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Civil engineering curriculum

Introducing earthquake engineering in civil


engineering curriculum

C.V .R. Murty, Dur


C.V.R. gesh C. Rai,
Durgesh
Abhay Gupta and Sudhir K Jain

In view of the earthquake risk in the coun- (www.nicee.org/npeee). Curriculum basic knowledge of earthquake resist-
try, it is important that civil engineering changes in established branches such as civil ant construction?
students are taught principles of earthquake engineering can be quite tedious. NPEEE
engineering. A national workshop was con- envisaged that issues related to curriculum (iii) What are the parameters that can
ducted at the Indian Institute of Technol- are to be discussed at all levels – national properly define the qualities of a fresh
ogy (IIT) Kanpur to discuss various issues and regional. To this end, a national level civil engineer? To what extent will a
related to introduction of earthquake engi- invitation workshop on “Introducing fresh civil engineering graduate be
neering in the civil engineering curricu- Earthquake Engineering in Civil Engineering able to design an earthquake-resist-
lum. The issues discussed included a re- Curriculum” was organised during August ant construction?
view on current status of earthquake engi- 22-23, 2003 at IIT Kanpur. This workshop
neering curriculum, model curricula of was a sequel to an earlier workshop This paper presents a summary of the
AICTE for undergraduate programme, and organised by IIT Kanpur in 1996 for the discussions that emanated during the
implementation issues. The participants in- same purpose 1 . The urgent need for workshop on various themes, and
cluded a wide cross section of faculty mem- improving the curriculum was reiterated concludes with the recommendations of the
in another workshop held at IIT Kanpur in workshop.
bers, professional engineers and architects,
19982. Fifty seven academicians, practising
and administrators. This paper summarises
engineers and architects and administrators Current status of
the workshop discussions.
participated in the workshop.
The aftermath of the 2001 Bhuj
earthquake engineering
To ensure a holistic approach in curriculum
earthquake witnessed many new initiatives
addressing the above concern, a broad
in the country towards better earthquake
agenda was prepared for the workshop. Review of recommendations of
safety. One such initiative was the National
The major questions that figured in the the 1996 workshop
Programme on Earthquake Engineering
agenda at the start of the workshop Model curricula for under-graduate (UG)
Education (NPEEE) by the Ministry for
included the following. and post-graduate (PG) programmes were
Human Resource Development (MHRD),
government of India. Eight resource developed during the 1996 workshop. The
(i) Should earthquake engineering be
institutes (seven IITs and Indian Institute workshop held intensive discussions on
taught as a separate subject in the en-
of Science (IISc) Bangalore) came together several important topics related to the sta-
gineering curriculum, or should top- tus of earthquake engineering education in
to develop earthquake engineering in ics related to earthquake engineering
numerous colleges of engineering, India. Some of the recommendations of this
be merged with the existing courses? workshop can be implemented in the short-
architecture and polytechnics through
teacher training, curriculum development term, while the others require long-term
(ii) How can a practising professional or
and a number of other such activities efforts for their implementation. The fol-
municipal engineer be imparted the

