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UM-LET REVIEW (March 24, 2015)


1. Who gave sociology its name? 12. The sociological imagination asks us to
a. Auguste Comte. a. broaden our perspective beyond individual experiences.
b. Èmile Durkheim. b. theorize without seeking actual evidence.
c. Karl Marx. c. improve our society.
d. Henri Saint-Simon. d. suspend judgment until all of the facts have been gathered.

2. According to Comte, social statics was the study of 13. The sociological imagination would have us view an individual's mate
a. how the institutions in society are interrelated. selection as based on:
b. how social change takes place during periods of revolution. a. the social values we internalize from our family.
c. how sociology can become a separate academic discipline. b. the social values we internalize from our peers.
d. how societies pass through stages of development over time. c. the social values we internalize from our neighbors.
d. all of the above.
3. According to Comte, the focus of social dynamics is:
a. how societies develop and change over time. 14. Both sociologists and psychologists are interested in alcoholism;
b. the interrelationships of social institutions and their stability. however in investigating alcoholism, a _____ would be most
c. the idea of a perfect society. interested in the patterns of alcohol consumption among individuals
d. how groups can be unpredictable. and social groups.
a. psychologist
4. Who of the following was (were) a pioneer in the development of the b. sociologist
science of sociology? c. both of these
a. Èmile Durkheim. d. neither of these
b. Harriet Martineau.
c. Max Weber. 15. Which of the following social sciences is interested in employment,
d. all of the above recession, inflation, and price indices?
a. Political science.
5. _____ is the view that generalizations are valid only if they rely on b. Sociology.
evidence that can be observed directly or verified through our c. Social psychology.
senses. d. Economics.
a. Psychology
b. Scientific method 16. Both sociologists and historians are interested in the past. Using a
c. Sociological imagination recent military war as a case for investigation, a sociologist would be
d. Empiricism most interested in:
a. particular battles and how they were won or lost.
6. Which of the following is (are) a component of the definition of b. individual military and political leaders and the strategies they
sociology? developed.
a. society c. whether American involvement in the war was moral or
b. social interactions immoral.
c. human d. the impact of the war on political attitudes and events in the
d. all of the above United States.

7. The main goal of sociology is to:

1. accurately predict the future. 17. What is the main difference between sociology and social work?
2. rectify social problems. a. Sociology uses theory and social work does not.
3. understand the forces that mold individuals and shape their b. Social work overlaps with psychology while sociology does not.
behavior. c. Social workers help people with problems while sociologists try
4. help government agencies to explain the events that affect us. to understand why problems exist.
d. There really is no difference between sociology and social work.
8. Which of the following is the major focus of the field of psychology?
a. human society 18. Why did sociology as a discipline emerge?
b. helping people solve problems a. Rapid social change was occurring.
c. the operations of government b. There was a need for a systematic analysis of society.
d. individual behavior and mental processes c. People were affected by the impact of discovering how others
9. The main focus or unit of analysis for sociologists is: d. All of the above.
a. groups.
b. strange people. 19. This sociologist published Theory and Practice of Society in
c. unusual occurrences. Americawhich was based on traveling though 19th Century America
d. events which other sciences cannot explain. and conducting an analysis of day--to-day life, customs, and
10. _____ have developed techniques for measuring such things as a. Harriet Martineau
prices, supply and demand, money supplies, rates of inflation and b. Auguste Comte. - Given
employment. c. Herbert Spencer.
a. Journalists d. W.E.B.DuBois.
b. Economists
c. Sociologist 20. Of the following theorists, who believed that the entire history of
d. Anthropologists human societies could be seen as a history of struggles between
those who own and control the means of production and those who
11. According to _____, the task of the sociological imagination is to see do the work?
the relationship between individual experiences and larger social a. Èmile Durkheim.
forces. b. Karl Marx.
a. Harriet Martineau c. Herbert Spencer.
b. Karl Marx d. Max Weber.
c. C. Wright Mills
d. Emile Durkheim 21. Karl Marx equated power with
a. elitism purchased by excessive wealth.

