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Lesson 1 The Arts and Humanities include the disciplines of

ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy,

ART AND HUMANITIES visual and performing arts. These disciplines explore,
share, and recreate expressions of the human
Meaning, Importance, and Scope of Humanities

Art Refers to the arts :

 Visual arts such as architecture, painting, and

 Art is a diverse range of human activities in sculpture; music, dance, the theater or drama, and
creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts literature.
(artworks), expressing the  They are branches of learning concerned with
author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or human thought, feelings, and relations.
technical skill, intended to be appreciated for  The importance of the human being and his
their beauty or emotional power. feelings and how he express those feelings have
 The expression or application of human creative always been the concern of the humanities.
skill and imagination, typically in a visual form  Art, like love is not easy to define. It concerns
such as painting or sculpture, producing works to itself with the communication of certain ideas and
be appreciated primarily for their beauty or feelings by means of a sensous medium – color,
emotional power. sound, bronze, marble, words, film, and
 This medium is fashioned into a symbolic
Humanities = Latin humanus, which means
language marked by beauty of design and
human, cultured, and refined.
coherence of form.
 It appeals to our minds, arouses our emotions,
kindles our imagination, and enchants our sense
HUMANITIES (Machlis, 1963)

 To be human is to have or show qualities like Visual Art

rationality, kindness, and tenderness.
 Unlike other subjects, it is not group of scientific
or technical subjects. The art that we perceive through our eyes and
 The humanities are studies about human culture, architecture is part of it.
such as literature, philosophy, and history. Involves not only painting and sculpture but includes
 Humanities, those branches of knowledge that things such as:
concern themselves with human beings and
 Visual Arts include much more than painting,
their culture or with analytic and critical methods
sculpture, and architecture. Out of the many
of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human
common things we use in our daily lives, we
values and of the unique ability of the human
derive real pleasure.
spirit to express itself. (britannica.com)
 A chair for example, can be beautiful as well as
 Humanities embrace literature, languages, music
and art history and philosophy.
 A great range of objects can be included in the
 Concerned with the thoughts, creations, and
visual arts, from purely useful products at one
actions of man in the past and in the present.
extreme to those that were designed for aesthetic
 They tell man about his roots, his origin, his
appeal on the other.
neighbours, himself.
 Because of this range, we are surrounded by art
in all these things we see, hear, do, or use. The
Aesthetic aspects of any work, a painting, song,
Arts and Humanities story, dance, or play- are what make art.
 Aesthetics refers to the forms and psychological
forms of art.
MUSIC Disco = both old and young

 Art of combining and regulating sounds of Children dance everywhere because it is pleasurable
varying pitch to produce compositions expressing to express happiness through bodily movements.
various ideas and emotions.
 Primary function is to entertain.
 Thus when sounds are not regulated or when a Drama
piece of music is played improperly or in full
blast, as in case of unrelated stereo , it ceases to
give pleasure or it fails in its purpose.  Drama activities are usually part of every school
 Great artwork of our civilization along with and community program.
literature , painting, sculpture architecture, and
dance  Classes dramatize the events they are studying:
 Deals with emotion. It’s being a “pure heart”  Clubs ,Organizations and Institutions stage plays.
enables it convey emotions with great intensity
and can affect people directly.
 Great music especially, radiates infectious joy.

 The song we sing may be a tune which is popular

now but may possibly be forgotten later. It may  Motion picture popular addition to the various
be a selection which has been sung or played for forms of the theater.
several years.  Radio – makes drama available for the Auditory
sense and imagination.
 Television – brings art of the drama to many
Dance people.