110 The Indian Concrete Journal * February 2004


Civil engineering curriculum

lowing steps were identified as those that of one- or two-week duration have following information about the current
needed to be initiated urgently. already been conducted, and a semes- status of earthquake engineering teaching.
ter-long programme is currently be-
(i) Working notes and teaching aids ing held for teachers at IIT Kanpur. (i) If your university or college has al-
should be developed and widely dis- ready introduced earthquake engi-
(iii) The curriculum of the diploma pro- neering in the curriculum of BE/
seminated for model UG and PG cur-
grammes in the states of Gujarat, BTech., then: (i) when and how this
ricula in "Earthquake engineering"
Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal have was done?; (ii) what is the new cur-
and "Structural dynamics".
been already revised and imple- riculum with earthquake engineer-
(ii) Model experiments should be devel- mented. ing?; (iii) what is the experience with
oped to illustrate the concepts in the new curriculum?; and (iv) what
earthquake engineering, using low- The Gujarat experience after are the strong and weak points?
cost and easily available instruments. 2001 Bhuj earthquake
These experiments should be inte- Curriculum upgradation in engineering and (ii) What is the status of earthquake en-
grated with the theory courses to il- polytechnics has been taken up as a part of gineering education in PG education?
lustrate different concepts of earth- the earthquake rehabilitation activity in
The response indicated the following:
quake engineering and structural dy- Gujarat. A number of workshops were con-
namics. ducted in Gujarat to develop and imple-
(i) At the UG level, in some colleges a
ment curriculum changes in polytechnics
full course on "Structural dynamics"
(iii) There is also an urgent need to de- and degree colleges and training pro-
exists as an elective course.
velop short-term training pro- grammes for teachers 3,4. For polytechnics,
grammes in the area of earthquake- four separate modules covering various as-
(ii) In some colleges, elements of earth-
resistant constructions for structural pects of earthquake engineering spread over
quake engineering have been intro-
engineering faculty members of dif- 34 lecture hours were designed, which are
duced into the existing UG courses
ferent engineering colleges. included in four already existing courses.
of structural engineering, and in some
These changes have now been adopted in
(iv) There is an urgent need to demystify all polytechnics of Gujarat. For degree pro- cases as a separate compulsory
earthquake-related design codes by grammes in civil engineering, two schemes course. This has happened particu-
developing detailed commentaries on were adopted. About half the universities larly after the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.
the code provisions. have chosen to include a compulsory course
in earthquake engineering by dropping one (iii) At the PG level, "Structural dynam-
(v) A dedicated national-level facility of the compulsory courses, usually of struc- ics" exists in a few colleges as a com-
needs to be established for the collec- tural analysis. In remaining universities, pulsory course.
tion and dissemination of earthquake different earthquake engineering topics
engineering publications and litera- have been embedded in several existing (iv) In some colleges, "Design for earth-
ture. courses and electives. quake forces" was an elective course
in the PG programme and was made
(vi) The architecture curriculum in the ISET effort and Uttaranchal compulsory at some places after the
country should be suitably modified project 2001 Bhuj earthquake.
to impart the basic concepts of earth-
In 1978, Indian Society of Earthquake Tech- (v) New PG programme in "Structural
quake-resistant design to architecture
nology (ISET) developed a UG curriculum dynamics" and "Earthquake engineer-
students.
on earthquake engineering, which was im-
ing" was introduced after the 2001
(vii) The diploma programmes related to plemented in two colleges in Assam. The
Bhuj earthquake in a few colleges.
building constructions should be curriculum proposed various modules to
be included in regular civil engineering
modified to include the essential (vi) Desire to learn and disseminate earth-
courses such as structural analysis, me-
earthquake-resistant features in quake engineering has improved con-
chanics, design, soil mechanics, water re-
buildings. siderably after the 2001 Bhuj earth-
sources, and foundation engineering, and
quake. However, students are reluc-
Based on the above recommendations, an elective titled “Principles of Earthquake
tant still to choose earthquake engi-
the following actions have so far been taken: Engineering”. In the ADB-sponsored capac-
ity building project in the state of neering subject, often deterred by the
Uttaranchal, recommendations have been mathematics involved in the "Struc-
(i) A national level repository of litera- tural Dynamics" course, but have be-
ture related to earthquake engineer- developed for curriculum changes. The
emphasis is placed on education at vari- gun showing interest in project work
ing in the form of National Informa- and thesis research in the subject.
tion Centre of Earthquake Engineer- ous levels starting from school to profes-
ing (NICEE) was established at IIT sional degree programmes as well as mass
education and awareness. (vii) College administrators are generally
Kanpur in 1999. not sensitive to the importance of
Review of responses from earthquake engineering education.
(ii) Under the NPEEE, launched in April
colleges The number of teachers who can teach
2003, short- and medium-term train-
earthquake engineering is too small.
ing programmes for teachers are be- As a preparation towards this workshop, Also, there is inadequate laboratory
ing conducted by the seven IITs and a questionnaire was sent to all the engi-
facility for teaching earthquake engi-
IISc. Up to August 2003, eight courses neering colleges in the country, asking the