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b. physical attractiveness and strength. 32. The ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context
c. achievement of a high level of education. of common social structures is what C. Wright Mills refers to as:
d. ownership of the means of production. a. common human drama.
b. the family.
22. Which of the following sociological perspectives views society as a c. the sociological imagination.
system of highly interrelated structures or parts that operate d. a social script
together harmoniously?
a. conflict. 33. Public issues are different from personal troubles in that issues affect
b. interactionism. a:
c. societalism. a. few people and require personal adjustments.
d. functionalism. b. few people and require structural adjustments.
c. large number of people and require personal adjustments.
23. Marx predicted that eventually d. large number of people and require structural adjustments.
a. workers and owners would work things out through better
labor laws. 34. According to C. Wright Mills, the difficulties that John and Mary
b. workers would organize and take control of the economy. experience in their marriage represent a personal trouble. The fact
c. owners would redistribute wealth more equitably to workers. that 250 out of every 1000 marriages ends in divorce, within the first
d. the most powerful would prevail and control everyone else. 4 years, however, is:
a. a public issue.
24. Which of the following is a finding from Durkheim's study of suicide? b. a sign of moral collapse.
a. Protestants have higher suicide rates than Catholics. c. a latent dysfunction of marriage.
b. Single people have higher suicide rates than married people. d. meaningless.
c. People without children have higher suicide rates than people
with children. 35. According to your text, what distinguishes social sciences from fields
d. a, b, & c above. such as journalism, medicine or the law?
a. Social sciences are interested in human behavior.
25. Marx's view of societies is considered the basis for which of the b. Social sciences use a critical and systematic examination of
following perspectives in sociology? evidence before reaching any conclusion.
a. functionalist. c. Social sciences try to approach each research question from a
b. conflict. position of moral neutrality.
c. symbolic interactionist. d. Social science is interested in society, not individuals.
d. reactionary.
36. The social sciences rely on empirical research. This means that they:
26. DuBois argued for the acceptance of African Americans into: a. are very philosophical.
a. law schools. b. are less scientific that other fields such as journalism and
b. the clergy. medicine.
c. the military. c. are based on systematic examination of evidence.
d. all areas of society. d. use research methods that are very different from those used
in the sciences.
27. A sociological theory concerned with the issues of who benefits from
particular social arrangements and how the powerful maintain their 37. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the emergence of
positions is known as sociology as a field of study?
a. conflict theory. a. political changes
b. coercion theory. b. changing gender roles
c. functionalism. c. economic change
d. symbolic interactionism. d. intellectual upheavals

28. Which of the following is nottrue about the sociologist, W.E.B. Du 38. Which of these conditions contributed to the early development of
Bois? sociology?
a. Because of institutionalized racism, he was never able to obtain a. a period of stability that gave people time to reflect about
a college degree. society.
b. He advocated militant resistance to white racism. b. changes brought by the industrial revolution.
c. He believed that doctrines and theories had a powerful effect c. the need for reconstruction in the South following the Civil
on social conditions. War.
d. He felt sociological studies of African Americans would have a d. social and economic prosperity in Europe and America.
positive effect on white public opinion.
39. The credit for founding the discipline of sociology is given to:
a. Thomas Hobbes.
29. Sociologists are most inclined to explain behavior in terms of: b. Emile Durkheim.
a. individual personality characteristics. c. Auguste Comte.
b. roles and social structures. d. Herbert Spencer.
c. the biological differences between people.
d. individual attitudes. 40. According to Comte, understanding society requires recognizing
forces for stability and order, as well as change. Today sociologists
30. Sociology is defined in your text as the systematic study of: refer to these using the term:
a. mental cognition. a. social structure and social process.
b. the biological difference between individuals. b. continuity and change.
c. human social interaction. c. social conflict and social order.
d. individual human behavior. d. symbolic interaction and social interaction.

31. A _____ is the expected performance of someone who occupies a 41. The belief that the social world can be studied with the same
specific position in a society. scientific accuracy and assurance as the natural world is known as:
a. role a. relativism.
b. status b. cause and effect.
c. social structure c. methodology.
d. sociological imagination d. positivism.

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42. Spencer believed: 4. W.E.B. DuBois
a. the environment will adapt to society.
b. there is one best way to organize society. 53. C. Wright Mills used the term _____ to refer to the relationship
c. society is an adaptation to its environment. between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that
d. all parts of society work separately. shape our actions.
a. phenomenology
43. One of Spencer’s contributions to sociology was: b. sociological imagination
a. his model for understanding changing exploitative labor laws. c. social dynamics
b. his study of the unfair treatment of women. d. social conflict
c. that he cautioned sociologists to put aside their biases,
opinions, and wishes when conducting research. 54. Who was the first sociology professor?
d. his development of the concept of economic determinism. 1. Karl Marx
2. Emile’ Durkheim
44. All of the following theoretical ideas are associated with Karl Marx 3. W.E.B. DuBois
EXCEPT: 4. Herbert Spencer
a. positivism.
b. economic determinism. 55. What did Robert K. Merton call “social processes that contribute to
c. dialectic. the on-going operation or maintenance of society?”
d. capitalism as a source of conflict and inequality. a. Social functions
b. Manifest functions
45. Karl Marx’s two lasting contributions to sociology are: c. Latent functions
a. value free and symbolic sociology. d. Paradigms
b. positivism and theories of statics and dynamics.
c. theories of cultural adaptation and cultural evolution. 56. Durkheim’s first scientifically conducted sociological study dealt with
d. the theory of economic determinism and the theory of the what topic?
dialectic. a. hunger
b. suicide
46. The idea that the economy provides the foundation on which all c. phenomenology
other social and political arrangements are built is referred to as: d. economics
a. second order economics.
b. economic determinism. 57. Herbert Spencer believed that society is similar to a:
c. capitalism and free enterprise. a. small group
d. the dialectic. b. primitive tribe
c. human brain
47. Which of the following characterizes the interactionist perspective? d. living organism
a. How individuals develop their sense of self
b. Interactionists are more likely than functionalists to base their 58. Who developed the theory of “Social Darwinism?”
work on the theories of Mead, Garfinkel, and Goffman. a. Auguste Comte
c. Ethnomethodology and dramaturgy can be thought of as part b. Emile’ Durkheim
of the interactionist perspective. c. Herbert Spencer
d. a, b, & c above d. W.E.B. DuBois