 Most direct of the arts for it makes use of the

human body as its medium.
 Dance heightens the pleasure of being, and at the
same time mirrors the life of society.  Form of literature.
Scenery and costume provide the visual arts and
music may serve as background to set the mood
Primitive and Non-Primitive Dance or to serve as the part of the plot.
 Opera
Ifugaos dance Is a drama set to music. It is a form of the theater.
To celebrate the victory of the warriors after a fight
with their enemies.
What The Arts Have Common?
Bagobos dance
to show gratitude to the spirits “for success war or  The most basic relationship is that the arts are
domestic affair”. concerned with emotions with our feelings about
Indian Dance
To give thanks for a harvest
 Exciting, Lovely and Stirring

Mexican dance
To celebrate religious festival
 People experience excitement, pleasure, anger,
and all other emotional states in a way which is
Teenagers dance Parties very different from their intellectual responses.

 Emotions are part of our basic nature.

Artist The process of creativity

 The person who exhibits exceptional skills in

design, drawing, painting and the like who Artist as the prime mover, communicating his ideas
works in one of the performing arts, like an actor through the performer, as his interpreter to the
or musician. audience.
 More sensitive and creative
 When he sees or learns something that impresses
The process of creation
him, he expresses himself in one medium or
another so that the others may understand it too.
Creator and Performers

A composer writes a song to be sung by talented  Artists are highly sensitive persons specially
singers. aware of the things that surround them.
A dramatist or playwright writes a play to be staged by They notice the sounds, colors, and movements
a company of actors. of people and things.
A choreographer composes a ballet or sequence  A study of arts is the study of humankind, for
which will be performed by a troupe of dancers. through the arts we can discover man’s major
interests, feelings, and problems through the ages.
 A song cannot be considered complete until it  The art of the ancient Egypt shows clearly how
has been sung; or a ballet until it has been the people of that time were pre occupied with
danced. the life after death, for many of their most
impressive monuments were erected as tombs for
 Individual interpretations to their performers. the pharaohs. (Compton’s Encyclopedia, Vol 3,
Two great actors may play the same role in 1974)
Florante at Laura yet it gives vastly different
interpretations; two dancers may dance the same
ballet but render it quite differently.
 Thus, in the performing arts, the ideas and the
interpretations of the performer are added to the
original ideas of the creator. This dual  The second phase of creation in art concerns the
contribution gives added richness and meaning material which the artist uses to give form to his
to these fields of arts. idea.
 The creative artists communicate directly with  A painter uses pigments; a sculptor uses stone,
the observer. metal or wood; an architect, various building
materials. An author uses words; a composer,
musical sounds which he sets down as notes. A
choreographer uses people and their movements
Lesson 2
as the materials for his creations.
Arts and humanities


The work of the creative artist

 The third phase of creating is organizing the idea

 Creativity is an artist trait developed in the course and giving it form in the selected material.
of his life to solve problems or express his  Artists have developed a host of different forms
feelings. to express ideas they work on.
 His continuing reaction to emerging conditions of  Style refers to the development of forms on art
nature and social life gives birth to new ideas and that is related to particular historical periods.
new methods. These in turn, he uses to overcome  Forms in the space arts are often symmetrically
difficulties which in the process of confrontation balanced in their design; that is, the two sides of
with reality, give the solution to a vision, create the object are identical.
art, or activate social transformation.  The symmetrical balance tends to emphasize the
center, creating a logical focal point for
something one wishes to emphasize.
 Asymmetrical balance is the kind of organization 1. Dry point. The artist draws directly on a metal plate
found in the most paintings and others two- with a sharp needle and scratches lines, or grooves,
dimensional graphic works. Here, the forms and into the metal. For each print, ink is rubbed into the
colors on one side are balanced by different grooves and the unscratched surface is wiped clean. In
forms and colors on the other. printing, the ink in the grooves is transferred to paper.
2. Etching. This is the art or process of producing
drawings or designs on metal plates covered with wax.
The needle penetrates wax to the surface of the plate.
The plate is then dipped in acid, which eats the lines
into the metal. For printing, etched (bitten) lines are
The visual arts are those that we perceive with our filled with ink which transferred to the paper.
eyes. They may be classified into (two dimensional- 3. Engraving. This is done on a metal plate with a
surface) and plastic arts (three dimensional arts). cutting tool called a barin, which leaves a V-shaped
trough. Drawings or designs on the plate are entirely
composed of lines and/or dots.
A. Graphic Arts
c. Surface Printing