February 2004 * The Indian Concrete Journal 111


Civil engineering curriculum

neering. Thus, even though the struc- can comfortably cope with nominal ing courses. The advanced level
tural dynamics or earthquake engi- amount of mathematics in the professional course(s) in earthquake engineering
neering related courses exist as courses in the subsequent semesters. can be offered as electives.
electives in the curriculum, they are
seldom offered due to shortage of It was felt that at the undergraduate A suggested list of topics for these
available/interested teachers. level, the compulsory course contents in model courses is given in Appendix A.
earthquake engineering would have only
limited number of lectures. Hence, the There are advantages and
UG programme disadvantages of the above models and
extent of coverage of structural dynamics
Model curriculum and text needs to be balanced with other important different universities may need to consider
books topics of earthquake engineering. This can these options based on their overall civil
There should be a model curriculum de- be done by covering the basic concept of engineering curriculum and the faculty
veloped which universities and other au- dynamics in a few lectures without going resources available. These include the
tonomous institutions may adopt with or through the rigour of mathematics. To following:
without modifications depending on their achieve this, mathematical models may be
replaced with the physical models and (i) In Model 2, several teachers have to
specific needs. It was felt that more than
dynamic effects can be illustrated through be proficient in earthquake engineer-
one model curricula maybe made avail-
able for individual colleges or universities laboratory experiments. Computer ing to do justice to the contents,
to choose from depending on their teach- animation and video clips can be used as a whereas in Model 1, only one teacher
ing resources. Further, the participants of supplement to physical models. at a given college is needed to give
the workshop felt that at the UG level, de- adequate coverage of earthquake en-
sign aspects should dominate earthquake- Motivation gineering.
engineering related courses that are com- Motivation levels of civil engineering stu- (ii) Textbooks currently available for dif-
pulsory. dents is low due to low paying jobs, less ferent courses do not cover related
awareness about the importance and so- earthquake engineering topics, which
Availability of good textbooks at
cial impact of civil engineering profession may hamper proper implementation
affordable prices is absolutely essential for
in general. Efforts should be made to raise of Model 2.
long-term success of curriculum changes.
their motivation level through exposure and
Textbooks make it easier for the teacher to interaction with industry. The motivation (iii) If the earthquake engineering contents
teach, for the student to learn. Hence, efforts of students is likely to increase with more are introduced in the existing courses,
are needed to develop Indian textbooks in activities being held in the country towards it is likely that the teachers may not
this subject, and for Indian reprints of earthquake safety. Overall curriculum of cover those since they lack expertise
otherwise expensive international books. civil engineering should be designed to pre- and the concerned textbooks do not
For teaching earthquake resistant design, pare them better for real-life engineering; provide the coverage.
good illustrative commentaries and this will improve their employability and
handbooks of design codes may be useful their morale. (iv) There is an urgent need to develop
resource materials.
teaching aids taking earthquake con-
How earthquake engineering tents for existing courses into consid-
Structural dynamics can be introduced? erations, so that teachers taking ex-
Considerable discussions took place on It was unanimously felt that a basic com- isting courses can go through, get
structural dynamics versus earthquake pulsory content of earthquake engineering trained and cover them satisfactorily.
engineering. Dynamic analysis is often mis- must be included immediately in the cur-
construed to mean earthquake resistant riculum. The advanced level subject can be Model 2 has the advantage that it gives
building without realisation of the fact that optional at the UG level. Broadly speak- the student an integrated view of the entire
for a building to be safe, one needs to give ing, two models were discussed to include problem. It removes the notion that
considerable attention to design, detailing the compulsory content of earthquake en- earthquake resistant design is needed only
and construction aspects. The codes are gineering. in special cases and that it is a speciality
developed on the basis that an engineer that all engineers need not have. In the long
can implement earthquake resistant design (i) Model 1 - Separate self-contained run, Model 2 is preferable, while in the short
and construction for ordinary buildings course(s) in earthquake engineering run it may be easy to implement Model 1.
without having to know principles of struc- Between Model 1A and Model 1B, the
tural dynamics. Yet, it is important that Within Model 1, two sub-options
decision may be based on the location of
the student learns how the equivalent static were proposed, namely:
the university in a high versus low seismic
design forces are connected with ground zone, the potential employers of its
Model 1A: One compulsory course
shaking during earthquakes.
(Course A) and one elective course graduates, current curriculum of the
Teaching of dynamics involves (Course B), or university, and the available teaching
considerable amount of mathematics and expertise.
Model 1B: Two compulsory courses
the students usually tend to find the course (Courses A and B) There was also a suggestion to develop
“too difficult”. There was concern that the
a minor specialisation or an honours degree
way mathematics courses are taught in the (ii) Model 2 - An integrated approach in
in earthquake engineering wherein the
early semesters of the UG programmes, which the basic earthquake engineer-
student takes 2-3 courses in earthquake
needs improvement so that the students ing contents are embedded in exist-