48. A symbolic interactionist would be most likely to ask which of the 59. Who is a noted pioneer in the development of the science of
following questions? sociology?
a. What function does the education system serve for the larger a. Emile’ Durkheim
society? b. Harriet Martineau
b. Why is education a useful service? c. Herbert Spencer
c. How is the educational system used to benefit those in power? d. All of the above
d. What messages are communicated to students by the structure
in which education takes place? 60. Suicides by people who kill themselves out of a sense of duty to the
group or self-sacrifice would be termed _____ suicides by Durkheim
49. Which of the following perspectives is concerned, primarily, with the a. egoistic.
meaning that people place on their own and one another'sbehavior? b. altruistic.
a. Functionalism c. anomic.
b. Symbolic interactionism d. fatalistic
c. Conflict theory - Given
d. Middle-range theory 61. During periods of rapid social change, the suicide rate often
increases. Durkheim would term such suicides:
50. The main purpose of a paradigm is to a. anomic.
a. provide a model or conceptual framework for asking questions b. egoistic.
and guiding research c. altruistic.
b. legitimate sociology as a science relative to other forms of d. fatalistic.
c. eliminate the need to collect data as the theory can tell one the 62. You just learned that a person you knew in high school committed
answer in advance suicide. You were surprised until you later learned that theperson
d. differentiate sociology from other sciences. had developed into something of a "loner" and had cut off ties with
her church, family, and closest friends. Complicating matters, your
51. Social Darwinism attributes one’s lack of success to: friend had been unemployed for many months. Following Durkheim,
a. the inferiority of the individual you would be most likely to classify her suicide as:
b. barriers created by society 1. fatalistic.
c. racism 2. anomic.
d. sexism 3. egoistic.
4. particularistic.
52. Principles of Sociology,the first sociology textbook, was written by:
1. Harriet Martineau 63. Members of the cult in Jonestown committed suicide by drinking
2. Wright Mills Kool-Aid laced with cyanide at the request of their leader Jim Jones.
3. Herbert Spencer This type of suicide would be characterized by Durkheim as:
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1. altruistic. a. patterned regularities.
2. anomic. b. collective conscience.
3. egoistic. c. social participation.
4. integrated. d. the Protestant Ethic.