I. Painting
Art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by
the use of pigments. includes all processes in which printing is done from a
flat (plane) surface.
The materials of the painter are pigments applied to
wet plaster, canvas, wood, or paper.
1. Lithography is the art or process of printing from a
flat stone or metal plate by a method based on
repulsion between grease and water. The design is put
II. Drawing on the surface. The surface is then treated so that the
Is the art of representing something by lines made on a ink adheres only to areas where drawing has been
surface or the process of portraying an object, scene or done; ink is then transferred to the paper printing.
forms of decorative or symbolic meaning through 2. Silkscreen. Silk is stretched over a rectangular
lines, shading, and textures in one or more colors. frame and unwanted portions in the design are blocked
Mediums used include pencil, pen and ink, crayon, out. Pigment is forced through the clear areas. For
brush, and charcoal. multi color prints, a separate screen is used for each

III. Graphic Process

These are processes for making multi-reproduction of
graphic works. All processes involve the preparation IV. Commercial Art
of a master image of the drawing or the design on
something durable material such as wood, metal, or
This includes designing of books, advertisements,
stone from which printing is done. Processes may be
signs, posters, and other displays to promote sale or
classified by the nature of the surface from which the
acceptance of product, service or idea.
printing is done: raised (relief); depressed (intaglio); or
flat (surface, or plane).
V. Mechanical Processes
These are developed by commercial printers for rapid,
a. Relief Printing
large-quantity reproduction of words and pictures in
the process whereby unwanted portions of design are
one more colors.
cut away on the master image. Printed image is
formed by the remaining surface.
e.g. linoleum cuts, woodcuts, and wood engravings. VI. Photography
Japanese prints are made from woodcuts. This is a chemical-mechanical process by which
images are produced on sensitized surfaces by actions
by action of light. Reproductions may be in black or
b. Intaglio
white or in full colors of the original.
Is a method of printing from a palate on which incised
lines, which carry the ink, leave a raised impression.
B. Plastic Arts Dress and Costume Design
This group includes all fields of the visual arts in This covers the design of wearing apparel of all types :
which materials are organized into three-dimensional dresses, coats, suits, shoes, ties, and the like.

Architecture Theater Design

Is the art of designing and constructing buildings and Is the design of settings for dramatic productions.
other types of structures. Varied materials used
include stone, concrete, brick, wood, steel, glass, and

The art of combining spoken or written words and

Landscape Architecture
their meanings onto forms which have artistic and
Is planning outdoor areas for human use and
emotional appeal.
enjoyment, especially gardens, parks, playgrounds,
golf courses. Chief materials are plants, trees, shrubs,

City Planning Is a form of literature. It is listed or defined in the next
This refers to planning and arranging the physical page.
aspects of a large or small community. Structures and
areas concerned with all phases of living and working
are attractively and efficiently organized and related.

This is non-fiction, expository (descriptive or

Interior Design
explanatory) writing ranging from informal, personal
The term is used to designate design and arrangement
topics to closely reasoned critical treatments of
of architectural interiors for convenience and beauty.
important subjects.
It includes backgrounds (walls, floors, ceilings),
furnishings and accessories.
Design of wallpapers, furniture, textiles for curtains Prose Fiction
and upholstery are important fields of interior design.
It includes narratives (stories) created by the author, as
distinguished from true accounts. The word fiction
Sculpture comes from the Latin word which means “to form”,
Refers to the design and construction if three- “to invent”, or “to feign”.
dimensional forms representing natural objects or Fiction is generally divided into novel, novelette, and
imaginary (sometimes abstract) shapes. short story forms. A novel or a short story describes
Common materials are stone, wood, clay, and metal; characters and events which the author has invented.
but ivory, jade, wire, string, and other materials are
also used. Sculptures of figures are called statues.