112 The Indian Concrete Journal * February 2004


Civil engineering curriculum

engineering. This could act as an incentive view to integrate the requirements of earth- and public health/environment. Therefore,
for the students to seek courses in quake engineering education in the model they should get exposure to all of these
earthquake engineering. AICTE curriculum. They presented draft sectors appropriately. Further, to work in
modifications to the existing curriculum these sectors they need skills in construction
It was also felt that engineers of other of AICTE for the bachelor’s degree in civil materials (especially concrete engineering),
branches too need basic introduction to engineering. construction technology and management,
earthquake engineering. For instance, maintenance engineering, geoinformatics
electrical engineers need to know about This session drew a large section of the (surveying, etc), geotechnical engineering,
safety of power generation-transmission- participants to express their views. It was structural engineering, etc. Consequently,
distribution systems under strong felt that minor alterations to the current the overall curriculum should reflect this
earthquake shaking, and chemical engineers model curriculum of civil engineering reality and be balanced in line with the
need to know the implications of damage would not suffice. Over the years, the civil contemporary requirements of civil
to chemical plants under strong earthquake engineering curriculum in the universities engineering profession.
shaking. Mechanical/HVAC engineers need has become irrelevant to the realities of a
to know that all automated production line job that a civil engineer is expected to It was recommended that an industry
systems, machine elements and mechanical perform. It was pointed out that the survey be conducted before developing
handling systems need to be secured during curriculum has slowly eliminated revised model civil curriculum of AICTE.
earthquake shaking. Hence, some small components on buildings, construction Further, the model earthquake engineering
coverage about earthquakes in the curricula technology and management, construction curriculum developed in this workshop
of other branches of engineering too is materials, and contract management, should be appropriately integrated with
desirable. which are the issues that a typical civil the model UG curriculum of AICTE.
engineer spends the maximum time on. For
A question arises from the view point instance, an engineer in the roads sector Implementation Issues
of administrators: can the engineers that spends far more time on construction
will graduate with the proposed UG issues, earth work, project management, Training of teachers
curriculum having earthquake engineering etc., rather than on designing the road traffic Training of teachers (ToT) was considered
elements in it, be able to construct new system. Similarly, in the buildings sector to be the most significant task for effective
earthquake-resistant buildings or effectively one now finds that architects can be far inclusion of earthquake engineering con-
conduct seismic retrofitting of existing better site supervisors than a civil engineer, tents in civil engineering curriculum. Earth-
buildings? The participants were clear that primarily because graduating civil quake engineering has now acquired very
a fresh graduate is not ready for engineers do not have the requisite significant sophistication, and therefore,
undertaking engineering tasks exposure and training. wide-ranging needs exist for teachers train-
independently and that it takes a few years ing. At one end of the spectrum, the teach-
of supervision by an experienced engineer This distortion in curriculum has been ers need a minimal level of training to be
before a young engineer can be entrusted contributed by a number of factors: able to integrate earthquake engineering
such jobs independently. Hence, even principles into their own subjects, and on
(i) teachers are difficult to find in the the other hand we need specialist teachers
though the curriculum changes at the areas of construction technology and
undergraduate level are a very important who can provide leadership in developing
management, particularly in view of codes, training professionals, providing
step in the direction of earthquake safety, the emphasis on Ph. D. for academic
these are by no means sufficient for needs consulting services, and contribute to re-
career, search and development.
of the country in terms of human resource
development. It was felt that separate (ii) teachers prefer to teach what they are
Under the NPEEE, short-term (one- to
concerted efforts by the government of India best at (usually, the subject of their
four-week duration) and medium-term
in active collaboration with various own specialisation at masters or doc-
(one semester) training is provided. Current
professional organisations, universities, toral level) and are reluctant to teach
participants of the semester programme
states, and municipalities, are required to subjects in which they may not have
at IIT Kanpur shared their enthusiasm
train professional engineers for design, that much mastery,
about the effectiveness of such a course for
construction and retrofitting of earthquake
(iii) the civil engineering departments are developing expertise. The participants of
resistant structures.
often sub-divided into specialisation the programme felt strongly that the
groups such as structural engineer- programme must continue in the years
AICTE model UG ing, geotechnical engineering, environ- ahead, and they urged that something be
curriculum mental engineering and there has been done proactively to impress upon the
Prof V. Kalyanaraman of IIT Madras and a tendency to develop a parity in college administrations to take advantage
Prof G. Venkatachalam of IIT Bombay con- course coverage by the different of the semester programme for faculty
stituted a committee appointed by the All groups, disregarding needs of the development.
India Council for Technical Education graduating student and the skills that
are required for civil engineering jobs. It emerged that many academic
(AICTE), New Delhi, for reviewing the ex-
administrators (college principals, directors
isting model curriculum for the under-
It was further emphasised that civil of technical education) still lack the
graduate programme in civil engineering
and for suggesting modifications therein. engineers work in diverse sectors, such as perception on importance of such training
They participated in the workshop with a buildings, transportation, water resources, and are reluctant to release their teachers