64. Durkheim was interested in suicide primarily because he wanted 74. Much of Durkheim’s scholarly work was devoted to understanding:
a. to solve a major social problem in the France of his day. a. social conflict.
b. to show that what was thought to be a personal act was b. the stability of society.
patterned by social forces. c. personal troubles of individuals.
c. to show that psychological conditions, for example depression, d. societal dysfunction.
were more important than economic conditions in suicide
rates. 75. According to Durkheim, _____ suicide occurs when the institutions of
d. all of the above society provide too much regulation and allow too little individual
65. Who was the first African-American to receive a PhD from Harvard? 1. fatalistic
a. Harriet Martineau. 2. anomic
b. W.E.B. Du Bois. 3. egoistic
c. W.I. Thomas. 4. altruistic
d. Robert K. Merton.
76. Which sociological perspective is focused on how individuals make
66. Sociologically, the positive connection between hours of study and sense of or interpret their social world?
students test scores demonstrates _____ preparing before taking a. Interactionist
examinations. b. Conflict
a. a finding about test taking ability, not the c. Functionalist
b. random event unconnected to the d. Societalist
c. a latent function of
d. a manifest function of 77. The Functionalist perspective and _____ can be thought of as
opposite sides of the same coin.
67. Where hillsides have been cleared to provide lumber for housing 1. Social Darwinism
boom, rain often causes mud-slides. Sociologists would regard 2. Social Interactionist
mudslides as 3. Conflict Theory
a. the negative effects of global warming which has increased 4. Social Work
rainfall nationally.
b. a cost which has to be born, by some members of society for 78. Felipe is 30 years old and farms a small piece of land. Farming is the
the betterment of others. only trade he knows. He would like to marry Tina, but does not
c. a bad method of securing lumber. because his parents own the land he tills and they do not like her.
d. a latent outcome of that method of cutting trees on hillsides This is an example of:
where rain is a possibility. a. the dialectic.
b. positivism.
68. Egoistic suicide comes from: c. economic determinism.
a. over involvement with others d. interfering parents.
b. a general uncertainty from norm confusion
c. overall feelings of depressions resulting from economic 79. The dialectic refers to:
setbacks a. the exploitation of the working class.
d. low group solidarity and under involvement with others b. social change as a product of contradictions and conflicts
between parts of society.
69. The intended and recognized consequences of social processes. c. analyzing the functions of social order.
1. Manifest functions d. societal change.
2. Latent functions
3. Misfunctions 80. Many, if not most, sociologists agree with Marx’s idea that:
4. Dysfunctions a. social scientists should also be social activists.
b. conflicts between workers and capitalists will lead to socialism.
70. Untended and not readily recognized consequences of social c. revolution by the masses is the way to bring about desired
processes. change.
a. Manifest functions d. economic relationships and conflicts are important to
b. Latent functions understanding social relationships.
c. Dysfunctions
d. Malfunctions 81. A teenager’s parents divorce and as a result neither parent has as
71. You just learned that a person you knew committed suicide. You much time to spend with her. She has the freedom to do whatever
were surprised until you later learned that the person had developed she wants, whenever she wants, with little regulation. Unable to
into somewhat of a “loner” and had cut off ties with church, family cope with the many changes, she takes her own life. This is _____
and close friends. Complicating matters, your friend had been suicide.
unemployed for many months. Following Durkheim, you would be a. fatalistic
most likely to classify the suicide as: b. anomic
a. altruistic c. egoistic
b. anomic d. altruistic
c. egoistic
d. mystic 82. Based upon Durkheim’s early research on suicide, one can expect
that suicides may increase when society allows:
72. _____ theorists contend that social change is pushed forward by a. too little or too much freedom.
social conflict. b. too little freedom, only.
a. Functionalist c. too much freedom, only.
b. Conflict d. too much regulation, only.
c. Interactionist
d. Darwinist 83. Applying Comte’s divisions of statics and dynamics to the theories of
Marx and Durkheim, Marx’s theory could best be seen as _____,
73. Durkheim referred to community standards of morality as: while Durkheim’s theory could be classified as _____.
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a. static; dynamic b. Symbolic interaction
b. social structure; social process c. Structural-functional
c. dynamic; neither static nor dynamic d. Microsociology
d. dynamic; static
95. “Society is like an organism, the parts work in harmony to contribute
84. Weber emphasized all of the following EXCEPT: to the maintenance of the whole. A healthy society is one that is
a. the subjective meanings of social action. stable.” These statements are consistent with which theoretical
b. a stress on social rather than economic causes of behavior. perspective?
c. being objective in research. a. Symbolic Interaction.
d. conflict as a mechanism of social change. b. Conflict Theory.
c. Structural-Functional Theory.
85. Weber argued that part of the ideological foundation for capitalism d. the dialectic.
came from:
a. the dialectic. 96. Stabilizing or positive consequences of social structures that are
b. changing modes of production. intended and recognized are referred to by sociologists as:
c. Protestant religious values. a. latent functions.
d. the American frontier. b. manifest functions.
c. patterned regularities.
86. The statement “Sociology should be value-free.” means that d. dysfunctions.
sociologists should be concerned with:
a. what is, rather than with what ought to be. 97. Consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor
b. identifying the major values of a free society. recognized are referred to by sociologists as:
c. analyzing how values affect individual behavior. a. latent functions.
d. making recommendations about how to make a better society. b. manifest functions.
c. patterned regularities.
87. Value free sociology is LEAST likely to be practiced by sociologists d. patterned irregularities.
a. are basic research scientists employed in universities. 98. According to your text, a latent dysfunction of the “battered
b. are social activists who adhere to Marxist principles. women’s syndrome” defense may be that:
c. adhere to Weber’s principles. a. it gives legal recognition to the devastating effects of domestic
d. study social facts as advocated by Durkheim. violence.
b. women who successfully use the defense may find it difficult to
88. Max Weber developed which approaches for sociology? retain custody of their children.
a. value-free stance and an emphasis on subjective meanings. c. more women will leave their abusive husbands.
b. positivism and theories of statics and dynamics. d. some offenders could use the defense as an excuse for
c. adaptation and evolution. malicious, premeditated attacks on a significant other.
d. economic determinism and the dialectic.
99. According to the arguments presented in the text, the possibility that
89. Which feature has NOT been a characteristic of the development of the new “battered women’s syndrome” laws may perpetuatethe
sociology in the United States? view that women are irrational is a:
a. concern for social problems. a. manifest function.
b. a reforming approach. b. latent function.
c. a radical approach. c. latent dysfunction.
d. emphasis on the scientific method. d. manifest dysfunction.

