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Notes for Final Examination

*Media and Information Literacy

MIL Core Concepts:

1. All media messages are constructed.

2. Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
3. Different people experience the same media message differently.
4. Media have embedded values and perspectives.
5. Most media messages are organized to gain profit and or power.

Key terms:

1. Representation: the ways in which media represents reality. It is how the process of media creation and production represent reality through the decisions and
perspectives of its creators. Media and Information Literacy is concerned with how certain groups, ideas, faith systems, and topics are presented from a particular
perspective or value system. It is a way of presenting reality again.
2. Codes: system of signs and symbolic meanings embedded in a media and information text.
3. Conventions: the established and socially accepted ways of doing things. In media, these are the styles and approaches that have been standardized into the
4. Genre: a system of classification of works of art, based on established conventions.
5. Format: manner of presentation and style that provides a structure for media and information texts.
6. Semiotics: study of signs. Media is always engaged in “signifying practices” which means there is a kind of symbolic work that can be found in media texts.
a. Written codes
b. Technical codes
c. Symbolic codes


a. Panel shows
b. Demonstration programs
c. Game shows
d. Live transmissions
e. Sports
f. Documentaries
g. News
h. Fiction or drama
i. Music/variety program
j. Public service announcements
NEWS: stories that have critical importance to community and national life.
5 major divisions of news stories:

1. Hard or Straight News – usually found in the first page of a newspaper or makes up a headline of a regular episode of primetime news.
3 elements:
a. Seriousness – means topic or issues that are critical to the lives of the community.
b. Timeliness – stories that cover current events.
c. Objectivity - fair, balanced and impartial stance when retelling events, free of judgement and without interpretation.

The Inverted Pyramid – acceptable structure of news story that is told objectively – with the base on top and the narrowest and pointed section at the bottom.

2. Soft News – these include lifestyle, travel, articles offering best way to do something etc. Also called as human interest stories.
3. Feature – extensions of soft news in a sense that the human interest angle is played up and elaborate format.
4. Investigative News – exposing wrongdoing, questionable transactions etc. there’s in-depth and analytical treatment.
5. Opinion – expresses an individual or organizational point of view.

Advertisements: messages that are created to sell a product or a service.

1. Hard-sell advertisements: mostly commercial in nature and utilize explicit messages to get the consumers to purchase a product or patronize a service.
2. Soft-sell advertisements: are associative in nature. A major soda company associates its product with happiness derived from family togetherness.
3. Infomercial: derived from the words “information” and “commercials,” combine the need to inform or educate the intent to sell a product. Advocacy groups use
infomercials to send messages campaigning a stand.

Entertainment: this means “to hold the attention, keep busy or amused.”

Blogs: derived from the words “web and log”, consists of web entries by an individual providing a commentary on something.

Wikis: an application that allows the modification, revision, extension, elaboration sometimes even deletion of its content.

Formula: an established procedure for achieving something.

Audiences: a group of people exposed and experiencing media.

Mass Audiences: a convenient term applied to huge numbers of people who constitute the audiences of popular and or mass culture.
Media and Information Literacy (MIL) - Legal, Ethical and Societal Issues in Media and Information

1. 1. Legal, Ethical, & Societal Issues in Media & Information BY: MARK JHON C. OXILLO
2. 2. Republic Act No.10175
3. 3. Republic Act No. 10175 - Or the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 - is a law in the Philippines approved on September 12, 2012 which aims to address legal issues
concerning online interactions and the Internet
4. 4. Republic Act No. 10175 Among the cybercrime offenses included in the bill are cybersquatting,cybersex, child pornography, identity theft, illegal access to data
and libel.
5. 5. So what is Cyber?
6. 6. CYBER means … • relating to, or involving computers or computer networks (such as the Internet)
7. 7. Cyberspace
8. 8. Cyberspace - refers to the virtual computer world, and more specifically, is an electronic medium used to form a global computer network to facilitate online
9. 9. Cybercrime
10. 10. Cybercrime - refers to the criminal activities carried out by means of computers or the Internet
12. 12. Cyberbullying - the use of electronic communication to bully a person, typically by sending messages of an intimidating or threatening nature
13. 13. Hacking
14. 14. Hacking - refers to the practice of modifying or altering computer software and hardware to accomplish a goal that is considered to be outside of the creator's
original objective.
15. 15. Hacking Those individuals who engage in computer hacking activities are typically referred to as “hackers”.
16. 16. Phishing
17. 17. Phishing - is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious
reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
18. 18. Illegal Downloading
19. 19. Illegal Downloading - refers to obtaining files that you do not have the right to use from the Internet.
20. 20. Illegal Downloading Sites Legal Downloading Sites The Pirate Bay iTunes Kickass.to Yahoo Music TorrentDownloads.me Amazon YTS.ag Netflix RARBG.to Ruckus
21. 21. Digital Piracy
22. 22. Digital Piracy - the practice of illegally copying and selling digital music, video, computer software, etc.
23. 23. Identity Theft
24. 24. Identity Theft - is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other
person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss
25. 25. Cyber Defamation
26. 26. Cyber Defamation - is an unprivileged false statement of fact which tends to harm the reputation of a person or company
27. 27. 2 Types of Defamation: 1. Libel - written 2. Slander - verbal
28. 28. Cybersex
29. 29. CYBERSEX • also called computer sex, Internet sex, netsex • is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more people (connected remotely via internet) send each
other sexually explicit contents or sexually explicit acts
30. 30. Child Pornography
31. 31. Child Pornography - is a form of child sexual exploitation
32. 32. Cybersquatting
33. 33. CYBERSQUATTING • is registering, trafficking in, or using an Internet domain name with bad faith intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to
someone else.
34. 34. CYBERSQUATTING • The cybersquatter then offers to sell the domain to the person or company who owns a trademark contained within the name at an inflated
36. 36. COPYRIGHT • a legal device that gives the creator of a literary, artistic, musical, or other creative work the sole right to publish and sell that work.
37. 37. COPYRIGHT Copyright owners have the right to control the reproduction of their work, including the right to receive payment for that reproduction.
38. 38. Violation of a copyright is called infringement.
40. 40. PLAGIARISM • an act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization; the representation of that
author's work as one's own, as by not crediting the original author
41. 41. FAIR USE
42. 42. FAIR USE is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee.
Purposes permitting the application of fair use generally include review, news reporting, teaching, or scholarly research.
44. 44. Computer Addiction - the excessive use of computers to the extent that it interferes with daily life. This excessive use may for example interfere with work or
sleep, result in problems with social interaction, or affect mood, relationships and thought processes.
46. 46. Digital Divide - an economic inequality between groups in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of ICT. The divide within countries can refer to inequalities
between individuals, households, businesses, and geographic areas at different socioeconomic (and other demographic) levels
48. 48. Virtual Self - The persona you create about yourself virtually
50. 50. Netiquette • the correct or acceptable way of communicating on the Internet.