February 2004 * The Indian Concrete Journal 113


Civil engineering curriculum

in view of shortage of teachers. It was felt cussed. The acute shortage of affordable software are needed which may be too
that a multi-pronged approach is good literature was a serious concern shared expensive for even the premier institutions
necessary: by all participants. It was pointed out that to purchase and maintain. Hence, common
the NPEEE provides for book support to national facility (one or more) needs to be
(i) the academic administrators need to about one hundred colleges to the extent of developed for computational
be sensitised about the training needs Rs 0.1 million each. This is a very positive infrastructure (hardware and software) in
in this subject, development and will contribute enor- line with the NICEE which aims to meet
(ii) colleges be provided some grant to mously towards developing teaching of the needs of all interested with regard to
hire ad-hoc substitute teachers dur- earthquake engineering. However, this does books on earthquake engineering. Any
ing the period for which their perma- not take care of the needs of the students interested student, researcher or
nent teachers go for medium- or long- since only a few copies of books will be professional should be able to use the
provided to the libraries. Further, it still central computational facilities on a need
term training (such as Ph.D., M.Tech),
leaves out the majority of about 1000 col- basis.
(iii) suitable incentives in the form of li- leges/polytechnics in the country that deal
brary and laboratory grants should with civil engineering or architecture. It was Many small experiments with low
be given to colleges who invest in this proposed that a list of recommended books financial input are required to be developed
subject by letting their teachers un- and other materials should be placed on for demonstrating basic earthquake
dergo medium and long-term train- NICEE website for wide circulation behaviour of structures and concepts
ing, and amongst the teachers of the country. It was related to earthquake resistant design.
also felt that multiple sets of this reading Details of such experimental set-ups
(iv) distance learning methodology needs material be acquired by the state govern-
to be simultaneously implemented for (including fabrication, background theory
ments for distribution to colleges in their
earthquake engineering. and use of these models) should be made
states. Further, other capacity building
available to the larger audience of the
projects such as those likely to be launched
The distance learning programmes country through electronic media.
by the ministry of home affairs may in-
have their own limitations: considering that clude a component on providing books to
the teachers are engaged in full-time It was also felt that currently the
the colleges. experimental research facilities in our
teaching and academic administration, it
is not always possible for them to cope countries are highly inadequate in the area
To meet needs of the students,
with the demands of the distance learning of earthquake engineering. For instance, only
development of textbooks and other
programmes. For example, the experience one academic institution (IIT Roorkee) has
resource materials needs to be encouraged.
of the e-course on IS:1893 conducted by a shake table of substantial size and that
Simultaneously, the book publishers
IIT Kanpur in January 2003 was that many too is fairly obsolete by international
should be encouraged to bring out Indian
participants did not complete the study of standards. Most IITs do not have proper
reprints of reputed international books in
entire lecture materials in view of their other pseudo-static testing facilities. Major
earthquake engineering.
preoccupations. Hence, even though investments are needed in creating several
distance-learning programmes are highly state-of-the-art experimental facilities in
Computational facilities and the academic institutions. Development of
desirable, these should not be seen as
substitute to the contact programmes.
experimental laboratory such multiple facilities would encourage
Over the recent years, availability of com- healthy competition between various
The workshop participants puters in the colleges has improved but it institutions within the country, and this
recommended that distance-learning still remains quite inadequate. The com- would be good in the long run for the
programmes (including web-based mercial software related to earthquake en- growth of the profession in the country.
learning) be implemented in earthquake gineering remains out of reach of most col- Major investments are needed towards this.
engineering. It is desirable for such leges. Steps needed in this direction in-
programmes to have limited contact period clude the following: Other issues
wherein the trainee teachers assemble at a
• provide computational hardware The workshop was focussed on the cur-
centralised location and seek clarifications
and software to colleges develop- riculum issues for degree level programmes
and discuss the subject with the instructor.
ing expertise in earthquake engi- in earthquake engineering. However, small
This contact duration can also be used for
neering amount of time was also spent discussing
conducting the evaluation of the trainees
curriculum issues for postgraduate edu-
on understanding of the subject. There is
• lobby with the international soft- cation, diploma programmes and the ar-
also a need to study the existing distance chitectural education.
ware firms to make these available
learning programmes around the world
in India at a low price commensu-
(such as the MS Programme offered by (i) The country has been following two
rate with local purchasing power
Purdue University and the IGNOU distance models:
education programmes) to evolve • compile a list of free and
methodologies that can be most downloadable software available in • Master’s degree focussed on Earth-
appropriate for Indian conditions. the public domain and place it on quake Engineering (at the IIT
the website. Roorkee)
Teaching material
Availability of textbooks and other litera- It was felt that for many research and • Master’s programme in conven-
ture in earthquake engineering was dis- consulting assignments, sophisticated tional civil engineering (for exam-