90. Nobel Prize Winner, Jane Addams, was concerned with using social 100. Structural-functional analysis tends to call structures that preserve
science data to do all of the following EXCEPT: the status quo _____ and those that challenge the statusquo as
a. provide services to the poor. _____.
b. design a better juvenile justice system. a. functions; dysfunctions
c. end slavery. b. dysfunctions; functions
d. achieve better public sanitation. c. undesirable; desirable
d. operational structures; disruptive structures
91. Harvard graduate, _____ , devoted his career to collecting data
about African-Americans to combat racism. 101. Which theoretical perspective is most likely to focus on how
a. Ralph Dahrendorf inequality, competition, tension and antagonisms in the social
b. Martin Luther King, Jr. structure are likely to create pressures for social change?
c. Emile Durkheim a. structural-functional theory.
d. W.E.B. DuBois b. symbolic interaction theory.
c. conflict theory.
92. How does U.S. sociology differ from European sociology? d. value free sociology.
a. Our social problems are different.
b. Higher degree sociology programs are more popular in the U.S. 102. Which of the following is NOT a basic assumption of the conflict
c. U.S. sociology is has always been more theoretical than perspective?
European sociology. a. Change is a gradual process of social evolution.
d. Higher degree programs are more popular in the U.S. than in b. Social relationships are based on economic competition.
Europe. c. Inequalities are built into social structures.
d. Social change is the result of conflict and competition.
93. Which major theoretical perspective addresses the question of social
organization and how it is maintained? 103. Conflict theorists primarily want to know how social structures:
a. dramaturgy theory. a. give some people unequal access to scarce resources.
b. structural-functional theory. b. contribute to the maintenance of society.
c. conflict theory. c. evolve and become patterned regularities of society.
d. symbolic interaction theory. d. contribute to meeting individual needs through competition.

94. _____ theory relies on the assumptions of stability, harmony and 104. According to conflict theory, conflict between competing interests
evolution. results in:
a. Conflict a. social change.
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b. adaptation of the less powerful. a. learning how to have sex without emotion.
c. adaptation of the more powerful. b. becoming adept (the best) at what they do sexually.
d. evolution. c. keeping a distance between their emotions and their work.
d. maintaining a low profile and avoiding arrest.
105. According to your book, conflict theorists would argue that the
problem of domestic violence developed and is maintained because: 115. Your text concludes that the best theoretical perspective to use in
a. many religions have taught women to submit to their studying human social interaction:
husbands’ wishes and accept violence with the marriage. a. is structural functional theory.
b. until recently the law did not regard woman battering a crime. b. is symbolic interaction theory.
c. many police officers still consider battering an unimportant c. is conflict theory.
family matter. d. depends on which the sociologist feels is more appropriate for
d. all of these are true the topic being studied.

106. Symbolic interaction theory addresses: 116. Sociology differs from other methods of acquiring knowledge in that
a. social change produced through competition and conflict. it:
b. how social organization results from interaction. a. requires empirical evidence.
c. the importance of social activism to produce social change. b. is systematic.
d. the creation and communication of the shared meanings c. is divorced from common sense.
associated with human acts. d. is modern.

107. Marie grew up in Spanish Harlem with a household income slightly 117. If Thomas said that religious intermarriage increases the likelihood of
above poverty level. John’s family makes $150,000 a year. Who divorce, what would a sociologist need to be convinced?
would be most likely to study Marie and John’s individual attitudes a. to know a couple who divorced because of religious
and behavior? differences.
a. symbolic interactionist. b. to see data showing that couples where the partners are from
b. conflict theorist. difference religious backgrounds have higher divorce rates.
c. functionalist. c. a good argument that makes common sense for why religious
d. social theorist. differences lead to divorce.
d. to get married to someone with religious views different from
108. One of the major premises underlying symbolic interactionism is their own to see if conflict arises.
a. the social structure determines human behavior. 118. According to your text, sociology:
b. rules and regulations guide society. a. is not much different from common sense.
c. shared symbolic meanings grow out of human interaction. b. is the only way to understand human behavior.
d. some actions have fixed and non-negotiable meanings. c. almost always contradicts common sense conclusions.
d. critically examines common sense explanations of human social
109. If a symbolic interactionist analyzed the Super Bowl, s/he would behavior.
probably focus on:
a. what meanings the individual players assign to winning or 119. The two major goals of research are:
losing. a. description and prediction.
b. differences in the organization of the two teams. b. generalization and description.
c. conflict between owners, managers, and players over salary. c. control and prediction.
d. evolution and change within each team’s structure. d. description and explanation.