Crafts Is a literature of a highly expressive nature using

The term refers to the designing and making of objects special forms and choice of words and emotional
by hand for use or for pleasure. It includes such fields images. Narrative (story telling) poetry, includes epics,
as ceramics, jewelry, leatherwork, and weaving. If romances, and ballads. Lyric forms include the sonnet,
these fields are mass-produced, they are classed as ode, elegy, and song.
industrial design.

Industrial Design
Refers to design of objects for machine production. History, biography, letters, or journals, diaries, and
Examples are designs for automobiles and household other works not formally classed as literature often
appliances. have definite literary appeal and status due to the high
quality of the writing.
Music This is one of literature’s greatest dramatic art forms.
Is the art of arranging sounds in rhythmic succession It is a drama of serious nature in which the central
and generally in combination. Music is both a creative character comes to some sad or disastrous end. All
and a performing art. tragedies portray suffering.
Common forms are song, march, fugue, sonata, suite,
fantasy, concerto, and symphony.

Vocal Music

Is composed primarily to be sung. The voice/s are The emphasis is on action rather on character.
generally accompanied by one or more instruments. The action is sensational or romantic and usually has a
happy ending.

Instrumental Music
Four general types
Keyboard (piano, organ); stringed (violin, cello, Generally includes all plays with happy endings.
guitar); wind (flute, clarinet); brass winds, (trumpet,
saxophone); percussion (drums, xylophone) a. Romantic Comedy is a light, amusing tale of lovers
in some dilemma which is finally solved happily.
b. Farce is a light, humorous play. The emphasis in a
Music Combined with Other Arts farce is on jokes, humorous physical action, ludicrous
situations, and improbable characters.
c.Comedy of Manners sometimes called “drawing
room comedy” is sophisticated, sometimes satirical.
The characters are usually high-society types, and
Is a drama set to music. It is mostly or entirely sung
situations have a little to do with real life. The
with orchestral accompaniment. It is spectacularly
emphasis here is on witty dialogue.
staged with accomplished singers, elaborate scenery
and costumes.
Operetta and Musical Comedy a. Tragicomedy
This is also a set of drama set to music but is light, A drama blending tragic and comic elements but
popular, romantic, and often humorous or comic. which ends happily.
Operetta use spoken dialogue instead of recitative.

b. Miracle and Mystery Plays

Oratorio and Cantata Are dramatized stories from the Bible and of the lives
These are sacred musical drama in concert form. of Saints.
These are made up of recited parts (recitative), aria,
and choruses, with orchestral accompaniment. No
action, sets, and costumes are used. Oratories are c. Morality Plays
usually based on Biblical themes. Are those in which characters represent specific vices
and virtues.

Other forms of arts are the ballet music and

background music for notion. d. Closet Drama
Is a term used to designate plays written for reading
rather than staging.
Drama and theatre

e. Piano Drama
Is based on piano works which revolve around the
A drama or play is a story re-created by actors on a
musical pieces composed under the inspiration of a
stage in front of an audience.
literary work. This piano drama which is a recent
innovation is combining the interpretation of music
with the recitation of poetry and the literary source of
Tragedy the music.

Involves the movement of the body and the feet in



This includes folk dancing associated with national

and cultural groups.

Social or Ballroom Dances

These are popular types of dancing generally

performed by pairs. They include such forms as waltz,
foxtrot, rumba, and tango.

The Ballet

This is the formalized type of dance which is

originated in the royal courts of the Middle Ages.

Ballet dances may either be solo or concerted dances

with mimetic actions accompanied by music. These
are generally built around a theme or story.


Are sometimes called contemporary or interpretative

dances. These dances represent rebellion against the
classical formalism of ballet: they emphasize personal
communication of moods and themes. In the past,
movements usually based on the current trend.

Musical Comedy

Refers to those dances performed by soloists, groups,

choruses in the theaters, nights clubs, motion picture,
and television. It combines various forms of ballet,
modern, tap, and acrobatic.