114 The Indian Concrete Journal * February 2004


Civil engineering curriculum

ple, structural engineering, tails should be worked out, and re- ject of earthquake engineering. Com-
geotechnical engineering) integrat- sources required for it be identified. putational earthquake engineering
ing suitable coursework in earth- and distance education modules need
quake engineering with thesis on Closure and to be developed to reach the subject
topic connected with earthquake to a larger section of the Indian engi-
engineering. After the Bhuj earth-
recommendations of neering community.
quake, several other colleges seem workshop
to be keen on starting master’s pro- The workshop concluded on an affirma- In closure, awareness amongst the
gramme in earthquake engineering. tive note that the curriculum changes are common public on earthquake safety and
Hence, the entire issue of earth- urgently required to include earthquake preparedness has increased after the 2001
quake engineering education at the engineering education in civil engineering Bhuj earthquake. Instead of waiting for the
PG level is extremely important and curriculum in the universities/institutes perfect solution, the best available solution
a separate workshop should be held across India. The salient recommendations (however imperfect though) should be
to brainstorm the connected issues. of the workshop include: immediately implemented towards
A brief overview was presented on national earthquake disaster mitigation.
the annual "Earthquake Engineer- (i) Two models must be offered to the This way both experience and expertise will
ing Review Workshops" being con- technical universities/institutes in the grow with time, and eventually the
ducted at IIT Kanpur for the mas- country for including earthquake en- incremental earthquake preparedness
ters students pursuing dissertation gineering education in civil engineer- initiatives will start bearing fruits.
in earthquake engineering. It was ing curriculum; a university/institute
felt that such activities could help may adopt either of these depending Acknowledgements
improve the level of PG education on the available resources. The expe- The following persons participated in the
in earthquake engineering. riences of curriculum changes effected workshop: M.Arif, S.K. Baishya, P. Banerji,
in the state of Gujarat are important S. Basu, M.K. Bhardwaj, M.V.Bhatti, Amit
(ii) For any serious progress on seismic precursors to the impending efforts Bose, P.C. Chandubhai, S. Choudhury, S.V.
risk reduction, it is of utmost impor- other universities to follow suit. Anil Das, T.K. Datta, P. Dayaratnam, S.K.
tance that the architects keep in view Deb, J.A. Desai, S.B. Devaraj, S.K. Duggal,
the earthquake resistant features in (ii) The AICTE model curriculum under A. Dutta, Alok Goyal, R.K. Grover, Abhay
developing building forms. After the revision must reflect the national need Gupta, J.K. Jain, L.K. Jain, Sudhir K. Jain,
2001 Bhuj earthquake, there was con- of including earthquake engineering Arvind Jaiswal, O.R. Jaiswal, V.
siderable initial enthusiasm among in civil engineering curriculum. The Kalyanaraman, S.K. Kaushik, R.A. Khan,
the architectural community towards participants offered all support in this R.K. Khare, Sunil Kumar, C.S. Manohar, D.