110. A sociologist approaching the study of domestic violence from a 120. The research process usually follows which order?
_____ perspective might be interested in how boys are socialized to a. stating the problem, gathering the data, finding patterns,
consider aggression a natural part of being male and that translates generating theory.
into aggression in their intimate relationships. b. gathering data, finding patterns, stating the problem,
a. Social Conflict Theory generating theory.
b. Structural Functionalism c. finding patterns, stating the problem, generating theory,
c. Symbolic Interactionism gathering data.
d. Sociobiology d. gathering data, generating theory, finding patterns, stating the
111. Macrosociology is NOT associated with which of the following?
a. conflict theory. 121. _____ are characteristics that vary across individuals or groups.
b. structural-functional theory. a. Variables
c. symbolic interaction theory. b. Differentials
d. the study of social structures. c. Probabilities
d. Generalizations
112. According to Kingsley Davis, a manifest function of prostitution is
that it: 122. A researcher expects to find an empirical relationship between time
a. provides a sexual outlet for men who cannot compete in the young children spend in daycare and their emotional security. Her
marriage market. statement that “Young children who spend their early years in
b. protects the bargaining position of married women. daycare are more emotionally secure than those that stay at home
c. increases sexual crimes of violence. with a parent” is her:
d. keeps many women off the streets. a. hypothesis.
b. assumption.
113. Mary became a prostitute because it was one of the few occupations c. theory.
that would allow her to escape poverty. Mary’s use of sex as a scarce d. operational definition.
resource is explained by which sociological perspective?
a. conflict theory. 123. Which of the following is an example of a hypothesis?
b. dramaturgy. a. Men should share in household chores.
c. trade theory. b. You can catch more flies with honey than you can with vinegar.
d. situational theory. c. The meek shall inherit the earth.
d. Learning should be fun.
114. Chapkis’s study of prostitution suggests that prostitutes manage to
maintain their self-esteem in spite of societal disapproval by:
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124. The variable in a hypothesis that precedes or causes a change in the c. which variable is more important than the other.
other variable in the hypothesis is called the _____ variable. d. that there is an empirical relationship between the two
a. sample variables.
b. dependent
c. independent 134. The scientific process can BEST be viewed as:
d. causal a. an arrow that goes straight from hypothesis to data to
125. When gathering data, the cause is known as the _____ and the effect b. a frame which allows us to better see the meaning of data.
is known as the _____. c. a precision instrument which allows us to separate theory from
a. dependent variable; independent variable fact.
b. operation definition; variable d. a wheel that moves continuously from theory to data and back
c. independent variable; dependent variable again.
d. variable; operation definition
135. A theory:
126. Alan and Wayne hypothesize that high school-age boys who have a. is fully supported by empirical evidence.
high levels of testosterone will get into more trouble with the law b. is beyond empirical test.
than boys with lower levels of testosterone. The dependent variable c. goes beyond the facts currently at hand.
in their study is: d. is only based on common sense and opinions.
a. testosterone level.
b. trouble with the law. 136. In her study of the relationship between education and
c. kind of school attended. unemployment, Lori Reid found that:
d. sex. a. education deficits best explained why African American women
were more likely to lose their jobs than white women.
127. The exact procedures we use to describe how a variable is to be b. black men did not have equal access to educational
measured are called: opportunities in the rural South.
a. analysis decisions. c. black men in the North were more likely to hold down jobs
b. operational definitions. than their Southern counterparts.
c. measurement theory. d. types of occupation and area of residence were more
d. classification schemes. important than educational differences in predicting the
difference in rates of unemployment between white and black
128. Which of the following is an operational definition? women.
a. Intelligence isdefined as the ability to make sense out of your
environment. 137. High rates of unemployment among African Americans have led
b. Ambition is defined as the desire to excel. sociologists to develop and test two competing hypotheses. One
c. Education is defined as completed years of formal schooling. theory suggests that African Americans have higher rates of
d. Social class is defined as one’s ranking in the stratification unemployment because they are more likely to work in industries
hierarchy. that are declining and live in regions with high unemployment. The
second theory suggests:
129. Sylvia draws a sample from a complete list of individuals over the age a. African Americans are more likely to be unemployed because
of 65 who are members of Ravenna Presbyterian Church in Pacific they have lower educational attainment.
City. Her results can be generalized to: b. white workers are more enthusiastic about working and are
a. all Presbyterians. therefore hired more often.
b. all members of Ravenna Presbyterian. c. African Americans are not willing to work for low wages.
c. all older members of Ravenna Presbyterian. d. African Americans are much more likely than whites to quit
d. the individuals she studies. their job.

