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# DEFLECTION OF BEAMS AND SHAFTS

Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to:
a) Determine the deflection and slope at specific points on beams and shafts,
using various analytical methods including:
1. The integration method
2. The use of discontinuity functions
3. The method of superposition

In-class Activities:
• Reading Quiz • Use of discontinuity functions
• Applications • Method of superposition
• Elastic Curve • Moment area method
• Integration Method • Concept Quiz
APPLICATIONS
ELASTIC CURVE
- The deflection diagram of the longitudinal axis that passes through the
centroid of each cross-sectional area of the beam is called the elastic curve,
which is characterized by the deflection and slope along the curve. E.g.

Fig. 12-1
ELASTIC CURVE
- Moment-curvature relationship:
- Sign convention:

Fig. 12-2

## Fig. 12-3 Fig. 12-4

ELASTIC CURVE
- Consider a segment of width dx, the strain in arc ds, located at a position y
from the neutral axis is ε = (ds’ – ds)/ds. However, ds = dx = ρdθ and ds’ = (ρ-
y) dθ, and so ε = [(ρ – y) dθ – ρdθ ] / (ρdθ), or
1 =– ε
ρ y
Comparing with the Hooke’s Law ε = σ / E and the flexure formula σ = -My/I

We have

1 M
=
ρ EI
or

1 =– σ
ρ Ey Fig. 12-5
SLOPE AND DISPLACEMENT BY
INTEGATION
Kinematic relationship between radius of curvature ρ and location x:

1 = d 2v / dx2

ρ [ 1 + (dv/dx)2 ] 3/2

## Then using the moment curvature equation, we have

M = 1 = d2v / dx2 d 2v

EI ρ [ 1 + (dv/dx)2 ] 3/2 dx2

Or M = EIv”
Note: M is a function of x
Since V = dM/dx, so V = EIv”’ Note: V is a function of x
Also –w = dV/dx, so –w = EIv”” Note: w is a function of x

The above three equations will be used to find the elastic curve by integration
SLOPE AND DISPLACEMENT BY
INTEGATION (CONT.)
Sign convention:

Fig. 12-8
SLOPE AND
DISPLACEMENT BY
INTEGATION (CONT.)
Boundary Conditions:

## • The integration constants can be determined by

imposing the boundary conditions, or

## • Continuity condition at specific locations

Table 12 -1
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE 2
EXAMPLE 2 (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE 2 (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE 2 (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE 2 (CONTINUED)
USE OF DISCONTINOUS
FUNCTIONS
Macaulay functions:

< x – a>n =
{ 0
(x – a )n
for x < a
for x ≥ a

n≥0
Integration of Macaulay functions:

<x – a>n+1
∫ <x – a>n dx = n+1 +C

Table 12-2
USE OF DISCONTINOUS FUNCTIONS (CONT.)
Singularity Functions:

0 for x ≠ a
w = P <x – a>-1 = { P for x = a

Fig. 12-15

0 for x ≠ a
w = M0 <x – a>-2 = { M0 for x = a

Fig. 12-16
USE OF DISCONTINOUS FUNCTIONS (CONT.)
Note: Integration of these two singularity functions yields results that are
different from those of Macaulay functions. Specifically,

## Examples of how to use discontinuity functions to describe the loading or internal

moment in a beam:
w = - R1 <x – 0>-1 + P <x – a>-1 – M0<x – b>-2 + w0<x – c>0
M = R1 <x – 0> - P <x – a>) + M0<x – b>0 – (1/2)w0<x – c>2

Fig. 12-17
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
METHOD OF SUPERPOSITION
• Necessary conditions to be satisfied:
1. The load w(x) is linearly related to the deflection v(x),
2. The load is assumed not to change significantly the original geometry of
the beam of shaft.

## Then, it is possible to find the slope and displacement at a

point on a beam subjected to several different loadings by
algebraically adding the effects of its various component
parts.
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
EXAMPLE (CONTINUED)
CONCEPT QUIZ
1) The moment-curvature equation 1/ρ = M/EI is applicable to

## A) Statically determined member only

B) Beams having uniform cross-sections only
C) Beams having constant Young’s Modulus E only
D) Beams having varying moment of inertia I.

## A) Slope and deflection at a point of a beam are independent

B) Moment and shear at a point of a beam are independent
C) Maximum moment occurs at the locations where the shear is zero
D) Maximum moment occurs at the inflection point.
1) The slope angle θ in flexure equations is

## A) Measured in degree C) Exactly equal to dv/dx

B) Measured in radian D) None of the above

## 2) The load must be limited to a magnitude so that not to change significantly

the original geometry of the beam. This is the assumption for

## A) The method of superposition C) The method of integration

B) The moment area method D) All of them