earthquake resistant technology. regard the two members of the AICTE Menon, S.V. Mevada, P.B. Murnal,
However, this has not materialised Model Curriculum Committee C.V.R.Murty, H.B.Nagraj, A.S.Pant,
into any substantial progress towards present at the workshop. J.Pathak, C.C.Patel, A.S.Patil, M.M.Paul,
training of architectural community. A.M.Prasad, D.C.Rai, Debasis Roy,
It was unanimously felt that the ar- (iii) The success of the implementation of K.K.Soni, S.Saha, M.P.Sajnani, C.S.Sanghvi,
chitecture community needs to be the earthquake engineering education S.M.Satodia, M.R.Shah, Ravi Sinha, S.Setia,
motivated to take up training pro- at the technical universities/institutes Alpa R. Seth, S.P.Singh, S.Tiwari,
grammes and R&D projects. Also, of the country is critically dependant G.Venkatachalam, and R.K.Yadav. The
curriculum development for schools on developing a national resource of authors are thankful to all the participants
of architecture needs to be taken up teachers who can implement the pro- of workshop for their views and sugges-
at the earliest. posed curriculum. The workshop tions. The activity was held under the ae-
hailed the objectives of NPEEE in this gis of the NPEEE, Ministry of Human Re-
(iii) Significant progress has been made regard, and urged that the academic source Development, GoI, New Delhi. This
in the last year in at least three states administrations across the country financial support provided by NPEEE to
of the country insofar as development need to be impressed upon to under- conduct this workshop is gratefully ac-
of curriculum for polytechnics is con- take the long-term goal of training/ knowledged.
cerned. Adequate coverage of earth- re-training their existing teachers in
quake resistant constructions is now the subject area of earthquake resist- References
introduced in the polytechnics of Gu- ant design and construction. 1. JAIN, S.K. and SHETH, A. Earthquake Engineering
in the civil engineering curricula, The Indian
jarat, UP and Uttaranchal. Similar Concrete Journal, September 2002, Vol 76, No 9,
efforts are needed for the other states, (iv) A severe shortage of teaching resource
pp. 558-562.
and these need to be followed up with materials was also identified. It was
2. M URTY , C.V.R., S I N H A , R. and J AIN , S.K.
training programmes for teachers of emphasised that the development of Earthquake resistant construction in civil
polytechnics. textbooks and cost-effective teaching engineering curriculum, ISET Newsletter, January
laboratory resources need to be un- 1998, pp. 1-10
(iv) The participants also deliberated on dertaken immediately. 3. MURTY, C.V.R., RAI, D.C., SINHA, R. and JAIN, S.K.
the need and importance of holding a Workshop on developing earthquake engineering
(v) It was proposed that the power of industry in India: Opportunities and challenges,
national level proficiency test in earth- The Indian Concrete Journal, August 1999, Vol 73,
quake engineering. It was recom- information technology needs to be
No 8, pp. 481-487.
mended that a model for such a cer- exploited for educating large groups
4. SHETH, A. and JAIN, S.K., Training of teachers for
tification be developed, relevant de- of practising professionals on the sub- capacity building towards earthquake safety in