130. The most difficult task in sampling is: 138. The research process that starts with data and builds into theories is
a. getting an accurate list of the population under study. called:
b. introducing a control variable. a. deduction.
c. interpreting frequencies. b. survey research.
d. interviewing people. c. correlation.
d. induction.
131. Let’s suppose that you have been asked to help draw a sample of
students with the object being to evaluate a newly proposed grading 139. Suha has some doubt about whether a theory she has been assigned
system. Which statement would you want to guide your sample to read is really accurate so she decides to collect some data to test
selection? it. The process she is using is called:
a. With a population of 25,000 students, a sample of 25 is okay. a. experimentation.
b. Since seniors are more experienced, only include seniors in the b. deduction.
sample. c. induction.
c. Randomly select a sample of 500 students from all students d. participate observation.
affected by the new grading system.
d. A random sample of 500 students from among those taking a 140. The research strategy best suited for testing cause-and-effect
sociology coursewill be used. hypotheses is:
a. panel research.
132. Goldilocks finds that there is a positive correlation between the b. cross-sectional survey research.
presence of baby bears and her level of comfort. This means that: c. participant observation.
a. there is an empirical relationship between the two variables. d. controlled experiments.
b. Goldilocks is afraid of bears.
c. the presence of baby bears causes Goldilocks to feel 141. In a controlled experiment there are a minimum of two groups. The
comfortable. group that does NOT receive the independent variable is called the:
d. there is a cause-effect relationship between the two variables a. null group.
but we cannot be sure which causes which. b. comparison group.
c. control group.
133. A correlation between two variables—say, between sex and math d. equivalent group.
scores—tells us:
a. that one variable causes the other.
b. why the relationship exists.
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142. Which of these methods of obtaining data has serious limitations c. survey research.
because a researcher cannot expose subjects to an independent d. government reports and statistics.
variable that might harm them:
a. survey. 152. Repeating the same study with another investigator or a different
b. questionnaire. sample is known as:
c. controlled experiment. a. validation.
d. field studies. b. hypothesis testing.
c. random sampling.
d. replication.
143. The research technique that is most versatile and may be used to
study behavior, attitudes, and values is: 153. To find out whether or not high school textbooks are reflecting
a. experiment. changes in gender roles a sociologist would use:
b. panel design. a. participant observation.
c. participant observation. b. controlled experiments.
d. survey research. c. survey research.
d. content analysis.
144. The best method for gathering data in a study of consumer
preferences needed for a national advertising campaign is: 154. Participant observation and content analysis share the disadvantage
a. participant observation. that:
b. the controlled experiment. a. they are unsystematic.
c. survey research. b. the research subjects are not selected randomly.
d. analysis of social artifacts. c. they rely on interpretations of the sociologist.
d. None of these are disadvantages held in common.
145. Which of the following is a statement of trend?
a. About 60% of college students use alcohol. 155. Which of these is NOT a way that sociologists use existing statistics?
b. About the same proportion of college students use alcohol 1. to support the results of research based on other methods. -
today as 10 years ago. Given
c. More than 70% of male college students use alcohol as 2. to construct a broader picture of the problem being studied.
compared to about 55% of females. 3. to understand the shared meanings of a behavior or
d. Alcohol use rates among college students are constantly experience.
changing. 4. to combine with data collected the researcher.

146. Surveys using a(n) _____ design take a sample of the population at a 156. Most sociologists:
single point in time and expect to find variability of the independent a. work for the government.
variable. A _____ design follows the same sample over a period of b. work to provide counseling or social services.
time. c. are employed in colleges and universities.
a. cross-sectional; longitudinal d. are unemployed.
b. panel; cross-sectional
c. incidence; trend 157. Sociology is the scientific, systematic study of individual human
d. fixed-point; chronological personality traits and problems.
a. True
147. University students who drink may have grown up in families with a b. False
lot of stress that may not have valued education. Therefore a
correlation found between grades and drinking may be caused by 158. Raegan’s mother is unemployed. She understands that her mother’s
pre-existing conditions for the students. If so, the correlation experience is related to the declining economy. Raegan’s ability to
between grades and drinking would be considered: understand her mother’s unemployment within the context of a
a. a triangulated relationship. declining economy is referred to as the sociological imagination.
b. a secondary relationship. a. True
c. a spurious relationship. b. False
d. an aftereffect
159. The concept of “value-free” sociology relates to the study of a
148. The tendency for people to alter the truth so that they appear nicer, society’s lack of appropriate moral values.
richer, and more desirable than they really are is called: a. True
a. fudging the truth. b. False
b. social desirability bias.
c. invalidity. 160. Symbolic interactionism focuses on the nature and consequences of
d. instrument error. social structures.
149. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of participant a. True
observation? b. False
a. Samples tend to be unrepresentative.
b. Data are shallow and superficial. 161. Sociology in the U.S. tends to be more theoretical than European
c. Data depend on one person’s interpretation. sociology.
d. Data tend to be unsystematic. a. True
b. False
150. Professor Hashima wants to study people who hang out at the local
singles bar. She wants to look at patterns of interaction and find the 162. If social action or a social structure reinforces inequality it may still
meaning of the patterns for the individuals involved. Which method be viewed as functional for society because it upholds the status
of research should she use? quo.
a. the experiment. a. True
b. participant observation. b. False
c. survey research.
d. unobtrusive methods. 163. Conflict theory stresses the points of stress and conflict in society
and the ways in which they contribute to social change.
151. Research undertaken on running a brothel, rioters, and the homeless a. True
is most likely to use which research strategy? b. False
a. participant observation.
b. controlled experiments.
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164. Conflict theory is the theoretical perspective most focused on social 179. Psychology and sociology share the common element of having the
change. individual as the primary focus of the analysis.
a. True a. True
b. False b. False

