.
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The thing which separates system from surrounding is known as boundary
ⅰ) Rigid container
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Journal open system
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For open system analysis attention is focused on certain volume in space surrounded by a surface known as control surface. Matter as well as energy can cross the control volume.
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M =
1
T
^{V} 1
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GIB’S PHASE RULE:
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F = 1
Either temperature or pressure is independent property.
path
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Process
So, divide block into different pieces,
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THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM:
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Ideal gas
P _{b} V = n _{b} R T
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̅
P _{c} V = n _{c} R T
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MIXTURE OF IDEAL GASES:
(m _{1} + m _{2} + m _{3} + ⋯ ⋯ ) = (n _{1} M _{1} + n _{2} M _{2} + n _{3} M _{3} + ⋯ ⋯ ) → (ⅰ)
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∑ m = ∑ n M _{e} →(ⅱ)
(M. F) _{C}_{O} _{2}
^{m} N _{2} ^{+} ^{m} CO _{2}
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^{m} CO _{2} ^{=} ^{n} CO _{2} ^{M} CO _{2}
Kg ^{K}
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4. The rigid tank is divided into 2 compartments by a partition.
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n CO _{2} =
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PV = n RT
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Zeroth law:
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thermistor
^{T} steam ^{=} ^{a} ^{+} ^{b} ^{P} steam
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100
= a + b P _{S} ……. (ⅰⅰ)
T _{A} = T _{B} = 0 at ice point
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L = 0
At steam point 100 = a + b (100)
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100 = b (200)
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Total area A = _{∫}
1
2 P dv
(Closed system reversible work)
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P
1
P
2
= ^{T} ^{1}
T 2
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Piston - independent
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Pressure - dependent Isothermal expansion is possible when heat is added to system where as isothermal compression is possible if heat is rejected from the system.
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w
= P _{2} V _{2} .V _{2} ^{γ}^{+}^{1} − P _{1} V _{1} .V _{1} ^{γ}^{+}^{1}
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5) Polytrophic process:
For Compression
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SLOPE OF VARIOUS LINES ON P-V DIAGRAM:
m = − ^{p}
v
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Problems and Solutions:
W _{n}_{e}_{t} = (150 × 0.3 × 0.12) − _{2} [0.3 × 0.12 × (1500 − 150)]
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W _{n}_{e}_{t} = 29.7 KJ
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4. The gas space above water above water in storage tank contains N _{2} AT 25°C & 100K Pa the total volume is 1m ^{3} & there is 500kg water at 25°C and additional 500kg is now forced into tank assuming constant temperature throughout find final pressure on N _{2} & work done on N _{2} in the process.
Work done on N _{2} = 53.95 KJ.
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5. A piston cylinder device contains 0.05m ^{3} of gas initially at 200k pa at this state a linear spring which have spring constant of 15K N/m is just touching the piston is transmitted to gas causing the piston rise and compress the spring until volume inside a cylinder is double. If cross section are of piston is 0.25m ^{2} find final pressure inside the cylinder & work done by the gas.
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6. An insulated vertical tank contains 0.1kg of organ gas with the
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mR (T _{1} − T _{2} )
=
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T _{a}_{i}_{r} = 25℃ = 298K
Q ∝ m
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Q ∝ ∆T Q ∝ m∆T Q = mc∆T
γ =
_{C} _{v}
γ > 1
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Specific heat at constant pressure is greater than specific heat at constant volume because C _{p} includes internal energy as well as external
First law of thermodynamics is based on law of conservation of energy heat & works are different form of same entity called energy which is conserved.
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Statement of closed system undergoing cycle:
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Conclusion:
E = K. E + P. E + I. E dE = d(K. E) + d(P. E) + d(I. E) Neglected, change in K.E & P.E neglected. dE = dU
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dQ = dU + dW
Q = 0
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W = 0 So, according to 1 ^{s}^{t} law PMM-1 is not possible. If such a device is developed, then it will violate 1 ^{s}^{t} law of thermodynamics. For ideal gas, dU = mc _{v} dT ; U = f(T) only
V = C dQ = dU + dW For constant volume process dW = 0 dQ = dU
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For ideal gas, dU = mc _{v} dT ⇒ dQ = dU = mc _{v} dT 2) Constant pressure process:
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4) Adiabatic process:
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dQ =
[ P _{2} V _{2} − P _{1} V _{1} ] − [ P _{1} V _{1} − P _{2} V _{2}
γ−1
n−1
]
In polytrophic process,
dQ = 0 ideal gas, dU = mc _{v} dT 0 = mc _{v} dT + PdV … … … … mc _{v} dT = −PdV (H = U + PV) [dU + d(PV)] dH = dU + PdV + VdP dH = dU + d(PV) dH = dU + PdV + VdP
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For ideal gas,
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2.
dQ = dU + dW dU = 0 U = Constant; U _{i} = U _{f} For ideal gas, U = f(T) T _{i} = T _{f} H = U + PV
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For ideal gas, H = f(T) + mRT H = f(T) H _{i} = H _{f}
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dQ = dW + dU 30 × 60 × 0.8 = dU − 0.12 × 30 × 60 dU = 1656 mC _{v} dT = 1656/[60 × 0.718(T _{2} − 25)] T _{2} = 63.44℃ A two-kilo watt base board electric resistance heater in a vacant room is turned on & kept on for 15min. the mass of air in room at 75kg and room is perfectly sealed find the temp rise of air at end of 15min.
dT = 33.42℃ Room contains 60kg of air at 100 k pa & 15℃ the room has 250watt refrigerator 120W TV, a 1 KW electric resistance & 150W fan. During cold winter day it is observed that the refrigerator & TV &fan & electric resistance heater is running continuously but air temp in room remains constant. The rate of heat loss from the room in KJ/hr.
