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21st Century Literature Reviewer

(Prelim) AUTHOR-DEPENDENT APPROACH:


 Historical- Biographical
LITERATURE: “literatura”/ writing → reflection of author's life.
formed with letters.  Moral-Philosophical
N= stories, poems, and plays. (Have → Morality
value as an art and not just → Moral & Ethical teaching:
entertainment.) 1. encourages virtue is praised.
 Presents human experiences in 2. Corrupts are condemned.
various forms like moods,
thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and TEXT-DEPENDENT APPROACH:
sensations in an inter-related  Formalism
serious events. → Form
→ Features of the literary text itself.
2 FORMS OF LITERATURE:  Two forms;
→ Prose- arranged into paragraphs. → Explication: relations of parts.
→ Poetry- rhyme/stanzas. → Exegesis: unfolding of the meaning.

2 TYPES OF LITERATURE: TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE


→ Fiction- imagination LITERATURE:
→ Non-fiction- reality
PRE-COLONIAL LITERATURE;
LITERARY GENRES: → Folk literature: Folklores, myths,
→ Prose fiction: proses that are folktales, legends and fables.
imaginative. → Folklore: Collection of fictional
→ Poetry: expression written in verses. stories about animals, people of cultural
→ Drama: performed objective scenario/ myths, jokes and songs. (Folk: ordinary
audience. people, Lore: Knowledge)
 Tragedy: rarely has happy  4 Groups:
endings. → Folktales: simple story, teach morals/
 Comedy: make audience laugh. values to culture.
→ Non-fiction prose: based on facts, → Fables: animals, direct moral.
well-written prose that real written prose → Legends: origin of life, values,
that deals with real life. attitudes, beliefs in culture & historical
→ Creative Non-fiction: uses literary facts.
style and techniques to create factual, → Myths: gods/goddesses.
accurate narratives. (Tuesdays with
Morrie). DAMIAN EUGENIO(U.P): grouped the
Philippine Literature.
APPROACHES IN APPRECIATING
LITERATURE  Folk Narratives (Gaddang)
→ Prose:
LITERARY THEORY: process of - Alamat
understanding what the nature of - Myth
literature is. - Kwentong Bayan
LITERARY CRITICISM: evaluation and - Folk songs
study and interpretation of a literary - Folk ballads
text. → Verse:
- Folk epic  Equal status for both Filipinos and
 Folk speeches Spaniards.
→ Bugtong (Riddles)  Philippine representation in the
→ Salawikain (Proverbs) Spanish cortes.
LA SOLIDARIDAD:
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD  Official News Paper of Propaganda
→ March 1521- Magellan. Movement.
→ King Phillip II → Miguel Lopez de  To increase awareness of
Legazpi → 1565 (Permanent Settlement) Spaniards.
→ Cebu PROPAGANDISTA:
→ 1595 = Manila is the new capital. → Jose Rizal (Laong Laan)
 Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y
NOTE: Alonso Realonda.
 National Hero
GOVERNMENT OF THE FRIARS →  Published the political novels:
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION → SOCIO- → El Filibusterismo
ECONOMIC CLASSES. → Noli Me Tangere
Social Classes: → Graciano Lopez Jaena (Fray Botod)
Peninsulares
 Fray Botod (18)
Insulares
 Leading literary and oratorical
Illustrados (Wealthy Filipinos)
spokesman.
Indio (Stupid)
 Founder of L.S & P.M
LITERATURE:  Dec. 18, 1856 (Jaro, Iloilo)
Religious prose and poetry:
→ Ladino Poets (Author) → Marcelo H. Del Pilar (Plaridel)
→ Pasyon (Used in catechism)  Aug. 30, 1856 (Kupang, Bulacan)
→ Written to prescribe proper decorum.  Propagandist & Satirist
→ Ang pagsusulatan ng dalawang  1872- Diyaryong Tagalog
binibini na si Feliza at Urbana  Dasalan at Tocsohan (Aba
Guinoong Baria) → Satirical
Secular prose and poetry: (Parody)
→ Romantic tradition
→ Leading poets: Jose Corazon De → Antonio Luna (Taga-Ilog)
Jesus “ Huseng Sisiw” & Francisco
Balagtas AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD

PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT: → Treaty of Paris – July 4, 1946


 aim to seek reforms and inform the (Americans)
Spain of the abuses of it colonial
government. AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION:
 Used to persuade.  Public Schools
→ PURPOSE  Thomasites
 Recognition of Human Rights  Filipino Scholars
 Secularization  Silliman University
 Recognition of Filipinos as a  PNU
province of Spain.  U.P
LANGUAGE:
Mckinley → English Language → Public
Schools (Used in writing essays, poems,
& stories)

LITERATURE:
 Love and Freedom
 Patriotism
 Colonialism and Imperialism
NOTE: 3 GROUPS OF WRITERS
DURING THIS PERIOD
→ Filipino
→ English
→ Spanish

PERIODS DURING THIS ERA:


 Period of Reorientation (1898-
1910)
- Adjustment of Filipino writers
 Period of Imitation (1910-1925)
- Imitation of British and English way of
writing.
 Period of Self-Discovery (1925-
1941)
- Acquired mastery of english.
PEOPLE INVOLVED:
 Jose Garcia Villa
→ comma poet
→ Doveglion
→ Singalong, Manila
→ Secondary Education
→ Bright, Centipede, Erotic
 Paz Marquez Benitez – March 31,
1894
→ Dead Stars (READ THIS)