180. The social science most similar to sociology is cultural anthropology.

165. None of the three sociological perspectives is complete in itself. a. True
a. True b. False
b. False
181. Auguste Comte was more concerned with defining sociology's
166. A theory is a statement about the relationships that we expect to subject matter than with showing how it would improve the lives of
observe in a scientific study. people in society.
a. True a. True
b. False b. False

167. The exact procedure by which a variable is measured is called an 182. Harriet Martineau's translation of Auguste Comte's Positive
operational definition. Philosophyintroduced the field of sociology to England. Answer
a. True a. True
b. False b. False

168. Research findings result in the creation of a new theory, and that is 183. Herbert Spencer was well known for saying that society resembles a
the end of the research process. living organism in its structure and operation.
a. True a. True
b. False b. False

169. A trend is a change in a variable over time

a. True 184. “Class conflict” refers to the tension between those who work hard
b. False and those who do not work to their fullest potential.
a. True
170. Rylie has decided to study a group of college students living on b. False
campus for her term paper. She proceeds by sitting with themin the
dorm study hall and eating with them at lunch to observe their 185. Sociology became recognized in the United States in the beginning of
behaviors and conversations. This is an example of an experiment. the twentieth century.
a. True a. True
b. False b. False

171. Most sociologists in the United States work for the government. 186. The early growth of American Sociology took place at Harvard
a. True University.
b. False a. True
b. False
172. In order to understand other people, we must stop looking at the
world from a perspective based solely on our own individual 187. Sociological theory gives meaning to sociological practice.
experiences a. True
a. True b. False
b. False
188. Practice uninformed by theory is ineffective.
173. The sociological imagination involves looking at all types of human a. True
behavior and discerning unseen connections among them. b. False
a. True
b. False 189. Sociology developed in Europe during a time of peace and social
174. When common sense is correct or "makes sense," it is usually after- a. True
the-fact. b. False
a. True
b. False 190. The Industrial Revolution had an impact on the development of
175. Because of their experiences with a wide variety of human a. True
behaviors, talk show hosts generally are good sociologists. b. False
a. True
b. False 191. During the early years of sociology in the United States, most of the
field's development took place at the Harvard Universityunder the
176. The social sciences differ from the physical sciences because, while direction of W.E.B. DuBois.
social sciences can provide valuable insights, they are not able to a. True
apply the scientific method to the study of social concerns. b. False
a. True
b. False 192. The main focus of early American sociology was urban problems.
a. True
177. A paradigm is a body of systematically arranged knowledge that b. False
shows the operation of general laws.
a. True 193. Egoistic suicide is less likely among college students because of the
b. False attachments a campus provides.
a. True
178. Harriet Martineau conducted an early sociological study of behaviors b. False
in everyday life.
1. True
2. False

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194. W.E.B. DuBois argued that it was entirely up to African Americans to
alter their status in American society.
a. True
b. False

195. Women made virtually no substantial contributions to the field prior

to the twentieth century.
a. True
b. False

196. A major criticism directed at the functionalist perspective is that it

tends to be conservative in its view.
a. True
b. False

197. Sociologists seldom use the scientific method in their research.

a. True
b. False

198. The functionalist perspective focuses on how individuals make sense

of the social world in which they find themselves.
a. True
b. False

199. Auguste Comte, in addition to being one of the founders of

sociology, was an early advocate for the importance of the rights of
a. True
b. False

200. Empiricism is the view that generalizations are only valid if they
involve economic forecasts.
a. True
b. False

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