February 2004 * The Indian Concrete Journal 115


Civil engineering curriculum

Table 1: Courses A and B of Model I Dr Durgesh C. Rai is an as-


Topics Lectures sistant professor in the de-
Course A (Basic course in Model 1 - compulsory): Introduction to earthquake engineering partment of civil engineering
Engineering seismology
at the Indian Institute of Tech-
(Causes of earthquakes; seismic waves; magnitude, intensity and energy release;
characteristics of strong earthquake ground motions) 8 nology (IIT) Kanpur since
Introduction to theory of vibrations 2002. Previously he has been
(Flexibility of long and short period structures; concept of response spectrum) 4
Building forms for earthquake resistance 4 on the faculty of department of earthquake
Seismic design philosophy 3 engineering at IIT Roorkee. He received his
Performance of buildings in past earthquakes 3 Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, Ann
Equivalent static lateral earthquake force (IS:1893) 6
Seismic design and detailing of masonry buildings (IS:4326; IS:13827; IS:13828) 5 Arbor, USA, in 1996. His research interests
Seismic design and detailing of RC buildings (IS:13920) 6 are in design and behaviour of structures
Soil effects and liquefaction 3
under earthquake loads, experimental in-
Total 42
vestigations, supplemental damping, seis-
Course B (Advanced course in Model 1 – Elective or compulsory): earthquake resistant design of buildings mic rehabilitation and seismic design codes.
Theory of vibrations
(Single, two- and multi-degree of freedom systems, response spectrum analysis) 12
He has been awarded 2000 Shah Family
Concept of seismic design Innovation Prize of Earthquake Engineer-
(Reduction factors; over strength, ductility and redundancy) 4 ing Institute, USA and 1999 Young Engi-
Determination of earthquake forces (IS:1893 (Part 1) - 2002) 9
Seismic design and detailing of masonry (IS:4326; IS:13828), reinforced concrete (IS13920) neer Award of Indian National Academy
and steel buildings 14 of Engineering.
Concepts of base isolation and energy dissipation devices 3
Total 42 Dr Abhay Gupta is currently
a reader in civil engineering
India, The Indian Concrete Journal, October 2002, (v) In Steel Design II course, add Determina- department of Shri G.S. Insti-
Vol 76, No 10, pp. 629-632. tion of Earthquake Forces (IS:1893 (Part tute of Technology & Science
1) – 2002; seismic coefficient method; re-
sponse spectrum method); seismic design (SGSITS), Indore and is
Appendix: A and detailing of steel buildings to be teaching since 1984. He has
Model earthquake engineering added. obtained his BE (civil) and ME(structures)
curriculum in UG programme (vi) In Building Construction course, Seismic from SGSITS and completed his PhD from
Model 1: Self-contained courses in design and detailing of masonry build- University of Roorkee, Roorkee (now IIT
ings (IS:4326; IS:13828) to be added. Roorkee) in 1996. His areas of interests in-
earthquake engineering
(vii) In Soil Mechanics course, Seismic Behav- clude design of structures in RC and steel,
Model 1 consists of courses A and B as
iour of Soils (effects of soil shaking and design for dynamic effects, codes of prac-
given in Table 1 liquefaction); ground improvement tech- tices in wind and earthquake engineering;
niques to be added.
Model 2: Fully embedded in existing and soil-structure interaction.
courses (viii) In Hydraulics Engineering course, Hy-
drodynamic effects due to earthquake Dr Sudhir K. Jain is currently
In the existing following courses, the following shaking to be added.
elements are to be added. professor in the department
(ix) In project work Integrated design, de- of civil engineering at the In-
(i) In Engineering Geology course, engineer- tailing and construction of RC buildings
ing Seismology (causes of earthquakes; dian Institute of Technology
to be added.
seismic waves; magnitude, intensity and (IIT), Kanpur. His areas of
energy release; characteristics of strong interest include earthquake-
earthquake ground motions) to be added. Prof C.V.R. Murty is currently resistant design, seismic design codes, and
(ii) In Structural Analysis I course, Basic associate professor in the de- dynamics of buildings with flexible floor
Theory of Vibrations (flexibility of struc- partment of civil engineering diaphragms. He is a member of the Bu-
tures; long and short period structures; at IIT Kanpur. His areas of reau of Indian Standards Sectional Com-
concept of response spectrum) to be
added. interest include research on mittee on Earthquake Engineering and is
seismic design of steel and RC the co-ordinator of the National Informa-
(iii) In Structural Analysis II course, Funda-
structures, development of seismic codes, tion Centre of Earthquake Engineering
mentals of Structural Dynamics (dynam-
ics of single degree of freedom systems; modelling of nonlinear behaviour of struc- (NICEE) hosted at IIT Kanpur
dynamics of two and multi-degree of free- tures and continuing education. He is a (www.nicee.org). Dr Jain is the national co-
dom systems; Duhamel integral; concept member of the Bureau of Indian Stand- ordinator of National Programme on
of response spectrum) to be added.
ards Sectional Committee on earthquake Earthquake Engineering Education
(iv) In Concrete Design II course, Determina- engineering and the Indian Roads Congress (www.nicee.org/npeee). He is a director of
tion of Earthquake Forces (IS:1893 (Part Committee on bridge foundations and sub- the International Association for Earth-
1)–2002; seismic coefficient method; re-
sponse spectrum method); seismic design
structures, and is closely associated with quake Engineering, and of the World Seis-
and detailing of RC Buildings (IS:4326; the comprehensive revision of the building mic Safety Initiative.
IS:13920) to be added. and bridge codes. •••

116 The Indian Concrete Journal * February 2004