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dQ = dW + dU
initial ^{=} ^{T} f
^{T}
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P _{i} V _{i} = P _{f} V _{f}
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= U _{3} − U _{1}
(U _{2} = U _{3} )
^{Q} loss ^{=} ^{Q} gain
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P _{1} V _{1} = M _{1} R _{1} T _{1}
&
P _{2} V _{2} = M _{2} R _{2} T _{2}
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7. A gas of mass 1.5kg undergoes a quasi-static expansion which
b = −800
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a = 1000 + 800(0.2)
U _{m}_{a}_{x} = 503 KJ
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OPEN SYSTEM:
ρAL
m
time ^{=}
time
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m = ρAL For steady flow m _{1} = m _{2} ρ _{1} A _{1} V _{1} = ρ _{2} A _{2} V _{2} → continuty equation In case of unsteady flow, m _{1} ≠ m _{2}
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Work:
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^{P} 1
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^{Q} ^{=} ^{0}
Z _{1} = Z _{2}
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Neglecting kinetic energy changes,
Throttling is an Iso-Enthalpy process. It is used in refrigerator.
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OPEN & CLOSED SYSTEMS OF REVERSIBLE WORK:
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2) Constant pressure process:
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Problems and solutions:
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2. In test of water jacketed compressor, the shaft work required is 90KJ/Kg during compression increase in enthalpy at air is 30KJ/Kg & increase in enthalpy of circulating is 40KJ/Kg. the change in velocity is negligible the atm of heat lost from compressor by air.
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3. A turbine operates under steady flow condition receiving steam at following state pressure is 1.2MPa. Temperature 188°C. Enthalpy 2785 KJ/Kg velocity 33.33m/s and elevation 3m. The steam leaves the turbine at following state. Pressure 20KPa enthalpy 2512 KJ/Kg velocity 100m/s elevation 0 heat is lost to surrounding at the rate of 0.29 KJ/sec. If rate of steam flow through the turbine is 0.12 Kg/sec what is power output of turbine in KW.
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STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION FOR MULTI STREAM FLOW:
evaluate the enthalpy of second exit stream & mass flow rate.
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m ̇
1 = 0.01Kg/sec; h _{1} = 2952KJ/Kg; C _{1} = 20m/s
is 35Kw. The shaft power delivered by the engine is 26Kw
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compute the increase in specific enthalpy of fuel air stream
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UNSTEADY FLOW:
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h _{i} & h _{e} Are constant with respect to time.
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Energy balance,
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SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:
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Sink:
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CONCEPT OF HEAT ENGINE:
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Heat at low temperature → low grade energy (low significance) Heat at high temperature → high grade energy (high significance)
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HEAT PUMP:
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VIOLATION OF CLAUSES:
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CARNOT CYCLE:
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If _{∮} ^{d}^{Q} > 0 …
T
Cycle is not possible
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ɳ = 1 - ^{Q} ^{2}
Q
1
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a. When work from both the engine is same
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adiabatic
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1 ^{s}^{t} Method The performance of engine, W = 50KW Q _{1} = (3 × 75000) ÷ 3600 = 62.5KW
ɳ _{m}_{a}_{x} = ɳ _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} → economical ɳ _{m}_{a}_{x} > ɳ _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} → possible ɳ _{m}_{a}_{x} < ɳ _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} → not possible
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3.
If efficiency of Carnot engine is given as 0.75. if cycle direction is reversed then value of cop for Carnot refrigerator.
W = Q _{1} - Q _{2}
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W = 0.4 Q _{1}
5Q _{1} - 5Q _{2} = Q _{2}
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5Q _{1} = 6Q _{2}
Q
1
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0.27 = ^{Q} ^{1} ^{−} ^{Q} ^{2}
Q
1
100
Q _{1} = 21.5
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T 1
= Q 1
T 2
Q 2
W _{i}_{n} = 171428.57 KJ/sec
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W _{i}_{n} = 171428.57
^{K}^{J} ^{×} ^{h}^{r}
3600 × sec
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ds = + ve s _{2} − s _{1} = +ve The entropy of system increases when heat is added to a system.
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T
105
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V
For reversible process,
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For isolated system, dQ = 0
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Total heat transfer = _{∫}
1
2 T ds
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^{(}^{∆}^{S}^{)} Isolated
^{≥} ^{0}
H = U + PV
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dH = dU + P dV + V dP
(dQ = dU + P dV)
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4. Slope of constant pressure line:
From (1) & (2)
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dW _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n} =
- V dP
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Case 2: Temperature & pressure
S _{2} - S _{1} = C _{v} [ln [ ^{P} _{1} ^{2} ]] + C _{P} ln ^{V} ^{2}
P
V
1
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